Printer Friendly

Parasitoides de afidos (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) de Kashmir, India: una lista comentada.



Aphids have been considered as economically important agricultural pests. These tiny insects, like other insects have their natural enemies as parasitoid wasps belonging to subfamily Aphidiinae within the family Braconidae. Members of this subfamily can be distinguished structurally by their medium body size usually about 1.5-3.5 mm long; females with short ovipositor; metasomal tergum weakly sclerotized; antenna short with 10 to 28 segments; ovipositor sheath or hypopygium in females often modified; a single, large median cell in the fore wing in most species; smooth scutellar sulcus present; cross vein cu-a absent in the hind wing and occipital carina present (at least laterally) (Stary 1970; Achterberg 1997). Most of the species of Aphidiinae are being used against aphid pests in various parts of the world. Aphid pest problems are known worldwide (Stary and Ghosh 1983). This is complicated by many well known reasons, viz, their biological peculiarities along with intensification of agriculture and introduction of new plant varieties, along with extensive, injudicious and indiscriminate use of agricultural chemicals.

The first work on Aphid parasitoids was done in 1818 by Nees Esenback; Haliday (1836) was the first who proposed the generic classification of Aphidiids. Marshall (1896) published first monographs on European Aphidiids fauna. Stary & Bhagat (1978) reported species of aphid parasitoids from Kashmir. Takada & Rishi (1980) reported 15 species of Aphidiinae from Kashmir, India, with description of three new species.

Approximately 400 species placed under 60 genera of subfamily Aphidiinae have been described (Stary 1988; Dolphin & Quicke 2001). The members of this subfamily are known to occur in all the major habitats of the world. This subfamily was traditionally represented by four tribes, viz, Ephedrini, Praini, Aphidiini and Trioxini (Mackauer 1968; Belshaw & Quicke1997) but molecular phylogenetic analysis have proved to be inconclusive, indicating the presence of three viz, Ephedrini, Praini and Aphidiini (Smith et al. 1999; Sanchis et al., 2000) or five viz., Ephedrini, Praini, Monoctonini, Trioxini and Aphidiini (Sanchis et al. 2000) tribes. To facilitate research on aphid parasitoids in Kashmir, this checklist was created.


Host data were recorded for each species in Kashmir valley. Host data were generally presented with in order of the host aphid (Homoptera; Aphididae) on the host plant, when host plant is available, followed by the reference citing that association.



The Kashmir Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is presently represented by 61 species belonging to 16 genera. The details of which are as follows:

I. Genus Adialytus Foerster

Adialytus Foerster, 1862: 249, 250. Type species: Adialytus tenuis Foerster.

1. Adialytus ambiguus (Haliday)

Aphidius (Aphidius) ambiguus Haliday, 1834: 104-105.

Lysiphlebus (Adialytus) arvicola Stary, 1961.

Host. Macrosiphum sp. on Rosa sp. (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); Sipha maydis (Passerini) on Cynodon dactylon (Shuja-Uddin 1978a).

2. Adialytus salicaphis (Fitch)

Trioxys salicaphis Fitch, 1855: 841.

Trioxyspopulaphis Fitch, 1855: 841.

Lipolexis salicaphis Ashmead, 1889: 671.

Aphidius (Diaeretus) laticephalus Telenga, 1953: 172-173.

Host. Chaitophorus sp. on Salix caprea (Shuja-Uddin 1978a).

II. Genus Aphidius Nees

Aphidius Nees, 1819: 302. Type species: Aphidius avenae Haliday.

Theracmion Holmgren, 1872: 99. Type species: Theracmion arcticus Holmgren.

Aphidius Nees, 1819, subg. Lysaphidus Smith, 1944: 72. Type species: Aphidius (Lysaphidus) adelocarinus Smith.

Aphidius Nees, 1819, subg. Euaphidius Mackauer, 1961a: 110. Type species: Aphidius pterocommae Ashmead.

3. Aphidius absinthii Marshall

Aphidius absinthii Marshall, 1896: 605-606.

? Aphidius cardui Marschal var. artemisiae Ivanov, 1927: 429.

Host. Macrosiphoniella sp. on Chrysanthemum sp. (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991).

4. Aphidius areolatus Ashmead

Aphidius areolatus Ashmead, 1906: 189-190.

Host. Without host records (Rishi & Bhagat 1980).

5. Aphidius cingulatus Ruthe

Aphidius cingulatus Ruthe, 1859: 315.

Aphidius cingulatus Takada, 1968: 95.

Host. Pterocomma populeum (Kaltenbach) on Populus tremuloides (Takada & Rishi 1980);

6. Aphidius colemani Viereck Aphidius colemani Viereck, 1912: 141.

Host. Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe on Calotropis sp. (Takada & Rishi 1980);

7. Aphidius erysimi (Stary)

Lysaphidus erysimi Stary, 1960d: 361-363.

