Parasites associated with sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis pupae in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.
Diptera is due to the medical-veterinary aspects, as vectors of etiological agents, such as amoeba cysts, helminthes eggs, pathogenic enterobacteria, viruses and fungi (Burk, 1960,Greenbarg, 1971). Adult flies laying eggs in dead or rotting meat or dead animal flesh. All the representatives of Chalcididae behave as parasites and most involve Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera (Grissell and Schauff, 1990).
Prey on fly eggs, maggots, pupae and even adult flies that use them of or own reproduction. Dry manure means a more active and effective population of natural predators and parasites. The wasps insert their eggs on the immature stages of several species of flies. Species of the predominantly tropical genus Dirhinus may be of some economic importance as parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae) and tephritid soft-fruit pests (Boucek & Narendran, 1981).Species of genus Brachymeria Westwood are important primary parasitoids of muscoid Diptera, such as the species of the Sarcophagidae family (Grissell and Schauff, 1990). The aim of this study is to determent the species of parasitoids with flesh fly.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was done in two different environments, in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. Two meat bait traps. Each meat (250 gm) placed inside aluminum frame cages to exclude large vertebrate scavengers. Underneath the cages, plastic trays with sawdust were placed to collect larvae leaving the caracasses to pupate. Traps were provided with fresh meat twice a week and every week. The adult individuals collected were taken to the laboratory, where the Hymenoptera stocked for identification, while the pupae were kept and reard at room temperature until the emergence of adult flies and or parasitoids. The collection were made daily in the morning. The collected and reared insects were later counted and identification. Identification of gathered specimens was carried out in the department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexiandria University. The percentage prevalence of parasitism was calculated as the number of pupae containing parasites divided by the total number of pupae collected, multiplied by 100. Prevalence of parasitism formula:
P= (parasite pupae \ total of pupae) x 100.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
During the period from January to March 2003, three species of Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected in 232 pupae of Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis Fallen. (Diptera:Sarcophagidae) demonstrating a 29.31%. The prevalence of parasitoids from the north one were Brachymeria femorata (Panzer) (Hymenoptera Chalcididae), Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Dirhininus sp. accounting 16.81%, 9.05% and 3.45% respectively. (Table 1) while in (Table 2) collected pupae were 187 demonestrate 35.29% parasitism. The parasitoids specieswere: N. vitripennis, B. femorata, and Brachymeria sp., accounting for, 15.51% 11.76%, and 8.02%, respectively from the south trap, within the total prevalence (Table 2). With regards to the each collection throughout the period of collect. (Table 2) N. vitripennis and B. femorata were more abundant during the period of study, but the most was N. vitripennis, because in addition to behaving as a gregarious parasitoid. It was also the species that attacked the greatest number of pupae of S.haemorrhoidalis. Different parasitoid species have been evaluated in recent years with regard to temperature-dependent attack rates, development time, manure moisture preferences, and the effect of habitat type and depth on foraging behavior (Geden,et al., 2005) his species attacks several species of Diptera, particularly those in the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Tachinidae (Greenberg, 1971) N. vitripennis was a parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Marchior, 2004). Also the presence of flesh fly parasitoids depends on their interaction. Based on our data N. vitripennis and B. femorata may be a favored candidatore for use a biological control agent as it was active throughout the most of the year (Jan-Aug) and in two different habits (environments). The insects collected in both environments can provide the initial data for additional studies to improve the fauna of biological control in the area of the study.
(1.) Boucek, Z.; Narendran, T.C. 1981b. Indian chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera) of the genus Dirhinus parasitic on synanthropic and other Diptera. Systematic Entomology 6:229-251.
(2.) Burks, B.D. 1960. A revision of the genus Brachymeria Westwood in America North of Mexico (Hymenoptera; Chalcididae). Trans Am. Entomol. Soc. 86:225-41.
(3.) Geden, C.J., Moon, R.D. and Butler, J.A. 2005. Host ranges of six solitary filth fly parasitoids (hymenoptera: pteromalidae, chalcididae) from Florida, Eurasia, Morocco and Brazil. International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. Davos, Switzerland. Sept 12-15.
(4.) Greenberg, B. 1971. Flies and disease: ecology, classification and biotic association. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
(5.) Grissell, E.E. and Schauff, M.E. 1990. A handbook of the families of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). The Entomological Society of Washington 2: 1-85.
(6.) Marchiori, C. H. 2004. Parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) collected in Itumbiara Goias, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica.Apr; 38(2):323-5.
Department of Zoology, College of Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, P.O.Box 19516, Jeddah-21445, Saudi Arabia
Table (1): Parasitoids of S.haemorrhoidalis collected from the north trape in Jeddah city Parasitoids species Parasitoids No. of Prevalence (%) pupae Individual Nasonia vitripennis 39 143 16.81 Brachymera femorata 21 21 9.05 Dirhininus sp 8 8 3.45 Total No. of 68 152 29.31 parasitoid pupae No. of obtained pupae 232 Table (2): Parasitoids of S.haemorrhoidalis collected from the south trape in Jeddah city. Parasitoid Parasitoids No. of Prevalence (%) pupae Individual Nasonia vitripenni 34 104 15.51 Brachymera femorata 30 30 11.76 Brachymera sp 22 22 8.02 Total No. of 86 156 parasitoid pupae No. of obtained pupae 187