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Parental involvement in home-based education and children's academic achievement in China.

Parental involvement in education is widely considered a significant factor for children's academic achievement and success in school (Mapp & Kuttner, 2014). The focus in previous research has been on the extent of parental involvement in education, with the expectation of strong positive correlations with their children's academic success (McNeal, 2015). In many previous studies researchers used qualitative and nonempirical approaches to focus on increasing parental involvement in education and identified this type of involvement as a unique way to intervene on behalf of children's development (Alameda-Lawson & Lawson, 2018). W. Fan, Nan, and Sandoval (2018) found that empirical models of parent involvement that are action-oriented help educational professionals to develop specific strategies for parent involvement to foster children's success in school.

Recently, parental involvement has become a focus of China's educational reform. In 2015, China's Ministry of Education released the Guidance of the Ministry of Education on Strengthening Family Education, in which it is pointed out that developing home-based education relates to children's lifelong development and China's future. In some relevant studies researchers have found that parental involvement in home-based education is important to children's academic success, but the extent of the influence of this is unclear because few of these studies have quantified its contributions to children's learning outcomes (Castro et al., 2015; Tan, Kim, Baggerly, Mahoney, & Rice, 2017).

Parental involvement in home-based education is defined as parents' assistance and support of all kinds of informal learning and teaching practices related to school that take place at home. These include parents' help with their children's school-related assignments (e.g., homework help), their responses to their children's academic achievement (e.g., test results), parent--child communications about school-related issues, and parents' provision of supportive learning environments (Yotyodying & Wild, 2016). Families are important to children's learning processes, and parents transmit their educational philosophies, expectations, and values to their children (Suizzo, Pahlke, Yarnell, Chen, & Romero, 2014).

In the current study we examined the influences of home-based parental involvement in education to fill a gap in the literature regarding the relationship between this involvement and children's learning outcomes.

Literature Review

Parental involvement in home-based education covers a wide range of issues, such as parental expectations for their children's academic future, home supervision, emotional engagement regarding school problems, the extent to which parents help their children learn for school assignments or homework (e.g., supervising and checking homework), and parents' interactions with their children about school, or frequency of parent--child communication (Benner, Boyle, & Sadler, 2016; Castro et al., 2015; W. Fan et al., 2018; Yotyodying & Wild, 2016).

van Gelder-Horgan (2016) proposed, based on a literature review, that parental involvement in home-based education consists of parent--child communication comprising communication about emotions, behaviors, and interest in family/school assignments, reading with children, discussing television programs and so on. Homework supervision includes ensuring that children are completing homework on time, parental control of television viewing time, and establishing a learning environment (Mora & Escardibul, 2018). An and Yang (2018) recently proposed a framework for parental involvement in home-based education comprising home supervision, home communication, home--school communication, participation in school activities, educational beliefs, and educational expectations. They identified parental participatory activities in their children's education as parent--child communication, setting rules, homework supervision, parenting style, and expressing an educational vision for their children. In a study conducted in 2018, Huang and An proposed five dimensions of parental involvement in home-based education: (a) parent--child interaction, (b) setting rules, (c) emotional support, (d) conflict resolution strategies, and (e) help with homework. Parental involvement in home-based education has been related to their children's academic performance throughout primary school, middle school, and secondary school (Akbar, Astrar, Younes, & Chishti, 2017; Benner et al., 2016; Cabus & Aries, 2017; Day & Dotterer, 2018; Duan, Guan, & Bu, 2018; McNeal, 2015; Morales-Castillo & Aguirre-Davila, 2018). In some previous studies on parental involvement in home-based education it has been found that its influences tend to depend on various factors, such as, the parents' educational attainment, income, and occupation (Yotyodying & Wild, 2016). However, neither home-based parental involvement nor children's academic achievement have consistently been defined or measured. Some researchers found consistent, positive associations between parental involvement at home and children's educational outcomes, and in other quantitative studies it has been found that home-based parental involvement in education positively influenced children's achievement (Alameda-Lawson & Lawson, 2018; Wilder, 2014), and that parents were involved in most aspects of their children's education.

