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Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitizing pupae of hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is distributed throughout Central and South America (except Chile), and inhabits many Caribbean Islands and the southern tip of Florida (Schabel et al. 1999). Only 1 caterpillar per tree causes severe damage; and it is the main pest to meliaceous trees. Larvae attack shoots, leaves, stems, fruits and even the trunk of trees of many species of subfamily Swietenoideae, including several mahogany and cedar species (Hilje & Cornelius 2001). Boring in terminal shoots of young big leaf mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King breaks apical dominance, causing forking of the stems and excessive production of lateral branches (Howard & Giblin-Davis 1997; Schabel et al. 1999). The use of systemic insecticides injected into the trunk has shown effective control of H. grandella, but chemical control in forest plantations is unfeasible due to potentially adverse environmental effects and high costs (Zanuncio et al. 1994). Thus, biological control through the introduction or augmentation of predators, parasitoids and/or pathogens, could be an important tool (Silva 2000). Taveras et al. (2004) reported 4 parasitoid species in Costa Rica, but their effect on H. grandella abundance was negligible.

Palmistichus elaeisis (Delvare & LaSalle 1993) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (Fig. 1) is a generalist and gregarious endoparasitoid of lepidopteran and coleopteran pupae (Menezes et al. 2012). This parasitoid parasitizes pests in eucalyptus plantations such as Eupseudosoma involuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), Sabulodes sp. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), Thyrinteina arnobia, Thyrinteina leucoceraea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), Hylesia sp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), and Sarsina violascens (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) (Delvare & LaSalle 1993; Bittencourt & Berti Filho 1999; Pereira et al. 2008; Zanuncio et al. 2008; Soares et al. 2009; Zache et al. 2012).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitism of P. elaeisis on H. grandella pupae. The experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions.

Parasitoids were originally collected from pupae of E. eucerus from eucalyptus plantations at Lencois Paulista, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 2011. Thereafter, a laboratory colony was maintained using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as the host. Hypsipyla grandella was reared under controlled conditions on S. macrophylla plants until the pupal stage in a room mantained at 26 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, 60 [+ or -] 10% RH and 12:12 h L:D. Pupae were individually placed in glass tubes (14 cm L x 2 cm diam, covered with "voile" fabric) containing 20 mated P. elaeisis females fed on pure honey that were placed in trays in a climatized room at 25 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, 70% RH and 12:12 h L:D until adult emergence. Twenty H. grandella pupae were exposed to P. elaeisis. Parasitoids emerged 24 days later. Parasitism reached 80%, with an emergence rate of 70%; 79.1 [+ or -] 1.3 (SE) adult parasitoids emerged per parasitized pupa. The generalist behavior and mass production capabilities characterize P. elaeisis as a promising agent for use in control of lepidopteran pests. Research is underway to design mass rearing and release techniques for field evaluations and potential use of P. elaeisis in mahogany shoot borer control.

Caption: Fig. 1. Palmistichus elaeisis female parasitizing a Hypsipyla grandella pupa (a); parasitoid emergence hole (b).

REFERENCES CITED

BITTENCOURT, M. A. L., AND BERTI-FILHO. 1999. Preferencia de Palmistichus elaeisis por pupas de diferentes lepidopteros praga. Scientia Agricola, Piracicaba. 56(4): 1281-1283.

DELVARE, G., AND LASALLE, J. A. 1993. New genus of Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from the Neotropical region, with the description of a new species parasitica on key pests of oil palm. J. Nat. Hist. London 27(1): 435-444.

HILJE, L., AND CORNELIUS, J. 2001. Es inmanejable Hypsipyla grandella como plaga forestal ? Manejo Integrado de Plagas (Costa Rica). Hoja Tecnica No. 38(18): 1-4.

HOWARD, F. W., AND GIBLIN-DAVIS, R. M. 1997. The seasonal abundance and feeding damage of Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in seed capsules of Swietenia mahagoni in Florida. Florida Entomol. 80(1): 34-41.

MENEZES, C. W. G., SOARES, M. A., SANTOS, J. B., ASSIS JUNIOR, S. L., FONSECA, A. J., AND ZANUNCIO, J. C. 2012. Reproductive and toxicological impacts of herbicides used in Eucalyptus culture in Brazil on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Weed Res. 52(6): 479-576.

PEREIRA, F. F., ZANUNCLIO, J. C., SERRAO, J. E., OLIVEIRA, H. N., FAVERO, K., AND GRANCE, A. L. 2008. Progenie de Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Parasitando Pupas de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) de Diferentes Idades. Neotrop. Entomol. 38(5): 660-664.

SCHABEL, H., HILJE, L., NAIR, K. S. S., AND VARMA, R. V. 1999. Economic entomology in tropical forest plantations: An update. J. Tropical For. Sci. 11(1): 303-315

SILVA, C. A. D. 2000. Microorganismos entomopatogenicos associados a insetos e acaros do algodoeiro. EMBRAPA-CNPA, Campina Grande, Paraiba. Doc. No. 77.

SOARES, M. A., GUTIERREZ, C. T., ZANUNOIO, J. C., PEDROSA, A. R. P., AND LORENZON, A. S. 2009. Superparasitism by Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and defense behaviors of two hosts. Rev. Colombiana Entomol. 35(1): 62-65.

TAVERAS, R., HILJE, L., HANSON, P., MEXZON, R., CARBALLO, M., AND NAVARRO, C. 2004. Population trends and damage patterns of Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in a mahogany stand, in Turrialba, Costa Rica. Agr. For. Entomol. 6: 89-98.

ZACHE, B., ZACHE, R. R. C., AND WILLCKEN, C. F. 2012. Evaluation of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as Parasitoid of the Sarsina violascens Herrich-Schaeffer (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). J. Plant Studies. 1(1): 86-89.

ZANUNOIO, J. C., NASCIMENTO, E. C., GARCIA, J. F., AND ZANUNCIO, T. 1994. Major lepidopterous defoliators of eucalyptus, in the Southeast Brazil. For. Ecol. Mgt. 65: 53-63.

ZANUNCIO, J. C., PEREIRA, F. F., JACQUES, G. C., TAVARES, M. T., AND SERRAO, J. E. 2008. Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a new alternative host to rear the pupae parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Coleopts Bull. 62: 64-66.

BRUNO ZACHE (1),* RONELZA RODRIGUES DA COSTA (1), JOSE COLA ZANUNCIO (2) AND CARLOS FREDERICO WILCKEN

(1) Department of Plant Protection, School of Agronomic Sciences--Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), 18603-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil

(2) Department of Animal Biology, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571- 000, Vicosa, MG, Brazil

* Corresponding author; E-mail: bzache@bol.com.br

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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Scientific Notes
Author:Zache, Bruno; Rodrigues Da Costa, Ronelza; Cola Zanuncio, Jose; Frederico Wilcken, Carlos
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Sep 1, 2013
Words:1013
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