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Parent education and child rearing.


A parent is one who has begotten offspring or occupies the role of mother or father. 'Parents' and 'children' are complementary and relative concepts. Without one, the other doesn't exist, at least logically. Parenting is an on-going, never-ending process of learning. Parents and children influences each other behaviors at every point of interaction during their life times. To quote Mary Sheridan (1973) a Prominent British Childhood specialist, "Early training depends up on adequate stimulation. The natural teachers are the parents, the natural place is the ordinary family home and the natural tools for learning are playthings.

Most research in the parent-child area operates on the assumption that there is a direct and discernible relation between parental variables (behaviors, practices, attitude, need fulfillment, personality) and child behaviour and personality Parents and children influence each other in a mutual, two-way fashion. It has been argued that infant helps to shape his environment just as he is shaped by it. It is a two way process which influences both the parents as well as the child. So, parent's and child's characteristics mutually interact.

Family relationships provide the child's primary socialization. The vast majority of a child's experiences during preschool years occurs in his parental home and in the immediate neighbourhood. The essential aspect of the culture which characterizes the family are transferred through the subtle processes of informal learning. What the child learns at home is carried out the neighborhood. Thus, family background goes with the child wherever he goes and what he has learned at home acts as a powerful influence on his behavior in non family social situation(s). In one of the early research Moor (1968) found that the emotional adjustment of the child and the presence of toys and books were strong predictors of school success, and the factor having the most pervasive influence was home's emotional atmosphere, warmth and depressed family effect. Bronfenbrener (1974) viewed that it is essential to enlist the parents in providing a richer, more stimulating and encouraging learning environment. The parents have a more constant, lasting and pervasive infuriate on the child during his educational career. The results of the research findings on parent education (Gordan 1968, Levanstain 1970,Radhika and Joseph 2013, Zahara, 2016, Jagadish Cacodcar, Anagha Dubhashi, Shilpa Jogleka 2015, Jayanthi J. and Srinivasan K. 2015, Yagnamurthy Sreekanth 2010 etc) have been most encouraging and support Bronfenbrener's view that there is the need for "parent education" and only tutoring the child without helping the parent to develop his/her teaching/social ability/ responsibility was a waste of time. Family must be involved in the child's education and parental involvement in the educational process of the child is most essential. Studies have revealed that poor prenatal nutrition, poor prenatal medical care father-mother differences, more children, children more closely spaced etc. do adversely affect the academic of the children. Parents play significant role in social, cognitive and intellectual development of the children. Parent education and parental involvement in the education and parental involvement in the educational, social and intellectual process is a basic need for over all development of the children.

Deitchman (1977) suggested two levels of parental involvement, such as: low and high involvements. A low level involvement include, parent-teacher conference, parent meetings teacher workshop for parents, carrying out classroom activities at home, parent training and volunteer work in the classroom, where as a high level involvement includes, parent-teacher conference where two way communication takes place, the use of rating scales to have more effective results. Parent meeting which develop educational policy etc. It has been argued that parental involvement in child's academic programme yields good results and boosts the social development of the child.


To assess and empirically derive independent clusters of parental behaviors, child-rearing attitudes and styles, parent involvement in the child's educational programme and parental SES dimensions.


Sample and sampling techniques:

A total of 175 parents of 175 preschool children were chosen as subjects. The age range of children were 3-5 years and their parents 30-40 years. The sample is selected randomly from there different nursery school of Bhubaneswar municipality area, Odisha, India.

Research tools:

All the parents were administered the following scales/test instruments individually:

* Home environment scale to measure family back ground index. It consisted of 11 subscales. yielding 11 scores.

* Family effectiveness scale for children's need satisfaction. It consisted of 20 items to measure 4 dimensions of children's need satisfaction, yielding 4 scores.

* Parental attitude research inventory (PARI): This inventory was originally designed by Schaeffer (1958) was adopted and translations specially for this study yielded one single score for each subject.

* Parental child-rearing behavior scale: This scale was developed to yield six scores.

* Parental child-rearing practices scale: This scale was developed to yield two scores.

* Parental Involvement inventory: This scale was designed to assess the parental involvement and desired to be involved in the children academic growth yielded two composite scores.


The date collected from 6 scales consisted of 26 variables. The mean, standard deviation correlation and factor analysis was carried out to analyze the results.