When parents expressed their educational expectations of their children to the children themselves, they emphasized outcomes (Castro et al., 2015), and, compared with their peers, students whose parents had relatively high expectations and talked with them relatively more often had higher academic achievement (Wilder, 2014). In some studies it has been found that, compared with their peers, children whose parents were emotionally engaged, and who were rewarded or applauded by their parents for desired behavior, were more likely to succeed in school. Having emotionally engaged parents and being rewarded or applauded for desired behavior might also increase children's efforts, which would ultimately lead to academic success for them (Morales-Castillo & Aguirre-Davila, 2018; Ule, Zivoder, & du Bois-Reymond, 2015). Other aspects of home-based parental involvement in education, such as discussing academic and school matters, general parental supervision, and monitoring of children's progress, also positively influenced the children's academic achievement at the secondary level (Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014). Types of parental participation that have been found to have a weaker influence include engagement in parent--teacher organizations, volunteering, and attending parent--teacher conferences (Suizzo et al., 2014; Yotyodying & Wild, 2016).

However, study of these relationships has mostly been conducted in the United States (Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014). For example, Benner et al. (2016) studied 15,240 middle-school students in the United States to assess the relationship between children's academic achievement and parental involvement that included home-based involvement, school-based involvement, and academic socialization. Day and Dotterer (2018) employed the American Education Longitudinal Study 2002-2013 to investigate parental involvement that included home-based and school-based involvement and academic socialization in regard to the link of this involvement to academic achievement. However, these approaches need to be adapted to the Chinese context to be relevant to Chinese students' outcomes (Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014).

In sum, the findings in the previous research suggest that specific relationships exist between particular types of home-based parental involvement and children's academic achievement. Using patterns of parenting styles or involvement in a population might help fill the gaps in scholars' understanding of this relationship. First, using these patterns in an empirical research setting will provide a way to develop targeted home-based parental involvement in education. Second, use of patterns helps scholars to create effective models for analyzing the effects of parental involvement in education based in the home on their children's academic success. In three previous studies for which the researchers employed latent class analysis to investigate home-based parental involvement, four (Alameda-Lawson & Lawson, 2018; Huang & An, 2018) and six (Alameda-Lawson & Lawson, 2019) latent classes were identified. More, fewer, or different latent classes might exist in other social contexts, and we suggest that this might be the case regarding our sample of schoolchildren in Hainan Province, China. Based on the literature review, the following hypotheses were devised:

Hypothesis 1: Parental involvement in home-based education in Hainan Province, China, will comprise three, four, or five latent classes.

Hypothesis 2: Socioeconomic status will vary by type of parental involvement in home-based education.

Hypothesis 3: Children's academic achievement will vary by type of parental involvement in home-based education.

Method

Sample

The data for this study were derived from a survey. Before the survey was administered, a pilot test was carried out in spring 2018 with 120 junior-high-school students in Hainan Province, China, to evaluate the survey items (112 survey forms were returned). Based on those responses, unclear and vague items were revised, and the survey's reliability and validity were tested. The study's researchers wrote the items with input from the teachers at the schools.

Then, eighth-grade students at 15 junior high schools in Hainan Province were invited to participate in this study and to complete the survey. The students were informed about the study, and during free time in December 2018 the researchers and their graduate students administered the survey to 4,500 students. The survey took about 20 to 30 minutes to complete, and the forms were collected immediately upon completion. In the survey, students were asked for information about their personal characteristics (age, parents' educational attainment, and family income) and about parental involvement in their education at home. Participation was anonymous and the students completed the survey without assistance, except that a researcher was present to answer any questions. Of the 4,500 students invited to participate, 278 did not answer all of the items in the allotted time, resulting in 4,222 valid forms. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Minzu University of China.

Variables

Parental involvement in home-based education. The survey items used in this study were based on items in the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: National Center for Education Statistics, 1988). The NELS study began in 1988 as a survey of eighth-grade students in the United States. Respondents are asked about family background, family life, school, communication between home and school, reading at school, mathematics, and science. Since its inception in 1988, the respondents have completed the survey every two years.

