Printer Friendly

PROGRAM OF THE 44TH ANNUAL MEETING.

MORNING AND AFTERNOON TECHNICAL SESSIONS

GENERAL POSTER SESSION

MATRIX PROTEINS AND ESTROGEN AFFECT PROLIFERATION OF DERMAL FIBROBLASTS AND KERATINOCYTES

KAREN KOSKOWICZ, S. HANRAHAN, K. McFADDEN (STUDENTS); NEENA PHILIPS Biology Department, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Tissue integrity is dependent on cell-cell, cell-matrix and cell-matrix-hormone interactions. Our goal is to determine whether growth of fibroblasts and keratinocytes affected by interaction between them, with extra-cellular matrix proteins, and with estrogen. Fibroblasts and keratinocytes were cultured separately and co-cultured on lifferent matrix plates, [laminin, plain, lysine, fibronectin, collagen I, collagen IV], to examine the effect of matrix on cell growth. Results indicate that boils fibroblasts and keratinocytes grew best on plain plates and cell numbers were further increased upon co-culture. Upon exposure to 50nM estrogen for 24 hours, there was an overall inhibitory effect. However, the co-cultures expressed two significant changes upon exposure to estrogen. On the laminin plate, co-cultures without estrogen decreased cell number but upon the addition of estrogen a ten-fold increase in the cell count Ass observed. The opposite effect was exhibited in the fibronectin plate. Without estrogen the cell number was dramatically increased but estrogen cut proliferation nearly in half. This suggests that there may be some interaction between matrix protein and estrogen that affects the proliferation of fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

CENTENNIAL LAKE WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROJECT

RUSSELL BURKE (STUDENT), KATHLEEN M. BROWNE

Department of Geological and Marine Sciences Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648

Centennial Lake, located on the campus of Rider University, is artificial and was constructed in the 1960's from bulldozing the sides of an unnamed tributary of Little Shabakunk Creek and emplacement of a dam. Since the 1960's, the lake has received a large volume of sediment and the shoreline has eroded. In recent years at least, the lake has experienced periodic pea-green colored phytoplankton blooms during the summer and early fall. However, the lake contains a variety of fish, invertebrates and water fowl indicating it is reasonably healthy. Water quality monitoring was initiated in the summer of 1998 as the first phase of a lake watershed restoration project. Chemical parameters (T, pH, DO, chi a, and nutrients) were measured every 10 to 14 days from samples collected at the same location in the center of the lake at 10 cm depth intervals down to 100 cm, Data indicate that the lake is extremely productive during the summer (DO [greater than] 200% saturated) but, due to decomposition of dead phytoplankto n and thermal stratification of the water column, bottom waters can be disoxic (DO as low as 0.81 ppm). Periodic rainfall flushes a large proportion of the phytoplankton out of the lake causing a drop in productivity but also a slight reoxygenation of bottom waters (-2 ppm). By early fall and through the winter, cooling of surface waters and reduced productivity results in a completely mixed water column with reduced oxygen levels (3 to 10 ppm). This study reveals that Centennial Lake is periodically eutrophic but flushing from rainfall reduces the stress eutrophication can have on the ecosystem. It is not a "eutrophic lake" because it does not experience near anoxia during both summer and winter.

THE SOLUBILITY OF PM2.5 IN LUNG FLUID

ZAREEN DODWAD, BARBARA TURPIN, BOB PORCJA, JIM BLANDO, LISA ZUSSMAN Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8706

The toxicological mechanisms by which atmospheric particle exposure increase morbidity and mortality are poorly understood. The solubility of particle constituents in lung fluids determines the types of host defense mechanisms they will encounter. The objectives of this research were: 1) to conduct a literature search on particle and lung fluid composition, 2) to predict what constituents of PM2.5 are soluble in lung fluid, and 3) to design an experiment to determine solubility.

The literature search revealed that there are two types of lung fluid, surfactant and mucus. The surfactant is located in the alveolar region of the lungs and the mucus lines the trachea, nasal cavities, bronchioles and bronchi. The mucus is made of 95% water and 5% solids. Of the 5% solids, 2-3% are glycoproteins and the rest is lipids and minerals. The highly surface-active dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is the predominant constituent in alveolar surfactant.

Fine atmospheric particles are comprised of sulfate, nitrate, carbonaceous compounds and trace metals. We selected four characteristic constituents of atmospheric particles to investigate further: ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, chrysene, and glutaric acid. The solubility of these four compounds in mucus were predicted based on their water solubilities because mucus is 95% water: ammonium sulfate (25[degrees]C) 43.47 g/100 water; ammonium nitrate (25[degrees]C) 68.17g/100g water; glutaric acid (20[degrees]C) 63.9 g/100g water; chrysene insoluble. A method of measuring solubility in mucus was designed, and it was validated by measuring the solubility of ammonium sulfate in water. Measurements were within 15% of reported solubilities. Based on this work, an improved procedure to measure the solubilities of atmospheric particle constituents in mucus was developed.

EFFECTS OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON BYSSAL THREAD PRODUCTION BY MYTILUS EDULIS AND GEUKENSIA DEMISSA

GRETCHEN MATTES (STUDENT), RICHARD ALEXANDER

Dept. of Geological & Marine Sciences. Rider University. Lawrenceville, NJ 08648

Among abiotic factors documented to affect byssal thread production by the epibyssate Mytilus edulis and endobyssate Geukensia demissa, is dissolved oxygen concentration. Mussels from the salt marsh and rocky groins of Tuckerton and Stone Harbor, NJ were subjected to experimentally induced dissolved oxygen fluctuations in aquaria. Seventy byssus-trimmed specimens of each species were apportioned (10 each) among seven 10-gallon aquaria and subjected to varying duration of aeration and percent exchange of water volume in order to simulate fluctuations in tidal flushing in salt-marsh tide pools with varying depths, intertidal bathymetric positions and isolation from the open ocean. Of two constantly aerated aquaria, one experienced 100% daily water exchange and the other 0%. A third aquarium experienced 18 hours of aeration daily and a 75% daily water exchange. Fourth and fifth aquaria each experienced aeration for 12 hours daily, but differed (100% vs. 50%) in the amount of water exchanged daily. A sixth aquar ium experienced 6 hours of aeration daily and a 25% daily water exchange, while a seventh aquarium had 1 hour of aeration daily and no daily water exchange. Earls trial lasted seven days, during which time dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, salinity, temperature, and pH were monitored every six hours. Byssal threads were counted after the seven days and plotted against the DO profile for the resident aquarium.

Byssal thread production by the lower intertidal M. edulis were significantly affected by the concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the experimental aquaria, whereas thread production by the higher intertidal G. demissa over different oxygen concentrations was comparable between specimens greater than vs. less than 24g. Nevertheless, specimens of G. demissa greater than 24g did experience the highest mortality during the seven day trial. Larger sized specimens of M. edulis (3--9g) produced a greater number of threads than small sized specimens (O--3g) when dissolved oxygen concentrations remained above 6.5 ppm.

COPPER, ZINC, AND CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN SOFT TISSUES OF MODIOLUS MODIOLUS AND MYTILUS EDULIS

FRANCES PUSTIZZI (STUDENT RICHARD ALEXANDER, AND JONATHAN HUSCH

Dept. of Geological & Marine Sciences Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648-3099

Concentrations of Cu. Zn, and Cr were analyzed for soft tissues of Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis from the low intertidal habitat on Appledore Island, Maine. In M. modiolus, Zn and Cu concentrations ranged from 0.48 to 11.5 ppm and 0.158 to 1.30 ppm, respectively. In M. edulis, Zn and Cu concentrations ranged from 0.205 to 1.30 ppm and 0.004 to 0.073 ppm, respectively. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were correlated with wet tissue mass in both species. In M. modiolus, mass-normalized average metal concentration ranged from 13.52 to 114.74 ppm*mL/g wet tissue for Zn and 3.437 to 12.04ppm*mL/g wet tissue for Cu. In M. edulis, mass-normalized average metal concentrations ranged from 7.16 to 29.67 ppm*mL/g wet tissue for Zn and from 0.093 to 1.293 ppm *mL/g for Cu. In both species, the mass-normalized values for Cu and Zn concentrations did not vary significantly through size classes of specimens. The mass-normalized average Cr concentrations ranged from 7.91 to 319.30 ppb*mL/g wet tissue in M. modiolus and f rom 13.93 to 780.70 ppb*mL/g wet tissue in M. edulis. Although concentrations of Cr were extremely low in all specimens, ranging from 0.400 to 16.6 ppb in M. modiolus and from 0.500 to 16.8 in M. edulis, mass-normalized values did show significant correlation with increasing wet tissue mass in both species. Differences in mass-normalized concentrations of Cu and Zn between M. modiolss and M. edulis maybe attributed to differences in the contribution of specific organs to total tissue mass. M. modiolus had a much higher percentage of total wet mass occupied by the foot, muscles, and gills (8.7%, 42.2%, and 8.6%, respectively) compared to the percentages of these organs (0.8%, 28.3%, and 4.9%, respectively) in M. edulis, Conversely, mantle tissue comprised a higher percentage of total soft tissue in M. edulis (50.0%) than in M. modiolus (25.7%).

JUNE WILDFLOWERS IN THE GEORGIAN COURT COLLEGE ARBORETUM

MICHAEL F. GROSS AND EILEEN M. CREAMER (STUDENT)

Biology Dept., Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Approximately half of the 152 acre Georgian Court College campus has been cultivated since the establishment of the George J. Gould estate in the late 1800's and includes the S. Mary Grace Burns Arboretum. Although most of the trees in the arboretum have been identified, little is known about the composition of the herbaceous flora. The purpose of this study was to characterize the wild herbaceous plants, focusing on those in flower in June. Plants were identified in the field and then collected, pressed, dried, and mounted for inclusion in the college's herbarium. Twenty-nine species were found, of which 17 were not native. Among the 18 families represented, the most species, 4, were in Caryophyllacese, followed by Fabacese, with 3 species. All other families contained only 1 or 2 species. Two of the species, Sisyrinchium mentanum (Iridacese) and Leontodon autumnalis (Asteracese), are considered rare in Ocean County. The most common species were Oxalis stricts (Oxalidacese) and Rumex acetosella (Polygonacea e). The predominance of exotic species is probably the result of the introduction of many nonnative trees, shrubs, and bedding plants to the campus, as well as decades of turf management that created conditions favorable for low-growing species adapted to mowing, trampling and competition with grass. The herbaceous arboretum species active at other times of the year remain to be studied.

ROAD RAGE: AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF VEHICLE TYPE, LEVEL OF AGGRESSION, AND DRIVING BEHAVIORS

MAUREEN A. KOTUSRY, (STUDENT), PHYLIS BENOIT (STUDENT), WENDY E. GALLAMORE (STUDENT), THERESA J. BROWN

Department of Psychology, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

SUSAN E. O. FIELD

Department of Psychology, Georgian Court College

Aggressive driving is increasingly being blamed for automobile accidents. Simultaneously, the damage associated with some of these accidents is rising as consumers more frequently purchase high weight vehicles, such as sports utility vehicles (SUVs). The purpose of this research was to determine whether type of vehicle (e.g., SUV, sedan) that one drives is significantly related to one's level of aggression. In addition, we sought to determine whether type of vehicle driven is significantly related to aggressive, and possibly injurious, driving behaviors. Participants completed a questionnaire asking them to respond to items about the type of vehicle they drive, the type of behaviors they engage in while driving (e.g., passing on the right), and the Buss Burkee Hostility Index, a measure of trait aggression. Our paper will discuss the results of these analyses.

AGGRESSION IN ORGANIZATIONS: ITS FORMS AND CONSEQUENCES

KENNETH E. SUMNER

Department of Psychology, Dowling College. Oakdale, NY 11769

THERESA BROWN

Department of Psychology. Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

In an effort to understand various aspects of workplace aggression, 64 employed individuals participated in telephone interviews. During the course of these interviews, they were asked to describe a single aggressive incident that occurred at their workplace. They were then asked to respond to a number of questions regarding that incident. The results indicated that expressions of hostility, such as belittling another's work, were significantly more likely to occur than other forms of aggression (e.g., physical violence). Additional data indicated that the Outcomes of an aggressive incident for both initiators and targets of aggression in the workplace were quite varied.

USING SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IN HUMAN GROSS ANATOMY EDUCATION

STEPHEN H. KANTER [1], KRISTIE REILLY [2,3] ALMA MERIANS [1]

[1] University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark. NJ;

[2] Kean University, Union. NJ;

[3] Departments of Pediatrics and Surgery, St. Joseph's Hospital, Paterson, NJ

Human anatomy is one of the first courses taught in a graduate allied health professional curriculum. There are few published reports that present an effective method of teaching human gross anatomy to students in allied health professional programs. The course structure used in one allied health program facilitated a self-directed learning environment. By using this teaching method, students were continuously challenged to acquire information on anatomy by handling human cadavers and referring to resources available at eight structured laboratory stations. In addition, students were expected to be able to come up with conclusions regarding anatomic structures through observation of gross specimen, by collaborating with their colleagues, and with facilitation from the instructional staff.

The results of the post-course survey indicate the students found self-directed learning an effective method. In addition, many of the teaching tools were indicated lobe effective in learning anatomy. In conclusion, we believe that using self-directed learning can be an effective means to educate physical therapy students in human gross anatomy.

The purpose of this presentation is (1) to introduce the self-directed gross anatomy course taught to physical therapy students at UMDNJ-Newark; (2) to discuss the various resources we used to teach the course; and (3) to present the results of a student survey assessing the effectiveness of 23 resources used to teach gross anatomy.

ORAL PRESENTATIONS

BIOCHEMISTRY I

Chair -- Dr. Neena Philips, Georgian Court College

EFFECT OF NITRIC OXIDE ON ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATED KERATINOCYTES

THERESA CLARK (STUDENT) AND NEENA PHILIPS

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Cellular chromophores in keratinocytes are capable of absorbing energy within the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. UV contributes to photoaging, enhanced elastin and collagenase proteins, and skin damage. The aim of this study is to determine if UV damage to keratinocytes can be reduced by nitric oxide.

Dermal keratinocytes were untreated or exposed to UV and incubated for 2 hours in the absence or presence of nitric oxide donors. The nitric oxide donors were 5nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The cells were untreated or treated with 1mM concentration of each nitric oxide donor alone or in combination. The cells were examined for viability by MTT assay (Sigma) and for extracellular matrix proteins by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA).

Cell viability was markedly reduced in UV exposed keratinocytes and nitric oxide caused a further reduction in cell viability, in comparison with control. UV induced collagenase and elastin expression and reduced fibronectin and transforming growth factor-beta proteins in keratinocytes. Nitric oxide reduced fibronectin levels further in UV exposed cells whereas nitric oxide enchanced fibronectin expression further in keratinocytes unexposed to UV. The other extracellular proteins examined were not altered by nitric oxide. Dose response experiments wills lower doses of nitric oxide donors are ongoing.