The results were analyzed by principal component variance rotated factor Analysis done on 26 variables. From the results it was found that as the family size increases, the number of siblings, the total family education and child's need satisfied by others also increases. But father's education, home health and nutritional conditions, needs satisfied by the father family, the positive attitude of the father, attitude of the mother in child rearing behaviours are found to be less. The former one is due to the fact that in India, the system of joint family/extended family is still continuing. The family size correlated highly with total family education score.

It is observed form the results that educated males prefer to marry educated females and when this occurs it boosts to the total family education. The parental educational level is one of the most important SES factors determining parents own income. Occupation, educational, health, nutritional conditions at home, parental education level also seems to determine child's need satisfaction, the child rearing behaviors, the child-rearing practices and parental involvement. Further, educated parents never desire that the need of their children be met by others.

Total family education includes the education of the parents and children. So more children may mean a higher family education score. An educated family usually generates more income and better occupational choice and possesses a better home environment and is able to satisfy the needs of their children and provide better child rearing facilities. Furthermore, an educated family always tries to associated/involve itself in the on going academic development of the children.

Parental income goes with parental occupation and when a family's income is more, most of the basic needs for the children are satisfied. Again, a high income family maintains a good spacious house, better living condition, better health and nutritional facilities. Such a family rarely prefers others to meet their children's needs. In such a family the child-rearing practices are satisfactorily meet met process, But in low income families the home's emotional problems and social relations are poor. It is also natural that in high income families, the child get better educational opportunity.

It is also observed that if the home's physical environment is good, it accelerates the study atmosphere and the emotional and social relations of the children are better. Again the educational environment in home facilitates better child rearing practices and attracts the parental involvement. In a home where better health and nutritional care is taken, the emotional problems are less leading to more social contact. Further, in a home where there are less quarrels and conflicts and emotional problems are less and social contacts are more, it possesses better child-rearing style.

Some evidence suggests that family size and birth order are important factors in determining manifested intelligence of children. Many years ago, Galton observed that among the great scientists that Britain had produced, there were a preponderance of first born children. Since then many studies have revealed that first born and only children speak more at a younger age than late born child, and such children score higher on measures of intellectual performance.

Birth order itself doesn't of course explain these observations. Nor are the observations true in all individuals case, family size also contributes to it. Researchers have suggested that one of the important influences on intellectual development is the "intellectual climate" of the home. The concept intellectual climate include all those variables in home environment including the SES and home educational stimulation, family size and other related variables. The finding of the present study supports the previous finding that 'Home intellectual climate' including family effectiveness are important factors in determining manifested intelligence of children. These environmental variables appear to be influenced by such factors as family size, parental child-rearing style etc, which also reflect ethnic and social climate.

The parental as well as the family child-rearing behaviour are inter-related which accelerates the interaction among themselves as well as with the child, compelling them to be involved in the ongoing academic process of the children. When parents are involve directly or indirectly in the child's academic process, they get a direct knowledge about their child's development and progress and can take better care of the children and can guide the teacher, seeking their suggestions to modify their own behaviours accordingly. Parents when involved in the academic system of the child are bound to modify their own child-rearing style.

From the results of factor analysis, it was observed that the seven (7) factors extracted successfully explained about 71% of the total data variance, the highest three factors being factor I,II and III together explaining about 44% of variance.

So, Factor I was found to have eight out of 26 variables having factor loadings about .50. All these variables (family income, parental occupation, father's education, mother's education, family education, home physical space, and children's need satisfied by the mother) except children's need satisfied by the others had positive loading and emerged from the home environment scale and children's need satisfaction scale and explained about 22.90% of total variance. Of these eight variables, seven measuring home environment refers to the socioeconomic status of the parents and of course, of the child. On the basis of inter co-relation and factor I it may be said that child rearing depends to great extent on the socio-economic status of the family. Since most of these variables relate to the socio-economic condition of the home, this factor may be named as the "Socio-Economic Status" (SES) factor.

Factor II was found to have significant loading of four variables of which two belonged to parental child-rearing practices, one belonged to parental child-rearing behaviour and another belonged to parental desire for involvement in the academic progress of the child. All the variables in this factor had very high and significant positive loading., .99, .98, .98 and .51 As most of these variables encompass the child rearing practices and behaviours of the parents, this factor may be named as the "Parental Child-Rearing Behaviour" factor explaining about 10% of the total variance.