In 2010, Ye (2010) translated the NELS into Chinese, An and Yang (2018) adapted it, and Huang and An (2018) developed a measure of parental involvement in home-based education. The measure of parental involvement in their children's education at home that we used in this study comprised 25 items in five dimensions with five items each. The five dimensions are: (1) parent--child communication, (e.g., "My parents often talk about the school curriculum with me."); (2) home supervision, (e.g., "My parents set the time for me to watch TV/play games."); (3) homework help, (e.g., "My parents do homework with me."), (4) emotional support, (e.g., "I often get encouragement and support from my parents."), and (5) expectations (e.g., "My parents hope I can at least go to college in the future."). The response options were on a 4-point scale, where 1 = never, 2 = sometimes, 3 = often, and 4 = very often. The scale's split-half reliability was .87, and Cronbach's alpha was .91.

Parents' socioeconomic status. Measures of parents' educational attainment and family income were used to assess parents' socioeconomic status. Parents' educational attainment was categorized by number of years of formal education as follows: (1) primary school and below, (2) completed junior high school, (3) completed high school or vocational school, (4) college or vocational college completion, and (5) holds a master's degree or doctorate. Family income was self-reported on a five-point scale, where 1 = less than CNY 40,000 per year, 2 = CNY 50,000 through 100,000 per year, 3 = CNY 100,000 through 200,000 per year, 4 = CNY 200,000 through 400,000 per year, and 5 = CNY 400,000 or more per year.

Academic achievement. The measures of the respondents' academic achievement were their individual midterm test scores (after the first semester of eighth grade) in the 2018-2019 academic year for their courses in Chinese, mathematics, English, morals, history, biology, and physics. All of the test score distributions were standardized within the courses to exclude biases of teachers, schools, and regions. Then, the test scores of each of the seven courses were transformed into standardized scores as endogenous indicators for the empirical analyses. The students' scores were individually tested.

Preliminary and Statistical Analytical Methods

The initial examination of the data revealed that the scores for the parents' involvement in education in the home were normally distributed. Then, a bivariate correlation analysis was performed on the key variables. Exploratory factor analyses were performed followed by confirmatory factor analyses to assess the reliability of the five home-based parental involvement factors (parent--child communication, home supervision, homework help, emotional support, expectations). We then performed a latent class analysis using Mplus Version 8. Then, a series of models was estimated specifying each of the five types of home-based involvement. Goodness-of-fit tests were performed to determine the number of types of home-based parental involvement that best fit the data (Muthen & Muthen, 2015). The models were compared across the latent classes using the Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, the adjusted Bayesian information criterion (sample size changed), and the Lo--Mendell--Rubin likelihood ratio test. Smaller Akaike, Bayesian, and adjusted Bayesian information criterion values indicate better model fit, and a statistically significant Lo--Mendell--Rubin likelihood ratio test value indicates that the model provides a significantly better fit than a model with one less class. Entropy was used to indicate how well each model compared with the other models. Entropy ranges from zero to one and larger values indicate more class differentiation. Full-information maximum likelihood imputation was used to replace missing values (Elhai & Contractor, 2018). After the model with the best fit was identified in the latent class analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed to test the hypotheses.

Results

Descriptive Statistics

The sample consisted of 48% boys (n = 2,013) and 52% girls (n = 2,209) with a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Ages ranged from 13 to 15 years (M = 13.93, SD = 0.938). The sample was demographically representative of the Hainan Province population. Table 1 shows family socioeconomic status in the sample. Table 2 shows the five home-based parental involvement dimensions and their interrelationships.

To determine which of the five types of home-based parental involvement had the best fit, we assessed the responses on each of the five profiles; the model fit indices of each possible solution are shown in Table 3. Notably, the Bayesian and adjusted Bayesian information criterion values decreased as the number of profiles increased. The Akaike information criterion decreased until there were five profiles. The bootstrap likelihood ratio test values were statistically significant regarding all tested solutions, and the Lo--Mendell--Rubin likelihood ratio test values were statistically significant for all tested solutions, except for the difference between the four-solution model and the five-solution model.

