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PRO tips.

Installing additional receptacles isn't overly complicated, but there are facts you should know in order to stay safe and code compliant. Longtime electrician Rune Eriksen has shared his advice on which circuits to avoid, which "old work" boxes are the most durable and handy techniques to help you deal with different wall materials. We can't show you every one of the hundred different wiring scenarios you may encounter, but you'll learn useful information that will speed up installation and help you avoid costly mistakes.

FIND THE WALL CAVITY WITH A CLOTHES HANGER

When you're pulling power up from an unfinished basement, a simple way to figure out where to drill the hole for the new cable is to drill a small "finder" hole near the base of the wall and stick a length of wire clothes hanger down through the hole. Rune uses a wire cutter to make a 45-degree cut and actually uses the cut end to do the drilling. The hanger will bore through carpeting, hardwood floors, subfloor and even drywall. If you're going into the attic, poke the hanger through, and then go downstairs and measure over about 3-1/2 in. (3/4-in, quarter round, 1/2-in, base trim, 1/2-in, drywall and half the width of a 2x4 = 3-1/2 in.). That's where to drill your new hole. Patching the finder hole is a piece of cake.

The same trick works when pulling power from the attic. Just drill up into the attic where the wall intersects the ceiling. Because there's no trim, measure over only 2-1/4 in. from the hanger instead of 3-1/2 in. If you run out of wire hangers, go to your local dry cleaner, because most stores only sell plastic ones these days.

STRIP CABLES BEFORE PULLING THEM INTO THE BOX

It's a lot easier to remove the sheathing from the cables before you install the box. Make sure there's at least 1/4 in. of the sheathing pulled inside the box beyond the cable clamp. And at least 6 in. of wire should be left in the box, measured from the front edge of the box opening. After the box is installed, bend the end of the wires using the hole on your wire stripper.

CUT HOLES IN TILE WITH A ROTARY TOOL

A rotary tool is a great, safe way to cut through tile. Set the depth of the tile-cutting bit shallow to avoid hitting plumbing or wires in the wall cavity. Whenever possible, use grout lines for two sides of the hole because they're much easier to cut through. Drill starter holes in two opposite corners with a glass-and-tile drill bit.

Trim the metal supports for thicker walls

Rune prefers working with the "old work" boxes with metal flanges. They provide more support than the boxes with flip-out wings. One drawback of these boxes is they aren't made for thicker walls. So when you need to add a receptacle to a wall with drywall and thick wainscoting, Rune recommends cutting about 3/4 in. off both metal flanges with an aviator snips before installing it. Make straight cuts or the box will end up crooked in the hole.

WHERE NOT TO GET POWER

You can't add on to just any circuit in your house. Here are some circuits you definitely want to avoid:

* Dedicated kitchen, bathroom and laundry circuits.

* Individual circuits for motor-operated appliances like garbage disposers, refrigerators, furnaces, dishwashers and trash compactors.

* Circuits for specialty appliances like microwave ovens.

* A box with too many wires (see chart on p. 68).

INSTALL AN AFCI RECEPTACLE AT THE SOURCE

Newer electrical codes require arc-fault circuit interrupter (AFC!) protection for all branch circuits supplying receptacles, switches, light fixtures, smoke detectors, etc., in essentially all locations in the dwelling except bathrooms, basement storage areas and garages. AFC' circuit breakers and receptacles are designed to detect dangerous, abnormal arcing in branch circuits and cut off the power before a fire can start.

When you pull power from an existing receptacle for a new receptacle, the electrical code requires AFC1 protection for both the existing wiring and the new wiring. The easiest way to do this is to install an AFC] receptacle at the first receptacle outlet of the existing circuit. The AFC' receptacle will provide downstream protection for the majority of the existing circuit and the new extended wiring too.

Install tamper-resistant receptacles

Tamper-resistant receptacles are designed to help prevent children from shoving a metal object into an outlet. Tamper-resistant receptacles are now required at all indoor and outdoor locations for dwelling units.

RELATED ARTICLE: "OLD WORK" BOXES

There are several kinds of "old work" boxes, sometimes called "remodel" boxes. Some are easier to find than others (but all are available online), and some are easier to install and more durable (details below). Instead of being nailed to a stud, "old work" boxes are clamped onto the drywall. Here are a few of the most common styles.

This tough fiberglass box is a favorite of many contractors although it's a bit more expensive ($3). They like it because the rugged clamping system is much more secure than that of cheaper styles. These boxes aren't always available at home centers, but you can find them at electrical supply stores. Or search online for "Carlon 70108." Choose this style if the outlet gets a lot of use.

This PVC box is the least expensive (980: for a 14-cu.-in.) and most readily available, but it's also the flimsiest. Some pros complain that the clamping tabs aren't strong enough and the screws strip out the plastic.

This fiberglass box is a good choice. It's reasonably priced ($1.70), available at many home centers and stronger than the PVC version.

RELATED ARTICLE: Use the same gauge wire

If you're pulling wire from a circuit that has 12-gauge wire, don't install 14-gauge wire to the new receptacle or vice versa. The new receptacle should be wired with the same gauge wire as the source.

RELATED ARTICLE: WHERE TO GET POWER

When you're choosing which circuit to add on to, the ease of pulling the wire to the new receptacle will likely be the most important factor. Here are some acceptable options:

* General-purpose receptacle circuits in living areas, attics and unfinished basements

* Light switch and light fixture locations where unswitched 120-volt power is available

* Smoke detector locations

Count the wires      Add cable for the new
coming into the          receptacle:
box

1 red wire        1  1 new black wire       1  For 14-guage wires,
                                               multiply by 2 cu.in.
                                               (For 12-gauge, multiply
                                               by 2.25.)
2 black wires     2  1 new white wire       1
2 white wires     2  1 new ground wire      0
                     (combined with other
                     ground wires)
All ground wires  1
(count as 1)
1 switch (count   2
as 2)

Total             8  Total                  2  Minimum box size needed
                     8 + 2 = 10 Total wire     : 10x2 = 20 cu.in.
                     count with new cable
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Title Annotation:installing receptacles
Author:Petersen, Mark
Publication:The Family Handyman
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2014
Words:1153
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