Factor III was found to have significant loadings on family size number of siblings, total family education and children's need satisfied by others in the family. This factor, which explains the variance (10.50) out of 7 include many variables of the family structure, education and need satisfied by others, this factor may be named as "Family Support Network Factor".

Factor IV received significant positive equal loading of 92 in the parental child rearing behaviours scale includes variables, negative attitude in child-rearing behaviours by father, mother and others. This Factor which explains 7.00% of total variance and includes variables purely from child-rearing behaviour assigning equal weightage one to each may be named as the "Parental Child-rearing behaviours" Factor.

Factor V which explains 7.75% of total variance had significant positively loadings of Five variables, four of which belonged to home environment scale (home, physical space, educational stimulation, health and nutritional conditions, emotional and social significant negative loading of family effectiveness (need satisfied by the mother). While need satisfied by the mother variable is loading negatively in this Factor e.g. (approaching cut - off point) in satisfying the needs of the children. In consideration of other factors and this factor too, this factor may be named as the "Family Effectiveness through Maternal Support'1 Factor.

Factor VI which explains 7.45% of total variance had significant negative loadings of four variables, three of which belonged to parental child-rearing behaviours (father's positive attitude in child-rearing; mother's positive attitude in child -rearing, and family positive attitude in child -rearing) belonged to parental attitude. As these variables refer in the similar dimension of measuring parental attitude and hence this Factor may be named as the "Parental Attitude" Factor.

Factor VII had shown out of 26 variables, all loaded positively and significantly in the family effectiveness scale i.g. children's needs satisfied by the father and the family. Since both these two variables encompass the satisfaction of the needs of the children in the family this factor may be named as the "Family Effectiveness" Factor explaning 4.6% of the total variance.

These seven factors, i.e. Factor I (Socio Economic Status), Factor II (Parental Child-Rearing Behaviours), Factor III (Family Support Network), Factor IV (Parental Child rearing Attitude). Factor V (Family Effectiveness - through Maternal Support), Factor VI (Parental Attitude) and Factor VII (Family Effectiveness) formed four clusters, namely:

Home SES Factor

Family Effectiveness Factor

Parental Child-Rearing Behaviour Factor, and

Parental Attitude Factor.

On the whole, the result of the investigation indicate the followings:

Home environment, socio-economic status and parental child rearing behaviours are some of the very important variables which determine the course of child's development in general and intellectual development in particular and personality to a large extent. The variables namely, family income, parental occupation, father's education, mother's education, total family's education, family size, number of siblings, home physical space, educational stimulation, health and nutritional conditions, emotional and social relations, and parental involvement in the educational process of their children form a single cluster under the Socio-Economic Status (SES) of the family. For further research any one or number of these variables can be taken as indicators of SES.

Similarly, children's needs satisfied by father, mother, family and others formed another single cluster indicting that any one of these can betaken to indicate the 'Family Effectiveness" of the child.

Again, parental child-rearing behaviours, practices and desire for involvement in the academic process of the children form another cluster indicating that any one or number of these can be taken as indicators of parental child-rearing style.

Further more, the father's, the mother's and the family's positive attitudes expressed in child-rearing form another single cluster indicating that any one can be taken as indicators of Parental Attitude towards educational process of the children.

The study suggested the need for parent effectiveness training.

Parent Effectiveness Training: Professor Thomas Gordon, the originator of the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET), believed that many parents need to learn the parenting skills. He has found that most parents can learn in six hours to modify the way they talk to their children. Gordon has found that the psychological problems in children be prevented by teaching parents and thereby improving understanding and communication between them and their own children. According to Dr. Gordon most parents use one of 12 ways of communication with children all of which are roadblocks to effective communication. This so called "dirty dozen" includes the following familiar parental responses to the equally familiar example of 1 can not do my homework. It is so boring. 1 hate school. 1 want to quit as soon as I'm old enough." Most parents respond with messages such as:

1. You must stay in school; 1 Insist/ (Ordering, Directing, Commanding).

2. If you don't finish school, you will not get any assistance form me and you will be without a job (Warning, Threatening)