We followed Zhou et al. (2018) to identify the point at which the increase in the number of profiles began to obtain a diminishing rate of gains for the model fit. Ultimately, the four-profile solution was optimal, because this solution reached the so-called "elbow" point of the adjusted Bayesian information criterion values at which the improvement rate of the model fit begins to decline, and the five-profile solution was never quantitatively distinguishable from the three-profile solution. Therefore, there was no benefit in using the five-profile solution over the four-profile solution.

Characteristics of Four Types of Home-based Parental Involvement

Figure 1 shows the class plot used to compare the four types of home-based parental involvement in education. Type 1 accounted for 70.18% of the respondents' parents and it was named supportive home-based parental involvement in education. This type of parent was most likely of all the types to: (a) check the child's homework, supervise the child's homework, and assign extra homework; (b) communicate frequently with the child; (c) provide emotional support to the child; and (d) patiently tutor and communicate with the child. Type 2 included 19.77% of the respondents, and it was named basic home-based parental involvement in education. Type 2 parents were similar to Type 1, but they were not as strong on all of the characteristics. Type 3 comprised just 7% of the sample's parents and it was named strict home-based parental involvement in education. Parents of respondents who were strict in their involvement supervised homework more often, and they had less involvement than the supportive and basic groups in parent-child communication, emotional support, homework help, and expectations. Type 4 included 3.74% of the respondents' parents. This group was named disengaged home-based parental involvement in education because the parents of the respondents in this category had the lowest mean scores, except in homework supervision, which was lowest in the supportive home-based parental involvement group.

Results of Multivariate Analyses of the Relationships Among Family Socioeconomic Status, Academic Achievement, and Home-based Parental Involvement in Education

Two MANOVA were performed in which the four types of home-based parental involvement in education comprised the categorical independent variables and educational attainment and family income were the dependent variables. Figure 2 shows the results, which show a significant difference in parents' socioeconomic status by type of involvement (F = 177.355, df = 6, p < .001, [[eta].sup.2] = .389). The results of post hoc tests revealed a significant difference in family income between the respondents whose parents were in the group categorized as disengaged in their home-based involvement and those whose parents were in the strict home-based parent involvement group (p < .001). A significant difference also was found regarding parents' educational attainment and family income according to type of involvement (p < .001). Educational attainment and family income were highest among the students whose parents were in the supportive home-based-parent-involvement group followed by parents in the basic group, then below them the strict group. The parents of the respondents who were in the disengaged group had the lowest educational attainment and family income.

Additional MANOVA analyses were performed using the home-based parental involvement in education types as the independent variables and the students' academic achievement scores over seven different subject areas as dependent variables. The results showed significant differences for all seven subjects by type of parental involvement (F = 26.511, df = 21, p < .001, partial [[eta].sup.2] = .043). The post hoc test results indicated a significant difference between the respondents whose parents were in the disengaged home-based involvement group and those in the strict group (p < .001). Figure 3 illustrates that the results were consistent, and the scores were highest among those whose parents were in the supportive home-based involvement in education group followed by the parents in the basic, strict, and disengaged groups, in descending order. After controlling for the effects of parents' socioeconomic status, the results of a multivariate analysis of covariance showed a persistent significant difference in academic achievement of the students among the four types of home-based parental involvement (F = 18.812, df = 21, p < .001, [[eta].sup.2] = .084). The post hoc test results showed that the difference between parents in the disengaged group and those in the strict group remained statistically significant (p < .001), and the scores from high to low remained in the same order as before (supportive, basic, strict, and disengaged, in descending order).

Discussion

In this study we employed latent class analysis to advance the subpopulation perspective on the effects of parents' involvement in home-based education for Chinese students during junior high school. The results supported H1 through H3. Regarding H1, we identified four types of home-based parental involvement, as four latent classes were identified. There was a significant difference in parents' socioeconomic status according to the type of home-based involvement, which supported H2. H3 was supported because the students' academic achievement in seven subject areas was significantly different according to their parents' home-based educational involvement type.