Host. Unknown (Rishi 1976).

8. Aphidius hortensis Marshall

Aphidius hortensis Marshall, 1896: 590-591.

Aphidius (Aphidius) berberidis Smith, 1944: 54-55.

Host. Liosomaphis himalayensis Basu on Berberis pseudambulata (Takada Rishi 1980);

9. Aphidius matricariae Haliday

Aphidius (Aphidius) matricariae Haliday, 1834: 103.

Aphidius (Aphidius) cirsii Haliday, 1834: 101.

Aphidius (Aphidius) arundinis Haliday, 1834: 106.

Aphidiusphorodontis Ashmead, 1889: 662.

Aphidiuspolygonia Marshall, 1896: 602-603.

Aphidius polygonia Marshall, 1896: 607.

Aphidius affinis Quilis, 1931: 48-50.

Aphidius arundinis Haliday var. obscuriformi Quilis, 1931: 50-51.

Aphidius renominatus Hincks, 1943: 44.

Aphidius nigriteleus Smith, 1944: 61-62.

Host. Aphis craccivora Koch on Solanum nigrum (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); A. fabae Scopoli on Rumex nepalensis (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); A. solanella (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Brachycaudus cardui (Linnaeus) on Carduus delbergii (Raychaudhuri et al. 1982); B. helichrysi (Kaltenbach) on Ageratum conyzoides (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991) Prunus sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975) Brachycaudus sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978) on Carduus sp. (Raychaudhuri et al. 1982); Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) on Brassica sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975); C. hippophaeus indicus on Polygonum chinense (Stary & Ghosh 1978); Diphorodon cannabis (Borner) on Cannabis sativa (Raychaudhuri et al. 1982); Diphorodon sp. on Cannabis sativa (Raychaudhuri et al. 1982); Lipaphis erysimi on Brassica napus (Stary & Ghosh 1978); Myzus cerasi (Fabricius) on Phlox dummondii (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); Descorina sofia (Takada & Rishi 1980); M. umifoliae (Shinji) on Rubia cardifilia (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991) Myzus sp. on Rubiaceae plants (Stary & Ghosh 1978); Phorodon cannabis (Stary & Bhagat 1978; Stary & Ghosh 1983) on Cannabia sativa (Takada & Rishi 1980), Phorodon sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978); Shinjiapteridifoliae (Shinji) on Pteridium sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1979).

10. Aphidius salignae Watanabe Aphidius salignae Watanabe, 1939: 13-14.

Host. Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin) (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991).

11. Aphidius setiger Mackauer

Aphidius setiger Mackauer, 1961b: 273-275.

Host. Without host records (Rishi & Bhagat 1980).

12. Aphidius smithi Sharma and Subba Rao

Aphidius (Aphidius) smithi Sharma and Subba Rao, 1959: 183-187.

Host. Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Rao et al. 1969, 1970, 1971; Singh et al. 1979) on Lathyrus odoretus (Takada & Rishi 1980).

13. Aphidius transcaspious Telenga Aphedius transcaspicus Telenga, 1958: 55-56.

Host. Aphis sp. on Prunus domestica (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991).

14. Aphidius uzbekistanicus Luzhetzki

Aphidius uzbekistanicus Luzhetzki, 1960: 122-123.

Host. Acyrthosiphon sp. on Bothriochloa sp. (Das & Chakrabarti 1989); Schzaphis sp. on Grass (Das & Chakrabarti 1989); Macrosiphum miscanthi (Das & Chakrabarti 1989) on Grass (Saha et al. 1982), Sitobion sp. on Avena sativa (Das & Chakrabarti 1989), Grass (Shuja-Uddin 1975b; Stary & Bhagat 1978), Penisetum falccidum (Das & Chakrabarti 1989).

15. Aphidius sp.

Host. Brachycaudus helichrysi (Raychaudhuri et al. 1979); Chaetosiphon gracilicorne David, Rajasing and Narayanan on Rosa webbiana (Takada & Rishi 1980); Hyalopterus pruni on Prunus cerasus; Lachnus tropicalis (Van der Goot) (Raychaudhuri et al. 1979); Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Dharmadhikari & Ramaseshiah 1970) on Chrysanthemum sp. (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); Sitobion sp. on Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Penisetum falccidum (Raychaudhuri et al. 1982).

III. Genus Areopraon Mackauer

Areopraon Mackauer, 1959a: 849-850. Type species: Praon lepelleyi Waterston

16. Areopraon lepelleyi (Waterston)

Praon lepelleyi Waterston, 1926: 237.

Host. Eriosoma ulmi (Linnaeus) on Ulmus laevigata (Bhagat 1982a); Eriosoma sp. (Rishi & Bhagat 1980); Schizoneurella indica Hille Ris Lambers on Ulmus wallichaina (Bhagat 1982a).

17. Areopraon sp.

Host. Eriosoma sp. (Rishi 1976).