SAY No (NITRIC OXIDE) TO HYDROGEN PEROXIDE CYTOTOXICITY IN DERMAL KERATINOCYTES

ELIZABETH L. GOLOVATY (STUDENT) AND NEENA PHILIPS

Departments of Chemistry/Biochemistry and Biology

Georgian Court College, Lakewood NJ 08701

Oxidative stress, from ultraviolet radiation, causes intracellular generation of hydrogen peroxide ([H.sub.2][O.sub.2]) and free radicals. We hypothesize that the effects caused by these free radicals could be minimized/eliminated by reducing them with nitric oxide (NO) from various NO-donor agents. Dermal keratinocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). as well as SNP or GSNO in the presence of [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] for 3 hours and then analyzed for cell toxicity, DNA apoptosis, and secretion of collagenase. elastin and TGF-[beta], respectively, by ELISA.

We observed that GSNO (1mM and l0mN) cancelled out the apoptosis caused by the [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] while the SNP did not, The ELISA showed that both SNP and GSNO (1mM) decreased expression of elastin, collagenase. and TGF-[beta] - even more so with the 10mM concentrations of both, in [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] treated keratinocytes. With increasing concentrations of GSNO (0.01mM to 1mM), the expression of all proteins were increased. GSNO did not significantly alter apoptosis at the different concentrations used. GSNO, SNP and/or [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] dose/time dependent experiments are being performed to gain insight into prevention of oxidative stress and consequently photoaging.

MOLECULAR CORRELATION OF ICAM-1

(INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1) AND CELLULAR SENESCENCE

JENNIFR L. NEWMAN (STUDENT) AND NEENA PHILIPS

Departments of Biology/Chemistry and Biochemistry

Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Evidence suggests that cellular senescence in human cells is associated with a decrease in the immune response of cells. In addition, previous research has provided parallels but not direct connections between the induction of cellular senescence and ICAM-1, a molecule which facilitates the transmigration of neutrophils and leukocytes to their points of infection. The aim of our research is to study the relationship between the immune response, through ICAM-1, and cellular senescence, using neonatal and adult keratinocytes as well as immortalized epithelial cells. The three cell lines are untreated or treated with hydrogen peroxide or ultraviolet radiation.

All cells were seeded at 35 x [10.sup.4] cells per plate and were treated with ultraviolet radiation (Irradiance = 0.40759 [mWcm.sup.2] for one minute) or hydrogen peroxide (1mM). Their growth rate was measured by harvesting cells two, four and six days after seeding. In addition, cells were transfected with the ICAM-1 promoter-CAT (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase) and left untreated or exposed to ultraviolet radiation or hydrogen peroxide. Cell extracts were examined for CAT activity. In addition, cell media was examined for the secreted proteins; collagenase, elastin and TGF-beta.

Two days after seeding the neonatal cells showed a 10-fold increase in cell number, the adult cells showed a 9-fold increase and the immortalized cells showed a 25-fold increase. By day four and six, all cell lines were reduced to their original seeding density. Elastin, collagenase and TGF-beta were secreted in reduced amounts with longer time periods in culture for all cell types. Ultraviolet radiation and hydrogen peroxide induced collagenase, elastin and TGF-beta expression in neonatal keratinocytes but not in adult keratinocytes, or immortalized epithelial cells. Presently CAT activity and ICAM-1 expression is being analyzed in untreated and treated cells to establish a correlation between ICAM-1 expression and cellular senescence.

THE ROLE OF CERAMIDE (N-ACETYL D-SPHINGOSINE) IN THE REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS IN FIBROBLASTS

SUSAN P. HANRAHAN (STUDENT) AND NEENA PHILIPS

Biology Department. Georgian Court College. Lakewood, NJ 08701

Ceramide is an important glycolipid present on the surface of all plasma membranes. It functions as a secondary messenger for intracellular stress response pathways, such as cell cycle arrest and cell senescence, regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation. We are interested in studying the role ceramide has in regulating the secretion of extracellular matrix proteins; collagen, collagenase, and elastin. These proteins are essential to fibroblasts in cell-cell interactions, cell shape and structure, and gene expression. Ceramide was studied at three levels of interest: toxicity to fibroblasts in a dose/response manner, ELISA screening for extracellular matrix proteins and transfection studies focusing on the collagenase promoter.

The dose/response studies concluded ceramide to enhance growth by a factor of 10 at 3[micro]M, 10[micro]M, 30[micro]M, and 100[micro]M. However at 300[micro]M, ceramide became toxic to fibroblasts. At this concentration, cells were detached from the culture dish and randomly oriented. They appeared shrunken and rounded instead of long and fibrous. Time/response experiments with 150[micro]M ceramide indicated enhanced collagen, collagenase and elastin secretion at 3 hrs in media supplemented with serum and 6 hrs with serum free media. These results were obtained using ELISA screening. Transfection studies are ongoing to determine transcriptional regulation of the collagenase promoter.

BENZENE METABOLISM BY HUMAN SKIN CELLS

DONNA P. BUKCHILL (STUDENT), NEENA PHILIPS

Chemistry and Biochemistry Department

Georgian Court College. Lakewood, NJ 08701

Benzene, a cytoroxic chemical, is known to be metabolized in the liver through the cytochrome P450 2E1 to phenolic compounds. Once oxidized, the metabolites play a substantial role in benzene's toxicity by inducing either DNA alkylation or oxidative Stress which leads to many systemic disorders. Numerous studies have attempted to ascertain the molecular meclsanism of the cytotoxicity in the liver hosvever none have endeavored to scrutinize the skin it transcends. Skin contains an aromatic hydrocarbon responsive (Ah) battery, which includes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), possibly the most active of all P450s in aromatic metabolism. Therefore, it is logical to infer that benzene, not only transcends skin cells but is metabolically altered in the process. Presently our investigation is focused on the extent to which the skin is our first line of defense relative to the cytotoxicity of benzene. In regards to the kinetics of the metabolism, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry indicates that benzene i s metabolized in the skin. However, the major metabolites produced are not toxic phenol compounds but alkyl benzenes, such as toluene and ethylbenzene, which are considered less toxic. Relating to the molecular mechanism of its toxicity, apoptotic analysis has revealed that benzene induces apoptosis while toluene does not. These findings strongly suggest that toluene is not toxic to the cells and that the skin, through the CYP1A1. is acting as a barrier to detoxify benzene and reduce its detrimental effects in the body.

EFFECT OF BENZENE METABOLITES ON THE TOXICITY AND APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN DERMAL FIBROBLASTS

DENISE O'DONOGHUE (STUDENT), NEENA PHILIPS

Biology Department, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Skin absorption of ubiquitous benzene metabolites, found in cigarette smoke, gasoline, combustion products and contaminated waters, Constitute a major route of entry into the body. Therefore, the toxic effects of common benzene metabolites were studied in 3 different cell lines of human dermal fibroblasts. FB3, FB5 and ATCC cells were incubated with hydroquinone, t-butyl hydroquinone, phenol and hydrogen peroxide at concentrations ranging from 0-300 [micro]M for 24 hours. Cell viability was measured using a MTT assay. Toxicity from most to least toxic was found to be hydrogen peroxide [greater than] t-butyl hydroquinone [greater than] hydroquinone [greater than] phenol, corresponding to approximate LC50 values of 15 [micro]M, 20 [micro]M, 50 [micro]M and 1500 [micro]M, respectively. Apoptosis was measured using fluorescence of DNA fragments from cell lysate from cells exposed to 12 [micro]M hydrogen peroxide, 15 [micro]M t.butyl hydroquinone, 35 [micro]M hydroquinone, and 450 [micro]M phenol for 24 hours in serum and serum free media. Apoptosis was statistically increased for all cells exposed to metabolites under serum free conditions. However, in the presence of serum, cells were inhibited from apoptosis. Using ELISA, an increase in elastin and TGF-[beta] in the culture media was observed for cells exposed to metabolites in serum free media.

ROLE OF PLATELET COUNT AND FUNCTION IN BLOOD CLOTTING

CAROLYN LODER (STUDENT), NEENA PHILIPS

Biology Dept., Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Coagulation is the part of the hemostatic balance designed to keep blood loss in the vasculature to a minimum. Hemostasis involves clotting factor proteins and platelets. Platelets are disc-shaped cells that are activated upon injury to aid in formation of the hemostatic plug. In coagulation testing, cephalin, a phospholipid extract from brain tissue, is used to substitute for the platelet membrane. Cephalin provides a negatively charged surface for the enzymes of the prothrombin complex to assemble on.

Coagulation testing is often monitored with an Activated Clotting Time test (ACT). The ACT-based tests are designed for whole blood testing, using celite, kaolin or glass beads as an activator, to measure the time to form a fibrin clot. It is our theory that the ACT assay may be affected by platelet count and/or function and therefore may be an indicator of platelet count and/or function.

Fresh whole blood was drawn from a normal donor; an aliquot used to perform an ACT test, an aliquot mixed with 3.8% sodium citrate and platelet count assessed. An aliquot of the citrated sample was recalcified with 0.025M Ca[Cl.sub.2] and an ACT test performed. Remaining citrated blood was dispensed to two conical tubes and centrifuged to obtain platelet rich plasma (prp) and platelet poor plasma (ppp). Platelet counts recorded and samples were mixed to produce plasmas with varying platelet counts: 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, and '0'%. Red blood cells were added back to aliquots of the plasma preparations to make whole blood. The plasmas and whole blood preparations were tested with the ACT assay.

Clotting times for the whole blood preparations ranged from 135 sec for 100% platelet count to 157 sec for '0'% platelet count. The corresponding plasma clotting times ranged from 185 sec for 100% platelet count and 281 sec for "0"% platelet count. ACT clotting times for plasma samples that had cephalin (25u1) added back were returned to near normal ACT clotting times, (approx. 139-169 seconds). Addition of cephalin indicates the need for platelet receptors to be functional for normal clotting to occur.

BIOCHEMISTRY II

Chair -- Dr. Neena Philips, Georgian Court College

EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN TREATMENT AND VARIED MATRIX SUBSTRATES ON SECRETION OF ELASTIN, COLLAGENASE, AND TGF-[beta] BY FIBROELASTS, KERATINOCYTES, AND CO-CULTURES OF FIBROBLASTS AND KERATINOCYTES

MATTHEW NELSON, M. LASKO, C. LODER, D. O'DONOGHUE (STUDENTS), AND NEENA PHILIPS

Biology Department, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Cell-cell, cell-matrix, and cell-matrix-hormone interactions can alter gene expression. We evaluated the amount of elastin, collagenase, and TGF-[beta] secreted into the culture medium when fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and co-cultures were grown on varied matrix substrates and in addition subjected to estrogen. Cells were seeded into plain or matrix coated (collagen I. collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin) six-well plates with equal numbers of cells in each well and grown for 7 days. Estrogen was added to half of the wells for the final 24 hours. Total cell counts were obtained for each well. The levels of elastin, collagenase, and TGF-[beta] present in the culture media after 7 days were determined by indirect antibody ELISA. All three substances were shown to have a significant increase in secretion per cell in plain wells for monocultures and co-cultures when treated with estrogen except for TGF-[beta] in co-cultures. Fibroblasts and co-cultures decreased secretion of elastin, collagenase, and TGF-[beta] when grown in collagen I while keratinocytes increased secretion of elastin and TGF-[beta]. On collagen IV, keratinocytes and co-cultures increased secretion of elastin and collagenase with a reduction in both observed for fibroblasts. Fibroblasts and co-cultures grown on fibronectin had large increases in secretion per cell of all 3 substances while keratinocytes showed a marked decrease for each. Alternatively both fibroblasts and keratinocytes revealed large increases in secretion per cell of elastin, collagenase, and TGF-[beta] when grown on laminin but not in co-culture. Our results support the hypothesis that the composition of the matrix substrate when combined with exposure to estrogen can affect secretion of elastin, collagenase, and TGF-[beta] in monocultures and co-cultures of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in quite different ways.

THE EFFECT OF ESTROGEN ON THE PROMOTER ACTIVITY AND EXPRESSION OF COLLAGENASE IN DERMAL KERATINOCYTES, MCF-7 AND MCF-10 F CELLS

AMANDA MCGOVERN (STUDENT) AND NEENA PHILIPS

Departments of Biology/Chemistry and Biochemistry Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Collagen is the most abundant protein composing the ECM and is crucial in maintaining the integrity of a tissue. Interstitial collagenase is the enzyme that degrades collagen, and, therefore, plays a major role in tumorigenic cell metastasis. The effect of estrogen, a female sex hormone, on collagenase production in dermal keratinocytes and mammary epithelial cells is not yet known. We hypothesize that estrogen increases collagenase production and plays a major role in the cell metastasis in predominantly female-based cancer types.

Dermal keratinocytes, MCF-7 (breast cancer) and MCF-10F (mammary immortalized epithelial) cells were transfected with a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)-linked collagenase promoter construct. The cells were then treated or untreated with l0nM estrogen. Cell extracts were examined for CAT expression to determine the activity of the collagenase promoter in the various cells in the absence and presence of estrogen. The cell media were then examined for the secretory proteins collagenase, elastin and TGF-[beta].

Dermal keratinocytes expressed high collagenase promoter activity in the presence and absence of estrogen, whereas minimal promoter activity was observed in MCF-10F cells. However, in MCF-7 cells estrogen markedly reduced collagenase promoter activity. All cell types secreted high amounts of collagenase, elastin and TGF-[beta] in the absence and presence of estrogen. These preliminary results, contradict our hypothesis and may be a result of incorrect estrogen dosage and incubation periods, or may suggest protection against breast cancer. Present experiments include a time-dose response of the hormone.

PROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF THE TGF-[beta] ANTIBODIES; ALTI-TGF-[beta] AND ANTI-LAP, ON IMMORTALIZED HUMAN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL (MCF-10A) CELLS

NDIDI ONWUBALILI (STUDENT), AMY SMITH, NEENA PHILIPS

Biology, Chemistry and Biochemistry Departments Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-[beta]) is a multifunctional cytokine that exerts both proliferative and anti-proliferative effects on different tissue types. It is manufactured as a 391-amino-acid precursor molecule that is cleaved proteolytically to form peptide fragments and a 112-amino-acid subunit. The latent form of this growth factor requires biological activation before it can have an effect. It is bound to another dimeric peptide, latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF-[beta] exhibits modulatory effects on other growth factors and the cellular environment. It can also inhibit growth of most epithelial and lymphoid cells.

The aim of this research project was to investigate the effect of anti-TGF-[beta] antibodies on immortalized human mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cells. It was expected that the antibodies would cause a proliferation of the MCF-10A cells over a period of time. Anti-TGF-[beta]1 was used to block endogenous active TGF-[beta] while anti-LAP was used to neutralize the effect of latent TGF-[beta] that would be a reservoir of the growth factor for the cells. The cells were grown in mammary growth media (MGM) for two days. They were then plated into two six-well tissue culture dishes. For control, the cells were grown in MGM only while the experimental cells were grown in MGM supplemented with equal amounts (5ng/ul) of anti-TGF-[beta] and anti-LAP each. Both control and experimental cells were harvested each day for six days to obtain cell counts and study cell growth.