Characteristics of Supportive Home-based Parental Involvement in Education and Its Relationship to Their Children's Academic Achievement

The respondents whose parents were categorized in the supportive home-based involvement group reported receiving the most emotional support from their parents. Their scores in the involvement dimensions of parent--child communication, help with homework, and expectations were the highest among the four involvement types. These characteristics suggest that these supportive parents highly valued their children's education. For example, in homework help, supportive parents not only checked and guided the child's homework, they also provided additional homework. This level of participation demands a parent's academic ability, the time available, and the desire to spend the time in this way.

The study's findings regarding the parents' socioeconomic status support this point. Parents whose home-based involvement was supportive were also the group with the highest educational attainment, and the highest score of homework help. Supportive parents also highly valued parent--child interaction, such as watching and discussing television programs with the child. Further, respondents with parents categorized as the supportive home-based involvement group reported the highest mean family income. In previous studies researchers have found that supportive parents are more financially relaxed than are the other three types. Thus, supportive parents tend to have more socioeconomic resources to use to participate in a child's learning. This finding is consistent with Mayer's (1997) parental investment model, in which it is argued that family income, parental education level, and occupation jointly influence parents' investment in their children's educational endeavors. Parents with high educational attainment are relatively more likely to allocate resources to their children's education as an important family goal. Having an adequate income also allows parents to support their children's intellectual activities more conveniently.

In some previous studies conducted in China it has been found that the emotional support aspect of home-based parental involvement in education had the strongest positive relationship to students' academic achievement (W. Fan & Williams, 2010; Huang & An, 2018). In the current study, the students with supportive parents had the highest midterm test scores in all seven subjects. The differences in the students' achievement among the four types of parental home-based involvement in education were significant and consistent across seven subjects. After controlling for the effects of parents' socioeconomic status, the children's academic achievement remained significantly different by home-based parental involvement type. Thus, parents who supported their children's achievement in all ways enhanced their children's academic success.

Characteristics of Basic Home-based Parental Involvement in Education and Its Relationship to Their Children's Academic Achievement

Respondents whose parents were categorized in the basic home-based involvement group received some help with their homework, their parents interacted with them, set clear rules for home supervision, and emotionally supported them, but, although the range of support was similar to the supportive parent group, the extent of involvement was less. The parents in the basic home-based involvement group had a lower educational attainment and a lower family income than did the parents categorized as supportive, but income and education attainment were higher than for the other two groups made up of strict and disengaged parents. This finding also supports Mayer's (1997) parental investment model because the academic achievement of the respondents whose parents were categorized in the basic home-based involvement group was lower than the academic achievement of those with supportive parents and higher than the academic achievement of the respondents with parents in the two other involvement-type groups.

Characteristics of Strict Home-based Parental Involvement in Education and Its Relationship to Their Children's Academic Achievement

The fundamental characteristic of strict home-based parental involvement was high levels of home supervision and high expectations coupled with low levels of both parent--child communication and emotional support. Thus, strict involvement is an authoritarian parenting style. For example, when a child's grades are low, authoritarian parents are indifferent or accusatory, and when a child disagrees with her or his parents, the parents compel the child to be obedient (Huang & An, 2018). We concluded that strict home-based parental involvement is similar to authoritarian parenting. Baumrind (1966) defined authoritarian parents as often treating their children with indifference and neglect, expressing anger when children break the rules, and using severe punishment.

In our study, the means of parents' educational attainment and family income among the respondents whose parents were categorized in the strict home-based involvement group were higher than those of respondents whose parents were in the disengaged group; however, the academic achievement of respondents whose parents were strict was lower than that of the respondents whose parents were in the supportive and basic home-based involvement groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to other types of parental home-based involvement in education, using the strict type negatively influenced the children's achievement. The negative relationship might relate to parents' interference with their child's autonomy or excessive parental pressuring, (X. Fan & Chen, 2001; Fernandez-Alonso, Alvarez-Diaz, Woitschach, Suarez-Alvarez, & Cuesta, 2017).