3. You should be thankful son, for the right to get an education. (Preaching)

4. There are some facts you've got to learn; high school dropouts earn 50% less than high school graduates. (Lecturing)

5. Take my advice, you should set up a schedule of two hours a night for homework. (Advising, Offering Solution)

6. I think you are being rather immature and impulsive. (Negative Evaluation, Criticism)

7. You've always been such a fine student; you have got so much talent and potentiality. (Positive Evaluation, Praise)

8. You are just rebelling against authority -asserting your own independence. (Psychoanalytic)

9. Go ahead, be a vagabond or a rotten apple (Ridiculing, Name - Calling)

10. I had that problem myself when I was your age. You will get over it. It's not that bad. (Reassuring)

11. Why do you fell that way ? What are you doing in your room ? When did you start feeling this? (Probing, Interrogating)

12. I am not in the mod for that king of talk. You thing you have got problems; what about the kinds in the ghetto? (Humor; iverting)

In his P.E.T. classes Dr. Gordon teaches parents to stop using these twelve destructive types of messages and substitute the communication skill of the professional counselor, such skill include:

1. Passive Listening or Silence.

2. Emphatic grunts (such as .mm hm, I see Is that right)

3. Open-ended questions that invite the child to talk (such as Oh, do you want to tell me about it? or what are your feelings about it?

Active listening whereby the parent feeds back the essence of the child's message to the child and makes the child feel understood. When active listening is practiced, (a) children talk to their parents more, (b) parents under stand their children batter, (c) feelings such as anger fear and hurt are more easily dissipated and (d) children manage to solve their own problem more constructively.

What parents Should not do: The following is a list of practices for parents (particularly) mothers to avoid.

1. 'Do not cage your child or confine him regularly for long periods.

2. Do not encourage your child to concentrate his energies on you to the point where he spends most of his time following you around or staying near you always.

3. Do not allow temper tantrums-just ignore it.

4. Do not worry that your child won't love you if you say 'no' form time to time, whenever it is necessary.

5. Do not try to win all the fights with your child especially when he starts becoming negative with you.

6. Do not prevent the child from cluttering the house; its an inevitable sign of a healthy curious baby.

7. Do not over protective, children are more careful than you think.

8. Do not overpower him, let him do what he wants to do as often as possible.

9. Do not make yourself absolutely unavailable to your child give him some time every day.

10. Do not bore your baby if you can avoid it.

11. Do not worry about when he learns to read, count numbers say the alphabet. Do not even worry if he is slow to talk as long as he seems to understand more and more language as he grows.

Do not try to force any training method on your child.

Do not make your baby think the whole world was made just for him.

Competence of Preschool Children: A well developed preschool child between 3 to 4 years of age exhibits the following abilities.

(1) To get and maintain attention of adults, (2) Adults as resources, (3) To express affection to adults, (4) To express hostility to other adults, (5) To lead a group of peers, (6) To follow peers, (7) To express affection to peers, (8) To express hostility to peers, (9) To compete with peers (10) To prove oneself or show pride it ones accomplishments, (11) Role playing, (12) Language development and mastery: understanding, use, vocabulary (13) To sense dissonance, (14) To anticipate consequences, (15) To deal with abstractions, (16) To take the perspective of another, (17) To make interesting associations (18) To plan and carry out multi stepped activities, and (19) To use resources effectively, (20) To focus attention of two tasks simultaneously.

How To Respond To A Preschooler or Infant: The following is a list of recommended ways to respond to your child's overtures:

1. Respond promptly as often as possible.

2. Respond favorably

3. Make some effort to understand what the child is trying to do

4. Set limits; do not give in to unreasonable requests

5. Provide encouragement as often as possible

6. Provide assistance as often as possible

7. Use words as often as possible

8. Use words children understand

9. Use words to provide a related idea or two

Do not prolong the episode if child wants to leave. Encourage pretend play and activities.


Bronfenbrener, U. (1974):A Report on lorgitudinal evaluation of preschool programme Vol.II, Is EarlyIntervention effective? U.S. Deptt. Of HEW Publication No. (OHD)

Deitchman (1977): Dimensions of parental involvement in preschool Programme. Child Care health and development 3, 213-241.

Gordan, I.J. (1968):Early child Stimulation through parent educators. A programme report to the children's Bureau, U.S. Deptt. Of HEW, Florida.

Moor, T. (1968) Language and intelligence. A longitudinal study of the first eight years. Part II Environmental Correlates of mental growth. Human Development II, 1-24.

Radhika. M, Joseph. Rosna (2013) A study to assess the parenting styles and academic performance of school children. International journal of science and Research (IJSR). PP644-647.

Schaeffer, E.S. andBell. R.C. (1958) Development of a Parental Attitude Research inventory child development, 29, 339-361.