IV. Genus Betuloxys Mackauer

Betuloxys Mackauer, 1960b: 136. Type species: Trioxys compressicornis Ruthe

18. Betuloxys hortorum (Stary)

Trioxys (Betuloxys) hortorum Stary, 1960c: 365-367.

Trioxys (Betuloxys) affinis Mackauer, 1960a: 96-98.

Host. Unidentified Aphids (Rishi 1976)

19. Betuloxys intermedias (Shuja-Uddin)

Trioxys (Betuloxys) intermedius Shuja-Uddin, 1975a: 415-420.

Host. Capitophorus sp. on Centaurea iberica (Shuja-Uddin 1975a).

V. Genus Binodoxys Mackauer

Trioxys Haliday, 1833, subg. Binodoxys Mackauer, 1960b: 141. Type species: Aphidius (Trioxys) angelicae Haliday

20. Binodoxys acalephae (Marshall)

Aphidius acalephae Marshall, 1896: 608-609.

Trioxys (Trioxys) urticae Mackauer, 1959b: 171-173.

Host. Aphis craccivora on Vicia faba; Phorodon sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978);

21. Binodoxys basicurvus (Shuja-Uddin)

Trioxys (Binodoxys) basicurvus Shuja-Uddin, 1973: 9-11.

Host. Aphis gossypii on Rubus sp. (Shuja-Uddin 1973).

22. Binodoxys centaureae (Haliday)

Aphidius (Binodoxys) centaureae Haliday, 1833: 490.

Binodoxys uroleucon Takada and Rishi, 1980: 234-240.

Host. Macrosiphoniella sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978); Uroleucon sp. on Chrysanthimum molifolium (Takada & Rishi 1980).

23. Binodoxys indicus (Subba Rao and Sharma)

Trioxys (Trioxys) indicus Subba Rao and Sharma, 1958: 199-201.

Host. A. craccivora (Stary & Bhagat 1978) on Ageratum conyzoides (Singh et al. 1979), Leguminosae plants (Stary & Ghosh 1975); A. solanella on Maesa sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975); A. gossypii (Stary & Bhagat 1978); A. ruborum longisetosus on Rubus sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975); A. spiraecola on Spiraea sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975) Aulacorthum sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Brachycaudus helichrysi on Gynura crepidiodes (Stary & Ghosh 1978), T. citricidus (Kirkaldy) (Rishi & Bhagat 1980; Stary & Ghosh 1983) on Citrus sp., Zanthoxylum sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975); unidentified Aphids (Stary & Ghosh 1983).

24. Binodoxys jaii (Bhagat)

Trioxys (Binodoxys) jaii Bhagat, 1982c: 321-324.

Host. Shivaphis celti Das on Celtis australis (Bhagat 1982c).

25. Binodoxys kashmirensis Takada and Rishi Binodoxys kashmirensis Takada and Rishi, 1980: 234-240.

Host. Microlophium sp.on Rosa bruianna (Takada & Rishi 1980).

26. Binodoxys longispinus (Shuja-Uddin)

Trioxys (Binodoxys) longispinus Shuja-Uddin, 1983: 36-38.

Host. Aphis farinosa Gmelin on Salix caprea (Shuja-Uddin 1983).

27. Binodoxys rubicola (Shuja-Uddin)

Trioxys (Binodoxys) rubicola Shuja-Uddin, 1973: 9-14.

Host. Aphis gossypii on Rubus sp. (Shuja-Uddin 1973).

28. Binodoxys uroleucon Takada and Rishi Binodoxys uroleucon Takada and Rishi, 1980: 234-240.

Host. Uroleucon sp. on Chrysanthemum morifolium (Takada & Rishi 1980).

VI. Genus Diaeretiella Stary

Diaeretiella Stary, 1960a: 242-243. Type species: Aphidius rapae M'Intosh

29. Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh)

? Aphidius vulgaris Bouche, 1834: 161-162.

Aphidius rapae M'Intosh, 1855: 194.

Aphidius (Trionyx) rapae Curtis, 1860: 73-74.

Diaeretus chenopodii Foerster, 1867: 125.

Trioxys piceus Cresson, 1880: 260.

Lipolexis chenopodiaphidis Ashmead, 1889: 671.

Aphidius brassicae Marshal, 1896: 597-598.

Diaeretus californicus Baker, 1909: 25.

Diaeretus nipponensis Viereck, 1911: 182.

Diaeretus obsoletus Kurdjumov, 1913: 41.

Diaeretus napus Quilis, 1931: 71-72.

Diaeretus croaticus Quilis, 1934: 8-9.

Diaeretus plesiorapae Blanchard, 1940: 45-48.

Diaeretus aphidum Mukerji and Chatterjee, 1950: 4-6.