Characteristics of Disengaged Home-based Parental Involvement in Education and Its Relationship to Their Children's Academic Achievement

Parents of respondents who were categorized in the disengaged home-based involvement group had the lowest mean educational attainment and family income of the four groups. There was almost no emotional support, parents rarely helped with the child's homework, there was little parent--child communication, expectations were low, and there was little supervision. The parents' low educational attainment implies that they lacked sufficient knowledge to help with homework, and their low family income suggests that they may spend a lot of time earning money to support their families, with little remaining time for family interaction, including setting and enforcing rules. Lareau (2011) used her perception of a poverty culture to explain the disengaged behavior of low-socioeconomic-status parents. She emphasized that the value that parents attributed to the need for their children to get a sound education differed by social class, such that, compared to those with high socioeconomic status, parents with low socioeconomic status devalue formal education and separate their role as parent from teachers' role as educators.

In our study, the academic achievement scores of the respondents with parents in the group categorized as being disengaged in their home-based involvement in education were low, similar to those students whose parents were in the strict group, but the mean educational attainment and family income for the disengaged parent group were lower than those for the parents in the strict group.

Conclusion

Overall, the pattern of the results we obtained showed that the home-based involvement in education of the parents of the junior-high-school students in our sample positively related to the students' academic achievement. However, the ways that parents engaged in their children's education mattered in regard to the contribution each way of engaging performed by the parents made to the level of achievement of the children. For example, homework supervision was the only aspect of home-based involvement that our results showed was not consistently related to academic achievement, whereas the parents' emotional support had the strongest positive influence on their children's academic achievement. Other aspects of parental involvement at home positively related to the children's academic achievement, but the strength of these influences was moderate.

In previous studies scholars have found that the extent and quality of parental involvement differed by social class, and parental educational attainment has been an important predictor of parental involvement. In these studies it was found that, compared with other parents, parents with high educational attainment had relatively flexible parenting styles with more, and consistent, parent--child communication, higher expectations of their children, and more willingness to guide their children's learning, attitudes, and behaviors (An & Yang, 2018; Benner et al., 2016; DeGarmo, Forgatch, & Martinez, 2010; Duan et al., 2018; Duncan, & Brooks-Gunn, 2010; Huang & An, 2018). As well as developing their children's interests, supervising their homework, and expecting more from their children's education (An & Yang, 2018; Lareau, 2011; Shumow & Miller, 2001), highly educated parents tend to emphasize communication, children's self-determination, and to understand their children's needs (DeGarmo et al., 2010; Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 2010; Yotyodying & Wild, 2014).

In our study we have supported previous results in studies conducted in the United States on the relationship between home-based parental involvement in education and children's academic achievement, and extended the scope of previous research on this relationship in regard to Chinese junior-high-school students (Duan et al., 2018; Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014). Compared with earlier studies, in the current study we have provided more evidence and confirmed that parental cultivation of their children's academic success exists across cultural environments. Compared with some Western studies, in the current study we focused more on parental involvement, family socioeconomic status, and the children's academic achievement, with the choice and wording of items that fit Chinese family culture.

Parental involvement is important throughout a child's educational trajectory in regard to the child's academic success. However, parenting styles, including the style of home-based parental involvement in education, tend to be stable over time, meaning that the extent and characteristics of the involvement are stable as well. Therefore, this study is useful as support for parents of children at any point in their educational careers.