Sheridan, M.D. (1973) Children's Development Progress NFER Publishing, London.

Levanstain, P. (1970) Cognitive Growth in Preschoolers through verbal interactions with mothers. American Journal of Ortho Psychiatry, 40, 426-432.

Jayanthi J. and Srinivasan K(2015) Influence of Home Environment on Academic Achievement in Mathematics IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM) e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 4 Ver. II (Jul-Aug. 2015), PP 26-31

Shilpa Jogleka 2015 A Cross-Sectional Study on Child Rearing Practices in Rural Goa Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University Vol. 4, No. 4,pp 64-73.

Yagnamurthy Sreekanth Parents Involvement in the Education of their Children: Indicators of Level of Involvement International Journal about Parents in Education2010, Vol. 5, No. 1, 36-45.

Received: December 15, 2017

Revised: February 03, 2018

Accepted: March 12, 2018

Pranati Satapathy (*)

(*) P.G. Department of Psychology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack - 753003, India
Table 1: Means and Standard Deviations of the 26 variables obtained
from 6 scales administered on the parents of 175 children.

Scale                  S1.  Variables                Mean   SD

1. Home Environment    1.   Family size               7.10   2.18
                       2.   No. of siblings           3.79   2.09
                       3.   Father's Education       10.26   4.96
                       4.   Mother's Education        6.90   4.11
                       5.   Total Family Education   35.08  20.79
                       6.   Total Family Income       2.89   1.13
                       7.   Parental Occupation       5.79   2.05
                       8.   Physical Environment      6.13   2.22
                       9.   Educational Stimulation   4.73   1.77
                       10.  Health and Nutritional    5.95   1.69
                       11.  Emotional and Social      4.66   1.68
2. Family                   Needs Satisfied by
                       12.  The Father               15.27  11.30
                       13.  The Mother               40.43  15.66
                       14.  The Family               66.37  18.75
                       15.  The Other                 2.01   1.97
3. PARI                16.  Parental Attitude         6.84   4.87
4. Child-rearing       17.  Father's Positive         6.21   2.83
                       18.  Father's Negative         1.91   1.85
                       19   Mother's Positive         6.68   3.10
                       20.  Mother's Negative         2.61   2.95
                       21.  Family's Positive        10.62   9.66
                       22.  Family's Negative         6.62   4.94
5. Child-rearing       23.  Father                    8.03   6.63
                       24.  Mother                    7.12   6.93
6. Parent Involvement  25.  Involvement               7.72   3.61
                       26.  Desire for Involvement   11.15   7.41

Table 2: Factor loadings of the Principal Components analysis with
varimax rotations. loadings above. 50 are Underlined.

Var  Description                 Factor I  Factor II  Factor III

 1.  Family Size                   .24      -.17        .96
 2.  No. of siblings               .20      -.17        .96
 3.  Father's Education            .90       .15       -.40
 4.  Mother's Education            .90       .25       -.36
 5.  Total Family Education        .98      -.04        .22
 6.  Total Family ncome            .99       .04       -.16
 7.  Parental Occupation           .98       .21       -.19
 8.  Home: Physical Environment    .96       .39       -.27
 9.  : Educational Stimulation     .98       .25        .00
10.  : Health and Nutritional      .07       .01       -.63
11.  : Emotional and social        .96      -.28       -.16
12.  Needs satisfied by: The       .26      -.11       -.97
13.  : The Mother                  .31       .19       -.91
14.  : The Family                  .35       .12       -.93
15.  : The Others                 -.58       .56        .79
16.  Parental Attitude             .11       .18       -.99
17.  Child-rearing Behavior :      .50       .53       -.66
     Father positive
18.  : Father negative             .20      -.05       -.96
19.  : Mother positive             .44       .93       -.73
20.  : Mother negative             .24       .66       -.97
21.  : Family positive             .23       .99       -.29
22.  : Family negative            -.05       .99       -.75
23.  Child-rearing Practices :     .04       .43        .07
     The Father
24.  : The Mother                  .14       .98       -.03
25.  Parental Involvement          .90       .43       -.02
26.  Parental desire for           .19       .98        .10
     % of Variance               38.21     21.45      40.33
     Elgin values                 5.95      2.60       2.73

Tolerance - .001, No. of Iterations - 5
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Author:Satapathy, Pranati
Publication:Indian Journal of Community Psychology
Date:Sep 1, 2018
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