Host. Aphis craccivora (Atwal et al. 1969) on Solanum tuberosum (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); Brevicoryne brassicae (Rao et al. 1970) on Brassicaceae plant (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991), Brassica sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975), Descorina sofia (Takada & Rishi 1980), Lipaphis erysimi (Rao et al. 1969) on Brassica campestris (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); unidentified aphids (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991).

VII. Genus Ephedrus Haliday

Ephedrus Haliday, 1833: 261, 485. Type species: Braconplagiator Nees.

Elassus Wesmael 1835: 248. Type species: Aphidiusparcicornis Nees.

Ephedrus Haliday subg. Ephedrus s. str., Stary 1958: 66-67. Type species: Ephedrus (Ephedrus) plagiator (Nees).

Ephedrus Haliday subg. Lysephedrus Stary, 1958: 64. Type species: Ephedrus (Lysephedrus) validus (Haliday).

30. Ephedrus dioscoreae Bhagat Ephedrus dioscoreae Bhagat, 1982b: 113-117.

Host. Aphis sp. on Dioscorea deltoidea (Bhagat 1982b).

31. Ephedrus laevicollis (Thomson)

Aphidius (Elassus) laevicollis Thomson, 1895: 2332.

Ephedrus levicollis Dalla Torre, 1898: 16. (Misspelled).

Ephedrus minor Stelfox, 1944: 235-236.

Host. Cavariella sp. on Salix alba (Takada & Rishi 1980).

32. Ephedrus niger Gautier, Bonnamour and Gaumont Ephedrus niger Gautier, Bonnamour and Gaumont, 1929: 200-201.

Ephedrus (Ephedrus) campestris Stary, 1962: 87-91.

Host. Macrosiphoniella sanborni (Shuja-Uddin 1978b) on Chrysanthemum sp. (Ghosh & Agarwala 1982); Uroleucon sp. on C. morifolium (Takada & Rishi 1980); unidentified aphids (Rishi 1976).

33. Ephedruspersicae Froggatt Ephedrus persicae Froggatt, 1904: 611-612.

Ephedrus nevadensis Baker, 1909: 23.

Ephedrus nitidus Gahan, 1917: 195.

Ephedrus vidali Quilis, 1931: 72-74.

Ephedrus pulchellus Stelfox, 1941: 133-139.

Ephedrus interstitialis Watanabe, 1941: 139-140.

Ephedrusimpressus Granger, 1949: 412.

Ephedrus (Ephedrus) holmani Stary, 1958: 63.

Ephedrus (Ephedrus)palaestinensis Mackauer, 1959b: 867-868.

Host. Aphis craccivora (Stary & Bhagat 1978); unidentified aphids (Rishi 1976).

34. Ephedrusplagiator (Nees)

Bracon plagiator Nees, 1811: 17.

Aphidius parcicornis Nees, 1834: 16.

Ephedrus japonicus Ashmead, 1906: 187.

Host. Prociphilus sp. on Lonicera quinquelocularis (Bhagat 1982a); Tetraneura sp. on Ailantus altissma (Bhagat 1982a).

35. Ephedrus srinagarensis Stary and Bhagat Ephedrus srinagarensis Stary and Bhagat, 1978: 388-390.

Host. Myzus sp on Lonicera quinquelocularis (Stary & Bhagat 1978); Prociphilus sp. on Lonicera quinquelocularis (Bhagat 1982a).

36. Ephedrus urticae Bhagat Ephedrus urticae Bhagat, 1982b: 113-117.

Host. Microlophium carnosum (Buckton) on Urtica dioica (Bhagat 1982b).

37. Ephedrus sp.

Unidentified aphids (Rishi 1976).

VIII. Genus Kashmiria Stary and Bhagat

Kashmiria Stary and Bhagat, 1978: 387-393. Type species: Kashmiria aphidis Stary and Bhagat.

38. Kashmiria aphidis Stary and Bhagat Kashmiria aphidis Stary and Bhagat, 1978: 387-393.

Host. Myzus sp. on Lonicera quinquelocularis (Stary & Bhagat 1978); Prociphilus sp. on Lonicera quinquelocularis (Bhagat 1982a).

IX. Genus Lipolexis Foerster

Lipolexis Foerster, 1862: 249. Type species: Lipolexis gracilis Foerster.

Gynocryptus Quilis, 1931: 27-28. Type species: Gynocryptuspieltaini Quilis.

39. Lipolexis gracilis Foerster Lipolexis gracilis Foerster, 1862: 249.

Gynocryptus pieltaini Quilis, 1931: 27-28.

Aphidius palpator Gautier and Bonnamour, 1931: 166-167.

Lipolexis chinensis Chen, 1980a: 169-172.

Host. Aphis craccivora on Solanum nigrum, Robinia pseudoaccia (Bhagat & Ahmad 1991); Liosomaphis himalayensis on Berberis pseudambulata (Takada & Rishi 1980); Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) (Stary & Ghosh 1983).