Based on our conclusions, we recommend the following behaviors to parents. First, parents need to support their children's learning. Parents should supervise their children's homework and help them to develop effective learning habits (Posey-Maddox & Haley-Lock, 2016). Second, parents should use high-quality communication when they interact with their children. The focus on parental engagement in their children's education and public awareness of parents' roles in education means that parents are increasingly aware that participating in their children's education is a valuable tool for them and their children. However, parent--child communication remains low quality in many families (Huang & An, 2018). In a previous study it was found that parents' conversations about television programs with their children promoted the children's language development more than just viewing these programs with them, and listening to children read improved the reading performance of the children more than simply reading to them did (Senechal & Young, 2008). Therefore, parents should be engaged, not merely present. Third, parents should involve their children in democratic decision making. Because our results showed emotional support was more important than behavioral support, excessive criticism or neglect likely has a negative influence on the quality of children's homework as well as on their health and behavior (Fernandez-Alonso et al., 2017). When children encounter challenges or frustrations in school, it is more effective for parents to listen to, and guide them in a dialogue instead of criticizing and scolding them. A democratic family environment means that, when parents and children disagree, parents listen to their children's opinions and discuss their feasibility, which helps to increase children's sense of self-confidence and self-esteem.

In sum, our findings in this study support the notion that family context, including parenting practices and styles of involvement in children's activities, such as school, is important to the child's academic achievement. Emotional support positively influences the child's academic outcomes. In family environments where children participate, are heard, and are involved in decision making, they are relatively likely to develop self-confidence, self-esteem, and motivation to learn because of the democratic and supportive characteristics of those contexts to foster children's learning.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the General Topic of Education under the National Social Science Foundation in 2018 (BMA180041).

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Yongtao Gan (1), Sude Bilige (2)

(1) Higher Education Research Institute, Shantou University, People's Republic of China

(2) College of Education, Minzu University of China, People's Republic of China

CORRESPONDENCE Yongtao Gan, Higher Education Research Institute, Shantou University, No. 243 College Road, Jinping District, Shantou, Guangdong Province, 515063, People's Republic of China. Email: ganyt@foxmail.com

https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.8491
Table 1. Percentage Distributions of Family Socioeconomic Status

Variables             1     2     3     4      5    MISSING

Education attainment
  Parents             15.9  53.5  18.8   7.50  2.2  2.09
  Father              23.8  48.9  16.0   6.30  1.8  3.20
  Mother              31.0  49.4  11.8   3.60  1.7  2.50
  Family income        3.9  26.6  38.4  25.60  4.5  1.00

Note. N = 4,222.

Table 2. Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlation Coefficients of
the Home-based Parental Involvement Dimensions

Factor  1          2          3          4          5  M     SD

1. PCC                                                 2.61  0.983
2. HSP  .022 (*)                                       2.36  1.002
3. ESP  .250 (**)  .031 (*)                            3.64  0.678
4. HWH  .265 (**)  .063 (**)  .291 (**)                3.07  0.874
5. EXP  .201 (**)  .080 (**)  .329 (**)  .362 (**)     3.17  0.787

Note. N = 4,222. PCC: parent--child communication, HSP: home
supervision, ESP: emotional support, HWH: homework help, EXP:
expectations.

(*) p < .05, (**) p < .01.

Table 3. Model Comparison of Latent Profiles

Number of types  Log likelihood  AIC        BIC        ABIC

1                -31378.635      62777.269  62840.750  62808.974
2                -29873.906      59779.812  59881.381  59830.540
3                -28540.625      57125.250  57264.908  57195.001
4                -25257.465      50570.929  50748.675  50659.703
5                -28019.437      56106.874  56322.708  56214.671

Number of types  Entropy  LMRT    BLRT          Class size of type

1                -        -       -       4222
2                0.935    0.0000  0.0000   424  3798
3                0.982    0.0000  0.0000  2964  1100  158
4                1.000    0.0034  0.0038   266  2963  835   158
5                0.866    0.9936  1.0000   368   158  170  1100  1426

Note. N = 4,222. Number of types = number of types of home-based
parental involvement in education. Bold indicates the best fitting
latent class model. AIC = Akaike information criterion, BIC = Bayesian
information criterion, ABIC = adjusted Bayesian information criterion,
LMRT = Lo--Mendell--Rubin likelihood ratio test, BLRT = bootstrap
likelihood ratio test.
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Author:Gan, Yongtao; Bilige, Sude
Publication:Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Dec 1, 2019
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