There was increased proliferation of the cells treated with the antibodies over a period of six days as compared to the cells that were left untreated. An ELISA was used to investigate the amounts of collagenase, elastin and TGF-[beta] expressed in the media of the cells over a six-day period. There were very much decreased amounts of collagenase, elastin and TGF-[beta] expressed in the media of the cells over a total period of ten days. This corroborated the expected results. TGF-[beta] had been neutralized in the cells and this had caused their proliferation. Decreasing amounts of collagenase and elastin also signify the mediation of their expression via TGF-[beta]. Further studies are being performed on this project.

ANTIOXIDANTS AFFECT THE GROWTH AND COLLAGENASE EXPRESSION OF MAMMARY EPITHELEAL CELLS

LISA RIZZO (STUDENT), NEENA PHILIPS

Biology Department, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Immortalized mammary epithelial cells were used to examine the effects of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on mammary epithelial cell viability and expression of secretory proteins: elastin, collagenase and TGF-beta. The cells were either treated or untreated with different concentrations of the vegetable or fruit antioxidant: 0[micro]g. 1[micro]g, 10[micro]g, 30[micro]g, 100[micro]g and 300[micro]g. Cell viability was measured by MTT enzymatic assay and loss of cell viability was seen with fruit and vegetable antioxidants in a dose dependent manner. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) indicated reduction in collagenase expression with fruit and vegetable antioxidants. Based upon the results of the present experiment, antioxidants may be used to slow the growth and metastasis of cancer cells.

NITRIC OXIDE AND ITS EFFECTS ON 10A, 10F,m AND MCF-7 CELLS

KELLY STEPHAN, AMANDA HARPE, CAROL LEONARD (STUDENTS), NEENA PHILIPS

Biology/Chemistry and Biochemistry Departments Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

We investigated the role of nitric oxide in two immortalized cell lines, 10F and 10A, and a cancerous epithelial cell line, MCF-7. In the experimental procedure, the three cell lines (l0F, 10A, and MCF-7) were seeded in six-well plates and either treated with nitric oxide donor, S Nitroso glutathione, or left untreated. The cells were harvested two, four, and six days after seeding and cell counts were determined. The cell numbers revealed a steady decrease in cell proliferation in the nitric oxide treated cells. The media was then analyzed for secretory proteins, collagen, collagenase, elastin, transforming growth factor-((TGF-[beta], and fibronectin using an indirect antibody ELISA. In the 10F cell line, the collagen concentration increased with time in the control and decreased in the nitric oxide treated. However, there was a steady decrease in the collagenase, elastin, and TGF-[beta] concentrations with time in the control, and an increase in the nitric oxide treated samples as opposed to the control. T he fibronectin concentrations were high in the control and nitric oxide treated samples. The 10A and MCF-7 results were inconclusive. There was no significant difference in the intensity of the protein concentrations in the control or nitric oxide treated samples. Based on the experimental results, nitric oxide was found to have an effect on the 10F cell line and not the 10A or MCF-7 cell lines. We believe that the lop immortalized cell line closely resembles that of normal cells making it more susceptible to nitric oxide damage, whereas the 10A and MCF-7 cells contain more genetic rearrangements and alterations and due to such rearrangements are less susceptible to nitric oxide damage.

EFFECT OF PROLACTIN ON THE SECRETION OF EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS IN IMMORTALIZED AND NEOPLASTIC MAMMARY CELLS

KARYN MCFADDEN (STUDENT), NEENA PHILIPS

Department of Biology and Chemistry Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Prolactin works synergistically with estrogen and progesterone to control neo-plastic growth of mammary cells. Excessive levels of prolactin have been shown to cause cancer. Extracellular matrix proteins are suspected of having an influence over the prolactin-estrogen pathway but the details are unknown, In this study, we were trying to determine if the addition of increasing doses of prolactin affects the amount of the proteins, collagenase, elastin, and TGF-[beta], secreted by the cells. Collagenase is a collagen degrading enzyme that may play a role in tumorigenic cell metastasis, elastin a connective tissue component and TGF-[beta] is a pleiotrophic growth factor with both proliferative and antiproliferative qualities. We also wanted to determine if there were any differences in the way that MCF-7 and MCF-10 cells respond to prolactin. We measured the effect of the hormones prolactin and estrogen on the levels of proteins secreted by malignant mammary cells (MCF-7) and immortalized mammary cells (MCF-10F ). MCF-7 and MCF-10F cells were exposed to prolactin, estrogen and a combination of both and then the level of proliferation was determined. An ELISA was then performed on the media to assay for an alteration in the level of secreted proteins by the addition of the hormones. Our results indicate that the addition of prolactin increases the rate that MCF-10 F cells secrete elastin, collagenase and TGF-[beta] with respect to the number of cells present in a dose dependent manner. The addition of both estrogen and prolactin produced the most dramatic results with a more than three-fold increase over untreated cells. Prolactin seems to have an opposite effect on MCF-7 cells where the amount of secreted protein decreased with increasing doses of prolactin. The presence of estrogen and prolactin increased protein secretion but not to the level of untreated cells. Studies are ongoing to delineate the role of prolactin and estrogen on proliferation and extracellular matrix.

CHEMISTRY I

STUDIES ON AN ECO-FRIENDLY NITRATION REACTION USING NMR MONITORING

Chair -- Dr. John Piwinski, Schering-Plough

VELJKO POPOV, MAGHAR S. MANHAS, AJAY K. BOSE

George Barasch Bioorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030

Nitration of aromatic substrates is one of the most important reactions in organic chemistry. We have studied a microwave assisted eco-friendly nitration process for phenolic compounds using a solution of sodium nitrate in acetic acid. For example, 2-hydroxy acetophenone afforded a mixture of 3-nitro and 5-nitro derivatives. The progress of the reaction and the relative amounts of isomeric nitro compounds produced were monitored using NMR techniques. Since the signal for the methyl protons of the substrate and the products were too close, we used the aromatic protons as convenient markers for studying the reaction. In this paper, effect of the concentration of Na[NO.sub.3] - [CH.sub.3]COOH and/or microwave power level on the rate of reaction and ratio of product distribution will be presented.

AN ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY METHOD FOR MONONITRATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS

RONALD SUAYAN, ASHOKE BHATTACHARJEE AND AJAY K. BOSE

George Barasch Bioorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030

The conventional methods for nitration of aromatic compounds usually involve mixtures of nitric and sulfuric acids or oxides of nitrogen. These methods can lead to overnitration as well as oxidation. We have developed an approach that uses a solution of sodium nitrate in acetic acid as an eco-friendly nitrating agent for phenolic compounds. Under microwave irradiation in an unmodified domestic microwave oven, phenolic compounds such as (1-4) can be mononitrated in 75-85% yield using a 2.5M Na[NO.sub.3]/[CH.sub.3]COOH solution. This method is suitable for use in flow process in a modified microwave apparatus.

CLAY CATALYZED MICROWAVE ASSISTED NITRATION

UNMESH SHAH, ASHOK BHATTACHARJEE, AJAY K. BOSE

George Barasch Bioorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030

Claycop [Cu[([NO.sub.3]).sub.2]/clay] and Clayfen [Fe[([NO.sub.3]).sub.3]/clay] have been used for nitrating aromatic compounds in presence of acetic anhydride and a chlorinated solvent (Laszlo, 1987). This is usually a slow process requiring several hours. We have observed that this nitration reaction can be conducted in a few minutes under microwave irradiation in an unmodified domestic microwave oven. We have made this reaction more eco-friendly by using Clayzinc [Zn[([NO.sub.3]).sub.2]clay] and omitting the chlorinated solvent. We have discovered that acetic anhydride can also be omitted as a part of the reaction mixture if we use acetonitrile -- an excellent absorber of microwaves -- as the reaction medium. Electron-rich aromatic compounds give 80-85% yield of mononitro compounds in about 4-8 mm when nitrated on a scale of 1-5g.

NITRATION OF ELECTRON RICH COMPOUNDS: A NEW REACTION WITH CERIUM (IV) AMMONIUM NITRATE (CAN)

MAGALY P. HUAROTTE, ASHOKE BHATTACHARJEE, MAGHAR S. MANHAS AND AJAY K. Bose

George Barasch Bioorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030

Oxidation with cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) has been used extensively for preparing N-unsubstituted [beta]-lactams (e.g. 2) from N-PMP [beta]-lactams (e.g. 1). We have observed that using [CH.sub.3]CN as a reaction medium CAN induce mononitration of a PMP group (1 to 3). This reaction is complete under microwave irradiation in a few minutes (4-8 minutes) while several hours are required when conducted without microwave irradiation. To examine the scope of the method we have studied several [beta]-lactams and found that activation by a methoxy group is essential for nitration. A dinitro [beta]-lactam, 3b, was prepared starting with 2b using the same procedure.

A MILD METHOD FOR AROMATIC NITRATION

CARLOS PEREDA, ANJU H. SHARMA, SUBHENDU N. GANGULY, MAGHAR S. MANHAS, AJAY K. BOSE

George Barasch Bioorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030

Nitrated compounds are of great chemical significance to the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. Conventional methods of nitration involve the use of fuming nitric acid with conc. [H.sub.2][SO.sub.4] or [H.sub.3][PO.sub.4]. Using MORE (Microwave assisted Organic Reaction Enhancement) chemistry we have developed methods for nitrating aromatic substrates with mild nitrating agents. Thus, conc. [HNO.sub.3] diluted in an appropriate medium to about 4M strength can be used to nitrate aromatic substrates. Reaction times typically range from as low as 15s to a few minutes, yields are excellent, as is the product purity. Nine compounds were studied: 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, acetanilide, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, indole-3, carboxaldehyde, salicylic acid, cinnamic acid and 2-hydroxy cinnamic acid. It was observed that presence of an activating group (-OH or -OC[H.sub.3]) on the aromatic ring is an essential prerequisite for the reaction. Thus, 4-hydroxycoumarin, acetanilide, and cin namic acid were not nitrated by this method. Salicylaldehyde gave the 5-nitro derivative of 70% (HN[O.sub.3]/[H.sub.2]O) and [greater than]90% (HN[O.sub.3]/HOAc) yield.

ECO-FRIENDLY CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A MICROWAVE OVEN

JEESSY A. MEDINA, ANJU H. SHARMA, SUBHENDU N. GANGULY, AJAY K. BOSE George Barasch Bioorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030

Nitro aromatic compounds are valuable intermediates for the synthesis of a variety of organic compounds. Conventional methods of nitration involve the use of corrosive reagents such as fuming HN[O.sub.3], conc. [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4], conc. [H.sub.3]P[O.sub.4], among others. Microwave assisted reactions offer a safe, convenient, rapid and highly efficient alternative for the nitration of aromatic compounds. Fumes of oxides of nitrogen are not released into the environment, making these reactions environmentally benign when compared to their traditional counterparts. Dilute solutions of HN[O.sub.3] (ca. 15% strength) in [H.sub.2]O/HOAc afford nitration in excellent yields, high product purity, and "atom economy" is achieved. The presentation will focus on factors influencing the reaction -- including concentration of HN[O.sub.3], nature of the dilution medium ([H.sub.2]O/HOAc), power level of irradiation. Thus, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (1) when irradiated with 15% HN[O.sub.3] in [H.sub.2]O produces a dinitro marin e natural product (2) in 80-90% yield with traces of 3-nitro-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (3). Anisole (4) gave a mixture of 2-nitro and 4-nitro anisole; in HN[O.sub.3]/[H.sub.2]O, 4-nitro anisole (5) was the major product while in HN[O.sub.3]/HOAc it was 2-nitro anisole (6).

THE TIME-DEPENDENT VIRIAL THEOREM FOR HOOKES ATOM

PAUL HESSLER (GRADUATE STUDENT), KIERON BURKE Chemistry Department, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ JANG PARK (GRADUATE STUDENT) Northwestern University, Chicago, IL

The time-dependent virial theorem was derived. The theorem was verified using Hookes Atom. Known results from Hookes atom energies were compared with computer calculations. Results in the physical system were verified.

The results were then tested in a Kohn-Sham system using Density Functional Theory. The correlation and exchange quantities were extracted and found to satisfy the new relation.

THE OXYGEN REBOUND RATE CONSTANT MEASUREMENTS FOR THE HYDROXYLATION OF NORCARANE CATALYZED BY SYNTHETIC METALLOPORPHYRINS

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,

Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

PARVATHI S. MURTHY

Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544

JOHN T. GROVES

Cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases and metalloporphyrins, their synthetic mimics, catalyze the hydroxylation of hydrocarbons. The mechanism of this reaction involves two steps: hydrogen abstraction followed by oxygen rebound. Measurements of the rate constant for the second step in the above enzyme catalyzed reactions have led to some questions about the nature of the intermediate involved in the reaction. This paper will describe the measurement of the oxygen rebound rate constant for the hydroxylation of the hydrocarbon norcarane, catalyzed by metalloporphyrins. The results are comparable to those of the enzyme catalyzed reaction of similar substrates. The paper will also discuss the various mechanisms for the formation and reaction of cyclopropyl carbinyl intermediates such as the one involved in the hydroxylation of norcarane.

NOVEL POLY(ANHYDRIDE-ESTERS) WITH ENHANCED THERMAL AND DEGRADATIVE PROPERTIES

GORDANA DUKOVIC (STUDENT), KATHRYN E. UHRICH Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry, Piscataway, NJ 08854

A generation of poly(anhydride-.esters) (PAE's) demonstrated biocompatibility and good degradation characteristics, but their glass transition temperatures ([T.sub.g]'s) were below body temperature (37[degrees]C), making them less useful for biological applications. Our goal was to develop polymers with [T.sub.g]'s above 37[degrees]C. To meet this goal, we synthesized a series of four PAE's that contained either succinic, terephthalic, 4,4'oxybis(benzoic), or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid derivatives. The synthesized monomers, oligomers, and polymers were characterized by 'H NMR spectroscopy (chemical structure), GPC (molerular weight). DSC and TGA (thermal properties). All four of the new materials had [T.sub.g]'s above 75[degrees]C markedly higher than our objective. Because the terephthalate-based polymer showed the highest degree of polymerization, we are currently evaluating its in vitro degradation properties.

CHEMISTRY ON THE INTERNAL SURFACES OF REDOX ACTIVE PENTASIL ZEOLITES

PRASAD S. LAKKARAJUA [1], HEINZ D. ROTHB [2], DAHUI ZHOUB [2] AND KUI SHENB [2]

(1.)Department of Chemistry, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

(2.)Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08854

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) investigations into the chemistry on the internal surfaces of redox active Pentasil zeolites will be discussed. Pentasil zeolites have two kinds of pore systems, either straight elliptical channels (5.2 x 5.7 A) or sinusoidal ones, with nearly circular diameter (ca. 5.5 A). Despite the restricted nature of tise pores, we have been able to observe a variety of reactions in the zeolite pores. Oximes have been found to undergo oxidative deprotonation leading to the formation of [sigma]-type neutral radicals. Selected substrates undergo oxidative dehydrogenation, as exemplified by the formation of anethole radical cation from ppropylanisole. The mechanism proposed involved three oxidations alternating with two deprotonations. Oxidative cyclization is demonstrated by the formation of thianthrenium radical cation from diphenyl disulfide (DPDS). The mechanism proposed includes two intra-molecular electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of the dication of DPDS. Oxidative ring co ntraction is proposed in the conversion of 2-phenyl.-1,3-dithiane into the radical cation of 1,2-dithiolane. A dication having S-S bond is proposed as an intermediate. The smaller size of the zeolite pores stabilizes radical rations that are unstable in fluid media. DPDS radical cation is unstable in solution media as it undergoes spontaneous cyclization to thianthrenium radical cation. However, we have been able to observe DPDS radical cation in the zeolite channels.

NOVEL LANTHANIDE METAL COORDINATION NETWORKS. SOLVENTOTHERMAL SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF [[LN.sub.2][(PDC').sub.3][([H.sub.2]O).sub.6]] (LN=ER, EU) AND [[LA.sub.2] [(PDC').sub.3] [([H.sub.2]O).sub.4]][([H.sub.2]O).sub.2](PDC'=3,5-PYRAZOLEDICARBOXYL ATE)

LONG PAN, XIAOYING HUANG, JING LI

Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ, 08102

Solventohermal reactions of pdc (pdc = 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid) with lanthanide (III) nitrate salts in the presence of water or ethanol yield three novel lanthanide coordination compounds [[Er.sub.2][(pdc').sub.3][([H.sub.2]O).sub.6]](I)(pdc'=3,5-pyrazoledi carboxylate), [[Eu.sub.2][(pdc').sub.3][([H.sub.2]O).sub.6]] (II) and [[La.sub.2][(pdc').sub.3][([H.sub.2]O).sub.4]][([H.sub.2]O).sub.2](II I). Single crystal diffraction analyses show that compound I and II are isostructural and belong to the monoclinic crystal system, space group [P2.sub.1]/c (No. 14), with I: a = 10.915(1) A, b = 10.113(1)A, c = 10.462(1) A, [beta] = [100.475(9).sup.*], V = 1135.6(2) [A.sup.3], Z = 2, R1 = 0.0212, wR2 = 0.0575; II: a = 10.985(2) A, b = 10.187(2) A, c = 10.550(2) A, [beta] = [100.11(3).sup.*], V = 1162.3(2) [A.sup.3], Z = 2, R1 = 0.0238, wR2 = 0.0641. III crystallizes in the monoclinic system, noncentrosymmetric space group Cc (No.9), with a = 15.797(3) A, b = 8.881(2) A, c = 18.411(4) A, [beta] = [98.37(3).sup.*], V = 2555.4(9) [A.sup.3], Z = 4, R1 = 0.0626, wR2 = 0.01172. The structure of compound I and II are composed of double sheets of [[infinity].sup.2] [Ln(pdc')[([H.sub.2]O).sub.3]] interconnected by bridging pdc's to form infinite 2D slabs. These slabs stack on the top of each other resulting in a quasi three-dimensional network via interlayered hydrogen bonding. Compound III has a three-dimensional structure consisting of [[infinity].sup.3] [[La.sub.2][(pdc').sub.3][([H.sub.2]O).sub.4]] open frameworks and solvated [H.sub.2]O molecules filled in the open tunnels running down b-axis.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL INORGANIC FRAMEWORK VIA HYDROGEN BONDING: SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF M[(NCS).sub.2][([H.sub.2]O).sup.2](4,4'-BPY)(4,4'-BPY (M = FE, Co, NI; 4,4'-BPY = 4,4'-BIPYRIDINE)

DA-CHAO WANG (STUDENT), XIAO-YING HUANG, JING LI

Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ 08102

Three inorganic polymers, [M(NCS).sub.2][([H.sub.2]O).sub.2](4,4'-bpy)(4,4'-bpy, M = Fe(I), Co(II), Ni(Ill), have been synthesized using hydrothermal method at 130[degrees]C. The crystal structures of compound I - III have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All three are isostructural and belong to the triclinic crystal system, space group P1. The structure contains octahedrally coordinated metal-centers that bind to the three types of ligands to form [M(NCS).sub.2][([H.sub.2]O).sub.2](4,4'-bpy) one-dimensional chains. These polymeric chains are interconnected by additional 4,4'-bpy via hydrogen bonding (N-H--O) to result in quasi two-dimensional networks. The magnetic and thermal properties of these compounds have been investigated and will be discussed.

SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE, AND PROPERTIES OF NOVEL QUATENARY METAL SELENIDES

KIERAN DILKs (STUDENT), ZHEN CHEN, RU-JI WANG, AND JING LI Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ 08012

Two new quaternary layered metal chalcogenides, [RbCu.sub.1.2][Ag.sub.3.8][Se.sub.3](I) and [Cs.sub.2][Cu.sub.2][Sb.sub.2][Se.sub.5] (II), have been synthesized using the solvothermal method which incorporated ethylenediamine (en) as the solvent. Crystals of the two compounds were grown for five days at 160[degrees]C in thick-walled pyrex tubes. The structures and properties of the compounds have been studied through powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction, and UV-VIS-NIR scanning spectrophotometer. Compound I crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system, space group P4/nbm (No. 125) with a=5.991(1) A, c=10.918(2) A, Z=2, V=391.1(1) [A.sup.3], R1/wR2=0.0373/0.0458 for all reflections. I was found to have a band gap of 0.7-0.8 eV. Compound II belongs to the triclinic crystal system, space group P1 (No. 2), a=7.645(1) A, b=8.768(2) A, c=10.264(1) A, [alpha]=91.97[(2).sup.*], [beta]=[92.07.sup.*], [gamma]=103.05[(1).sup.*], Z=2, V=669.2(3) [A.sup.3], R1/wR2=0.0685/0.0740 for all reflections. II was found t o have a hand gap of 1.2-1.3eV.

HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THREE METAL PYRIDYLE SULFIDES: [MCL.sub.2][(HPyS).sub.2], M=Co, ZN, CD

MICHAEL LAWANDY (STUDENT), XIAOYINO HUANG, JING LI

Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ 08102

Recently, we have developed a synthetic route which makes use of hydrothermal reactions for single crystal growth of inorganic-organic hybrid systems. Here, we report the three new compounds, [CoCl.sub.2][(HPyS).sub.2] (I), [ZnCl.sub.2][(HPyS).sub.2] (II), and [CdCl.sub.2][(HpyS).sub.2] (III) resulted from these reactions and their single crystal structures. All three compounds were prepared under hydrothermal conditions at 170[degrees]C over s 7 day period using [MCl.sub.2] and 2,2'-dypyridyl disulfide as starting materials. Compounds I - III are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system, spare group C2/c (#15) with the following unit cell parameters: (I) a = 9.347(2) A, b = 11.406(2) A, c = 13.596(3) A, [beta] = 109.11[(3).sup.*], V = 1369.5(5) [A.sup.3]; (II) a = 9.352(2) A, b = 11.424(2) A, c = 13.770(3) A, [beta] = 110.86[(3).sup.*], V = 1374.8(8) [A.sup.3]; (III) a = 9.429(2) A, b = 11.498(2) A, c = 13.807(3) A, [beta] = 109.32[(3).sup.*], V = 1412.6(5) [A.sup.3]. The thermal stabi lity of these compounds have been analyzed by TGA and will be discussed.

Chair -- Dr. Karen Swanson, William Paterson University

ECOLOGY/PHYSICS

MOVEMENT OF TRACE METALS THROUGH A FORESTED WATERSHED

KAREN A. SWANSON

Department of Environmental Science William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ 07470

The High Mountain Conservation area is an urban forest located in Wayne, Passaic County, and is surrounded by residential, commercial, and industrial areas. Part of the High Mountain Reserve is drained by Buttermilk Creek, which crosses the William Paterson campus and flows into Oldham Pond in North Haledon. Samples of precipitation and stream water have been collected and analyzed for lead and copper zinc to determine whether these trace metals, commonly found in urban air and precipitation, are being introduced into the ecosystem from its urban and suburban surroundings and to accumulate initial data on how they may be cycled through the system. Initial results show significantly lower concentrations of both metals in water leaving the watershed in the stream water than the concentrations entering in the precipitation, suggesting that the metals are being retained in the watershed, possibly by organic materials in the soils. Additional investigations are being designed to confirm the fate of the metals in the watershed system.

INVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS OF WATER QUALITY WITHIN AN URBAN STREAM SYSTEM

Dr. Karen Swanson

MICHAEL J. GRECES (STUDENT), KAREN A. SWANSON

Department of Environmental Science

MICHAEL SEBETICH

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ 07470

Macroinvertebrates were sampled from three locations within the watershed of Oldham Pond, located in North Haledon, Passaic County, New Jersey. An Eckman grab sample was taken from the center of the pond in order to determine the general composition and density of its benthic macroinvertebrates. This report concentrates on the collection of data on the invertebrates of the pond's primary inflow and outflow stream, Molly Ann Brook. A group sample was taken at a point approximately 0.5 km upstream from the pond on October 31, 1998 using a Surber Sampler in a riffle area. A mirror sample was taken immediately below the ponds dam on November 24, 1998. The invertebrates were identified to their family and counted to best estimate. Statistical applications were applied to this data to determine the quality of the water flowing into and out of the pond, as outlined by guidelines developed by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.

According to the data collected at this time, both the upper and lower Molly Ann Brook are negatively affected by land use and/or urban pollution occurring within the Oldham Pond watershed.

A LIMNOLOGICAL SURVEY OP WHITE LAKE, WARREN COUNTY, NJ; A MARL LAKE THAT EXPERIENCES A METALIMNETIC [O.sub.2] MAXIMUM

EDWARD S. KUBERSKY

Dept. Natural Science, Felician College, Lodi, NJ 07644

White Lake, Warren County, NJ is a hardwater, "marl" lake which drains to the Paulinskill River. The lake was surveyed in summer 1998. The only other significant data available was collected in 1950. This comparatively deep small lake (area 26.3ha, max depth 13.4m, mean depth 6.7m) demonstrated a metalimnetic oxygen maximum of the permanent climax type, with % saturation oxygen highest at a depth of 5-6m. Supersaturation extended to 7.5-8 m. The hypolimnion did not become appreciably anoxic until August, at which time the sediment had an [H.sub.2]S odor. pH averaged 8.4 at the surface and 7.9 at the bottom. Total alkalinity was 140 mg/i [CaCO.sub.3] at the surface and 238 mg/i [CaCO.sub.3] at the bottom. Water clarity was excellent (mean 5% light level at 6.8m, mean [Z.sub.sd] 3.1m). The color of White Lake ("IV" or pale green on the ForelUle scale), and the excellent clarity are due to a sparse plankton population and light reflection from the pale sediments.

The dominant species is the macrophytic alga Chara. Beds of the lime-encrusted "stonewort" are primarily responsible for precipitating marl ([CaCO.sub.3]) as slselves in the littoral margin. Additional marl may precipitate from bicarbonate-rich springs whirls enter below the lake surface. White Lake was the site of a unique commercial mining operation for marl.

Because White Lake has remained entirely undeveloped, it appears to have experienced no deterioration over the last half century.

AN ANALYSIS OP THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OLDHAM POND AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

SCOTT R. SAUNDERS (STUDENT), RICHARD PARDI, AND KAREN A. SWANSON

Department of Environmental Science

William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ 07470

Oldham Pond, which is owned by William Paterson University, covers an area of approximately 12.8 acres in North Haledon, Passaic County, New Jersey. The pond is fed by two intermittent streams, Buttermilk Creek and Upper Molly Ann Brook, and is drained by Lower Molly Ann Brook. As part of an overall ecological assessment conducted during the fall of 1998, samples were collected from the pond and influent Molly Ann Brook and analyzed for standard water quality parameters using standard analytical methods. Analytical parameters included pH, turbidity, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, BOD, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and dissolved metals. Analytical results suggest that the water is relatively clean and uncontaminated, but additional analyses should be conducted over a longer period of time to confirm this.

AN ICTHYOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF A SMALL NORTHERN NEW JERSEY POND

ELLEN EICHENLAUB (STUDENT), KAREN A. SWANSON

Department of Environmental Science and Geography

MICHAEL J. SEBETICH

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ 07470

An initial ecological assessment was performed on Oldham Pond which is located in the Borough of North Haledon, Passaic County, New Jersey. The pond has an area of approximately 12.8 acres, and is fed by two intermittent streams, Buttermilk Creek and Molly Ann Brook. It is drained by one outflow stream and is annually stocked by the New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife.

A number of species were collected using standard methodologies. Two species were found in Oldham Pond. Upper Molly Ann Brook, the primary influent stream, yielded four species. Sampling of Lower Molly Ann Brook, the single outflow stream, yielded eight species. Species sampled included: Lepomis macrochirus. Micropterus salmoides, Erimyzon oblongus, Ictalurus punctatus, Cyprinus carpio, Lepomis gibbosus, Rhinichthys altratulus, Percina peltata, and Hypentelium nigricans. Based on the findings, the system appears healthy.

X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OP THE LOCAL CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OP TRACE IMPURITIES IN HYDROXY-APATITE AND FLUORO-APATITE

ANNE TABOR-MORRIS

Physics Department, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY/PSYCHOLOGY I

Trace amounts of elements suds as iron, strontium, lead and zinc are known to exist in crystalline hydroxy-apatite and fluoro-apatite. Hydroxy-apatite is the mineral portion of human and animal bone but is also grown naturally (along with fluoroapatite) in thermal springs and can be grown synthetically for use in environmental remediation. The average crystal structure is well known from x-ray diffraction. This study uses X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Spectroscopy to identify the local crystal environment around the trace impurities.

Chair -- Dr. Jeffrey Thompson, Georgian Court College

A REPEAT ELEMENT AT THE CENTROMERIC BOUNDARY OP THE HUMAN 11P15 IMPRINTING DOMAIN POSSESSES A TELOMERE-LIKE SILENCING FUNCTION

JEFFREY S. THOMPSON

Biology Department, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

ANDREW P. FEINBERG

Dept. of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205

Genomic imprinting is a parental-specific form of gene regulation found in mammals. Imprinted genes are marked by an unknown mechanism during gametogenesis, resulting in parental-specific monoallelic gene expression in the offspring. Such imprints persist throughout the life of the organism, except in the germ cells, where the imprint is rewritten to reflect the gender of the individual. Imprinted genes are found clustered in discrete regions in the mammalian genome, suggesting that imprinting is coordinately established across large genomic domains. To understand the mechainsm of imprinting, we have attempted to identify potential regulatory elements within the imprinting domain on human chromosome 11. At the centromeric end of this 2 Mb domain, an unusual 15 basepair repeat sequence was identified, which is conserved in three polymorphic forms in the population. This element, named IBRE-1 (Imprinting Boundary Repeat Element), is conserved in other species, and bears some similarity to yeast telomeric seque nces. Introduction of IBRE-1 into yeast indicates that the element facilitates formation of telomeric heterochromatin, which silences neighboring genes. While it remains to be determined if this function is conserved in humans, our data suggest that this repeat sequence may function as an imprinting regulatory element.

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GENOMIC BOUNDARY ELEMENTS UTILIZING A CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAY IN YEAST

AMY SMITH (STUDENT), PAMELA J. ALEXANDER (STUDENT), JEFFREY S. THOMPSON

Biology Department, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

The eukaryotic genome is believed to be organized in the form of discrete domains, in which the residing genes are coordinately regulated. The presence of adjacent domains along the chromosome suggests that genomic regions are insulated from one another by boundaries, elements which serve to protect resident genes in one domain from the regulatory activities of neighboring domains. Such boundaries may function by preventing the spread of different forms of chromatin structure, which influence gene expression, from one domain to the next. While several potential boundary elements have been identified from various eukaryotic species, little is known about their function. To identify boundary elements and characterize their function, we have attempted to develop an in viva boundary assay utilizing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, heterochromatin is formed at the ends of the chromosomes, which propagates centromerically for about 3-A kilobases, transcriptionally silencing genes located within this r egion. If a boundary element can function by blocking the spread of heterochromatin, its placement between the telomere and a normally silenced gene should allow the gene to be expressed. We are testing this potentially valuable assay by introducing two potential boundary elements into yeast: scs from the Drosophila hsp70 locus; and a regulatory element located upstream of the mouse H19 gene.

SCREENING FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS USING THE AGAR OVERLAY TECHNIQUE

JAMES P. MACK

Biology Dept., Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ 07764

JOSEPH A. ADAMO

Ocean County College and Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

MICHAEL J. BALICK

Director, Institute of Economic Botany.

The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458

CONNIE ADAMO

Ocean County College, Toms River, NJ 08753

JOSEPHINE AMBRUZS

Monmouth University, West Long Brands, NJ 07764

Eighteen essential oils were tested for antibiotic activity against two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Two antibiotics chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g/disc) and streptomycin (10 [micro]g/disc) were used as zone diameter interpretive standards. Three bacteria were strongly susceptible to at least two or more oils. P. aeruginosa was resistant to all eighteen oils. E. coli was extremely susceptible to Lemon Grass oil (Cymbopogon citratus), as well as strongly susceptible to Tea Tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia). S. aureus was strongly susceptible to Spanish Lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia), Sassafras oil (Sassafras albidium), Tea Tree oil, Palmarosa oil (Cybopogon martinii), and Lemon Grass oil. B. subtilis was strongly susceptible to Nutmeg oil (Myrista fragrans), Lemon Grass oil, Tea Tree oil, Palmarosa oil, and Cajeput oil (Melaleuca leucadendron). Screening of essential oils for antibiotic acti vity may provide an additional source of organic chemicals active in inhibiting the growth of bacteria as well as providing insight as to the biochemical mechanisms which produce the inhibition.

IDENTIFICATION OF A [alpha]-CRYSTALLIN DOMAIN IN THE SMALL HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN, sHSP23, ISOLATED FROM THE FRESHWATER ALGAE, HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS

ANITA ANKOLA (STUDENT), MARISA FRESCHI (STUDENT), MARLENE KAYNE

Biology Department, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628

When bacterial, plant or animal cells are stressed, small heat shock proteins. sHSPs, are produced. The sHSP proteins assist in reversing and/or protecting proteins in the cytoplasm and organelles from denaturation. We report the detection of sHSP23 (molecular weight, 23 kDa) in the freshwater green algae, Haematococcus pluvialis, in response to heating at 34[degrees]C for 90 minutes. The protein, as determined by Western blot analysis, contains a protein domain similar to that found in a mammalian eye lens protein, [alpha]-crystallin. This type of domain is characteristic for this group of low molecular weight HSPs. The protein was also found to bind polyclonal antibodies against another heat shock protein. HSP 60. The structural implications of this cross reactivity as well as sequence homologies to human p23 are presently under investigation.

SENSORY INTEGRATION AND DIVERGENT VISUAL PATHWAYS IN THE AFRICAN BUTTERFLY FISH

PAUL T. HAYNES (STUDENT) AND WILLIAM M. SAIDEL

Department of Biology, Rutgers University at Camden, Camden, NJ 08102

The teleost Pantodon buchholzi, the African butterfly fish, inhabits an ecological niche at the water surface in which its visual system must contend with simultaneous vision in water and through the surface into air. Feeding by this fish is a stereotypic behavior which occurs nearly 100% of the time only when prey float on or above the water surface, i.e., only from its aerial visual field. Since neural correlates of stereotyped behavior imply identified circuits in the nervous system, the feeding behavior of this fish suggests a unique circuit might be found somewhere in the aerial visual pathway.

We have identified a specific type of neuron in the optic tectum that, because of its position, must be involved with vision in the aerial visual field and might be involved in the integration of visual and mechanoreception. This is a fusiform cell whose soma is located in the stratum griesium centrale of the tectum, and whose apical and basal dendrites may receive visual and lateral line inputs respectively. These cells are only located in the 'aerial' tectum and these cells are spaced a uniform distance apart.

This cell type may perform a role in the sensory identification of a neuroethological "feeding" stimulus and the appropriate motor response.

AN EXAMINATION OF THE PREDICTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION IN EMPLOYED MOTHERS

KRISTIE FERRARA (STUDENT), NICOLE SCULEY (STUDENT), AND THERESA J. BROWN

Department of Psychology, Georgian Court College, Lakewood, NJ 08701

Although careers and motherhood are merging at an increasing rate, there is little research examining the intersection of these two aspects of a woman's life. In this research, 43 employed mothers completed questionnaires regarding their level of job satisfaction before, during, and after their pregnancies, co-workers' and supervisors' reactions to their pregnancies, and various demographic items. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that a woman's level of job satisfaction prior to the birth of her child was a significant predictor of her level of job satisfaction after the birth of her child. Additional analyses indicated that there were no significant changes in either co-workers' or supervisors' reactions to a woman either during or after her pregnancy.

CHARACTERIZATION OF SLEEP CYCLES IN RATS USING SUMMED POWER IN A FREQUENCY BAND FROM FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DATA

THOMAS MOFFA (STUDENT), MATTHEW GILLIS (STUDENT), EMILY HARDER (STUDENT), ALAN LUCERNA (STUDENT), DANIEL RUPERT (STUDENT) AND JOSEPH V. MARTIN

Biology Department, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ

While there are clear-cut circadian rhythms in sleep and waking, further analysis indicates a microarchitecture of the sleep waking pattern. We studied the ultradian rhythm in sleep in rats by analyzing the temporal variation in power spectrum derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) data by fast Fourier transform (FFT). Rats were implanted with skull electrodes for monitoring EEG and wire electrodes in the temporalis muscle for monitoring electromyographic (EMG) activity. After recovery from surgery, rats were connected to a computerized data collection system and EEG, EMG and brain temperature were logged to disk over an eight-hour period. After the study, the data of successive 15 minute intervals were analyzed by FFT and the power in the 1-8 Hz range was summed for that particular interval. A clear-cut cyclic variation in the 1-8 Hz power was demonstrated throughout the recording period. The period of this ultradian cycle was approximately 20 minutes although variations in the period did occur througho ut the recording session. The appearance of this cyclic variation in the 1-8 Hz frequency band appears analogous to an approximately 120 minute cycle apparent in the EEG-defined sleep of humans. Supported by the National Science Foundation (IBN-9809943)

BINDING OF A LIGAND FOR THE [GABA.sub.A] RECEPTOR IS INHIBITED BY COMMONLY USED GASOLINE ADDITIVES

NESLIHAN BILGIN (STUDENT), KELLY BOLKUS (STUDENT), CATHERYN BURKE (STUDENT), JOSEPH ROBALINO (STUDENT), DONNA TEDESCO (STUDENT) AND JOSEPH V. MARTIN

Biology Department, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ

As a foundation for evaluating reported neurological effects (i.e., headache, nausea, and dizziness) of some commonly used gasoline additives, a series of binding assays of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid ([GABA.sub.A]) receptor was conducted. The [GABA.sub.A] receptor is a member of a gene family of ligand-gated ion channels, which are believed to be key targets of ethers and alcohols. The in vitro results demonstrated that the t-ethers, like their t-alcohol metabolites, were able to modulate binding at the [GABA.sub.A] receptor. The binding of a probe for the [GABA.sub.A] receptor convulsant site, t-butylbicycloorthocarboxylate (TBOB), was inhibited by 30-300mM concentrations of the additives. The potency of the inhibitors was found to be dependent on carbon chain length. In addition, with agents having equal numbers of carbons, the inhibition of [[H.sup.3]]TBOB was greater for the alcohols than for the ethers. The order of potency of the compounds was as follows: t-amyl alcohol (TAA; most potent), ethyl t-b utyl ether (ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (TAME), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). In addition, MTBE, having primary effects on [[H.sup.3]]TBOB receptor density ([B.sub.max]), was shown to function as an allosteric modulator of the [GABA.sub.A] receptor. (Supported by NSF IBN-9809943)

Dr. Susan Cummings, Georgian Court College

EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY II

STUDIES ON THE MECHANISMS OF MITOSIS AND CYTOKINESIS

L.J. GAGLIARDI, R. NAGELE AND H. LEE

Rutgers University, Camden, NJ and University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ

In previous studies, we have given a possible explanation of the movements of various cytoplasmic components during mitosis within a unified model which invokes only electrostatic forces and interactions. This approach has addressed the following aspects of mitosis and cytokinesis: the movement of centrioles to the poles, the movement of chromosomes to the equatorial plate, the alignment of chromosomes at the plate, the movement of chromosomes during anaphase, and rounding up and elongation of cells. Extending the hypothesis that very basic physics and chemistry must have played a pivotal role in cell division for the earliest eukaryotic cells, we present further results incorporated by the model involving additional aspects of electrostatic forces as well as the possible influence of surface tension forces. Where appropriate, computer modeling incorporating the basic dynamics of these forces will be presented.

DYNAMICS OF CHROMOSOME ROSETTE ASSEMBLY IN MITOTIC HUMAN CELLS

D. McMAHON, L.J. GAGLIARDI, H. LEE AND R. NAGELE

University of Medicine & Dentistry, Stratford, NJ and Rutgers University, Camden, NJ

Our recent study using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome-specific DNA probes has shown that chromosomes exhibit precise relative spatial positions within rosettes throughout mitosis. In the present study, we have employed a combination of time-lapse photography of living cells and FISH in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms of rosettes assembly and the role of centromeres in this process in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Results show that centromeres of HDFs engage in a common series of premitotic movements that begins at late S phase and is hallmarked by their aggregation into long centromere chains at [G.sub.2] phase. These centromere chains rapidly consolidate into a single horizontal, centromere ring during prometaphase which forms the hub of the chromosome rosette. Tracking of relative chromosome movements during chromosome congression reveals that the arrangement of chromosomes in mitotic rosettes and interphase nuclei are spatially related. Micromanipulation shows that chro mosomes are interconnected at the level of centromeres. Overall, results of our study support the idea that centromeres play a key role in orchestrating a common pattern of chromosome movements that culminates in the formation of the chromosome rosette, which exhibits a highly specific chromosome spatial distribution.

EVIDENCE FOR A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHROMOSOME SPATIAL ORDER AND GENE EXPRESSION

Z. THOMSON, H. LEE AND R. NAGELE

University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ and Rutgers University, Camden, NJ

We have recently shown that chromosomes are precisely ordered in mitotic human cells. En the present study, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome-specific DNA probes to investigate the possibility that chromosome positional order is related to proper levels of gene expression. Cells possessing specific chromosome numerical anomalies (i.e., trisomy 21 and triploidy) that arise early in development were analyzed. Results show that all chromosomes in trisomy 21 and triploid cells are incorporated into a single, radial array (rosette) throughout mitosis. In trisomy 21 cells, the distribution of chromosome 21 homologs in rosettes was such that two of the three homologs were closely juxtaposed, a pattern consistent with our current understanding of the mechanism of chromosomal nondisjunction. Rosettes of cells derived from triploid individuals contained chromosomes segregated into three, tandemly linked haploid sets in which chromosome spatial order is preserved, but with chromosome positional order in one haploid set inverted with respect to the other two sets. The lethality of most chromosomal trisomies, along with the fact that triploid cells are viable, shows that chromosome positional order is crucial for normal patterns of gene expression.

MECHANISM OF CHROMOSOME NUMERICAL AND POSITIONAL INSTABILITY DURING TUMORIGENESIS

W. ANDERSON, D. JOSLYN, H. Lee AND R. NAGELE

Rutgers University, Camden, NJ and University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ

Departure from the normal spatial order of chromosomes (aneuploidy) is associated with adverse cell phenotypes, including those associated with the various types of cancer. Here, we have attempted to determine if aneuploid cancer cells exhibit a new, stable chromosome spatial order that is propagated from one cell generation to the next. HeLa human cervical carcinomal cells, MCF7 human breast cancer cells, E6/E7 human papilloma virus-transfected pre- and post-crisis cells and IMR90 human diploid fibroblasts were used as model systems. Specific chromosome positions were mapped on mitotic chromosome rosettes using multiple rounds of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The relative lengths of telomere repeat sequences on the ends of chromosome arms were determined by using labeled TTAGGG DNA probe. Mapping of chromosome positions in mitotic rosettes showed that both precrisis and post-crisis cells exhibited considerable chromosome positional instability. Most new chromosome combinations appeared to be le thal, as evidenced by the large proportion of floating dead cells in these cultures. In cases where this new chromosome order imparts a selective growth advantage, a prolific cell clone may arise that carries this new chromosome configuration along with its associated aberrant phenotype, thereby completing a key step in the evolution of cancer.

EVIDENCE FOR TELOMERE LENGTH HOMOGENEITY IN NORMAL HUMAN CELLS

A. VELASCO, H. Lee AND R. NAGELE

Rutgers University, Camden, NJ and University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ

Telomeres are located at the physical ends of chromosomes and are thought to play a role in cell aging and tumorigenesis. We have recently refined a method which employs FISH, digital image analysis and Image Pro Plus software to quantitate and compare the fluorescence intensity of individual telomeres within single interphase or mitotic cells, allowing the generation of individual telomere profiles for these cells. The accuracy and reliability of our measurements is confirmed by the fact that identified sister chromosomes during anaphase have nearly identical fluorescence intensity values and that individual telomere profiles for daughter cells are virtually indistinguishable. Our preliminary studies on normal diploid human cells and HeLa cells have shown that telomere lengths in individual cells is remarkably uniform, and that observed variations in telomere fluorescence intensity are due to telomere fusions, which explains why telomere fluorescence intensity appears as multiples of the baseline fluorescen ce intensity. The method is quite sensitive and can be used to distinguish individual telomeres differing in length by less than 200-bp. This method will make it possible to determine the effects of cell aging and transformation on individual telomere length.

THE ROLE OF SET1, THE YEAST HEMOLOG OF THE ALL-1 HUMAN ONCOGENE, IN CELL WALL MORPHOGENESIS: A GENE-DOSE ANALYSIS

M. MOFFA, D. JOSLYN, R. NAGELE AND H. LEE

Rutgers University, Camden, NJ and University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ

SET1 is a yeast member of the trithorax gene family. Trithorax gene family members, suds as those found in Drosophila and mammals, have been implicated in the control of genes critical to morphological development. While yeast morphogenesis is known to be greatly influenced by nutritional factors, we propose that SET1 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes essential for cell wall biosynthesis of yeast. Ultrastructural analysis of set1 mutant strains showed that the thickness of the cell wall decreased proportionately with SET1 gene-dose. Furthermore, our results with a broad spectrum of cell wall inhibitors suggest that SET1 may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of a number of genes involved in different aspects of cell wall biosynthesis.

QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY: 5'-NUCLEASE ASSAYS AND REAL TIME KINETIC MEASUREMENTS

Q. ZHANG, D. JOSLYN, R. NAGELE AND H. LEE

Rutgers University, Camden, NJ and University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ

The development of 5'-nuclease assays represents a significant advance in nucleic acid quantitation. The PCR exploits the 5'-nuclease activity of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) polymerase to cleave a probe during the PCR. The probe contains a reporter dye at its 5'-end and a quencher dye at its 3'-end. During the reaction, cleavage of the probe separates the reporter dye from the quencher dye, resulting in an increased fluorescence of the reporter which is proportional to the target sequence concentration (copy number). Changes in the fluorescent intensity can be measured in "real time" where an increase in the emission intensity follows a per-cycle basis. This method has been widely used in gene copy number determination, RNA expression, and changes in gene expression after drug exposure.

Chair -- Dr. Michael Kennish, Rutgers University

MARINE SCIENCE I

CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROTHERMAL VENT COMMUNITIES IN THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC BASINS

MICHAEL J. KENNISH, RICHARD A. LUTZ, AND TIMOTHY M. SHANK

Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities along mid-ocean ridge and back-arc spreading centers in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are the target of detailed investigations by marine scientists at Rutgers University. The Center for Deep-Sea Ecology and Biotechnology in the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers is assessing the complex structure and function of these communities, as well as the exotic and dynamic nature of the environments they inhabit. During the past decade, faunal assemblages have been sampled at hydrothermal vent locations along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (between 23[degrees] and [37[degrees]N), East Pacific Rise (between 9[degrees] and 21[degrees]N), Guaymas Basin (27[degrees]N), back-are basins in the western Pacific (Fiji, Lau, and Manus basins), and elsewhere. Lush communities of vent organisms along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge ace dominated by large "eyeless" caridean shrimp (Chorocaris chacei and Rimicaris exaculata) and those along the East Pacific Rise and the Guaymas Basin, by g iant white clams (Calyptogcaa magnifica), mussels (Bathydiolus thermophilus), and tube worms (Riftia pacizyptila). In contrast, large gastropods (Alviniconcha hessleri) dominate vent communities at back-are spreading centers in the western Pacific. Extracts of some hydrothermal vent organisms are nosy being screened for possible anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-microbial, and immunomodulatory properties. They may have great potential value in future biotechnology research.

SIMULATION OF THE DYNAMICS OF DETRITAL DECOMPOSITION IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS USING STELLA MODELING

LOUISE S. WOOTTON

Georgian Court College, Lakewood NJ 08701

To simulate the changes in detrital biomass, enzyme hydrolyzable amino acids (EHAA), and growth potentials during degradation, a computer model was constructed using the STELLA[R] software package. Simulated patterns of detrital degradation were highly dependent upon the initial quality of the detrital substrate, and upon the season in season input occurred. When natural inputs of six different detrital materials were modeled, simulated standing stocks of detritus derived from Phragmites australis and Spartina cynosureides were larger than those of other estuarine macrophytes, and showed little fluctuation over an annual cycle. By contrast, simulated stocks of Ulva latucens were strongly influenced by spring inputs, as low water temperature during this season resulted in slower respiration rates, and thus loss of detrital biomass, than occurred during the summer. Simulated standing stocks of labile vascular plant substrates, such as Nuphar luteutm and Ruppia inaritinia, tended to be higher in summer than in winter. Hoseever the influence of pulsed inputs of these materials on standing stocks in late summer was lower than expected, because these inputs tended to coincide with high water temperatures, resulting in their rapid degradation. Peak respiration rates in the summer months seere largely supported by fresh detrital inputs, rather than by the large pools of stored detritus. Simulated growth potentials for amphipods feeding on detriral substrates also peaked in summer for all detrital materials, except R. maritima, for which growth potentials peaked in fall.

ABOVE-GROUND AND BELOW-GROUND BIOMASS OF ZOSTERA MARINA IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF BARNEGAT BAY, NJ

ROBERT W. ZIMMERMAN AND LOUISE S. WOOTTON

Georgian Court College, Lakeswood NJ 08701

Above-ground and below-ground biomass of the marine angiosperm Zostera marina (eelgrass) in central Barnegat Bay seere determined using 15 cm diameter cores which were removed and cut into 5 cm sections. The ashfree dry weights of samples were determined. There was a weak, but statistically significant relationship between above-ground and below-ground biomass at two of the three sites sampled. Z. marina in the third site suffered a massive die-off in early August 1998. This die-off was first evident as a catastrophic reduction of above-ground biomass followed by a slower decrease in below-ground biomass. The lag in the decrease in below-ground biomass maybe due to the slow rate of decomposition of the root mass. Below-ground biomass was limited to the top 5 cm of sediment at two sites (Forked River and Sands Point) but roots and even some rhizomes extended into the 5 to 10 cm depths of the soft, sandy mud sediments at the third site (Sedge Island). At all sites and on all sampling dates, concentrations of n itrate, nitrite, and ammonia were found to be below the levels of detection (nitrates [less than] 0.1mg/I, nitrites [less than] 0.15mg/I, and ammonia [less than] 0.6mg/l).

SEDIMENTOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY OF A DEPOSITIONAL LOBE, ISLAND BEACH STATE PARK, NEW JERSEY

ADAM LEVY (STUDENT), NORBERT P. PSUTY

Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 8903

Lobate forms on the landward margin of barrier island systems provide evidence of cross-island transport that resulted in the deposition of marine sediments into the barrier island-bay system. Cross-island transport processes include: 1-washover event, 2-ancestral inlet, 3-eolian transport. A lobate landform at Island Beach State Park is described and analyzed through the construction of a data matrix containing information regarding the sedimencology, geomorphology, and stratigraphy of the feature. The matrix includes three dimensional morphology, identification of geomorphical features, grain size analysis of surface sediment, stratigraphic description, and grain size analysis of stratigraphic sections. Data gleaned through these investigations were compared to theoretical models of washover fans, flood tidal deltaic deposits, and eolian deposits for correlation and interdistinction. The three dimensional morphological description included the spatial patterns of the channels and stranded dunal features wi thin the subaerial component of the form. The off shore surface sediments show a decrease in size with distance from the center of the lobe. The fining outward sequence identified is most commonly associated with washover fan deposits. Stratigraphic sections taken near the lobe-marsh margin identified coarser layers of sediment (-0.47phi) containing gravels within a massive sandy matrix (1.15phi). In three of the cores, the gravel layer was deposited on top of an organic rich surface. This is indicative of washover processes depositing a massive sand/gravel layer on top of estuarine sediments. The basal organic matter, absence of shell material within the cores, gravel beds within massive sand bodies, decreasing grain size with distance from lobe center are all attributes that correlate with washover processes.

TOWARD A MODEL OF SEDIMENTATION IN MICRO-ESTUARIES IN NORTHERN BARNEGAT BAY, NEW JERSEY

NATALIE PITCHFORD (STUDENT), NORBERT P. PSUTY. PAUL BOWERS, KEUN-BAE YU

Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903

Sediment data collected in Silver Bay and Kettle Creek in northern Barnegat Bay, New Jersey during the summer of 1997 indicated a process-response model of sedimentation linking hydrological processes and bottom sediment accumulation. Grab samples were collected in 1997 in initial transects across the width and along the length of each micro-estuary. In 1998, additional samples were collected to: 1) fill data gap locations; and 2) provide more detail in areas of great variation. Sixty-five samples were collected in Kettle Creek, the northernmost micro-estuary, and 50 samples were collected from Silver Bay. Lab analysis determined mean grain sizes of samples along with other statistical parameters suds as skewness, kurtosis, and standard deviation. Data are plotted using Arc View in NJ State Plane Coordinates. Grain size statistics are entered for each of the 115 data points. Statistical analytic techniques consisting of Principal Component Analysis, factor analysis, and bivariate analysis were used to self-o rganize the sediment data and contribute to the development of a model of sediment distribution in Barnegat Bay micro-estuaries.

MONITORING THE EFFECT OF BEACH NOURISHMENT ON SEDIMENT BUDGET CHANGE AT THE CRITICAL ZONE OF SANDY HOOK UNIT, GATEWAY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA IN NEW JERSEY

JUN REN (STUDENT)

Geography Department, Rutgers University

NORBERT P. PSUTY

IMCS, Rutgers University

Erosion at the Critical Zone is viewed as a sediment budget problem, in which more material is being transported from the site than is being introduced. Since the late 1970's the National Park Service (NPS) has undertaken several major beach nourishment projects to mitigate the severe erosion problem. This study reports on sediment budget change caused by the two recent major beach nourishment projects carried out from January to March 1997 (40,000 [m.sup.3]) and January to February 1998 (220,000 [m.sup.3]). Topographic survey data are employed to create Digital Terrain ModelS combined with GIS spatial analysis and statistical regression analysis tools to determine beads width, beads profiles and sediment volumes. Outputs from the analyses portray shoreline position change, variations in elevations and foreshore slopes, and rates of sediment budget change.

Chair -- Dr. Louise Wootton, Georgian Court College

MARINE SCIENCE II

ASPECTS OF THE OCCURRENCE AND LIFE HISTORY OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR FLORIDA POMPANO, TRACHINOTUS CAROLIN US, ON SOUTHERN NEW JERSEY BEACHES

DAVID J. BOTTINELLI, GEOFFREY W. BELL, PETER M. ROWE, AND KENNETH W. ABLE

Rutgers University Marine Field Station, Tuckerton, NJ 08087

The Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus, Pisces: Carangidae) typically occurs in the southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico and can be found in the Mid-Atlantic Bight during summer months. However, little is known about its occurrence or life history in these northern waters. Southern New Jersey ocean beaches were sampled from June to November, 1998, as part of a larger program to assess fish utilization of ocean beaches. A 30-meter bag seine (mesh = 6 mm) was the primary collection method at 4 sites for a total of 180 hauls. Young-of-the-year pompano first occurred on 1 July at sizes of 20-22 mm fork length. They were consistently captured throughout summer and into November (total n = 2152) at sizes of 120-172 mm fork length. Abundance ranged from 1 to 475 individuals per haul on ocean beaches, with a percent frequency of occurrence from 17.0% to 41.3% at each site (combined = 31.1%). Concurrent sampling in the adjacent Great Bay estuary and Little Egg inlet (4 sites, hauls = 148) beaches with the same sa mpling gear did not collect any individuals of this species. These results suggest that ocean beaches may be essential fish habitat for young-of-the-year of this species in New Jersey, at least during some years, assuming they can retreat to warmer areas to survive the winter.

EFFECTS OF A MUNICIPAL PIER ON THE GROWTH OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR ATLANTIC TOMCOD: A STUDY IN THE LOWER HUDSON RIVER

CHARLES METZGER (STUDENT)

Marine Science Dept., Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona, NJ 08240

JANET DUFFY-ANDERSON AND KENNETH W. ABLE

Rutgers University Maine Field Station, 800 Great Bay Blvd, Tuckerton, NJ 08087

In two 10-day field experiments conducted during May and June 1998,1 investigated the effect of a large municipal pier on the growth of young-of-the-year Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) in the lower Hudson River estuary. Fish were caged along a transect ranging from outside the pier to underneath comprising three stations: 40 m beyond the edge in open water, at the pier edge, and 40 m underneath the pier. In both experiments, fish grew at all transect stations, compared to negative growth among laboratory-starved controls. In the first experiment, growth rates under the pier were +0.02 [+ or -]0.004 [d.sup.-1], at the edge were +0.04[+ or -]0.006 [d.sup.-1]. and outside were +0.03[+ or -]0.005 [d.sup.-1]. For the second experiment, growth rates were similar, with +0.02[+ or -]0.002 [d.sup.-1], +0.03[+ or -]0.002 [d.sup.-1], and +0.03[+ or -]0.003 [d.sup.-1] at the underneath, edge, and outside stations, respectively. Results show that juvenile Atlantic tomcod are capable of positive growth underneath pie rs, though at reduced rates compared to edge or open water habitats. Although piers may be detrimental to the growth of some fish species, others such as Atlantic tomcod may be better able to exploit them as habitat. However, because growth of juvenile Atlantic tomcod was lower under piers compared to at the edge and outside, under-pier areas may be suboptimal habitat even for species that are able to utilize them.

DIFFERENCES IN PREY TYPE AND SIZE FROM THE STOMACHS OF JUVENILE WINTER FOUNDER, PSEUDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS, IN THE LOWER HUDSON RIVER, NEW YORK-NEW JERSEY

DEBORAH VIVIAN [1] (STUDENT), JANET DUFFY-ANDEERSON [2], RUDOLF G. ARNDT [1], KENNETH W. ABLE [2]

(1.) Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona, NJ 08240

(2.) Rutgers University Marine Field Station, Tuckerton, NJ 08087

The stomach contents of 298 juvenile winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, obtained from caging studies conducted in New York Harbor were examined to determine if there were any differences in prey type or prey size with increasing fish size. It was found that a diet shift occurred when winter flounder reached approximately 40 mm. The diet of fish less than 40 mm consisted of 70-90% harpacticoid copepods, while the diet of fish greater than 40 mm was less than 20% harpacticoid copepods, and instead was comprised of 80% calanoid copepods, amphipods, ostracods, isopods and various other organisms. The average size of prey also increased from less than 0.5 mm in fish less than 40 mm, to organisms ranging in size from 0.5-4.0 mm in fish greater than 40 mm. These results suggest that diet shifts may be correlated with ontogenetic development and changes in fish size. However, future dissections of wild-caught flounder in New York Harbor must be coupled with my observations in order to rule out any possi bility that caging had any effect in the diet of these fish.

MORPHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF METAMORPHOSIS FOR THE CONGER EEL, CONGER OCEANICUS

GEOFFREY BELL, KENNETH W. ABLE

Rutgers University Marine Field Station, Tuckerton, NJ 08087

DAVID A. WITTING

NMFS EASC, Highlands, NJ 07732

A broad range of vertebrate and invertebrate species experience a transitional period during which changes in morphology, habitat, and behavior can occur. These changes are often referred to collectively as metamorphosis. Among fishes, the most profound metamorphosis occurs in the fishes of the superorder Elopomorpha (eels. tarpon, and bonefishes), that share a unique leptocephalus larval stage. The leptocephali of Conger oceanicus are transported from the Sargasso Sea, where spawning occurs, northward along the eastern coast of the United States, and then across the continental shelf in order to enter estuary nursery habitats. Leptocephali of Conger oceanicus have been caught in and around the Sargasso Sea, however very few specimens have been collected in near-shore and estuarine waters, where metamorphosis occurs. During 1993 and 1996 we collected metamorphosing leptocephali (n=126) in the near-shore and estuarine waters of southern New Jersey, in order to quantily changes in body proportions, dentition, pigmentation, and behavior, We assembled a detailed staging scheme, based on morphology, pigment, and dentition, that categorizes the developmental state from the leptocephalus through juvenile stages. We concluded that selected body proportions (percent preanal length and percent greatest depth) are better indicators of developmental state than total length, and that settlement occurs during the glass eel stage. Our results suggest that the morphological metamorphosis of C. oceanicus leptocephali occurs simultaneously with behavioral changes, including ingress into estuaries, and settlement.

CYTOLOGY OF ADDUCTOR MUSCLE, PERICARDIAL GLAND, PERICARDIAL COELOM, AND VENTRICLE OF THE HARD SHELL CLAM, MERCENARIA MERCENARIA

JULIO BARRERA-ORO (STUDENT), ALBERT F. EBLE

Biology Department, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718

Primarily two cell types are found in the anterior adductor muscle of hard shell clams: small and large granulocytes. Small granulocytes are easily recognized by their smaller size; they have a large endoplasm packed full of dark, plastic granules of various shapes and sizes. This cell type is highly motile. Large granulocytes are much larger with a small endoplasm containing few granules surrounded by a large, clear cell cortex (ectoplasm). This cell type is not motile. Neither of these are present either in the pericardial gland or pericardial coelom. The pericardial coelom contains concretions of various sizes, consistencies, and colors. They average 4--8 [micro]m and appear to be free-floating in the coelomic fluid. In addition, isolated free-floating nuclei are also present in the pericardial coelom. This, with the concretions, suggest that the pericardial coelom is the dumping site for by-products of apoptosis (programmed cell deatis) occurring in the pericardial gland. Contents of the pericardial glan d include isolated concretions and nuclei as described for the pericardial coelom. It seems that the pericardial gland produces concretions by means of exocytosis which, are excreted into the pericardial coelom. Furthermore, many pericardial gland cells die by apoptosis, the products of which are also delivered to the pericardial coelom.

AMYLASES AND CELLULASE IN THE CRYSTALLINE STYLE AND DIGESTIVE GLAND OF THE SOFT-SHELL CLAM, MYA ARENARIA

STACEY OLSHALSKY (STUDENT), A.F. EBLE

Biology Department, The College of New Jersey, Ewing. NJ 08628-0718

Enzyme assays were performed to determine [beta]-amylase, [beta]-amylase, and cellulase present in the digestive gland and the crystalline style of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. The clams were maintained in glass aquaria at 28%[degrees] and 61[degrees]C. Animals were fed Isochrysis galbana var. Tahiti. Crystalline styles and digestive glands were removed from animals, weighed, and homogenized in 3 ml of distilled [H.sub.2]O. The homogenate was then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes at 0[degrees]C. For both [alpha] and [beta]-amylase. a maltose standard curve was prepared by plotting [A.sub.540] versus micromoles maltose. For the cellulase assay, a standard curve of glucose at 450 nm was developed. Type 101 cellulose and sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) were added to enzyme solutions and incubated with stirring for 3h. Samples were clarified by centrifugation. Glucose resulting from cellulose digestion was determined enzymatically. Results show that no cellulase is present in the crystalline style. In the digestive gland, the amount of cellulase ranges from 2.962 to 0.228 [micro]M glucose/mg. The amount of [alpha]-amylase ranges from 0.1467 to 0.3442 [micro]M maltose/mg in the crystalline style and 0.0403 to 0.0616 [micro]M/mg in the digestive gland. The amount of [beta]-amylase ranges from 0.1641 to 0.0530 [micro]M maltose/mg in the crystalline style and 0.0370 to 0.0547 [micro]M/mg in the digestive gland.

RECENT ADVANCES IN NEW JERSEY OYSTER FARMING

STEWART M. TWEED

Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Cape May County Cape May Court House, NJ 08210

JAMES M. TWEED

Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028

Recent advances in the hatchery and nursery production of disease resistant oysters and in farming techniques offer an opportunity for New Jersey to increase its oyster production. In 1996, under a grant from the NJ Commission on Science and Technology, Atlantic Capes Fisheries and Rutgers/Sea Grant Extension combined to evaluate the potential for intensive farming of Rutgers resistant oyster stocks.

Resistant oyster stocks, prepared by the Rutgers Lab, were grown to planting size in inexpensive upwellers and then transferred to a rebar rack and plastic bag grow out system. Survival, growth and marketability of two resistant stocks were compared at three locations in Cape May County.

Chair -- Dr. Donald Dorfman, Monmouth University

The majority of the seed reached market size before significant disease mortality occurred at the end of the third summer. The farm produced 30,000 to 40,000 oysters and marketed them for an average price of 23.5 cents each.

This project demonstrated that culture methods developed in other areas could be used to successfully grow oysters in New Jersey. Selection for disease resistance and faster growth in Rutgers oyster stocks successfully produced oysters with a higher market value. Genetically improved oyster stocks and improved marketing could make oyster farming profitable in New Jersey.

SCIENCE EDUCATION

AQUATIC TEST VESSEL DESIGN

D. DORFMAN

Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ 07764

Long term studies to examine temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen with flow systems for small fishes can be performed using covered see-through containers. Containers approximately 6" long x 4" deep will hold about 1000 ml. An inflow port is located near the bottom of a 4" side, with the outflow port on the top of hoe 4" side. Tubing on the exit side allows for water sampling. Reservoirs for this system are located above the test vessel, and water flows by gravity into the entrance port. A second vessel design, made of see through plastic, can be used to determine mls 02/gram/hour uptake of small fishes. A hole is drilled into the plastic vessel cover and a flip top valve inserted into the hole. The flip top remains open when the cover is placed onto the vessel at the start of the test, then closed. A second hole is drilled into the bottom of the vessel, and a glass eyedropper is inserted in this hole and glued in place. A rubber tube is connected to the bottom of the eyedropper and the tube bent so that it is above the vessel cap. The tube is held against the vessel with a rubber band. A window screen patch is fitted into the inside bottom of the vessel to prevent the fish from being drawn into the exit drain at the conclusion of the test. This vessel measures 2 1/2" x 4" and holds 380 mls water.

DISSOLVED OXYGEN UPTAKE IN GAMBUSIA

D. DORFMAN

Monmouth University, West Long Brands, NJ 07764

To determine mls [O.sub.2]/gram/hour, Gambusia affinis were acclimated at several temperatures then exposed after transfer to the same temperature, or to a higher temperature, to the same temperature but with a lower pH, or into saltwater. In some transfers the fish were placed into either vessels maintained in the light or in the dark. One fish was placed into each of 7-8 380 ml vessels. Fish were weighed at the conclusion of a two-hour run. Aged tap water seas used, and was altered for some tests with pH down, and with sea salts. Test water was stored in reservoirs. Several D.O. determinations (Winkler method) were made prior to and during the time water was placed into the test vessels to determine starting D.O. D.O. in the test vessels were determined at the conclusion of the tests. Fish were weighed at the end of the test. Initial D.O. minus final D.O. times the water in the vessel, divided by 2, and divided by the fish weight, then times 0.7 (to convert to mls) gave the results in mls [O.sub.2]/gm/hour . (Results are generally presented in mls, not mg.) Average uptake for Gambusia at 17[degrees]C was 0.2000 mls/g/h, and at 34[degrees]C, 0.4000 mls. Fish weights ranged from 0.4596 to 1.0216 g. Shock changes from light to dark, fresh to saltwater, and pH to low pH made little difference in D.O. uptake. Generally, smaller fish in comparable water temperatures use more D.O. than larger fish.

GAMBUSIA AND OXYGEN

R. MACALUSO AND D. DORFMAN

Brookdale Community College and Monmouth University, NJ

A study of the responses of the mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) to dissolved oxygen (D.O.) levels below saturation (hypoxic), saturation (normoxic), and super-saturation (hyperoxic) was made employing a flow system. Fish, obtained from a hatchery, were maintained in the laboratory for six months prior to testing. To reduce D.O. nitrogen gas was applied through an air stone in a marble-filled column. To supersaturate water with oxygen, [O.sub.2] was pumped. Neither gas was applied for [O.sub.2] at saturation. Ten fish were used for earls exposure. At D.O. saturation (17.2[degrees]C, 8.8 mg [O.sub.2]/I, fish remained primarily at the center (30 mm level) of the 60 mm deep test chamber. In low D.O. water (19.6[degrees]C, to levels of 0.8 mg [O.sub.2]/L. fish moved to the upper water layer, at or near the surface. In supersaturated waters (19.6[degrees]C, to 39.2 mg [O.sub.2]/L) fish moved to the bottom of the chamber (60 mm) and were occasionally seen to "head dance". That is, standing on their head and moving their tail rapidly. Test runs ranged from 45 to 120 minutes. No mortality occurred in any of the exposures. Average weight and length of the fish were 0.6 g and 30 mm respectively.

SALINITY AND FEEDING PATTERNS OF FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS

M. McBRIDE, R. MACALUSO, AND D. DORFMAN

Rowan University, Brookdale Community College, and Monmouth University, NJ

Feeding responses of the mummichog (F. heteroclitus) to increasing and decreasing salinities in a closed system were observed. Fish, seined from waters around Sandy Hook, New Jersey, were maintained in the laboratory in 30 gallon tanks for the duration of the study. To ensure that the size of the test vessels would be adequate for the study, mummichogs were tested for the density of fish per volume of water. Fish (24) were measured (total lengths), weighted (g), then placed into six 2000 ml vessels. Four fish per vessel survived without water changes for two weeks. Based upon these results, all subsequent studies employed four fish per treatment. For feeding responses six vessels were used initially. Two vessels were control vessels, two had increasing salinities of 5 ppt/day, and two increasing salinities of 10 ppt/day. The second study was performed with eight vessels. Variables for this study were the same as the previous study, except that in two vessels salinities were decreased from 10 ppt by 5 ppt/day . Fish were fed artemia daily, and their feeding habits observed. Similar results were obtained in both studies. Larger fish survived longer in salinities of 0 ppt than the smaller fish. Larger fish ate more artemia than smaller fish. Smaller fish survived longer, and consumed more artemia at higher salinities than larger fish. Neither sized fish survived salinities greater than 85 ppt. These results indicate that this species can feed, although with diminished appetites, up to their level of salinity tolerance.

BLUECLAW CRABS OF TOMS RIVER, NJ

J.P. WNEK D. AND DORFMAN

Marine Academy of Technology & Environmental Science, Toms River and Monmouth University, NJ

A study of the Blueclaw crabs (Callinectes sapidus) in Tome River, NJ was made between July and November, 1998. Two sites were examined on eight occasions during the study period. Excluder crab traps were placed five feet beneath the water surface. Water temperature and salinity were determined at the time of sampling. Crabs were sexed, measured, and examined then released after capture. A total of 154 crabs were captured. Of these, 142 were males, and 12 females. Both sexes were collected in salinities as low as 5 ppt, and males only in salinities as high as 20.1 ppt. Both sexes were collected in water temperatures from 23 to 26[degrees]C, hut only males in temperatures that ranged from 12 to 17[degrees]C. The paucity of females probably had more to do with the drop in water temperature than increased salinity, and with the seasonal changes (diminishing photoperiod and concomitant reduction in food production). Crabs showed a bell curve size distribution from three inches to six inches (in half-inch increme nts). Most crabs (57) were four to four-and-one-half inches. One female was five inches, with 15 males this size, and two six inches. Of the 154 crabs, 66 were white lined (ready to molt in 10 days). There were six lined females and 60 lined males. This data is useful to understand the migratory habits of this species, and the different responses of males and females to changes in salinity and temperature.

PROTEIN PATTERNS OF NERITES (GASTROOP)

D. DORFMAN

Monmouth University. NJ

Four snail species were collected from Mona Island, Puerto Rico, in April, 1998. The species Nerita peloronta (bleeding-tooth nerite), Nerita tassellata (checkered nerite), Nerita versicolor (four-toothed nerite), and Puperia pupa (zebra nerite) were frozen prior to study. In the laboratory the shell was removed and the body crushed. Several drops of Ringer's solution were added to obtain adequate fluid for electrophoresis. Triton High Resolution Protein System (Helena Laboratories, Texas) was used to obtain patterns. Gel runs were made over approximately 25 minutes, then stained with Coomasie blue. Patterns were examined by densitometry. The four species had three major peaks. When compared with five peak human patterns, the four snail species have some proteins lighter (i.e. advance further) than albumin. The snails also have proteins that migrate in the opposite direction (i.e. toward the cathode). The snail patterns are similar. Placement of the zebra nerite into a separate genera is questioned, since it s pattern is similar to the other snails in the genus Nerita. The protein similarities indicates more recent (evolutionary) separation and speciation as a result of habitat (in some cases subtle) preference.

AQUATIC FOODS OF THE LENNI LENAPE

M. COSGROVE AND D. DORFMAN

THE UTILIZATION AND INFLUENCE OF COBALT SULFATE ON THE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA SP.)

Monmouth University, NJ

A study of the Lenni Lenape Indians and their use of aquatic organisms as a food source seas made. This northeastern tribe of the Delaware Indian Nation, practiced agriculture, and hunted and fished. Tribal sites have yielded primarily mollusk shells, fish bones and, more rarely, terrestrial animal bones. Sturgeon scales and catfish bones have been identified. Salmon, trout, shad, bass, and perch, abundant in the tribal areas were probably also an important food staple. Harvest methods included the use of spears and arrows. Woven nets and fish weirs were used to catch quantities of various fish species. Fishes were consumed fresh; others smoked to be eaten later. A comparison between the Lenni Lenape diet with that of the western Plains tribes, such as else Dakota's, shows several differences. The Lenape could rely on a steady diet (fresh and smoked fish, and shellfish), whereas the Plains Indians, with limited access to aquatic foods, had to rely on agriculture, and hunting for game. This difference in diet s may account for physical differences between coastal eastern tribes and Plains tribes.

AWARD WINNING ORAL PRESENTATIONS

RUBY JAIN

Ocean Township High School (Odell-Wyche)

1ST PLACE

Iron, a vital component of the ocean's ecology, is abundant in terrestrial environments but scarce in the ocean. In 1993, the Geritol solution to global warming added iron into millions of square kilometers of ocean, resulting in a sudden bloom of phytoplankton. This proved iron functions in catalysis and the activation of the biochemical processes to stimulate marine life. To obtain an entire picture of the global element cycles, including the terrestrial and marine components, the effects of other transition metal ions on the growth of marine organisms must be explored. Cobalt sulfate was compared to the effects of iron and when added to the algae (Chlorophyta sp.) the expected growth was measured by means of cell concentrations per millimeter. Data collection is occurring at this time.

THIGMOMORPHOGENESIS IN PLANTS

DIPALEE RATHOD

Dickinson H.S. (Corcoran)

2ND PLACE

Mechanical stimulation such as thigmomorphogenesis affects many aspects of growth in plants. The ecological significance of thigmomorphogenesis is that it represents an adaptation designed to protect plants from the stress produced by high winds and moving animals. The wind represents a form of mechanical stress that may have a powerful influence on the character that a plant develops in the natural environment. Mechanical stress tends to produce plants capable of withstanding that stress; the strengthening elements in the stem of the plants are enhanced. This project examines the effect of a "breeze" on plant growth and development. In this project two experiments were conducted in which plants were exposed to wind. In Experiment 1, plants grown in Flat A and Flat B (experimental group) were exposed to wind 1 hour daily for 30 days. In the second experiment, Flat A was exposed to wind constantly for 30 days whereas Flat B was exposed to wind for 1 hour each day for 30 days. In both experiments, plants that were exposed to wind for 1 hour exhibited a reduction in height and an increase in width. However, in Experiment 2. plants in Flat A, which received higher concentration of wind, grew shorter, thinner and were unstable. The plants showed a thigmomorphogenetic response, which contributes to their survival.

THE AFFECTS OF SALICYLIC ACID ON THE HEALTH AND GROWTH OF THE PANSY UNDER NORMAL, DROUGHT, AND FLOOD CONDITIONS

THEODORE LACEY

Ocean Township High School (Odell-Wyche)

3RD PLACE

The purpose of this project was to test the affects of Salicylic Acid on sustaining pansies in simulated environments of normality, drought, and flood. Extreme over-watering, under-watering, and normal watering were done in cycles in order to obtain the specified weather affects on the Pansies. Centralized in each group's cycle is one normal watering which includes Salicylic Acid. Salicylic Acid is a chemical similar to the active ingredient in Aspirin that occurs naturally in smaller amounts within the plant. It, when released in periods of stress, triggers immune response. So, as the plants begin to display the affects of the abnormal weather conditions, their immune system would be triggered, but often not enough Salicylic Acid is released. By administering an outside dosage of the chemical during times of climatic stress, horticulturists and farmers could save their crops from being killed by droughts and floods.

A BETTER JAPANESE BEETLE TRAP

SCOTT GENTILE II

Immaculata High School (Besitka)

1ST PLACE

This research tested the effectiveness of commercially prepared bait versus wet tobacco for luring Japanese beetles to a trap. Tomato plants and flying insect traps ("jar" traps) were set up at four locations in Hillsborough, NJ, in June 1998. The number of beetles trapped and the amount of damage done to the plants were recorded. A flying insect trap baited with a Bag-A-Bug lure was the most effective trap in this experiment. However, this research shows that this trap is not very effective when compared to commercial "bag" traps. This research did not support my hypothesis because the traps baited with wet tobacco were ineffective for trapping Japanese beetles, and the "jar" traps caught very few beetles when compared to commercial "bag" traps.

THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ([C.sub.8][H.sub.10][O.sub.2][N.sub.4]([H.sub.2]O) ON CYNTHIA MOTH CATERPILLARS (SAMIA CYNTHIA RECINI] THROUGH VARIOUS STAGES OF METAMORPHOSIS

JESSICA BONNEY

Ocean Township High School (Odell-Wyche)

2ND PLACE

Since pregnant women and children drink many caffeinated beverages, it is necessary to determine the effects of caffeine on development. If Cynthia caterpillars (Samia Cynthia recini larvae) are given increased amounts of caffeine, then their health, ability to form a cocoon, and egg laying will he negatively affected. Observations for this experiment will include amount of caffeine ingested, time period from birth to forming of cocoon, length of time prior to cocooning, temperature of environment, qualitative observations on the cocoon, period of time in metamorphosis, apparent health, life-span, and death rate. If the caffeine adversely affects the moth, it will indicate that further studies should be conducted looking at the effect on caffeine on developing children, both prior to and after birth, and will suggest possible areas to focus on in these studies.

THE EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LARVAL MEALWORMS (TENEBRIO MOLITOR)

THOMAS McGUANE

Ocean Township High School (Odell-Wyche)

3RD PLACE

The purpose of this project was to study the effects of UV light on mealworms. Mealworms are beetles in the larval stage of development. A UV lamp was used on groups of mealworms. In different groups the number of mealworms was ten. The data for the first test indicated that too much UV radiation was being used, all the test subjects died. In second set, only the subjects in the longest exposure group died. There will be more data gathered when the subjects in the remaining groups develop. Then a third experiment will be conducted. The UV light was covered with black construction paper in order to simulate the protection of an ozone layer. There were holes punched in the construction paper to simulate the holes in ozone.

MURDER BY MAGNET?: A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MICROTESLA ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN LYMPHOCYTES

J. MAX BYAR

Byar Home School (Byar)

1ST PLACE

A small population of increased leukemias in children exposed to low electromagnetic fields at 60Hz was reported in NEJM. This experiment looked at the potential ability of low level electromagnetic fields to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, the cells affected in 80% of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias (ALL.) Three electromagnets of 0.0 uT, 0.45 uT and 1.0 uT field strengths were constructed to run off a 60Hz power source. Human B-cells (MGAR) were grown within these electromagnetic fields in RPMI medium at 37[degrees]C with 5% [CO.sub.2] -enriched atmosphere. Cells were counted and passed every three days. Samples were stained with Annexin FITC and Propidium Iodide for apoptosis induction at four time points: 3 days, 6 days, 9 days and 12 days. A Flow Cytometer was used to assay the cells for apoptosis. The events show up 56% apoptotic cells on day six in 1.0 uT field compared with less than 30% for all others including the positive control. The conclusion is that a 1.0 uT electromagnetic field has a significan t effect on inducing apoptosis in B-lymphocytes after three days.

IDENTIFICATION & TARGETING THE MULTIPLE MYELOMA CANCEROUS TUMOR

SAMIR KAPADIA

Wm. L. Dickinson High School (Corcoran)

2ND PLACE

The purpose was to determine if a specific anti-mucin antibody, MA5, could identify mucin or mucin-like molecules in the Multiple Myeloma cancerous tumor line. The control, CaPan1 Pancreatic cancer tumor line previously showed positive reactivity with the MA5 Monoclonal Antibody. High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Sephadex 300 Column Chromatography runs showed both mucins to have similar profiles expressed at the void volume. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) found JJN3 Muc1 mucin was expressed by the antibody only at high homogenate concentrations (1:2 dilution). The FACS Scan Analysis', ELISA assays from column fractions, and Immunohisrochemistry histological slides all found to have positive reactivity between the mucin and MA5 Anitbody. The FACS Scan Analysis showed twice as much reactivity on in vitro derived cells as compared to the in vivo derived cells. The Immunohistochemistry tissue slides stained with Hemotoxilin & Eosin and others stained with Immunoperoxidase displayed cells with definite cancer characteristics. A Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis run showed traces of other components unlike mucin. These results prove that the MA5 Antibody can be used to detect Muc1 mucin present on Multiple Myeloma cells.

AN HPLC ANALYSIS OF MELATONIN STABILITY

ETHAN ABRAHAM

Academy for the Advancement of Science and Technology (Schreck)

3RD PLACE

Melatonin is an important neurohormone that functions in many biological systems. Ongoing research into its uses has called for a determination of the stability of melatonin in aqueous solution. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to examine various solutions of melatonin. Results indicate that melatonin (90 ppm) solutions are not stable when stored for several weeks at ambient temperature. A much longer term study (2 years) has revealed that 10 ppm melatonin solutions are stable and can be maintained when stored at 4[degrees]C and -70[degrees]C, but not when stored at ambient temperature. These results indicate that stock solutions of melatonin can be prepared and used for repeated studies over a long period of time, when stored at sufficiently cold temperatures

THE EFFECTS OF ANTIBACTERIAL PRODUCTS ON THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS

MARIE WATSON

Middletown High School North (McNamara)

1ST PLACE

The effective ingredient in the majority of antibacterial cleaners today is known as Triclosan. As with any new market, these soaps, being used by increasing numbers of consumers, have the potential of impacting some other area, namely sewage decomposing bacteria. Triclosan is known to inhibit bacterial growth and reproduction on the skin. However, it is unknown how it will affect bacteria found in sewage treatment plants. The project is designed to first determine if Triclosan will affect sewage decomposing bacteria. Twenty sterile petri dishes with R2A agar will be inoculated with raw sewage. Eight of these plates will be used as controls. The remaining twelve will be divided into five experimental groups as follows: Group A will have "sensitabs" (sterile filter paper impregnated with Triclosan) having a 4% concentration: Group B will have a 2% concentration; Group C will have a 1% concentration; Group D will have a 0.5% concentration, Group E will have a 0.25% concentration. If Triclosan is found to affect sewage decomposing bacteria, further research will be done to determine if Triclosan is, in fact, reaching the treatment plant and, if it is reaching the plant, if the concentration is high enough to disrupt the bacterial decomposition of sewage.

ACID RAIN NEUTRALIZATION FOR HEALTHIER PLANTS

SEAN MARIKAKIS

Immaculata High School (Besitka)

2ND PLACE

The purpose of this study was to determine if calcium added to acid rain infected soil will atop plant degradation. Spinacia L. plants, commonly known as spinach plants, were planted and grown in six different acidity levels. Plants were divided into sections with calcium added to some sections. Plants were watered with pH levels 7.0, 5.0, 4.4, 4.3, 3.8 and 3.3. The spinach plants with the calcium solution added to them, in all sections but those watered with pH of 5.0 and 7.0, were kept healthier then the plants without the calcium. It was found that calcium did in fact slow the withering of acid rain infected spinach plants.

THE EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON THE PROTECTION OF THE SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) AGAINST UV RADIATION

FELIX GARCIA

Ocean Township High School (Odell-Wyche)

3RD PLACE

Ultraviolet light, reaching the Earth in steadily increasing amounts, interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Since SAR, or, systemic acquired response, uses salicylic acid to initiate a response in plants to prevent the advance of a pathogen's destruction, perhaps it is possible that an increase of salicylic arid in a plant will result in an increase in the plant's protection against ultraviolet radiation. Three groups of twenty-five plants were placed in filtered-UV and growing lights for twelve hours a day; a control and a variable group were watered and sprayed with mist regularly-the mist of the variable group one contained salicylic arid. This acid was used to water a second variable group. Visual observations, length measurements, survival rates, and consideration towards error indicate an incorrect hypothesis.

CRACKING THE UNCRACKABLE: A NOVEL APPROACH TO CRACKING THE WORLD'S MOST POPULAR CRYPTOSYSTEM

VIMAL BHALODIA

Hanover Park High School (Bhalodia)

1ST PLACE

The RSA public-key cryptosystem is at the heart of providing privacy and security in virtually every aspect of today's electronic communication. The security of the RSA is derived from the difficulty of factoring a large encryption modulus. In this project, I explored the fundamental mathematics behind the RSA cryptosystem, and developed a new approach to deciphering an RSA encrypted message without the decryption key, and without having to factor any numbers. To validate my approach, I wrote a computer program that takes any plain text message, creates a ciphertext using RSA, and then decrypts and recovers the message using my approach, as well as the RSA approach. My research also showed that increasing the size of the modulus, which is the common RSA security measure, makes deciphering with my approach even easier. On the other hand, simple changes, such as increasing the exponent size and increasing the message block size in the RSA encryption procedure may make my approach inefficient.

THE EFFECT OF STREET LIGHTING CONDITIONS ON SAFETY AND VISIBILITY

KATHLEEN JANOVER

High Technology High School (Janover)

2ND PLACE

The purpose of this experiment was to see how well an object could be seen at night by measuring the contrast of the object. Parking lot conditions were constructed by setting an unshaded lamp on a ladder (simulating lighting behind the viewer) and by turning on a light at the opposite end of the field (acting as the primary lighting source). An obstacle (a checkerboard sign) was held at different angles from the light. Digital pictures of the obstacle were taken at various angles between the obstacle and the primary light source, which were then analyzed using Adobe PhotoShop. Since there were thirty-six black-and-white squares on the obstacle's checkerboard pattern, the average brightness was taken of the black squares and the white squares, and two averages were calculated (black and white). Then, the Average White was divided by the Average Black to get a ratio, or contrast, between the black and white areas. The data indicated a strong relation between the angle measure and the contrast for an unshielde d primary light source. The smaller the angle between the obstacle and the primary light source, the lower the contrast. When the primary light source was sisielded the contrast remained constant. In conclusion, to insure the safety of people at night, shielded lighting should be used to reduce the amount of silhouette lighting.

THE PERFECT TANNER

ANDREW MAGENHEIM

The Academy for the Advancement of Science and Technology (Karuv)

3RD PLACE

In today's society, skin cancer caused by overexposure to ultra-violet rays is an ever increasing problem. As pollutants produced on earth continue to enlarge the already existing hole in the ozone layer, a major problem today will become an even greater problem tomorrow. Organisms are being exposed to more and more UV rays each day. The Perfect Tanner is a solution to the problem of overexposure. When using the Perfect Tanner, an individual inputs his skin type based upon the Fitzpatrick Scale and the sun protection factor listed on the sunblock container that the individual is using. The Perfect Tanner utilizes an ultra-violet sensitive photodiode and a microprocessor which integrates the UV readings and then informs the user of his exposure level throughout the day. When the maximum exposure level is reached, the microprocessor activates an audio and visual alert that instructs the user to get out of the sun. If the consumer desires to stay in the sun for a longer period of time, he can simply reapply his sunblock and restart the unit so that it will start monitoring again.
COPYRIGHT 1999 New Jersey Academy of Science
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1999 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 22, 1999
Words:20879
Previous Article:MOLTEN SALT SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF RBA[G.sub.2]T[E.sub.2].
Next Article:IMPROVING SCIENTIFIC INFRASTRUCTURE IN NEW JERSEY.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters