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Palm management in South America.

Introduction

The palm flora of South America comprises 50 genera and ca. 476 species (Pintaud et al., 2008; Noblick, 2009; Noblick & Lorenzi, 2010a, b; Bernal & Borchsenius, 2010; Bernal & Galeano, 2010; but see Dransfield et al., 2008 for a lower figure), of which 85% ate endemic to the subcontinent. On the other hand, there ate ca. 390 ethnic groups in this region (Lewis, 2009). The large number of species combined with the ethnic and cultural richness of the area, has given rise to an extensive diversity of palm uses and associated management practices (e. g., Macia et al., 2011). Whereas uses have been relatively well documented, management of the involved species is not always discussed by authors, despite its great relevance for guaranteeing the long-term availability of the resource. In this paper we review currently available information on palm management in South America. We circumscribe management, following Clement (1992), as a less sophisticated form of cultivation that may include some kind of protection by humans and some genetic modifications of the species involved.

As a framework for our analysis, we provide an overview of palm use (Table 1), including only general use categories and citing only the most important species. Palm management is analyzed from the perspective of the human groups involved, the palm products marketed, the associated land use and land tenure, the harvest techniques and seasons, and other associated practices. Finally, we give ah overview of use as a conservation strategy.

Methods

We searched for information in published sources and, when possible, in unpublished reports, theses or other types of gray literature, in order to recover valuable information that otherwise remains unnoticed. Review of gray literature is particularly biased for Colombia, where we were able to revise several libraries of government agencies and NGO's. Information from the documents was tabulated, and analyzed considering three major aspects associated to management of non timber forest products (Ticktin, 2004): type of land use (mixed forest, palm stands, fallow plots, agroforestry systems, pastures, plantations), harvest techniques (felling, climbing the palms of a neighboring tree, cutting leaves, harvesting from the ground), and associated practices (pruning, thinning, weeding, pest control, fertilization, enrichment of harvested areas, tire use, harvest area rotation, selective harvest, seasonal restriction, transplanting). The review is focused on management of wild, semi-wild and, to a lesser extent, small-scale cultivated palms. We have not included cases of palms cultivated at large scales, like Bactris gasipaes. Palm nomenclature follows Pintaud et al. (2008), except for Oenocarpus mapora, which is considered a synonym of O. minor following Galeano and Bernal (2010).

Results

We found information on management for 96 species of palms. The most important products derived from South American palms are edible fruits, palm hearts, oils, stems and leaves for construction, and various palm parts for making a variety of implements (Table 1). Management ranged from incidental activities intended to increase the growth of the populations of wild palms, to the inclusion of palms in complex agroforestry systems. In some cases, prospective, large-scale uses have been suggested for some species: Mauritia flexuosa and Attalea butyracea have been looked at as potential sources of biofuel (Forero et al., 2003; Miranda et al., 2008a, b; Bernal et al., 2010); A. butyracea has been investigated for its use as animal feed and as a source of charcoal (Devia et al., 2002); and Astrocaryum vulgare, Attalea speciosa, Copernicia prunifera, and M. flexuosa were recently suggested as possible sources for geotextiles used in erosion control (Mendonca, 2006).

Human Groups

Uses and management of South American palms ate mostly made by Amerindians, Afroamericans, and mestizos or caboclos, the latter two being broad terms encompassing ethnically mixed people, many of whom regard themselves as 'white'. Indigenous peoples of South America comprise 4.2% of the population in the subcontinent (Albo et al., 2009), and they represent the best documented cases of palm management (Appendix 1). This may be due in part to the large diversity of Amerindian groups in our study area, and to their longer history of permanence in the territory, but it is also a result of the greater focus of researchers on this human group. We found records of management of 45 palm species by Amerindian groups, i.e., one tenth of all species occurring in South America and almost half of all the species for which management practices are documented.

Palm management by mestizos or caboclos is documented for 68 species, many of them in Brazil. Remarkable cases include management of Euterpe edulis (Reis et al., 2000c), E. oleracea (Pierce & Shanley, 2002), E. precatoria (Schmidt, 2003) for the production of palm heart in the Atlantic forest and the Amazon in Brazil, and fruit production from Mauritia flexuosa (Anderson et al., 1995) on the flood plain of the Amazon estuary. Other examples of palms managed by mestizos are Astrocaryum standleyanum which is used for production of leaf fibers in Pacific Ecuador and Aphandra natalia which, in the Amazon of Ecuador, is managed for production of piassaba fibers from the leaf sheaths (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992, 1994; Fadiman, 2003). In Colombia mestizos manage Astrocaryum malybo for production of leaf fibers (Barrera et al., 2007b; Linares et al., 2008), Attalea butyracea for production of fruits for animal feed (Moreno et al., 1991), and Phytelephas macrocarpa for seed production (Torres & Perdomo, 2008). In Peru mestizos manage Oenocarpus minor for production of fruits (de Jong, 2001, as Oenocarpus mapora).

Afroamericans comprise 10.4% of the population in Colombia (Vicepresidencia Republica de Colombia, 2010) and 5% in Ecuador (Guerrero, 2005). Information on palm management by Afroamericans is relatively scarce, in spite of their predominance on the Pacific lowlands of Colombia and northern Ecuador, one of the areas with extremely high palm richness (Bjorholm et al., 2005). Interesting cases include management of Phytelephas aequatorialis for vegetable ivory production in Ecuador (Velasquez, 1998), Euterpe oleracea for palm heart production in Colombia (Corponarino, 1989; Munoz, 2007), and Astrocaryum standleyanum for fiber production in Ecuador (Fadiman, 2003).

Palm Products Marketed

Products obtained from palms may be used domestically, with no associated trade, or they may enter market chains that range from small-scale, local markets to national or international trade. Local markets include trade with fruits, fruit derivatives, seeds, palm hearts, palm wine, palm weevil larvae, tiles for thatch, and various implements like brooms, hats, fans, and fly brushes (e.g., Johnson, 1982; Bernal, 1992; Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1992; Mejia, 1992; Kahn & Moussa, 1999; Narvaez & Stauffer, 1999; Macia, 2004; Lawrence et al., 2005; Bernal et al., 2010). The most commonly sold palm fruits in local markets are those of Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Euterpe oleracea, Euterpe precatoria, Astrocaryum aculeatum, Acrocomia aculeata, Aiphanes horrida, and Bactris guineensis (Bernal, 1992; Mejia, 1992; Moussa & Kahn, 1997; Miranda et al., 2008a, b; Galeano & Bernal, 2010). Palm nuts that are commonly sold include Aiphanes horrida and Attalea amygdalina in Colombia (Bernal, 1992; Suarez, 2001), Parajubaea cocoides in Ecuador (Balslev & Barfod, 1987), and P. torrallyi in Bolivia (L. de la Torre, pers. comm.). Palm heart obtained from E. precatoria is sold in local markets in Peru (Mejia, 1992; Rios, 2001), Bolivia (Pena-Claros & Zudeima, 2000), and Brazil (Nepstad et al., 1992), and palm heart or E. oleracea is sold in Brazil (Strudwick & Sobel, 1988). Palm wine (from Attalea butyracea) is sold at local level in Colombia (Bernal, 1992; Pulgarin & Bernal, 2004; Bernal et al., 2010). Palm beetle larvae are sold as a delicacy throughout Amazon markets (e.g., Mejia, 1992) and at some places on the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador (L. de la Torre, pers. comm.). Tiles for thatching made from leaves of Lepidocaryum tenue braided on split palm stems are sold along the Amazon River from Iquitos to Tabatinga (Mejia, 1992; Navarro et al., 2011) and from leaves of Geonoma deversa in Bolivian Amazon (Paniagua-Zambrana, 2005). A wide variety of implements made from palm stems, leaves, inflorescences, fruits of seeds are common in local markets throughout the area (Bernal, 1992; Mejia, 1992; Malaga Valencia et al., 1996).

Much fewer palm products reach markets beyond the production areas, and edible products derived from palms seldom reach major cities. Major exceptions are palm hearts, which reach national markets asa by-product of their mostly international market (Strudwick & Sobel, 1988; Linares, 1991; Bernal, 1992; Meza, 2001; Moraes, 2001; Rios, 2001; Pierce & Shanley, 2002; Goulding & Smith, 2007); the fruits of Bactris gasipaes, which have made ir into many large cities in Colombia (Gonzalez, 2007); palm honey from the Chilean wine palm, Jubaea chilensis which is sold in domestic markets in Chile (Gonzalez et al., 2009); fibers or items derived from them; spear leaves to be used during Easter (e.g., Montufar et al., 2010) and handicrafts made from several palm species, notably in Astrocaryum and Phytelephas (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992, 1994; Castano et al., 2007; Hubschmann et al., 2007; Lozano, 2007; Linares et al., 2008).

The most important export product entering international trade is palm heart, which in 2008 generated a revenue of USD 100.26 million to the five largest exporting countries, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia (CICO, 2009; Proexport, 2009; Agrodataperu, 2010; IBCE, 2010). Most palm heart in commerce comes from Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe oleracea, E. precatoria, and E. edulis. Bactris gasipaes is produced in plantations, and will not be further dealt with here. Other exports to the international market include fruits of Attalea speciosa (Mitja & Ferraz, 2001) and E. oleracea from Brazil (Brondizio et al., 2002; Goulding & Smith, 2007); E. precatoria from Venezuela (Van Looy et al., 2008); B. gasipaes and, to a lesser extent, Mauritia flexuosa from Peru (Rios, 2001; SUNAT, 2006); piassava fibers of Attalea funifera from Brazil (Voeks, 1988), and those of Leopoldinia piassaba from Colombia and Brazil (Centro de Comercio Internacional, 1969; Crizon, 2001; Linares et al., 2008), both of which were an important export product in the 19th century (Wallace, 1853); thatch tiles woven with leaves of Geonoma deversa from Bolivia (L. de la Torre, pers. comm.); handicrafts made from seeds of Phytelephas, Ammandra, and Astrocaryum from Ecuador and Colombia (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1994; SUNAT, 2006; Linares et al., 2008; Torres & Perdomo, 2008), and oil for cosmetics from Attalea speciosa from Bolivia (IBCE, 2009).

Associated Land Use

Most palm products in South America are harvested from wild plants growing at relatively low densities in species-rich ecosystems. In some cases, however, products are harvested from large homogeneous palm stands that cover extensive areas, as is the case with palm heart from Euterpe oleracea (e.g., van Andel, 2000a; Valente & Almeida, 2001); fruits from Mauritia flexuosa (e.g., Castano et al., 2007; Meza, 2001); fruits and leaves from Butia capitata (Pezzani, 2007) and Parajubaea torrallyi (L. de la Torre, pers. comm.), and palm wine from Jubaea chilensis (Gonzalez et al., 2009). Other palm products ate harvested from isolated palm individuals surviving in pastures or other deforested areas; examples of these include leaf sheath fibers from Aphandra natalia in Ecuador (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992), leaf fibers from Astrocaryum malybo, fruits from Attalea butyracea, Ceroxylon spp., and Copernicia tectorum in Colombia (Galeano & Bernal, 2005; Barrera et al., 2007a, b; Bernal et al., 2010), fruits from Attalea speciosa and A. phalerata in Brazil (May, 1991; Pinheiro, 2004), palm sap from Jubaea chilensis in Chile (Gonzalez et al., 2009), and leaves and fruits from Butia capitata in Uruguay (Pezzani, 2007).

Some palms are planted in fallows of they ate selectively favored when the forest is cleared for swidden-fallow agriculture. In the Amazon, common palms in fallow plots include Astrocaryum aculeatum, A. chambira, Euterpe oleracea, E. precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, O. minor and Mauritia flexuosa (Strudwick & Sobel, 1988; Hammond et al., 1995; Moussa & Kahn, 1997; de Jong, 2001; Schmidt, 2003; Miranda et al., 2008; Flores et al., 2009). In other cases, palms are components of more complex agroforestry systems: in the lowlands, these systems involve crops like cocoa (Theobroma cacao), avocado (Persea americana), guamo (Inga spp.), bananas (Musa spp.), papaya (Carica papaya), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and timber trees like Cedrela odorata and Tabebuia spp., and include the palms Attalea colenda, A. speciosa, B. gasipaes, Euterpe oleracea, E. precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, and Phytelephas aequatorialis (Johnson, 1983, 2002; May et al., 1985b; Clement, 1986, 1989; King & Forero, 1988; Blicher-Mathiesen & Balslev, 1990; Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1990; Dubois, 1990; Dos Santos, 2000; Rios, 2001; Varon & Zapata, 2001; Vieira et al., 2007; van Looy et. al., 2008).

In the Andes, agroforestry systems with palms include crop plants like coffee (Coffea arabica), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), guava (Psidium guajava), shade or timber trees (e.g., Cordia alliodora, Ochroma pyramidale, Inga edulis, Erythrina edulis), and bamboo (Guadua angustifolia). Palms found in these Andean agroforestry systems include Aiphanes horrida (Galeano & Bernal, 1987, as A. caryotifolia), Ceroxylon alpinum, C. echinulatum, and C. sasaimae (Galeano & Bernal, 2005; Pintaud & Anthelme, 2008).

The most elaborate step in the spectrum of palm management is domestication. Only two species among South American palms can be considered as domesticated, according to Clement's (1992) criteria of being cultivated and having at least one landrace dependent upon human intervention for its continued genetic survival: the rain forest peach palm, Bactris gasipaes (Clement, 1992), and the Andean coco, Parajubaea cocoides, known only in cultivation in Ecuador and southern Colombia, and probably derived from the wild Parajubaea torralyi (Moraes & Henderson, 1990). Whereas B. gasipaes played a major role in human nutrition since pre-Columbian times (Patino, 1963) and has become a widespread crop, Parajubaea cocoides has been cultivated only in cities and towns, with the double role of ornamental and nut-producing palm (Balslev & Barfod, 1987).

Land Tenure

Although information on land ownership is not included in most of the references reviewed, in many cases use appears to be associated to communal lands or protected areas, such as Amerindian reservations (Balick, 1988a; van Andel, 2000; Costa & Duarte, 2002; Cruz, 2006; Patino, 2006; Castano et al., 2007; Balslev et al., 2008; Linares et al., 2008), extractive reserves (Nepstad et al., 1992; Pinard, 1993; IMAFLORA, 2004; Rocha, 2004; Clement et al., 2005), communal lands of Afrodescendants in Colombia and Ecuador (Galeano & Bernal, 1987; Velasquez, 1998; van Andel, 2000; Hernandez, 2003; Torres & Perdomo, 2008), or national parks and reserves (Reis et al., 2000c; Svenning & Macia, 2002; Llamozas et al., 2003; Paniagua-Zambrana, 2005; Pezzani, 2007; Aguilar-Mena, 2008; Holm et al., 2008; Flores et al., 2009; Thompson et al., 2009) (Appendix 1). Remarkable cases are found in Chile and Uruguay, where Jubaea chilensis and Butia capitata are exploited in private areas within a national park and a biosphere reserve, respectively. In some cases harvest is made in the peasant's own property, whereas in other areas, landless peasants harvest palms in private lands with or without permission from the land owners, as is the case with Attalea speciosa (Pinheiro, 2004) and Butia capitata (Carvalho, 2008) in Brazil, and with Astrocaryum malybo, Copernicia tectorum and Attalea butyracea in northern Colombia (Barrera et al., 2007a, b; Bernal et al., 2010).

Harvest Techniques

Harvesting palm products may involve either destructive felling of palm stems or non-destructive harvest of fruits, leaves, fibers or other plant parts. Destructive felling may be necessary in cases where the product to be harvested is the stem itself. However, in many cases the literature documents destructive harvest by felling, even when the products could be harvested without felling.

Necessary Felling of Stems

Stems must be felled when palms ate used for their wood, palm hearts, starch, or as a substrate for rearing weevil larvae. When palms are cut for their wood, it most often involves domestic uses such as construction or manufacture of weapons, which require a relatively small number of stems. Such uses are widespread throughout South America, and in most cases, this kind of domestic use is probably not associated with other management practices related to the felling, and its impact is probably limited. In the Colombian Amazon, for example, the roof of a large communal house or maloka, measuring ca. 100 [m.sup.2], is thatched with leaves of the understory palm Lepidocaryum tenue that are braided onto split stems of 25 individuals of the tall canopy palm Socratea exorrhiza (R. Bernal, pers. obs.).

In some cases, however, palm stems enter market chains, where the demand poses a stronger pressure on the resource, as is the case with stems of Iriartea deltoidea that are used for construction, for posts, for making furniture, musical instruments and more (Anderson & Putz, 2002; Galeano, pers. obs.; L. de la Torre, pers. comm.), Socratea exorrhiza that is used for roof construction (Navarro et al., 2011), Copernicia tectorum that is used for manufacturing hats (Petit, 2001; Artesanias de Colombia, 2009), species of Wettinia in Colombia used in construction (R. Bernal, pers. obs.), and stems of Desmoncus polyacanthos used in Peru for weaving furniture and baskets (Henderson & Chavez, 1993; Hubschmann et al., 2007). With the exception of Desmoncus polyacanthos, seeds of which are sometimes scattered in the forest by harvesters (Hubschmann et al., 2007), we found no reference indicating any kind of replacement planting for these species. Desmoncus has the additional advantage of producing several stems per individual, which minimizes impact of stem cutting.

Palm heart exploitation is also intrinsically destructive, as the harvested product comes from the stem's growing point, and its extraction necessarily implies excising the crown. Although palm heart is extracted from many different palms for domestic consumption, at least one species, Prestoea acuminata, is regularly consumed during Easter in Colombia, causing a strong pressure on local populations of this cespitose palm (Gamba Trimino, 2004); although, in practice, this ritual seasonality of use works asa management plan, it is probably not intended as such. This species was also at some point the source of a canning industry in Ecuador (Knudsen, 1995), but its wild populations do not support a harvest intensity beyond domestic consumption (Knudsen, 1995; Gamba Trimino, 2004), and now ir has been replaced in commerce by palm hearts from the cultivated Bactris gasipaes (Borchsenius & Moraes, 2006; L. de la Torre, pers,, comm.).

The three major wild sources of palm hearts in commerce ate species of Euterpe. Two of them, Euterpe edulis and E. precatoria, have solitary stems, whereas E. oleracea is cespitose. Exploitation of Euterpe edulis in southeastern Brazil has long been conducted without any management and its harvest has been considered unsustainable (Ribeiro et al., 1994; Orlande et al., 1996; Galleti & Fernandez, 1998; Quitete, 2008), although ir might be sustainable if management plans were followed. These plans include respecting a minimal harvest diameter of 8.5 cm, harvest cycles of 5-6 years, and leaving untouched 50-60 reproductive adults per ha (Reis et al., 2000a, b, c). Euterpe precatoria is exploited without any management in Amazonian Peru (Rios, 2001; Meza, 2001) and Bolivia (Johnson, 1996; Stoian, 1999, 2000; Herrera, 2000; Pena-Claros & Zuidema, 2000; Zuidema & Boot, 2000; Moraes, 2001), although in the latter country a management plan and the corresponding law are available (Ministerio de Desarrollo Sostenible, Republica de Bolivia, 2006). Its harvest is considered unsustainable by most authors (Pena-Claros, 1996; Pena-Claros & Zuidema, 2000; Zuidema & Boot, 2000), unless exploited at low harvest intensities (25-50% of all adult palms) and long cycles (16-32 years) (Zuidema & Boot, 2000), which would probably be unprofitable. Euterpe oleracea is exploited in estuarine areas of Brazil (e.g., Jardim & Anderson, 1987; Anderson, 1988; Pollack et al., 1995), Guyana (van Andel, 2000), Venezuela (Finol, 1978), and Colombia (Tibaquira, 1980; Corponarino, 1989). Its cespitose habit offers excellent possibilities for management, and its harvest is considered sustainable by most authors (e.g., Muniz-Miret et al., 1996; Weinstein & Moegenburg, 2004), although overharvest once led to temporary population depletion in some areas of the Pacific lowlands of Colombia (Bernal & Galeano, 1993). Management practices include selective cutting of stems in a clump, elimination of other trees in the palm stands, and planting of seedlings near dwellings (Vallejo et al., in press).

Extraction of palm starch is another activity that requires cutting of palm stems. The most important sources of this resource in South America are Mauritia flexuosa (Heinen & Ruddle, 1974) and Manicaria saccifera (Wilbert, 1976), both of them used by the Warao of the Orinoco delta, and Syagrus romanzoffiana, formerly used by the Ache of Paraguay (Vellard, 1939). It has been hypothesized that another species, Iriartea deltoidea, was used for starch-extraction in the past by hunters-gatherers from the Vaupes River of Brazil and Colombia, but that this practice is now forgotten (Bernal et al., 2007). Only Mauritia is used today asa source of starch, in the Orinoco delta, but no management practice is known in connection with this use.

The use of palms as a substrate for rearing weevil larvae has been documented for many Amerindian communities in South America. In many cases, the larvae ate simply extracted from stems that have fallen naturally or have been felled for other purpose (e.g., Galeano, 1992). However, there ate documented cases of palm felling exclusively for providing a habitat for these larvae. In Amazonian Venezuela, the Joti Indians cut down Oenocarpus bacaba palms and make wedge-shaped cuttings near the stem apex, deep enough to penetrate the pith, in order to facilitate colonization by Rhynchophorus palmarum and R. barbirostris (Choo et al., 2009). In northeastern Colombia, the Bari Indians cut down Oenocarpus bataua palms to harvest larvae that develop in the stems within 2 months (Beckerman, 1977). Clastres (1972) reported a similar use of palms by the Ache of Paraguay, and Dufour (1987) described an intermediate situation, where palms are cut down to get their fruits, but with the expectation that they will be invaded by weevils and the larvae will be ready to harvest within 2 or 3 months. In none of these cases there seems to be any additional kind of management.