40. Lipolexis oregmae (Gahan)

Diaeretus oregmae Gahan, 1932: 736-757.

Lipolexis oregmae (Gahan), Stary, 1960b: 109-111.

Lipolexis scutellaris Mackauer, 1962: 37-45.

Lipolexis oregmae (Gahan), Miller et al. 2002: 83-107.

Host. A. craccivora (Stary & Bhagat 1978; Stary & Ghosh 1983) on Benincasa hispida, Cosmos sp. Hibiscus rosasinensis, Eupatorium sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975); A. ruborum longisetosus on Rubus ellipticus (Stary & Ghosh 1975); Aphis sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Zanthoxylum sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975), Coffea arabica (Subhrani et al. 2006); T. odinae (van der Goot) (Stary & Ghosh 1983) on Erodia trifolia and Viburnum foetidum (Stary & Ghosh 1979); Tuberolachnus salignus on Salix sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1975).

X. Genus Lysiphlebus Foerster

Lysiphlebus Foerster, 1862: 249, 250. Type species: Aphidius (=Bracon) dissolutus (Nees).

Aphidaria Provancher, 1888: 396. Type species: Aphidaria basilaris Provancher

41. Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady

Lysaphidus confusus Tremblay and Eady, 1978: 180-184.

Host. Myzus dycei on Urtica sp. (Saha et al. 1982); unidentified aphid (Rishi 1976).

XI. Genus Monoctonus Haliday

Aphidius Nees, 1819, subg. Monoctonus Haliday, 1833: 261, 487. Type species: Aphidius (Monoctonus) caricis Haliday.

Aphidileo Rondani, 1848: 14. Type species: Aphidius resolutas Nees.

Monoctonus Haliday, 1833. subg. Falciconus Mackauer, 1959c: 180. Type species: Aphidiuspseudoplatani Marshall.

Harkeria Cameron, 1900: 537. Type species: Harkeria rufa Cameron.

Monoctonus Haliday, 1833. subg. Monoctonus s. str., Stary, 1959: 241-242. Type species: Aphidius (Monoctonus) caricis Haliday.

Monoctonus Haliday, 1833. subg. Paramonoctous Stary, 1959: 238-239. Type species: Monoctonus (Paramonoctous) angustivalvus Stary.

42. Monoctonus sp.

Host. Liosomaphis sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Macrosiphoniella oblonga (Mordvilko) on Artemisia vestite (Rishi 1976), Unidentified aphids (Takada & Rishi 1980).

XII. Genus Pauesia Quilis

Pauesia Quilis, 1931: 67-69. Type species: Pauesia albuferensis Quilis.

Aphidius Nees, 1819, subg. Paraphidius Stary, 1958: 56, 91. Type species: Aphidius californicus Ashmead.

43. Pauesia gulmargensis Bhagat

Pauesia (Paraphidius) gulmargensis Bhagat, 1981b: 197-199.

Host. Cinara sp. on Abiespindrow (Bhagat 1981b).

44. Pauesia hazratbalensis Bhagat

Pauesia (Kashmirpauesia) azratbalensis Bhagat, 1981b: 197-199.

Host. Lochnus sp. on Biota orientalis (Bhagat 1981b).

45. Pauesia himalayensis Bhagat

Pauesia (Paraphidius) himalayensis Bhagat, 1981b: 197-199.

Host. Lachnus tropicalis on Pinus excelsa (Bhagat 1981b).

46. Pauesia pini (Haliday)

Aphidius (Aphidius)pini Haliday, 1834: 96.

Aphidius lachnivorus Ashmead, 1906: 189.

Host. Cinara lachnirostris Hille Ris Lambers on Pinus excrlsa and P. wallichiana; Cinara sp. on Pinus sp. (Bhagat 1981b).

XIII. Genus Praon Haliday

Aphidius Nees, 1819, subg. Praon Haliday, 1833: 483. Type species: Bracon exolentus Nees.

Bracon Nees, 1811, subg. Achoristus Ratzeburg, 1852: 31-32. Type species: Bracon (Achoristus) aphidiiformis Ratzeburg.

Aphidaria Provancher, 1886: 151. Type species: Aphidaria simulans Provancher.

Parapraon Stary, 1983: 206. Type species: Praon gallicum (Stary).

47. Praon abjectum Haliday

Aphidius (Praon) abjectum Haliday, 1833: 485.

Bracon (Achoristus) aphidiiformis Ratzeburg, 1852: 11.

Host. Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (Stary & Bhagat 1978).

48. Praon dorsale (Haliday)

Aphidius (Praon) dorsale Haliday, 1833: 484.

Blacus discolor Nees, 1834: 192-193.

Praon collaris Foerster, 1867: 124.

Praon longicorne Marshall, 1896: 536-537.

Host. Acyrthisiphon gossypii Mordvilko (Subba Rao & Sharma 1960a; Mackauer 1968).