Unnecessary Felling of Palms

In some cases palms are felled to harvest their fruits, seeds, expanded of unexpanded leaves, sap or fibers, even when these products could have been obtained without cutting down the palms. The destructive option is preferred because it is easier and quicker. The most dramatic examples include cutting down individuals just to get their fruits, as is practiced for Mauritia flexuosa in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (e.g., Peters et al., 1989; Ruiz-Murrieta, 1991; Ojeda-Salvador, 1994; Hiraoka, 1999; Castano et al., 2007; Manzi & Coomes, 2009), and for Oenocarpus bataua in the same countries and also in Bolivia (e.g., Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1992; Aguilar-Mena, 2008; Miranda et al., 2008).

Other cases of similar mismanagement include harvest of spear leaves of Astrocaryum chambira in Amazonia (Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1992), A. standleyanum on the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador (Fadiman, 2003; Linares et al., 2008), and leaf sheath fibers of Aphandra natalia in Ecuador and Peru (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992; Kronborg et al., 2008). These three species offer interesting contrasting cases of sustainable and unsustainable management depending on the users. Whereas tall palms are cut down in some areas (Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1992; Fadiman, 2003; Lopez et al., 2006; Kronborg et al., 2008; Linares et al., 2008), in other areas spear leaves of Astrocatyum species are harvested using a chisel attached at the tip of a long pole (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1994; Holm Jensen & Balslev, 1995; Cruz, 2006), and fibers of Aphandra are harvested using a ladder (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992).

In most cases of palm felling, harvesters claim that they cut down only very tall individuals that cannot be climbed or reached with poles of ladders. In reality, what happens in most areas is that harvesters cut virtually any palm whose leaves of infructescences are beyond easy reach. In most cases palms that are felled could have been collected with the use of some basic tools, which usually are already known by locals, and even used by some of them (Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; de Castro, 1993a; Bovi, 1999a; Varon & Zapata, 2001; Vormisto, 2002; Zent & Zent, 2002; Castano et al., 2007; Linares et al., 2008; R. Bernal, pers. obs.). A case that illustrates that excessive height is not always the true reason for cutting down palms is what used to happen in Ecuador with tagua, Phytelephas aequatorialis, during the 20th century. Although the ideal stage for collecting seeds of this palm is when they have fallen to the ground, during the golden age of tagua harvesters would sometimes cut down palms (which are only 3-5 m tall), in order to collect fruits that were still not fully ripe (Acosta Solis, 1944).

In contrast with described mismanagement, where ignorance of alternative harvest methods can hardly justify cutting down palms, sap extraction presents an interesting case of mismanagement due to lack of implementation of techniques used elsewhere. Two South American palms are particularly relevant as sources of palm sap--Attalea butyracea in Colombia (Pulgarin & Bernal, 2004; Bernal et al., 2010), and Jubaea chilensis in Chile (Gonzalez, 1994; Gonzalez et al., 2009). Both species ate tall, massive palms with stems up to 50 cm or more in diameter, and both of them are cut down to obtain sap, which flows through the meristem, after removing the leaves and cutting out a cavity on the meristematic area.

In Colombia, sap of Attalea is fermented and sold locally asa low-status, homebrewed 'wine'. Due to the low standard of the product it has not generated a significant demand. Therefore, there is no specific management of the palm for this purpose, and palms are just cut as needed. Sap of the Chilean Jubaea, in contrast, is concentrated into a thick honey that is canned of bottled and distributed in national markets. Thus, production has generated management plans, and only 30 selected palms per year are cut down at the most important sap processing place (Gonzalez et al., 2009), which has resulted in a healthy age distribution in the population.

But the destructive nature of sap extraction in South America is remarkable, when compared with the way sap is sustainably extracted through the inflorescences of standing plants of several palm species in South Asia and in some places in Africa. Throughout South Asia, sap is extracted from inflorescences of the sugar palm Arenga pinnata (Miller, 1964; Mogea et al., 1991), the palmyra palm Borassus flabellifer (Dissanayake, 1986; Khieu, 1996), the solitary fish tail palm Caryota urens (Dissanayake, 1977, 1986), the coconut Cocos nucifera (Kitze & Johnson, 1975), the mangrove palm Nypa fruticans (Fong, 1989; Miah et al., 2003), and from the upper part of the stem in sugar date palm Phoenix sylvestris (Kitze & Johnson, 1975). In Senegal sap for producing wine is tapped from Elaeis guineensis by drilling a hole in the stem just below the crown, and inserting a small tube to collect the liquid (H. Balslev, pers. obs.). In none of these cases are the palms killed. The only place in the Western Hemisphere where non-destructive tapping is used is the coast of Michoacan, Mexico, where coconut tapping was introduced in the 16th century by Philippines brought to work on coconut palm plantations (Bruman, 1945; Zizumbo-Villarreal & Colunga-GarciaMarin, 2008). Since species tapped without felling the palm represent diverse growth habits and belong to three different subfamilies, there is no reason why the same technique could not be employed properly in the harvest of palm sap from Attalea and Jubaea. Preliminary research in Chile suggests that Jubaea can be tapped without felling the palms (Gonzalez et al., 2009), by cutting about one third of all leaves in the crown, as is done with Phoenix canariensis in the Canary Islands.

Nondestructive Harvest of Palms

In some cases, harvest of fruits, seeds, leaves, and fibers from tall individuals is carried out through the use of appropriate tools or techniques, and the palms are not cut down. These techniques include climbing the palm, reaching the crown with a ladder, reaching the required structure from a neighboring tree, and using a cutting tool attached to a pole. The most basic type of stem climbing is direct unaided ascent, using just hands and feet to push the body up the stem (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992; Zent & Zent, 2002; Weinstein & Moegenburg, 2004). This is done when harvesting palms that are not too tall or too massive, and, of course, palms that are not spiny. It is most often used to cut infructescences. Palms climbed in this way to harvest their fruits include Aphandra natalia, Euterpe precatoria, E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and O. bataua. An improvement of this basic climbing, making some cuttings along the stem to use them as steps, is commonly done with the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera along the coasts of South America (Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1993), but we found no references of its use in other species. This practice is suitable for palms that are not too thin or too hard, like Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, or some species of Attalea.

Another, more elaborate, climbing technique consists in making a ring with a liana or a rope around the stem that will be climbed, leaving it loose enough for one foot to fit into the ring on each side of the stem. Both feet ate then inserted in the ring, just below the ankles and, by applying the soles against the stem while pulling the legs open, body weight is partially converted to horizontal pressure against the stem (and against the ankles!), thus holding the feet in place while the body is stretched upwards. The feet and the ring are then pulled upwards while holding the body in place with the arms, and a new thrust is made with the feet (Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1993; R. Bernal, pers. obs.). A palm leaf can be used instead of a liana or a rope (Strudwick & Sobel, 1988). This technique has been observed for harvest of fruits of Oenocarpus in the Colombian Amazon (R. Bernal, pers. obs.), and is probably the one used for Sabal mauritiiformis (Moreno et al., 1991), Mauritia flexuosa (Vasquez & Gentry, 1989), and Euterpe precatoria (de Castro, 1993b), although these sources do not describe in detail how the ropes are used.

The most elaborate climbing device used in South America consists in two X-shaped wooden structures used in Manaus, Brazil, to climb the spiny stems of Bactris gasipaes (Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1993). One angle of each structure is pressed against the stem, and the two ends of the X are tied with a rope, leaving the stem inside the formed triangle. A wooden piece connects the two other ends. The harvester alternately pulls up the lower X with his feet while sitting on the upper triangle, and then pushes up the upper X while standing on the lower one. This technique, called marotaje in Colombia, was introduced in the 1990s to the Rio Anchicaya, in western Colombia, for the management of Bactris gasipaes (J. Ceballos, pers. comm.).

Commercial climbing devices like spurs of 'palm bicycles' have been also cited in some sources (Bohorquez, 1972; de Castro, 1993a) for harvesting Mauritia flexuosa, but their cost would probably make them inaccessible to most rural people. Palm bicycles given by ah NGO to the Shuar and Achuar in Ecuador for harvesting Oenocarpus bataua were not adopted by all users (L. de la Torre, pers. comm.).

Using a ladder to harvest palm fruits, leaves or fibers is a relatively uncommon practice. It has been documented for Aphandra natalia (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992), Attalea butyracea (Moreno et al., 1991), Euterpe oleracea (M. I. Vallejo, pers. obs.), and Mauritia flexuosa (Vasquez & Gentry, 1989). The limited use of this practice is probably due to the difficulty of moving a ladder through the forest of the palm stand, plus the damage that it would suffer if left outdoors. Sometimes a pole of a bamboo stem with carved out steps is left leaning on the palms, and used as an easy way for recurrent climbing. This method is documented for harvesting leaves of Astrocaryum chambira in Peru (Vormisto, 2002) and for harvesting Attalea butyracea in Colombia (Cocoma 2010; I. Olivares, pers. comm.). We did not find references of steps being attached with ropes to the palm stems, as is done in Asia for harvesting the coconut palm (e.g., Thampan, 1975).

In some cases, fruits or spear leaves are reached by climbing a neighboring tree (Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1993; Coomes, 2004; Castano et al., 2007). According to Borgtoft Pedersen and Balslev (1993), the Waorani of Ecuador, when planting a Bactris gasipaes palm, sometimes also plant a Cecropia tree (sic, most likely a Pourouma cecropiifolia) nearby, and climb the latter to get the palm's fruits.

In other cases, fruits or leaves are harvested using a pole with a chisel or a machete attached to one end. This practice has been documented for harvesting spear leaves of Astrocaryum standleyanum (Fadiman, 2003; Torres, 2007; Linares et al., 2008), A. chambira (Holm Jensen & Balslev, 1995; Vormisto, 2002), A. aculeatum (Schroth et al., 2004, as A. tucuma), and Copernicia tectorum (Barrera et al., 2007a); expanded leaves of Sabal mauritiiformis (Moreno et al., 1991), and fruits of Bactris gasipaes (Erazo-Rivadeneira & Garcia, 2001) and Mauritia flexuosa (de Castro, 1993a). For some species, such as Oenocarpus bataua, the peduncle is apparently too thick and fibrous to be cut in this way (Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1993). Fibers of Attalea funifera sometimes are harvested with a hook attached to the end of a pole (Voeks, 1988).

In palms with hard fruits, of when the desired product is the seed, fallen fruits or seeds can be harvested directly from the ground. This practice has been documented for Acrocomia aculeata (Lleras & Coradin, 1984), Astrocaryum vulgare (Valente & Almeida, 2001), Attalea colenda (Blicher-Mathiesen & Balslev, 1990; Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1992), A. maripa (Vasquez & Gentry, 1989), A. speciosa (Pinheiro & Ferro, 1995; Anderson et al., 2001; Lima-Rufino et al., 2008), Syagrus coronata (Lima-Rufino et al., 2008), Phytelephas aequatorialis (Acosta Solis, 1944), P. macrocarpa (Bernal, 1998, as P. seemannii), and Ammandra decasperma (Ramirez & Morales, 2003). This kind of harvest is the ideal one, as it causes no damage to the palm, but it is not suitable for all species, particularly those with soft mesocarp. Even so, fruits of some species with soft mesocarp, like Mauritia flexuosa, are occasionally picked up from the ground (Melnyk, 1996).

However, using appropriate tools for harvest is not per se a guarantee of sustainability. This is particularly true in the case of spear leaves, where an overharvest can eventually kill the palm through leaf depletion, if no harvest schedules are properly introduced. This was documented by Vergara (2002) and Vergara and Bernal (2002) for Ceroxylon alpinum. In this species, spear leaves were cut from large, acaulescent juveniles without causing any immediate damage, but since the number of leaves harvested per year was the same as the number of leaves produced, palms eventually died, as a consequence of the lack of leaf replacement. Near some Waorani communities in Ecuador, individuals of Astrocaryum chambira become scarce due to overharvesting their spear leaves for fiber (Davis & Yost, 1983).

Low or acaulescent palms offer the best conditions for management, as their harvest does not require great effort or special tools, and thus, damage to palms is minimized, requiring only regulation of harvest volumes and times for guaranteeing sustainability. This group includes Elaeis oleifera that produces oil from its fruits (Patino, 1977; Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Moreno et al., 1991), Astrocaryum malybo that produces leaf fibers used for weaving mats (Barrera et al., 2007b), Bactris guineensis that produces edible fruits (Casas, 2008), Geonoma deversa and Lepidocaryum tenue that produce leaves for thatching (Anez, 1992; Mendoza Rodriguez, 2007), and Aphandra natalia (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992), and Leopoldinia piassaba (Putz, 1979; Linares et al., 2008) that provide piassaba fibers from their leaf sheaths.

Harvest Seasons

Harvest seasons are defined by each species' phenology, in the case of fruits, and by climatic conditions, particularly flooding, which sometimes restrict or facilitate access to the harvesting sites (e.g., Crizon, 2001). In the case of seeds, like those of Phytelephas, timing is not as constraining, and they can be collected up to several months after they have fallen to the ground (Velasquez, 1998). For stems and leaves, it is often believed that the products will last longer if harvested when the moon is in its appropriate phase. This has been recorded for expanded leaves of Attalea butyracea (Moreno et al., 1991; Bernal et al., 2010), Sabal mauritiiformis, (Moreno et al., 1991), and Welfia regia (R. Bernal, pers. obs.) for thatching, and spear leaves of Astrocaryum standleyanum used for weaving (Torres, 2007), all of which are harvested when the moon is waning. For stems of Bactris guineensis harvest is made when the moon is waxing (Casas, 2008). Sap extraction of the austral Jubaea chilensis is regulated by seasons, and extends from mid-spring (October) to autumn (April).

Associated Practices

Management practices associated to palm harvest include elimination of other plants growing near the palms, as it is commonly done for the palm heart producing Euterpe oleracea (Anderson et al., 1995; Coomes, 2004; Weinstein & Moegenburg, 2004; Meza, 2001; Kronborg et al., 2008), and cutting off shoots in cespitose palms (Calzavara, 1972; Jardim & Anderson, 1987; Pollak et al., 1995; Nogueira et al., 1998; Ribeiro-de Azevedo, 2005; Weinstein & Moegenburg, 2004). Removal of neighboring plants is often used asa practice to favor development of seedlings or juveniles of useful species (Peters et al., 1989; Velasquez, 1998; Brondizio et al., 2002; Johnson, 2002; Meza, 2001). In some cases, as in the management of fruit producing Attalea maripa, A. speciosa and Oenocarpus bacaba, unproductive palms are eliminated, in order to open space for new individuals (May et al., 1985a; Zent & Zent, 2002). In the dioecious Mauritia flexuosa and Phytelephas aequatorialis, new space in the palm stands is gained by reducing the number of male palms (Hiraoka, 1999; Velasquez, 1998). In the latter species the reduction is made until reaching a proportion of one male per seven females.

Other practices are 1. The enrichment of palm populations by transplanting seedlings, as has been reported for Euterpe oleracea (Goulding & Smith, 2007); 2. Dispersing seeds, as is done for Oenocarpus bataua by the Nukak of Colombia (Politis, 1996) and probably also for other species by different nomadic groups, who discard palm seeds after consuming the mesocarp; to what extent this practice is regarded by the nomadic Amerindians themselves as an enrichment practice is not clear; and 3. The use of tire to favor palm development, as used for Attalea funifera in Brazil (Voeks, 1988).

Management practices recommended by researchers include harvest intensity, minimal age and size of first harvest (mainly for palm heart production), or the use of appropriate harvest techniques (Cruz, 2006; Castano et al., 2007; Goulding & Smith, 2007; Mendoza Rodriguez, 2007; Meza, 2001; Torres, 2007; Miranda et al., 2008). Some management systems have been regulated by law for particular species, like harvest of palm heart from Euterpe edulis in Brazil (Reis et al., 2000c) and Bolivia (Ministerio de Desarrollo Sostenible, Republica de Bolivia, 2006), sap from Jubaea chilensis in Chile (Gonzalez et al., 2009), and wood of Iriartea deltoidea in Colombia (Corpoamazonia, 2006).

Conservation Through Use

Although many authors report a negative impact of palm harvest on palm populations (Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev, 1992; Castano et al., 2007; Goulding & Smith, 2007; Linares et al., 2008), in some cases use has been considered as the best option for conservation. In Uruguay, for example, conservation of Butia capitata has been considered effective only if local people get any profit from the palm stands (Pezzani, 2007). In Chile, the largest stands of Jubaea chilensis are those where management for palm sap extraction has been a traditional activity (Gonzalez, 1994). In those areas, palm populations have a healthy size class distribution, with a large number of juveniles, in contrast with unharvested areas, where populations consist only of adult palms, with no regeneration.

In Colombia, land owners in the Magdalena River basin protect their tagua palms (Phytelephas macrocarpa), only if they can get any income by selling their nuts (Torres & Perdomo, 2008). However, in this area tagua still remains underexploited, due in part to the environmental authority's reluctance to give harvest permits, in spite of a study that shows the sustainability of seed harvest for this species (Bernal, 1998). Another local environmental authority, on the contrary, has allowed controlled harvest of spear leaves of Attalea butyracea in Cundinamarca, Colombia, as a strategy to avoid palm destruction by land owners (J. Sarmiento, pers. comm.). In Ecuador, peasants that are not allowed to harvest spear leaves of Ceroxylon echinulatum replace the palms with income-producing crops (L. de la Torre pers. comm.).

Conservation through use, however, requires close monitoring, to assure that recommended practices and management plans are indeed followed. This point appears to be weak, judging from the reviewed references. Remarkable exceptions include Astrocaryum aculeatum, which is sustainably managed for use and conservation in the western Amazon in Brazil (Costa & Duarte, 2002), Oenocarpus bataua, which is both used and conserved in Shuar and Achuar communities in the Amazon of Ecuador (Alarcon & Garcia, 2006), and Trithrinax schizophylla, which is sustainably harvested in the eastern Bolivian lowlands (Lozano, 2007).

In the large number of studies that we have reviewed, we have found evidence of only few efforts to introduce and enforce sustainable harvest practices. Thus, after at least two decades of alarm about the unnecessary felling of palms to collect their fruits or their spear leaves (Peters et al., 1989; Vasquez & Gentry, 1989), this practice remains widespread throughout northern South America (Flores et al., 2009; Manzi & Coomes, 2009; Montufar et al., 2010; R. Bernal, pers. obs.) even if a few initiatives have focused on this problem for Mauritia flexuosa in Peru (Manzi & Coomes, 2009), Ceroxylon in Ecuador (Montufar et al., 2010), and Oenocarpus bataua and Astrocaryum standleyanum in Colombia (Torres, 2007; R. Bernal, pers. obs.), but the impact of these initiatives is usually not widespread.

Discussion

Compared to the number of palm species used by people in South America, the figure of those with any documented type of management is relatively low. Whereas 85% of all palms in Ecuador receive some use (de la Torre et al., 2008), 74% in Bolivia (Macia et al., 2011), 61% in Colombia (Galeano & Bernal, 2010), 53% in the Andes (Macia et al., 2011), and 40% in South America as a whole (Henderson et al., 1995), only 20% of all South American palms appear to have any significant management. This means that a large proportion of used species are just harvested from their natural habitats without any concern about the impact of the harvest.

It is true that information on uses is more readily collected by researchers than information on management of the involved species. Although some managed species may have escaped our review, our figure of managed species could be ah overestimation of the real situation, because many species are managed in some areas but elsewhere they are just harvested without any management or even mismanaged.

The most widespread management practice, the selective harvest of individuals based on age, size or sex, is applied by various ethnic groups to 21 species occurring in a variety of habitats. In most cases, however, as with stem or fruit harvest, restriction by age or size is probably related to the unavailability of the resource in younger plants, rather than a management-driven action. When young individuals provide suitable resources (e.g. expanded or spear leaves), usually they are also harvested. This is the case of Astrocaryum chambira (Holm Jensen & Balslev, 1995), Ceroxylon alpinum (Vergara, 2002), Copernicia prunifera (Johnson, 1970), Copernicia tectorum (Barrera et al., 2007a), Lepidocaryum tenue (Navarro, 2009), Mauritia flexuosa (Sampaio et al., 2008) or Welfia regia (Torres & Avendano, 2009).

Another management practice is small scale cultivation of relevant species, usually near households or in chagras or chacras. Besides the widespread peach palm, Bactris gasipaes, 19 species are cultivated for their usefulness: Aphandra natalia, Astrocaryum aculeatum, A. chambira, A. malybo, A. standleyanum, Attalea butyracea, A. funifera, Butia capitata, Copernicia prunifera, Euterpe edulis, E. oleracea, E. precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, O. minor, Parajubaea cocoides, Phytelephas aequatorialis, Prestoea acuminata, and Syagrus romanzoffiana. Most of them are cultivated near their natural areas of distribution and only Euterpe oleracea and probably also Parajubaea cocoides have been dispersed far away from their natural ranges.

But remarkably, unsustainable management of palms in South America appears to be more widespread than sustainable management. There are records of 38 species that are felled to harvest their sap, leaves or fruits, which in most cases could be sustainably harvested with a small additional effort or with the use of simple tools. Surprisingly, unsustainable management is common among Amerindian communities (Stagegaard et al., 2002; Vormisto, 2002; Zent & Zent, 2002; Castano et al., 2007; Aguilar-Mena, 2008; Linares et al., 2008), in contrast with the widespread belief that traditional management by Amerindian people is efficient and sustainable (Peters, 1996).

Recommendations for sustainable management are already available for several species. Although generalizations are not always possible, because each situation of management requires an appropriate evaluation, some general recommendations can be given. First, harvest intensity must be controlled by implementing the recommendations of available ecological studies, as is the case of vegetable ivory palm Phytelephas macrocarpa in Colombia (Bernal, 1998, as P. seemannii) or of palm heart Euterpe edulis in Brazil (Reis et al., 2000a, b, c). Second, non-destructive harvest must be encouraged, by promoting the use of basic techniques for climbing (Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992; Zent & Zent, 2002; Weinstein & Moegenburg, 2004) or different type of tools (Holm Jensen & Balslev, 1995; Vormisto, 2002; Fadiman, 2003; Torres, 2007; Linares et al., 2008). Finally, palm species of interest should be introduced in agroforestry systems, which seems to be an adequate alternative for sustainable management; these practices are documented for at least 15 palms in South America, including Bactris gasipaes (Clement, 1986, 1989), Attalea speciosa (May et al., 1985b), and Ceroxylon echinulatum (Pintaud & Anthelme, 2008).

Assessing sustainability and reducing harvest impact has so far been the focus of most research, and information is now available for several species. In many cases, the next step would be to study how management practices enhance productivity, as has been done for Euterpe oleracea in Brazil. A study of this species by Anderson and Jardim (1989) showed that fruit production increased 60% after 1 year of weeding and thinning. But before comparable research is undertaken for other species, it is necessary to eradicate the widespread unsustainable management practice of felling palms. To achieve this, researchers face the complex task of implementing projects that go beyond sheer research, and influence the whole spectrum of stakeholders, from local harvesters to national decision-makers.
Appendix 1

Table 2 Synopsis of Palm Management in South America, Countries: BO,
Bolivia; BR, Brazil; CH, Chile; CO, Colombia; EC, Ecuador; GU,
Guyana; PE, Peru; SU, Suriname; UR, Uruguay; VE, Venezuela, Human
Groups: AF, Afro-descendants; AM, Amerindians; ME, Mestizos or
Caboclos, Harvest Techniques: CN, Climbing Neighboring Tree; CP,
Climbing the Palm; CT, Cutting Tool at the End of a Pole; DH, Direct
Harvest of Low or Acaulescent Palms; FM, Felling as a Consequence of
Mismanagement; FR, Felling Required; GH, Harvest from the Ground;
ND, No Data (but No Felling); SC, Shoot Cutting in Cespitose Palms.
Management: CU, Cultivation; DS, Diagnostic Study or Monitoring
Prior to Harvest; EN, Enrichment of Harvested Areas through Seed
Dispersal or Seedling Planting; FE, Fertilization; FI, Fire Use; HR,
Harvest Area Rotation; LP, Leaving Palms When Forest is Cut; PC,
Pest Control; SH, Selective Harvest by Age, Size or Sex; SR,
Seasonal Restriction (Moon Phases, Phenological or Climatic Cycles,
Tradition); SS, Individuals or Areas Left as Seed Sources; TH,
Thinning and Paining (Removal of Individuals, Shoots or Leaves); TR,
Transplanting; WE, Weeding or Removal of Competing Shrubs, Trees or
Lianas, Land Use: AS, Agroforestry System; FP, Forest on Floodplain;
GP, Garden Plot; PF, Primary Forest; PL, Plantation; PS, Palm Stand;
PT, Pasture; SF, Secondary Forest, Land Tenure: AT, Afrodescendant
Territory; CL, Private Lands of Common Use; IT, Indigenous
Territory; ER, Extractive Reserve; NL, National Lands; PA, Protected
Areas; PL, Private Lands, Conservation Status: * Vulnerable; **
Endangered [Based on Dransfield et al, (1988), IUCN (2010), Valencia
et al, (2000), Llamozas et al, (2003), and Galeano and Bernal
(2010)]

Species           Country            Human        Harvest
                                     group        technique

Acrocomia         BR                 ME           FM
aculeata

Aiphanes          BO, CO, EC
horrida

Allagoptera       BO, BR             AM           DH
leucocalyx

Ammandra          CO                 ME           GH
decasperma

Aphandra          BR, EC, PE         AM           CP, DH, FM
natalia

Astrocaryum       BO, BR             AM, ME       CT, FR, GH,
aculeatum                                         ND

Astrocaryum       CO, EC, PE         AM, ME       CN, CP, CT,
chambira                                          DH, FM, FR

Astrocaryum       PE                 ME           CT
huicungo

Astrocaryum       BR, CO, GU         ME           FM
jauari            PE, SU

Astrocaryum       CO **              ME           DH
malybo

Astrocaryum       BO, BR, PE         AM           FR, GH, ND
murumuru

Astrocaryum       CO, EC *           AF, AM,      CT, FM, FR
standleyanum                         ME

Astrocaryum       BR                 ME           GH
vulgare

Attalea           CO                 AF           DH
allenii

Attalea           CO **              ME           DH
amygdalina

Attalea           PE                 AM           FM
bassleriana

Attalea           BO, BR, EC,        AM, ME       CP, FM, FR
butyracea         CO, PE, VE

Attalea           EC *               ME           GH
colenda

Attalea           CO                 AF           DH
cuatrecasana

Attalea           BR                              CP, CT, DH
funifera

Attalea           BR, CO, PE,        AM, ME       CN, CP, FM,
maripa            VE                              FR, GH

Attalea           BR, CO, PE         AM, ME       DH
microcarpa

Attalea           PE                 ME           DH
moorei

Attalea           BO, BR, PE         AM, ME       DH, FM, FR,
phalerata                                         GH

Attalea           PE                 ME           DH
plowmanii

Attalea           BO, BR             ME           CT
princeps

Attalea           PE                 ME           CT
salazarii

Attalea           BO, BR             AM, ME       FM, FR, GH
speciosa

Attalea           BR                              DH
spectabilis

Attalea           BR, PE **          ME           FM
tessmannii

Bactris           GU, PE             AM, ME       DH, SC
acanthocarpa

Bactris           CO                 AF           SC
barronis

Bactris           BR, CO, PE         ME           SC
brongniartii

Bactris           CO                 AF           FM, SC
coloradonis

Bactris           BR, PE             ME           SC
concinna

Bactris           BR, CO, EC,        AM, ME       CP, CN, CT,
gasipaes          PE                              FR, SC

Bactris           CO                 ME           DH, FR, SC
guineensis

Bactris           BO, BR, CO         AM, ME       DH, SC
major

Bactris           BR, CO, EC,        AF, ME       DH, SC
maraja            PE

Butia             BR, UR             ME           ND
capitata

Ceroxylon         CO **              ME           DH, FM
alpinum

Ceroxylon         CO, VE **                       DH, FM, FR,
ceriferum

Ceroxylon         EC, PE             ME           FM, FR, GH
echinulatum

Ceroxylon         PE                 ME           CT, FR, GH
peruvianum

Ceroxylon         CO **, PE          ME           DH, FM, FR
quindiuense

Ceroxylon         CO **, EC          ME           DH, FM, FR,
ventricosum                                       GH

Ceroxylon spp,    BO, EC, CO         ME           DH, FM, FR

Coccothrinax      VE *                            ND
barbadensis

Copernicia        BO, BR             ME           FR
alba

Copernicia        BR                 ME           CT, FR
pruniferu

Copernicia        CO, VE             ME           CT, DH, FR,
tectorum                                          GH

Desmoncus         CO, EC             AF, AM       FM
cirrhifer

Desmoncus         CO                 AM           FM
giganiteus

Desmoncus         CO                 AM           FM
mitis

Desmoncus         BR, CO             AM, ME       FM, SC
orthacunthos

Desmoncus         PE                 ME           FM, SC
polyacanthos

Dictyocaryum      EC, CO             ME           FR, GH
lamarckianum

Elaeis            BR *, CO **,       ME           DH
oleifera          PE *, SU *,
                  VE *

Euterpe           BR *               AM, ME       FR
edulis

Euterpe           BR, CO, EC,        AF, AM,      CP, CT, FM,
oleracea          GU, VE *           ME           SC,

Euterpe           BO, BR, CO,        AM, ME       CP, FM, FR,
precatoria        EC, PE, VE *                    GH, ND

Geonoma           GU, VE             AF, AM       DH
baculifera

Geonoma           BO, BR, CO,        AM, ME       DH, FM
deversa           PE, VE

Geonoma           EC                 AM           DH, FM
macrostachys

Geonoma           VE                              DH, FM
maxima

Geonoma           CO                 ME           DH
orbignyana

Iriartea          BO, BR, CO,        AM, ME       FR
deltoidea         EC, PE

Jubaea            CH *               ME           FR, GH,
chilensis

Leopoldinia       BR, CO, VE *       AM, ME       DH, FM
piassaba

Lepidocaryum      PE, CO             AM           ?H, FM
tenue

Manicaria         BR, CO, GU,        AF, AM,      DH
saccifera         VE                 ME

Mauritia          CO, VE             AM           FM, ND
carana

Mauritia          BR, CO, EC,        AM, ME       CN, CP, CT,
flexuosa          GU, PE, VE *                    DH, FM,
                                                  FR,
                                                  GH

Mauritiella       BR                              GH
armata

Mauritiella       CO                 AF, AM       DH, FM
macroclada

Oenocarpus        CO, VE             AM, ME       CP, CN, FM
bacaba

Oenocarpus        BO, BR, CO,        AF, AM,      CP, CT, DH,
bataua            EC, GU, PE,        ME           FM, GH
                  VE

Oenocarpus        BR *               ME
distichus

Oenocarpus        BR, CO, PE         AF, ME       CP, FM
minor

Parujubaea        EC                 ME           GH
cocoides

Parajubaea        BO
sunkha

Parajubaea        BO **                           GH, ND
torallyi

Phytelephas       EC *               AF, AM       DH, GH
aequatorialis

Phytelephas       CO, PE             AF, AM,      DH, GH
macrocarpa                           ME

Phytelephas       CO *               AF, ME       DH, GH
tumacana

Prestoea          CO, EC             AM, ME       FM, SC
acuminata

Sabal             CO                 AM, ME       CP, CT, DH, FR
mauritiiformis

Socratea          BO, BR, CO, EC,    AF, AM, ME   FR
exorrhiza         GU, PE, VE *

Syagrus           BR                 AM, ME       FR
cocoides

Syagrus           BR                 AM, ME       GH
coronata

Syagrus           BR                 ME           FR, GH
oleracea

Syagrus           BR                 ME           FR
romanzoffiana

Syagrus           BO, BR, CO *,      AM, ME       FR
sancona           EC, PE, VE *

Trithrinax        BO                 AM           SC
schizophylla

Welfia            CO, EC             AF, AM       DH, FM, FR
regia

Wettinia          CO                 ME           FR
kalbreyeri

Wettinia          CO, EC             AM           FR
quinaria

Species           Management           Land use         Land
                                                        tenure

Acrocomia         CU, LP, TR                            PL
aculeata

Aiphanes          CU, LP               AS, GP           PL
horrida

Allagoptera                            PF, PT           IT
leucocalyx

Ammandra                               PF               AT, PL
decasperma

Aphandra          LP, SH, WE           AS, PT           PL
natalia

Astrocaryum       CU, DS, HR,          GP, PL, SF       IT
aculeatum         LP

Astrocaryum       CU, LP, SH,          GP, PF           IT
chambira          SS, WE

Astrocaryum
huicungo

Astrocaryum                            AS, FP           IT
jauari

Astrocaryum       CU, LP, SH           PT               CL, PL
malybo

Astrocaryum                            PF, FP           ER, IT
murumuru

Astrocaryum       CU, EN, LP,          PF               AT, IT, PA
standleyanum      SR

Astrocaryum       LP                   PT, SF
vulgare

Attalea           LP                   PF               AT
allenii

Attalea           LP                   AS, PT, SF
amygdalina

Attalea
bassleriana

Attalea           CU, LP, SR           GP, PT           IT, PL
butyracea

Attalea           LP                   PT
colenda

Attalea           LP                   PF               AT
cuatrecasana

Attalea           CU, FI, LP           PF, PT
funifera

Attalea           LP, TH               PF, SF           PA
maripa

Attalea           SR                   PF               IT
microcarpa

Attalea
moorei

Attalea           CU, LP               PT, SF
phalerata

Attalea                                PF
plowmanii

Attalea           LP                   PT
princeps

Attalea
salazarii

Attalea           LP, TH, WE           AS, GP, PF,      CL, PA
speciosa                               PT

Attalea                                PS, SF           PA
spectabilis

Attalea           LP                   PT
tessmannii

Bactris                                PF, SF           IT
acanthocarpa

Bactris           LP                   PF, SF           AT
barronis

Bactris           LP                   PT, SC           AT, IT, PL
brongniartii

Bactris           LP                   PF, PT, SF
coloradonis

Bactris           LP                   PF, PT, SF
concinna

Bactris           CU, FE, PC,          AS, GP, PF,      IT, PA
gasipaes          SH, SR,              PL
                  TH,
                  WE

Bactris           LP, SR               PT               CL, PL
guineensis

Bactris           LP, SR               PT, PF, SF       CL, PL
major

Bactris           LP                   PT, SF           IT, PL
maraja

Butia             CU, EN, LP           PS, PT           CL, NL, PA, PR
capitata

Ceroxylon         LP                   PT               PL
alpinum

Ceroxylon         LP                   PT               PL
ceriferum

Ceroxylon         LP, CU               AS, PT           PL
echinulatum

Ceroxylon         CU, FE, LP,          AS, GP           PL
peruvianum        TR

Ceroxylon         LP                   PT               PL
quindiuense

Ceroxylon         LP                   PT               PL
ventricosum

Ceroxylon spp,    LP                   PT

Coccothrinax                           PT
barbadensis

Copernicia        CU, LP
alba

Copernicia        CU, LP, SH           PL, PT
pruniferu

Copernicia        LP, SH               FP, PS, PT       CL, NL
tectorum

Desmoncus                              PF               AT, IT
cirrhifer

Desmoncus                              PF               IT
giganitus

Desmoncus                              PF               IT
mitis

Desmoncus                              PT               IT, PL
orthacunthos

Desmoncus         EN, SH               PF               IT
polyacanthos

Dictyocaryum      LP                                    PL
lamarckianum

Elaeis            CU, LP               PT               PL
oleifera

Euterpe           CU, SH, HR           SF               PA, PL, NL
edulis

Euterpe           CU, EN, FE,          FP, GP, PF,      AT, CL, PL
oleracea          SH, SS, TH, TR, WE   PL, PS, PT, SF

Euterpe           CU, HR, LP,          AS, GP, PF,      IT, ER, PA
precatoria        SH, SS               SF

Geonoma                                                 AT, IT
baculifera

Geonoma           SH                   PF, SF           IT
deversa

Geonoma                                PF               PA, IT
macrostachys

Geonoma                                PF
maxima

Geonoma           SH                   PF
orbignyana

Iriartea          LP, SH               PF, SF, PT       AT, ER, IT, PA
deltoidea

Jubaea            CU, DS, SH,          PS, PT           PA
chilensis         TR

Leopoldinia       SH                   PF               IT, NL
piassaba

Lepidocaryum      SH                   PF               IT
tenue

Manicaria         CU, LF               PF, SF           AT, IT
saccifera

Mauritia          LF                   PF               IT
carana

Mauritia          CU, EN, FE,          FP, GP, PF,      IT, PA
flexuosa          LF, SH, TH,          PS, PT, SF
                  WE

Mauritiella                            FP, PS           PA
armata

Mauritiella       LF                   FP, PF           AT
macroclada

Oenocarpus        LP, TH               PF               IT
bacaba

Oenocarpus        CU, EN, HR,          AS, PF, PS       AT, ER, IT,
bataua            LP, SH, TH                            PA

Oenocarpus        LP                   PF, SF           PL
distichus

Oenocarpus        CU, LP, WE           GP               AT, IT, ER
minor

Parujubaea        CU                   GP, PL           PL
cocoides

Parajubaea        CU, LP
sunkha

Parajubaea        LP                                    PA
torallyi

Phytelephas       CU, LP, SH,          AS, PT, SF       AT
aequatorialis     TH, WE

Phytelephas       LP, SH, TH,          AS, PF           AT, ER
macrocarpa        WE

Phytelephas       LP                   PF               AT, NL
tumacana

Prestoea          LP                   PF               PA
acuminata

Sabal             CU, LP, SH, SR       AS, GP, PT       PL
mauritiiformis

Socratea          LP, SR               PF, PT           IT, AT
exorrhiza

Syagrus           LP                   PT               IT, PL
cocoides

Syagrus           CU, LP               PT
coronata

Syagrus           CU, LP               AS, PL
oleracea

Syagrus           CU, LP
romanzoffiana

Syagrus           CU, LP               PT               PL
sancona

Trithrinax        HR, SH, SS,
schizophylla      CU

Welfia            LP, SR               PF               AT
regia

Wettinia          HR, LP, SH           SF, PT           PL
kalbreyeri

Wettinia          LP, SH               PF, SF           AT, IT
quinaria

Species           Use category

Acrocomia         Food, Fuel, Natural
aculeata          ingredients,
                  Ornamental
Aiphanes          Ornamental, Food
horrida

Allagoptera       Food
leucocalyx

Ammandra          Handicraft
decasperma

Aphandra          Handicraft, Implements
natalia           and tools, Construction,
                  Food, Animal feed

Astrocaryum       Food, Implements and
aculeatum         tools, Handicraft

Astrocaryum       Food, Handicraft, Implements
chambira          and tools, Construction

Astrocaryum       Food
huicungo

Astrocaryum       Food
jauari

Astrocaryum       Handicraft
malybo

Astrocaryum       Construction, Food, Natural
murumuru          ingredients

Astrocaryum       Construction, Food, Handicraft
standleyanum

Astrocaryum       Construction, Food,
vulgare           Implements
                  and tools

Attalea           Food
allenii

Attalea           Cultural, Food
amygdalina

Attalea           Construction
bassleriana

Attalea           Animal feed, Construction,
butyracea         Food, Handicraft,
                  Implements
                  and tools

Attalea           Animal feed, Food
colenda

Attalea           Construction, Food, Fuel
cuatrecasana

Attalea           Food, Handicraft,
funifera          Implements and tools

Attalea           Construction, Food,
maripa            Implements and tools

Attalea           Construction, Food
microcarpa

Attalea           Food
moorei

Attalea           Construction, Food, Fuel,
phalerata         Natural ingredients

Attalea           Food
plowmanii

Attalea           Construction, Food
princeps

Attalea           Food
salazarii

Attalea           Animal feed, Construction,
speciosa          Food, Fuel, Natural
                  ingredients

Attalea           Food
spectabilis

Attalea           Construction, Food
tessmannii

Bactris           Construction, Food
acanthocarpa

Bactris           Construction
barronis

Bactris           Food
brongniartii

Bactris           Construction, Implements
coloradonis       and tools

Bactris           Food
concinna

Bactris           Food, Fuel
gasipaes

Bactris           Construction, Food,
guineensis        Handicraft,
                  Implements and tools

Bactris           Construction, Food, Handicraft
major

Bactris           Construction, Food
maraja

Butia             Animal feed, Food, Handicraft
capitata

Ceroxylon         Cultural
alpinum

Ceroxylon         Construction, Cultural
ceriferum

Ceroxylon         Animal feed, Construction
echinulatum

Ceroxylon         Animal feed, Construction
peruvianum

Ceroxylon         Construction, Cultural
quindiuense

Ceroxylon         Animal Iced, Construction,
ventricosum       Cultural

Ceroxylon spp,    Construction, Cultural

Coccothrinax      Construction, Handicraft
barbadensis

Copernicia        Construction, Ornamental
alba

Copernicia        Fuel, Handicraft, Implements
pruniferu         and tools, Natural
                  ingredients

Copernicia        Animal feed, Construction,
tectorum          Handicraft

Desmoncus         Handicraft, Implements
cirrhifer         and tools

Desmoncus         Handicraft, Implements
giganiteus        and tolos

Desmoncus         Handicraft, Implements
mitis             and tolos

Desmoncus         Construction, Handicraft,
orthacunthos      Implements and tools

Desmoncus         Handicraft
polyacanthos

Dictyocaryum      Construction Handicraft
lamarckianum

Elaeis            Food, Handicraft
oleifera

Euterpe           Construction, Food
edulis

Euterpe           Construction, Food,
oleracea          Ornamental

Euterpe           Construction, Food
precatoria

Geonoma           Construction
baculifera

Geonoma           Construction, Implements
deversa           and tolos

Geonoma           Construction
macrostachys

Geonoma           Construction
maxima

Geonoma           Ornamental
orbignyana

Iriartea          Construction, Handicraft,
deltoidea         Implements and tools

Jubaea            Food, Ornamental
chilensis

Leopoldinia       Construction, Food, Handicraft
piassaba

Lepidocaryum      Construction
tenue

Manicaria         Construction, Handicraft,
saccifera         Implements and tools

Mauritia          Construction
carana

Mauritia          Construction, Food, Handicraft
flexuosa

Mauritiella       Food
armata

Mauritiella       Construction, Handicraft
macroclada

Oenocarpus        Food
bacaba

Oenocarpus        Construction, Food
bataua

Oenocarpus        Food
distichus

Oenocarpus        Construction, Food,
minor             Handicraft

Parujubaea        Food, Ornamental
cocoides

Parajubaea        Implements and tools,
sunkha            Ornamental

Parajubaea        Animal feed, Construction, Food,
torallyi          Handicraft, Implements and tools

Phytelephas       Construction, Handicraft
aequatorialis

Phytelephas       Construction, Food,
macrocarpa        Handicraft

Phytelephas       Handicraft
tumacana

Prestoea          Food
acuminata

Sabal             Construction
mauritiiformis

Socratea          Construction,
exorrhiza         Implements and tools

Syagrus           Food, Construction,
cocoides          Implements and tools

Syagrus           Food, Ornamental
coronata

Syagrus           Food, Animal feed
oleracea

Syagrus           Food
romanzoffiana

Syagrus           Construction, Implements
sancona           and tools, Ornamental

Trithrinax        Handicraft, Ornamental
schizophylla

Welfia            Construction, Handicraft
regia

Wettinia          Construction
kalbreyeri

Wettinia          Construction
quinaria

Species           Part used

Acrocomia         Fruit, Whole palm
aculeata

Aiphanes          Whole palm, Seed
horrida

Allagoptera       Fruit
leucocalyx

Ammandra          Fruit, Seed;
decasperma

Aphandra          Sheath, Petiole,
natalia           Leaf, Fruit,
                  Inflorescence,
                  Seed

Astrocaryum       Stem, Fruit, Seed
aculeatum

Astrocaryum       Fruit, Spear leaf, Stem
chambira

Astrocaryum       Fruit
huicungo

Astrocaryum       Spear leaf, Fruit
jauari

Astrocaryum       Spear leaf
malybo

Astrocaryum       Fruit, Seed, Leaf,
murumuru          Stem, Spear leaf

Astrocaryum       Fruit, Stem, Spear
standleyanum      leaf

Astrocaryum       Fruit, Stem, Spear
vulgare           leaf

Attalea           Seed
allenii

Attalea           Seed, Spear leaf
amygdalina

Attalea           Whole leaf
bassleriana

Attalea           Fruit, Leaf, Leaf
butyracea         blade, Spear leaf,
                  Sap, Stem,

Attalea           Fruit, Seed
colenda

Attalea           Leaf, Spear leaf,
cuatrecasana      Fruit, Seed

Attalea           Seed, Sheath
funifera

Attalea           Fruit, Leaf, Stem,
maripa

Attalea           Fruit, Leaf
microcarpa

Attalea           Fruit
moorei

Attalea           Fruit, Leaf, Stem,
phalerata         Seed

Attalea           Seed
plowmanii

Attalea           Fruit, Leaf
princeps

Attalea           Fruit
salazarii

Attalea           Fruit, Stem, Seed
speciosa

Attalea           Fruit
spectabilis

Attalea           Fruit, Leaf, Seed
tessmannii

Bactris           Fruit, Stem, Whole
acanthocarpa      leaf

Bactris           Stem
barronis

Bactris           Fruit
brongniartii

Bactris           Stem
coloradonis

Bactris           Fruit
concinna

Bactris           Fruit, Palm Heart,
gasipaes          Seed

Bactris           Fruit, Stem
guineensis

Bactris           Fruit, Stem
major

Bactris           Fruit, Stem
maraja

Butia             Fruit, Leaf, Spear
capitata          leaf

Ceroxylon         Spear leaf
alpinum

Ceroxylon         Spear leaf, Stem
ceriferum

Ceroxylon         Fruit, Spear leaf,
echinulatum       Stem

Ceroxylon         Fruit, Stem
peruvianum

Ceroxylon         Spear leaf, Stem
quindiuense

Ceroxylon         Fruit, Spear leaf,
ventricosum       Stem

Ceroxylon spp,    Spear leaf, Stem

Coccothrinax      Spear leaf, Whole
barbadensis       leaf

Copernicia        Leaf, Stem, Whole
alba              palm

Copernicia        Leaf, Stem
pruniferu

Copernicia        Fruit, Spear leaf,
tectorum          Stem, Whole leaf

Desmoncus         Stem
cirrhifer

Desmoncus         Stem
giganitus

Desmoncus         Stem
mitis

Desmoncus         Stem
orthacunthos

Desmoncus         Stem
polyacanthos

Dictyocaryum      Stem, Seed
lamarckianum

Elaeis            Fruit, Spear leaf
oleifera

Euterpe           Stem, Palm heart
edulis

Euterpe           Fruit, Palm heart,
oleracea          Stem

Euterpe           Fruit, Palm heart,
precatoria        Stem

Geonoma           Whole leaf
baculifera

Geonoma           Stem, Whole leaf
deversa

Geonoma           Whole leaf
macrostachys

Geonoma           Whole leaf
maxima

Geonoma           Whole leaf
orbignyana

Iriartea          Stem
deltoidea

Jubaea            Sap, Seed, Whole
chilensis         plant

Leopoldinia       Sheath, Leaf, Fruit
piassaba

Lepidocaryum      Whole leaf
tenue

Manicaria         Inflorescence, Leaf
saccifera

Mauritia          Whole leaf
carana

Mauritia          Fruit, Spear leaf, Stem
flexuosa

Mauritiella       Fruit
armata

Mauritiella       Stem, Spear leaf
macroclada

Oenocarpus        Fruit
bacaba

Oenocarpus        Fruit, Leaf, Stem
bataua

Oenocarpus        Fruit
distichus

Oenocarpus        Fruit, Spear leaf,
minor             Stem

Parujubaea        Wole plant, Fruits
cocoides

Parajubaea        Fibra foliar, Wole
sunkha            plant

Parajubaea        Fruit, Leaf, Spear
torallyi          leaf, Seed, Stem

Phytelephas       Leaf, Seed
aequatorialis

Phytelephas       Leaf, Seed
macrocarpa

Phytelephas       Seed
tumacana

Prestoea          Palm heart
acuminata

Sabal             Stem, Leaf
mauritiiformis

Socratea          Stem
exorrhiza

Syagrus           Fruit, Stem
cocoides

Syagrus           Fruit, Whole plant
coronata

Syagrus           Spear leaf, Fruit, Leaf
oleracea

Syagrus           Spear leaf, Stem
romanzoffiana

Syagrus           Stem, Whole palm
sancona

Trithrinax        Spear leaf, Whole
schizophylla      palm

Welfia            Stem, Spear leaf
regia

Wettinia          Stem
kalbreyeri

Wettinia          Stem
quinaria

Species           Reference

Acrocomia         Lleras & Coradin, 1984; Moraes,
aculeata          2004; Caldas-Lorenzi, 2006;
                  Moreno & Moreno, 2006

Aiphanes          Borehsenius et al., 1998; Moraes,
horrida           2004; Galeano & Bernal, 2010

Allagoptera       Balick, 1988; Paniagua-Zambrana,
leucocalyx        2005

Ammandra          Ramirez & Morales, 2003
decasperma

Aphandra          Borgtoft Pedersen, 1992; Boll et
natalia           al., 2005; Kronborg et al., 2008

Astrocaryum       Moussa & Kahn, 1997; Boom, 1986;
aculeatum         Costa & Duarte, 2002; Schroth
                  et al., 2004; Clement, 2005

Astrocaryum       Wheeler, 1970: Vasquez & Gentry,
chambira          1989; Borgtoft Pedersen & Basely,
                  1990; Holm Jensen & Balslev, 1995;
                  Vormisto, 2002; Coomes, 2004; Cruz,
                  2006; Lopez et al., 2006; Balslev et
                  al., 2008; Linares et al., 2008

Astrocaryum       Vasquez & Gentry, 1989
huicungo

Astrocaryum       Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Kahn.
jauari            1993; Piedade et al., 2003

Astrocaryum       Barrera et al., 2007b
malybo

Astrocaryum       Clement, 2005; Paniagua-Zambrana,
murumuru          2005; Lopes et al., 2007; Balslev
                  et al., 2008

Astrocaryum       Galeano & Bernal, 1987; Borgtoft
standleyanum      Pedersen, 1994; Fadiman, 2003;
                  Hernandez, 2003; Torres, 2007;
                  Linares et al., 2008

Astrocaryum       Valente & Almeida, 2001; Lorenzi
vulgare           et al, 2010

Attalea           Waldron, 2001
allenii

Attalea           Suarez, 2001
amygdalina

Attalea           Bodley & Benson, 1979
bassleriana

Attalea           Moreno et al., 1991; Pulgarin &
butyracea         Bernal, 2004; Goulding & Smith,
                  2007; Balslev et al., 2008; Cocoma,
                  2010, Bernal et al., 2010

Attalea           Blicher-Mathiesen & Balslev, 1990
colenda

Attalea           Galeano & Bernal, 2010
cuatrecasana

Attalea           Voeks, 1988; Lorenzi et al., 2010
funifera

Attalea           Acero, 1979; Vasquez & Gentry, 1989
maripa            Valente & Almeida, 2001; Zent &
                  Zent, 2002; Slam, 2004

Attalea           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Galeano &
microcarpa        Bernal, 2010

Attalea           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989
moorei

Attalea           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; May, 1991;
phalerata         Moraes et al., 1996; Moraes, 2001;
                  Balslev et al., 2008; Paniagua-
                  Zambrana & Moraes, 2009

Attalea           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989
plowmanii

Attalea           Lorenzi et al., 2010
princeps

Attalea           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989
salazarii

Attalea           May et al., 1985a, b; Balslev &
speciosa          Moraes, 1989; Peters et al., 1989;
                  Dubois, 1990; Pinheiro & Ferro,
                  1995; Anderson et al., 2001;
                  Mitja and Ferraz 2001; Pinheiro,
                  2004; Paniagua-Zambrana, 2005;
                  Lima-Rufino et al., 2008

Attalea           Valente & Almeida, 2001
spectabilis

Attalea           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Lorenzi
tessmannii        et al., 2010

Bactris           Van Andel, 2000b; Balslev et al., 2008
acanthocarpa

Bactris           Galeano & Bernal, 1987
barronis

Bactris           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Galeano &
brongniartii      Bernal, 2010; Lorenzi et al., 2010

Bactris           Pino & Valois, 2004; Galeano &
coloradonis       Bernal, 2010

Bactris           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Lorenzi
concinna          et al., 2010

Bactris           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Borgtoft
gasipaes          Pedersen & Balslev 1990; Alomia,
                  1996; Erazo-Rivadeneira & Garcia,
                  2001; Rios, 2001; Roosevelt, 2001;
                  Yuyama & Silva, 2003; Clement et
                  al., 2004; Clement et al., 2004;
                  Maciel et al., 2005; Salazar et al.,
                  2006; Balslev et al., 2008

Bactris           Moreno et al., 1991; Casas, 2008;
guineensis        Galeano & Bernal, 2010

Bactris           Paniagua-Zambrana, 2005: Casas.
major             2008; Galeano & Bernal, 2010;
                  Lorenzi et al., 2010

Bactris           Vasquez & Gentry, 1989
maraja

Butia             Rivas & Barilani, 2004; Pezzani,
capitata          2007; Carvalho, 2008

Ceroxylon         Galeano & Bernal, 2005; Vergara,
alpinum           2002; Vergara & Bernal, 2002

Ceroxylon         Llamozas et al., 2003
ceriferum

Ceroxylon         Borchsenius et al, 1998; Pintaud &
echinulatum       Anthelme, 2008

Ceroxylon         Galeano et al., 2008
peruvianum

Ceroxylon         Galeano & Bernal, 2005; Galeano
quindiuense       el al., 2008

Ceroxylon         Borchsenius et al, 1998; Galeano
ventricosum       & Bernal, 2005

Ceroxylon spp,    Balslev & Moraes, 1989; Borgtoft
                  Pedersen & Balslev, 1992;
                  Galeano & Bernal, 2005
Coccothrinax      Braun, 1997; Llamozas et al., 2003
barbadensis

Copernicia        Balslev & Moraes, 1989; Moreno &
alba              Moreno, 2006; Lorenzi et al., 2010

Copernicia        Johnson, 1970; Johnson, 1972;
pruniferu         Lorenzi et al., 2010

Copernicia        Moreno el al., 1991; Braun, 1997;
tectorum          Casado et al., 2001; Petit, 2001;
                  Barrera et al., 2007a; Artesanias
                  de Colombia, 2009

Desmoncus         Linares et al., 2008: Borchsenius
cirrhifer         et al., 1998

Desmoncus         Linares et al., 2008; Borchsenius
giganiteus        et al., 1998

Desmoncus         Linares et al., 2008
mitis

Desmoncus         Moreno et a!., 1991; Linares et
orthacunthos      al., 2008; Lorenzi et al., 2010

Desmoncus         Henderson & Chavez, 1993;
polyacanthos
                  Hubschmann et al., 2007

Dictyocaryum      Bernal, 1992; Borchsenius
lamarckianum      & Moraes, 2006

Elaeis            Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Kahn.
oleifera          1993; Barrera et al., 2007b

Euterpe           Delgado & Landini, 1976; Ribeiro
edulis            et al., 1994; Orlande et al., 1996;
                  Galled & Fernandez, 1998; Reis et
                  al., 2000b, c; Ribeiro & Odorizzi,
                  2000; Fantini & Guries, 2004;
                  Quitete, 2008

Euterpe           Calzavara, 1972; Cavalcante &
oleracea          Johnson, 1977; Anonymous, 1978;
                  Finol, 1978; Jardim & Anderson.
                  1987; Anderson, 1988; Strudwick &
                  Sobel, 1988; Peters et al., 1989;
                  Anderson, 1990; Avila, 1990;
                  Dubois, 1990; Linares, 1991; Bovi &
                  de Castro, 1993; Alenpac, 1995;
                  Anderson et al., 1995; Pollak et
                  al., 1995; Restrepo, 1996; May et
                  al., 1997; Nogueira et al., 1998;
                  Nogueira & Oliveira, 2000; van
                  Andel, 2000a; Valente & Almeida,
                  2001; Brondizio et al., 2002;
                  Johnson, 2002; Pierce & Shanley.
                  2002; Schmidt, 2003; Weinstein &
                  Moegenburg, 2004; Ribeiro-de
                  Azevedo, 2005; Goulding & Smith,
                  2007; Ribeiro-de Azevedo & Ryohei,
                  n.d.

Euterpe           Anderson, 1978; Acero, 1979; FAO,
precatoria        1986; Vasquez & Gentry, 1989;
                  Galeano, 1992; Nepstad et al.,
                  1992; de Castro, 1993a; Melnyk,
                  1996; Melnyk & Bell, 1996; Stoian,
                  1999; Herrera, 2000; Pena-Claros &
                  Zudeima, 2000; Moraes, 2001; Rios,
                  2001; Schmidt, 2003; Rocha, 2004;
                  Rocha & Viana, 2004; Castano
                  et al., 2007; Goulding &
                  Smith, 2007; Meza, 2001;
                  Van Looy et al., 2008

Geonoma           Stauffer, 2000; Van Andel, 2000b
baculifera

Geonoma           Anderson, 1978; Balslev & Moraes,
deversa           1989; Galeano, 1992; Braun, 1997;
                  Guanchez & Romero, 1998; Flores
                  & Ashton, 2000; Montoya, 2001

Geonoma           Svenning & Macia, 2002
macrostachys

Geonoma           Stauffer, 2000
maxima

Geonoma           Rodriguez & Orjuela, 2000
orbignyana

Iriartea          Jordan, 1970; Bodley & Benson,
deltoidea         1979; Balslev & Moraes, 1989;
                  Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev,
                  1990; Galeano, 1992; Pinard, 1993;
                  Anderson, 1998; Anderson & Putz,
                  2002; Patino, 2006

Jubaea            Gonzalez, 1994; Gonzalez et al.,
chilensis         2009

Leopoldinia       Centro de Comercio Internacional,
piassaba          1969; Putz, 1979; Lescure et al.,
                  1992; Narvaez & Stauffer, 1999;

                  Stauffer, 2000; Crizon, 2001;
                  Linares et al., 2008
Lepidocaryum      Khan & Mejia, 1987; Suarez, 2002;
tenue             Navarro 2009

Manicaria         Wilbert, 1976, 1980; Van Andel,
saccifera         2000b; Valente & Almeida, 2001;
                  Linares et al., 2008

Mauritia          Stauffer, 2000; Galeano & Bernal,
carana            2010

Mauritia          Bohorquez, 1972; Heinen & Ruddle
flexuosa          1974; Acero, 1979; Ganzon, 1987;
                  Kahn, 1988; Peters et al., 1989;
                  Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Ruiz-
                  Murrieta, 1991; de Castro, 1993a;
                  Ruiz-Murrieta & Levistre-Ruiz,
                  1993; Ojeda-Salvador, 1994;
                  Anderson et al., 1995; Melnyk,
                  1996; Braun, 1997; Bovi, 1999b;
                  Hiraoka, 1999; Van Andel, 2000a;
                  de Jong, 2001; Valente & Almeida,
                  2001; Varon & Zapata, 2001;
                  Stagegaard et al., 2002; Pezo,
                  2005; Castano et al., 2007;
                  Delgado et al., 2007; Goulding &
                  Smith, 2007; Meza, 2001; Holm et
                  al., 2008; Linares et al., 2008;
                  Sampaio et al., 2008: Manzi &
                  Coomes, 2009

Mauritiella       Valente & Almeida, 2001
armata

Mauritiella       Pino & Valois, 2004; Torres &
macroclada        Avendano, 2009

Oenocarpus        Melnyk, 1996; Melnyk &Bell, 1996;
bacaba            Zent & Zent, 2002; Galeano &

                  Bernal, 2010

Oenocarpus        Balick, 1986; Collazos & Mejia,
bataua            1987; Balick, 1988b; King &
                  Forero, 1988; Peters et al., 1989;
                  Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Borgtoft
                  Pedersen & Balslev, 1992; Galeano,
                  1992; Balick, 1993; Melnyk, 1996:
                  Melnyk & Bell, 1996: Stagegaard et
                  al., 2002; Van Andel, 2000a;
                  Miller, 2002; Castano et al., 2007:
                  Goulding & Smith, 2007: Aguilar-
                  Mena, 2008: Miranda et al., 2008a.
                  b; Van Looy et al., 2008; Flores et
                  al., 2009

Oenocarpus        Valente & Almeida, 2001
distichus

Oenocarpus        Galeano & Bernal, 1987;
minor             Vasquez & Gentry, 1989;
                  de Jong, 2001

Parujubaea        Balslev & Barfod, 1987; Moraes &
cocoides          Henderson, 1990; Moraes, 2004

Parajubaea        Moraes, 2004; Borchsenius &
sunkha            Moraes, 2006

Parajubaea        Thompson et al., 2009
torallyi

Phytelephas       Barfod & Balslev, 1988; Velasquez.
aequatorialis     1998

Phytelephas       Vasquez & Gentry, 1989; Kahn.
macrocarpa        1993; Bernal, 1998; IMAFLORA.
                  2004; Navarro, 2006;
                  Torres & Perdomo, 2008

Phytelephas       Torres & Perdomo, 2008
tumacana

Prestoea          Borgtoft Pedersen & Balslev,
acuminata         1990; Knudsen, 1995; Gamba
                  Trimino, 2004

Sabal             Moreno et al., 1991; CUDESAC, 2007
mauritiiformis

Socratea          Braun, 1968a, b; Anderson,
exorrhiza         1978; Acero, 1979; Jordan,
                  1970; Bodley & Benson, 1979;
                  Lopez Parodi, 1988; Mejia.
                  1988; Balslev & Moraes, 1989;
                  Boom, 1986; Galeano, 1992;
                  Guanchez & Romero, 1998; Van
                  Andel, 2000b; Moreno & Moreno.
                  2006

Syagrus           Balick, 1988a; Lorenzi et al., 2010
cocoides

Syagrus           Howes, 1940; Lima-Rufino et al.,
coronata          2008

Syagrus           Clement et al., 2005; de Almeida
oleracea          et al., 2000; Lorenzi et al., 2010

Syagrus           Bernacci, 2001; Lorenzi et al., 2010;
romanzoffiana     Vellard, 1939

Syagrus           Bodley & Benson, 1979; Balslev
sancona           & Moraes, 1989; Moraes, 2004;
                  Henderson et al., 1995;
                  Galeano & Bernal, 2010

Trithrinax        Moraes, 2004; Lozano, 2007
schizophylla

Welfia            Henderson et al., 1995; Torres &
regia             Avendano, 2009

Wettinia          Hoyos, 2005
kalbreyeri

Wettinia          Barfod & Balslev, 1988; Waldron,
quinaria          2001; Patino, 2006


Acknowledgements This review was made as a part of the European Union's FP7 Project 212631 PALMS (Palm harvest impacts in tropical forests) (http://www.fp7-palms.org). We thank Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Narino, Tumaco, for permit to access unpublished documents, Monica Moraes and Betty Millan for providing valuable references, and William Baker, Luz Maria Calvo, Lucia de la Torre, and Manuel Macia for critically reading the manuscript.

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DOI 10.1007/s12229-011-9088-6

Rodrigo Bernal (1,3) Claudia Torres (1) Nestor Garcia (1) Carolina Isaza (1) Jaime Navarro (1) Martha Isabel Vallejo (1) Gloria Galeano (1) Henrik Balslev (2)

(1) Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado, 7495 Bogota, Colombia

(2) Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, Building 1540, 8000 Arhus C, Denmark

(3) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: rgbernalg@unal.edu.co

Published online: 1 July 2011 [c] The New York Botanical Garden 2011
Table 1 Summary of the Most Important Uses of South American Palms

Use category   Part used    Species

Food           Fruit        Aiphanes horrida, Attalea amygdalina,
                            A. maripa, A. speciosa, Bactris gasipaes,
                            B. guineensis, Euterpe oleracea,
                            E. precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa,
                            Oenocarpus bacaba, O. bataua, O. minor

               Oil          Attalea allenii, A. butyracea, A. colenda,
                            A. phalerata, A. spectabilis. A. speciosa,
                            Elaeis oleifera, Oenocarpus bacaba,
                            O. bataua, O. minor

               Palm heart   Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe edulis, E.
                            oleracea, E. precatoria

Construction   Leaf         Attalea butyracea, A. maripa, Geonoma
                            deversa, Lepidocaryum tenue, Manicaria
                            saccifera, Sabal mauritiiformis

               Stem         Euterpe oleracea, Iriartea deltoidea,
                            Socratea exorrhiza

Handicraft     Spear leaf   Astrocaryum chambira, A. malybo,
                            A. standleyanum, Mauritia flexuosa

               Seed         Phytelephas aequatorialis, P macrocarpa

               Stem         Desmoncus polyacanthos

               Sheath       Aphandra natalia, Attalea funifera,
                            Leopoldinia piassaba

Cosmetic       Leaf         Copernicia prunifera

Use category   Most common level of trade

Food           Domestic consumption, local

               Domestic consumption, local

               National, international

Construction   Domestic consumption

               Domestic consumption

Handicraft     Regional, national

               National, international

               Local, regional

               Local, regional

Cosmetic       International
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Author:Bernal, Rodrigo; Torres, Claudia; Garcia, Nestor; Isaza, Carolina; Navarro, Jaime; Vallejo, Martha I
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:30SOU
Date:Dec 1, 2011
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