49. Praon kashmirensis Bhagat

Praon kashmirensis Bhagat, 1982b: 113-117.

Host. Chaitophoruspakistanicus on Salix sp. (Bhagat 1982b).

50. Praon stagona Takada and Rishi

Praon stagona Takada and Rishi, 1980: 234-240.

Host. Stagona sp. on Lonicera quinquelocularis (Takada & Rishi 1980).

51. Praon volucre (Haliday)

Aphidius (Praon) volucre Haliday, 1833: 484.

Host. Lipaphis erysimi (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Myzus sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978).

52. Praon sp.

Host. Macrosiphoniella sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978); unidentified Aphids (Rishi 1976).

XIV. Genus Toxares Haliday

Aphidius Nees, 1819, subg. Trionyx Haliday, 1833: 261, 487. Type species: Aphidius (Trionyx) deltiger Haliday.

Toxares Haliday in Westwood, 1840: 65. Type species: Aphidius (Trionyx) deltiger Haliday.

53. Toxares deltiger (Haliday)

Aphidius (Trionyx) deltiger Haliday, 1833: 461, 487.

Toxares deltiger Haliday in Westwood, 1840: 65.

Ephedrus flaveolus Gyorfi, 1958: 131.

Host. Metopolophium euryae (Takahashi) on Euryae acuminate (Stary and Bhagat 1978); unidentified aphids (Rishi 1976; Rishi & Bhagat 1980; Stary & Ghosh 1983).

54. Toxares macrosiphophagum Shuja-Uddin

Toxares macrosiphophagum Shuja-Uddin, 1974: 269-272.

Host. Aphis citricola; A. solanella; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Brachycaudus sp.; Capitophorus hippophaes indicus; Hyperomyzus sp.; Lachnus tropicalis (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Macrosiphoniella sanborni on Chrysanthemum sp. (Shuja-Uddin 1974); Macrosiphoniella sp.; Metopolophium euryae; Myzus obtusirostris; M. ornatus; M. persicae; Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae; Schizaphis rotundiventris; unidentified aphids (Stary & Ghosh 1983).

55. Toxares shigai Takada

Toxares shigai Takada, 1965: 17-18.

Host. Aphis farinosa on Salix alba (Takada & Rishi 1980);

56. Toxares zakai Shuja-Uddin

Toxares zakai Shuja-Uddin, 1974: 272-273.

Host. Myzuspersicae on Solanum nigrum (Shuja-Uddin 1974).

XV. Genus Trioxys Haliday

Aphidius Nees, 1819, subg. Trioxys Haliday, 1833: 261-488. Type species: Aphidius cirsii Curtis.

Misaphidus Rondani, 1877: 185.Type species: Misaphidus aphidiperda Rondani.

Neuropenes Provancher, 1886: 151, 153. Type species: Trioxys compressicornis Ruthe.

Trioxys Haliday, 1833. subg. Fissicaudus Stary and Schlinger, 1967: 122. Type species: Trioxys

(Binodoxys) confucius Mackauer.

Trioxys Haliday, 1833. subg. Pectoxys Mackauer, 1960b: 145-155. Type species: Trioxys (Trioxys) macroceratus Mackauer.

Trioxys Haliday, 1833. subg. Trioxys s. str. Mackauer, 1959b: 149. Type species: Aphidius cirsii Curtis.

57. Trioxys pallidus (Haliday)

Aphidius (Trioxys) pallidus Haliday, 1833: 489.

Aphidius callipteri Marshall, 1896: 609-610.

Trioxys pulcher Gautier and Bonnamour, 1924: 43-44.

Host. Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach) on Juglans regia (Shuja-Uddin 1982).

58. Trioxys rishii Stary and Bhagat

Trioxys (Trioxys) rishii Stary and Bhagat, 1978: 389-391.

Host. Brachycaudus sp on Carduus sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978).

59. Trioxys rosaecola Bhagat

Trioxys (Trioxys) rosaecola Bhagat, 1982c: 321-324.

Host. Myzaphis rosarum (Kaltenbach) on Rosa webbiana (Bhagat 1982c).

60. Trioxys soporensis Shuja-Uddin

Trioxys (Trioxys) soporensis Shuja-Uddin, 1982: 146-149.

Host. Shivaphis sp. on Celtis sp. (Shuja-Uddin 1982).

61. Trioxys sp.

Host. Aphis citricola; A. craccivora on Robinia sp.; Aphis sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Brachycaudus sp. (Stary & Bhagat 1978); Macrosiphoniella spinipes on Chrysanthemum sp. (Stary & Ghosh 1978); Melanaphis donacis (Passerini) (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus on Fagaceae Plant (Stary & Ghosh 1978); Toxoptera aurantii (Stary & Ghosh 1983); T. citricidus (Stary & Ghosh 1983); Tuberculatus indicus on Quercus griffithi (Stary & Ghosh 1978); unidentified Aphids (Dharmadhikari & Ramaseshiah 1970; Rishi, 1976; Stary & Ghosh 1983).


In Kashmir, this subfamily is represented by 61 species belonging to fifteen genera. under four tribes viz, tribe Ephedrini with 2 genera viz. Toxares & Ephedrus; tribe Praini with 2 genera viz, Areopraon and Praon; tribe Aphidiini with 8 genera viz, Adialytus, Aphidius, Diaeretiella, Kashmiria, Lipolexis, Lysiphlebus, Monoctonus and Pauesia and tribe Trioxini with 3 genera viz., Betuloxys, Binodoxys, and Trioxys. The genus Aphidius is the most diverse being represented by the greatest number of species followed by genus Binodoxys.

Recibido: 02/12/2013; aceptado: 04/07/2014.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Counsil of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for providing financial assistance, Vide Sanction no. 09/251(0048)/2012-EMR-I. We also thank the Head, Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar for providing the necessary laboratory facilities.


Achterberg, C.V. 1997. Subfamily Aphidiinae. Pp. 119-132. In: R.A. Wharton, P.M. Marsh & M.J. Sharkey (Eds). Manual of the New World genera of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera). International Society of Hymenopterists; Washington D.C.

Belshaw, R. & Quicke, D. L. J. 1997. A molecular phylogeny of the Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 7: 281-293.

Bhagat, R. C. 1981b. On some new aphid parasitoids from Kashmir, India (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Oriental Insects, 15: 195-200.

Bhagat, R. C. 1982a. Aphid galls and their parasitoids from Kashmir. Entomon, 7: 103-105.

Bhagat, R. C. 1982b. New aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Kashmir, India. Oriental Insects, 16: 113-117.

Bhagat, R. C. 1982c. On two new parasitoids of genus Trioxys (Aphidiidae: Hymenoptera) from Kashmir India. Entomon, 7: 321-324.

Bhagat, R. C. & Ahmad, M. N. 1991. Aphidiid parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of Aphids (Homoptera) of Jammu-new records, host range and biological notes. Journal of Aphidology, 5: 90-96.

Das, B. C. & Chakrabarti, S. 1989. Aphidiid parasitoids (Hymenoptera; Aphidiidae) of graminaceous aphids in Garhwal, of Western Himalayas. Oriental Insects, 24: 265-372.

Dharmadhikari, P. R. & Ramaseshiah, G. 1970. Recent records of aphidiids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in India. Technical Bulletin of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 13: 83-89.

Dolphin, K. & Quicke, D. L. J. 2001. Estimating the global species richness of an incompletely described taxon: an example using parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 73: 279-286.

Ghosh, A. K. & Agarwala, B. K. 1982. A catalogue of Aphidiid (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) parasites of Aphids (Hemoptera) of India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 79: 124-134.

Haliday, A. D. 1833. An essay on the classification of parasitic hymenoptera of Britain, which correspond with the Ichneumones minuti of Linnaeus. Entomological Magazine, 1: 259-276, 480-491.

Mackauer, M. 1968. Aphidiidae. Pp. 103. Pars 3. Hymenopterorum Catalogus (n. ed.). Dr. W. Junk N. V. The Hague.

Marshall, T. A. 1896. Les Braconides. Pp. 635. In: E. Andre (Ed). Species des Hymenopteres d'Europe et d'Algerie.'Tome 5. Autur; Beaune (Cote-d'Or).

Nees, v. E. C. G. 1811. Ichneumonides Adsciti, in Genera et Familias Divisi. Magazin Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, 5: 1-37.

Rao, V. P., Dharmadhikari, P. R., Ramaseshiah, G., Phalak, V. R. & Madhavan, T. V. S. 1969. Study of natural enemies of aphids (for the U.S.A.). Report of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 1968: 45-47.

Rao, V. P., Ramaseshiah, G., Sethumadhavan, T. V. & Ramaswamy, P. 1970. Study of natural enemies of aphids (for the U. S. A.). Report of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 1969: 45-47.

Rao, V. P., Ghani, M. A., Sankaran, T. & Mathur, K. C. 1971. A review of the biological control of insects and other pests in South-east Asia and Pacific region. Report of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, 6: 49.

Raychaudhuri, D. N., Dutta, S., Agarwala, B. K., Raha, S. K. & Raychaudhuri, D. 1979. Some parasites and predators of aphids in Northeastern India and Bhutan. II. Entomon, 4: 163-166.

Raychaudhuri, D. N., Poddar, S. C. & Raychaudhuri, D. 1982. Study of the genus Aphidius (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) of India. Entomon, 7: 11-22.

Rishi, N. D. 1976. Survey and studies of aphidiid parasites of aphids. Pp. 47-48. In: Abstract of the Symposium on modern trends in zoological research in India. The Zoological Society, Calcutta.

Rishi, N. D. & Bhagat, R. C. 1980. Studies on some fores aphid pests and their aphidiid parasites in Kashmir, with notices on biological control efficiency. Pp. 95-96. In: Abstracts, 5th All India Congress of Zoology.

Saha, J. L., Poddar, S. C., Das, S. K., Agarwala, B. K. & Raychaudhuri, D. 1982. Studies on the aphid parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Himachal Pradesh, India. Akitu NS, 44: 12.

Sanchis, A., Latorre, A., Gonzalez-Candelas, F. & Michelena, J. M. 2000. An 18S rDNA-Based Molecular Phylogeny of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2: 180-194.

Shuja-Uddin. 1973. Three species of Trioxys Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiiae) recorded from India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 35: 9-14.

Shuja-Uddin. 1974. Two new species of the genus Toxares Westwood (Aphidiiae: Hymenoptera) from India with a note on the genus. Indian Journal of Entomology, 36: 268-274.

Shuja-Uddin. 1975a. Two new species of Aphidiidae (Hymenoptera) from India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 68: 415-420.

Shuja-Uddin. 1975b. Field observations onAphidius uzbekistanicus Luzhetski (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and its host Macrosiphum (Sitobion) sp. (Homoptera: Aphididae) infesting Triticum aestivum L. Indian Journal of Entomology, 37: 191-193.

Shuja-Uddin. 1978a. New record of Adialytus Forster (Hymenoptera; Aphidiidae) from India with comments on the validity of the genus. Journal of Entomological Research, 2: 160-162.

Shuja-Uddin. 1978b. New record of Ephedrus campestris Stary (Aphidiidae: Hymenoptera) from India. Indian Journal of Zoology, 6: 60.

Shuja-Uddin. 1982. Description of new species of genus Trioxys Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and new record of Trioxys (Trioxys)pallidus (Hal.) from Kashmir (India). Journal of Entomological Research, 6: 146-149.

Shuja-Uddin. 1983. A new species of genus Trioxys Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) form Kashmir, India. Journal of Entomological Research, 7: 36-38.

Singh, R., Sinha, T. B. & Sinha, K. P. 1979. Studies of bionomics of Trioxys (Binodoxys) indicusSubba Rao and Sharma (Hym., Aphidiidae): A parasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch. (Hem., Aphididae): IV functional response of the parasitoid. Entomon, 4: 331-334.

Smith, P. T., Kambhampati, S., Voelkl, W. & Mackauer, M. 1999. A phylogeny of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) inferred from mitochondrial NADH 1 dehydrogenase gene sequence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 11: 236-245.

Stary, P. 1970. Biology of Aphid parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) with respect to integrated control. Dr. W. Junk N. V., Publishers; The Hague.

Stary, P. 1988. Chapter 9. Natural Enemies. 9.1. Parasites 9.1.1 Aphidiidae. Pp. 171-184 In: A. K. Minks & P. Harrewijn. Aphids, their biology, natural enemies and control. World Crop Pests. 2B. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Stary, P. & Bhagat, R. C. 1978. Records and descriptions of aphid parasitoids from Kashmir, India (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Acta Entomologia Bohemoslov, 75: 387-393.

Stary, P. & Ghosh, A. K. 1975. Aphid parasites (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Meghalaya, India. Oriental Insects, 9: 343-349.

Stary, P. & Ghosh, A. K. 1978. Further records of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Meghalaya, India. Oriental Insects, 12: 77-80.

Stary, P. & Ghosh, A. K. 1979. Redescription of Trioxys nepalensis (Takada) and new host records of some aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Meghalaya, India. Oriental Insects, 13: 41-45.

Stary, P. & Ghosh, A. K. 1983. Aphid parasitoids of India and adjacent countries (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Zoological Survey of India. Technical Monograph, No. 7: 1-96.

Subba Rao, B. R. & Sharma, A. K. 1960a. First record of two aphidiine genera from India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 22: 233-235.

Subhrani, S., Singh, M. P. & Singh, T. K. 2006. Biodiversity of Aphidiine parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on certain crops in Manipur. Journal of Aphidology, 20: 1-4.

Takada, H. & Rishi, N. D. 1980. Records of fifteen species of Aphidiide (Hymenoptera) from Kashmir, India with descriptions of three new species. Kontyu, 48: 234-240.

S. Tariq AHMAD, * & Shabeer A. WANI

Entomology Research Division, Postgraduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India-190006.

* Corresponding Author: <>; <>
COPYRIGHT 2014 Instituto de Ecologia, A.C.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Ahmad, S. Tariq; Wani, Shabeer A.
Publication:Acta Zoologica Mexicana (nueva serie)
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Sep 1, 2014
Previous Article:El uso de platos trampa y red entomologica en la captura de abejas nativas en el estado de Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Next Article:Parasitoides asociados a los enrolladores de hojas de zarzamora Argyrotaenia montezumae Walsingham y Amorbia sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), en...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters