Printer Friendly

PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN DIARRHEIC ADULT GOATS IN FIELD CONDITIONS.

Byline: A. K. Mahmood M. S. Khan M. A. Khan M. A. Khan and M. Bilal

ABSTRACT

An active surveillance was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella from the diarrheic feces of adult goats in field conditions. Salmonella is a principal cause of food-borne diseases in the world and the most common zoonotic bacterial disease of adult goats. In this long study of one year a total of 744/2029 cases of diarrhea were identified which revealed an overall prevalence of diarrhea in goats to be 36.7% and salmonellosis 0.1% with the help of commercially available API 20E kits. A significant association of a number of cases of diarrhea with the environmental temperature and humidity level of the area was established but there was no effect of season temperature or humidity levels with the prevalence of salmonellosis in the area. Open grazing was a common practice and the animals would eat garbage grass leaves and drink standing water available to them. The detection of Salmonella species in feces from field conditions needs special attention to prevent an outbreak in animal and human population in the area.

Keywords: Prevalence Salmonella diarrhea adult goats

INTRODUCTION

Salmonella a principal cause of food-borne diseases in the world has been isolated from the feces lungs and liver of slaughtered goat and prevalence of0.7% has been recorded (Molla et al. 2006; Ziino et al.2009; Cheila et al. 2011). It is transmitted mainly through contaminated food and characterized clinically by septicemia and enteritis. Garg et al. (1979) has reported the possibility of transfer through upper respiratory tract of animals as well. The detection of these organisms in meat may constitute a serious public health concern (Adesiji et al. 2011). Not all the food animals which contract Salmonella develop salmonellosis rather such animals become carriers along with the recovered ones from the disease and such animals are constant source of zoonosis (Pao et al. 2005; Ekperigin and Nagaraja1998). In a study on 100 human patients suspected from food-borne disease from four different hospitals of district Lahore on an average 14% and 10% stool samples were found positive for Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium (Muhammad et al. 2011).Amongst the common zoonotic bacterial diseases of adult goats characterized by diarrhea the most frequent one is salmonellosis (Hungerford 1990; Radostits et al. 2007; Smith and David 2009; Kahn et al.2010). On the other hand Bulgin and Anderson (1981) has reported bloody diarrhea in young calves and adult cattle but not in goats. Diarrhea a complex multi-faceted illness remains an alarming threat and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity both in humans and animals (Reid 1976; Hungerford 1990). Capra hircus the domestic goat of Pakistan is primarily raised for mutton by millions of poor and landless communities (Yasmin 2003; Khan et al. 2008). According to the livestock census 2006 Pakistan had the third largest goat population and a third of all goats in Pakistan are reared in the province of Punjab (Khan et al.2008). Keeping in view the importance of goat as a vital source of meat and a potential zoonotic threat the present study was designed to conduct an epidemiological survey of salmonellosis in adult goats from the field under different environmental and managemental conditions and husbandry practices.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Geo-location of Study: An active surveillance was undertaken to determine the prevalence of a salmonellosis associated with diarrhea in adult goats (meant for human consumption) in Lahore Punjab Pakistan which is located between 3115'"3145' N and7401'"7439' E. The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May June and July when the temperature reaches up to 4048 C (104118 F). From June till August the monsoon seasons starts with heavy rainfall throughout the province. The study wasconducted over a 12-month period from January toDecember 2010 and the data regarding climatic conditions (temperature and relative humidity) during the study period was retrieved from Regional Meteorological Centre Lahore Pakistan.

Epidemiological Survey: A multistage probability sampling method was practiced for active surveillance

with random selection of 8 villages from the rural unit of southern district Lahore designated as V1 V2 and so on. A total of 744 goats (Table 1) from these villages were identified suffering from diarrhea on the basis of clinical signs. Each homestead was visited from door to door and a questionnaire based survey was conducted relating to the information of affected animals (morbidity mortality and case fatality rates).

Fecal Sampling and Analyses: Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each adult goat suffering from diarrhea however more than one sampling was implied upon recurrence of diarrhea for the detection and identification of etiologic agent of salmonellosis. The fecal samples were subjected to culture for selective isolation of Salmonella species and later on ELISA was performed through commercially available API 20E kits (Biomerieux France).The fecal samples were suspended in test tubes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and mixed thoroughly and left to stand for 15 min. The supernatant collected was streaked on MacConkey Agar petri plates and incubated at 37 C for 24 h. The specific colonies of Salmonella colourless and translucent in appearance were collected and enriched by incubating in selenite broth at 37 C for 24 h. The culture from the selenite broth was purified by streaking on the SS Agar and incubated at 37 C for 24 h and a pure culture of Salmonella was obtained. For the microscopic examination and identification of Salmonella Gram staining was performed on the colonies grown on the SS Agar. In the API 20E biochemical testing of the Salmonella described procedures by the manufacturers were employed. The colours obtained in the wells of the strip of API 20E kits were recorded to make a 7-digit profile number. The API software was used for the identification of bacterial species.

Clinical Observation and Monitoring of Husbandry Practices: Pro forma based data were collected regarding visible signs and symptoms of the cases having diarrhea. Furthermore their husbandry/dietary practices and generalized body conditions were also assessed in order to devise strategic and directional approach for prevention of diarrhea in goats.

Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS for Windows version 12 SPSS Inc. Chicago IL USA). Data collected regarding morbidity mortality and case fatality rate were subjected to Chi square analyses.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this study over a period of one year a total of744 cases of diarrhea were identified among a population of 2029 heads of goats which revealed an overall prevalence of diarrhea to be 36.7%. This is quite an alarmingly high number that could spoil the economy of the farmers. This coincides with the findings of Hunduma et al. (2010) who stated diarrhea as a major problem among goats with a higher prevalence of 42.2%. The village wise results of prevalence revealed to be highest (18.9%) for V1 (383/2029) which was an area with the highest population (915) as well and the lowest morbidity rate of diarrhea was recorded in the small population (21) village V8 (0.3%) and a significant difference was recorded between the villages (P less than 0.05) (Table 1) (Asif et al. 2008).In the current study the diarrhea was graded into four classes based on its consistency and it was found that63.8% (475/744) i.e. the majority of the cases suffered from pasty diarrhea. Semi-liquid type of diarrhea was found in 24.3% (181/744) of cases 9.3% (69/744) were having watery and only 2.6% (19/744) cases were with bloody diarrhea. A significant difference was recorded in the consistency of stool with pasty and semi-liquid type diarrhea as the most common types prevalent in this study. According to findings of Asif et al. (2008) factors as overcrowding of livestock lack of proper drainage and grazing the young and adult stock at the same place significantly accounts for maintaining the cycle of infections. Furthermore poor nutritional value of livestock and the economy of the local people in the area attributes to the poor immunity in the animals.

Salmonellosis: Out of the total 744 cases of the diarrheic animals only two cases of stool were found positive for the Salmonella species from two different locations in the area i.e. one from V1 and second from V3. Both the animals were in very poor health status with profuse bloody diarrhea a finding also reported by Van et al. (2000). Munoz et al. (1996) has also reported isolation of Salmonella from diarrheic goat kids and a prevalence of2.7% was recorded. But Adesiyun et al. (1993) reported no significant difference in prevalence of Salmonella between diarrheic and non diarrheic animals. The overall morbidity and mortality rate recorded in the present study was 0.1% whereas the case fatality rate was 100% (Table2) which matches with the findings of Bulgin and Anderson (1981) where high mortality rate was reported in salmonellosis despite treatment. Radostits et al. (2007) have also reported 100% mortality with salmonellosis.In general the prevalence of Salmonella in goat population was very low. The finding of such a low prevalence rate in the present study was also supported by D'Amico et al. (2008) who surveyed 133 milk samples but Salmonella could not be recovered even from a single sample of goat sheep and cow's milk. Radostits et al. (2007) reported its prevalence in other species but no record was available for prevalence in goats. Similarly Adesiyun et al. (1993) recorded highest prevalence in calves (4.8%) but non was isolated from kids. In another

study on caprine abortions Masala et al. (2007) could not detect Salmonella species through PCR. Similarly D'Souza et al. (1978) did not even find serological evidence of Salmonella in sheep and goats in their study.Molla et al. (2006) isolated Salmonella from three goats out of a total 100 in Ethiopia which was a high prevalence reported in animals used for human consumption. Similarly even higher prevalence was recorded by Pao et al. (2005) where a total of 17 samples were positive for Salmonella species out of 287 tested in small ruminants.

Temperature and Humidity: A significant association (P less than 0.05) of a number of cases of diarrhea with the environmental temperature was recorded with the highest prevalence (256/2029) in the temperature range from 25-30 C which turned out to be an ideal environment temperature for the occurrence of diarrhea (Table 3). Similarly a significant association was also established with the humidity level of the area (P less than 0.05). A maximum number of cases was recorded in the humidity range from 70-80% (221-2029) i.e. at the highest range of humidity level in the area (Table 4). The data indicated a rise and fall in number of diarrhea cases with a rise and fall in humidity levels of the area.Factors contributing to helminthic infestation in the area also appear to contribute to Salmonella infection. Vaessen et al. (2011) reported high association of S. dublin infection with a liver fluke infection. Pal and Qayyum (1993) identified a number of contributing factors for helminthicinfection suggesting factors related to agro-climatic situations as quantity and quality of feed along with humidity and temperature of the area and the grazingpattern of the animals as vital for the development of infestation which may influence the prevalence of Samonella in the area indirectly. Contrary to this Valcarcel et al. (1999) has reported no effect of season instead a high risk of infection throughout the year for parasitic infections.As far as salmonellosis was concerned no effectof season temperature or humidity levels were established in the study. Supported by the findings of Zibilske and Weaver (1978) who could not establish any correlation with the environmental factors in a designed experiment. However Rowbury (1995) established the effect of temperature pH and nutrient level on the acid tolerance and sensitivity of the Salmonella species.

Husbandry Practices Strategic Prevention and Control Measures in the Area: Illiteracy was high in the area and the living standards of the people were also not up to the satisfactory levels. Farmers were not technically aware of the latest scientific standards of hygiene and feed for their animals. Most of animals were vaccinated for foot and mouth disease and enterotoxemia but no other vaccine was in practice. The majority of the farmers were also familiar with lactic acidosis and Pestedes petits ruminants however only in their native names but had no awareness of salmonellosis. Deworming was known to all the farmers and they kept deworming their animals irrationally and usually at low doses. Concomitantly the drinking water for the animals was substandard on account of lack of proper sewerage system and the drains were open and broken. Delhalle et al. (2008) stressed that effective washing and disinfection are key factors playing vital role in controlling Salmonella and even routine procedures adapted in kitchen for disinfection of Salmonella were declared unsatisfactory by Cogan et al. (1999) and stressed over better hygiene and procedures whereas Adesiyun et al. (1993) recorded no significant difference in its prevalence between semi-intensively and intesively kept animals.Open grazing was a common practice in the area feeding commonly on green fodder for which the animals were set free in the morning. The animals would eat garbage grass and leaves from dirtier sources and drink contaminated standing water available to them. Vaessen et al. (2011) reported more infections when the feed consisted of grass and identified new entrant as a risk factor associated with spread of Salmonella an association was also revealed between herd size and water surface.

Table 1. Prevalence of diarrhea in the goat population in district Lahore 2010

Villages###Goat###Number of###Prevalence

###Population###Diarrheic###% (P less than 0.05)

V1###915###383###18.9

V2###494###212###10.5

V3###443###64###3.2

V4###38###23###1.1

V5###21###19###0.9

V6###69###19###0.9

V7###22###17###0.8

V8###27###7###0.3

Total###2029###744###36.7

All the species of animals owned by the farmers such as hens sheep goats cattle buffaloes mules horses and dogs were kept in the same vicinity feeding and defecating in the same area which was an additional factor which maintained the cycle of infectious pathogens from one species to another and contributed adversely to the extinction of diseases. Zibilske and Weaver (1978) reported that approximately 10% of the cattle excrete Salmonella in their manure in routine.The quality of fodder was also on an average poor and varied with the economic status and manpower of individual farmers. There was also no proper arrangement for the animals for providing protection

against the extremes of temperature. The mortality rate in young animals was also high.The present study has revealed that the temperature range from 25-30 C humidity range from70-80% open grazing substandard hygiene uncontrolled movement of animals keeping all the species in one vicinity and irrational use of anthelmintics proved to be the favourable factors for the development of diarrhea. The detection of Salmonella species in feces of adultgoats from field conditions is a silent threat to human health. Its presence instigates the steps required to control such a disease of zoonotic potential which may lead to dire consequences if not addressed. Special attention should be paid to the identification of possible sources of Salmonella and measures be adapted for its prevention in the food animals in the area to ensure the supply of safe and healthy meat in the market for human consumption. The literacy rate of the people should be improved and short courses on improving hygiene and livestock management should be provided.

Table 2. Monthly cases of salmonellosis recorded and their morbidity mortality and fatality rates

###Humid###No. of cases of###Morbidity (P greater than 0.05)###Mortality###Fatality

Months###Temp. C

###.%###Diarrhea###No.###%###No.###%###No.###%

###Jan###11.6###75###80###0###0###0###0###0###0

###Feb###17.2###61.9###80###0###0###0###0###0###0

###Mar###25.2###53.2###57###0###0###0###0###0###0

###April###29.5###37.4###44###0###0###0###0###0###0

###May###34###32.8###34###0###0###0###0###0###0

###June###33.9###41.2###33###0###0###0###0###0###0

###July###31.3###67.8###35###0###0###0###0###0###0

###Aug###30.2###77.1###60###0###0###0###0###0###0

###Sep###28.8###71.7###81###0###0###0###0###0###0

###Oct###26.9###59.1###74###1###0.05###1###0.05###1###100

###Nov###21.1###52###77###0###0###0###0###0###0

###Dec###14.5###62.2###89###1###0.05###1###0.05###1###100

###Total###25.4###57.6###744###2###0.1###2###0.1###2###100

Table 3. Association of temperature with number of###

###diarrheic cases

S.###Temperature###Total Number of diarrheic

No.###Range C###cases recorded (P less than 0.05)

1###11-15###169###

2###15-20###80###

3###20-25###77###

4###25-30###256###

5###30-35###162###

Table 4. Association of humidity with number of###

###diarrheic cases###

S. No.###Humidity###Total Number of###

###Range %###diarrheic cases(P less than 0.05)

1.###30-40###78###

2.###40-50###33###

3.###50-60###208###

4.###60-70###204###

5.###70-80###221###

REFERENCES

Adesiji Y.O. O.T. Alli M.A. Adekanle and J.B. Jolayemi (2011). Prevalence of Arcobacter Escherichia coli Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella species in Retail Raw Chicken Pork Beef and Goat meat inOsogbo Nigeria. J. Biomed Res. 3(1): 8-12. Adesiyun A.A. J.S. Kaminjolo R. Loregnard and W. Kitson-Piggott (1993). Epidemiology of Salmonellainfections in Trinidadian livestock farms. Revue D'elevage et de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux. 46(3): 435-437.Asif M. S. Azeem S. Asif and S. Nazir (2008).Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Sheep and Goats in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad Pakistan. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 1: 14-17. Bulgin M.S. and B.C. Anderson (1981). "Salmonellosis in goats." J Am Vet Med Assoc. 178(7): 720-3.Cheila M.D.de P. C.R. Ana P. Luiza H. doA. Patricia and C.J. Eduardo (2011). Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enteritidis from food involved in human Salmonellosis outbreaks in southern Brazil from 2003-2006. J Mic and Antimicrob. 3(9): 233-240.Cogan T. A. Bloomfield S. F. and Humphrey T. J. (1999). The effectiveness of hygiene procedures for prevention of cross-contamination from chicken carcases in the domestic kitchen. Letters in Appl Microb. 29: 354358.D'Amico D.J. E. Groves and C.W. Donnelly (2008). Low incidence of foodborne pathogens of concern in raw milk utilized for farmstead cheese production. J Food Prot. 71(8): 1580-9.Delhalle L. L. De Sadeleer K. Bollaerts F. Farnir C.Saegerman N. Korsak J. Dewulf L. De Zutter and G. Daube (2008). Risk Factors for Salmonella and Hygiene Indicators in the 10 Largest Belgian Pig Slaughterhouses. J Food Protect. 71(7): 1320-1329(10).D'Souza M.B P.S. Nagarkatti and K.M. Rao (1978).Serological evidence for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella typhi among slaughtered pigs goats and sheep.J Trop Med Hyg. 81(8): 142-5.Ekperigin H.E. and K.V. Nagaraja (1998). "Microbial food borne pathogens. Salmonella." Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 14(1): 17-29.Garg D. N. and V. K. Sharma (1979)."The detection of nasal carriers of salmonella and other enterobacteria amongst young farm animals."Zentralbl Bakteriol Orig A243(4): 542-6.Hunduma D. W. Tigre M. Wagari and F. Regassa (2010). Preliminary Study on Major Health Problems of the Newly Introduced Boer Goat Breed in Ethiopia. World Appl Sci J. 11(7): 803-807.Hungerford T.H. (1990). Diseases of Livestock. 9th ed.McGraw Hill Book Company. pp: 1230 1252.Kahn C.M. G.A. Dana D.C. Pete R.D. Peter E.Q.Katherine T.R. Philip M.S. Jagdev K.W. Roger T. Tracee (2010). The Merck Veterinary Manual.10th ed. Merck and CO. Inc. USA. pp: 183 2871898. 201.Khan M.S. A.K. Muqarrab and M. Sultan (2008). Genetic resources and diversity in Pakistani goats. Intl J Agri Biol. 10(2): 22731.Masala G. R. Porcu C. Daga S. Denti G. Canu C. Patta and S. Tola (2007). Detection of pathogens in ovine and caprine abortion samples from Sardinia Italy by PCR. J Vet Diagn Invest. 19(1): 96-8.Molla W. B. Molla D. Alemayehu A. Muckle L. Cole and E. Wilkie (2006). Occurrence and antimicrobialresistance of Salmonella serovars in apparently healthy slaughtered sheep and goats of central Ethiopia. Trop anim health prod. 38(6): 455-62.Muhammad Y. I.C. Zafar A.K. Muhammad K.S.Muhammad (2011). Food Borne Disease(Salmonellosis) as a Public Health Problem through Consuming the Meat and Eggs of Carrier's Birds.Intl J Agro Vet Med Sci. 5(2): 111-122.Munoz M. M. Alvarez I. Lanza and P. Carmenes (1996).Role of enteric pathogens in the aetiology of neonatal diarrhoea in lambs and goat kids in Spain Epidemiol Infect. 117(1): 203-11.Pal R.A. and M. Qayyum (1993). Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in upper Punjab Pakistan. Pak Vet J. 13(3): 138-141.Pao S. D. Patel A. Kalantari J.P. Tritschler S. Wildeusand B.L. Sayre (2005). Detection of Salmonella strains and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces of small ruminants and their isolation with various media. Appl Environ Microbiol. 71(4): 2158-61.Radostits O.M. C.C. Gay K.W. Hinchcliff and P.D.Constable (2007). In: Veterinary Medicine A textbook of the diseases of cattle horses sheep pigs and goats. Saunders Elsevier Ltd. 10 Edi. pp314 316 321 898 1541.Reid J.F. (1976). The common diarrheas of sheep inBritain. Vet Rec. 98(25): 496-9.Rowbury R.J. (1995). An assessment of environmental factors influencing acid tolerance and sensitivity in Escherichia coli Salmonella spp. and other enterobacteria. Letters in Applied Microbiology20: 333337. Smith M.C. and M.S. David (2009). In: Goat Medicine Wiley-Blackwell 2nd Edi. pp-314391.Vaessen M.A. J. Veling K. Frankena E.A.M. Graat and T. Klunder (1998). Risk factors for Salmonella dublin infection on dairy farms. Vet Quart. 20(3):97-99.Valcarcel F. Garcia and C. Romero (1999). Prevalence and seasonal pattern of caprine trichostrongyles in a dry area of central Spain. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B.46(10): 673-81.Van Metre D.C. J.W Tyler and S.M. Stehman (2000).Diagnosis of enteric disease in small ruminants. VetClin North Am Food Anim Pract. 16(1): 87-115. Yasmin Y. K.S. Haque and S.A. Chowdhury (2003). Aneconometric study on semi-intensive goat rearing system. Pak J Bio Sci. 6(20): 1729-1732.Zibilske L.M. and R.W.Weaver (1978). Effect ofEnvironmental Factors on Survival of Salmonella typhimurium in Soil. J Environ Quality. 7(4): 593-597.Ziino G. A. Giuffrida S. Bilei and A. Panebianco (2009).Bacteria isolated from 25 hydatid cysts in sheep cattle and goats. Vet Rec. 165(8): 234-236
COPYRIGHT 2014 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Feb 28, 2014
Words:3823
Previous Article:DNA PEDIGREE TRACKING TO IDENTIFY COMPATIBLE MATING PARTNERS OF PLEUROTUS PULMONARIUS.
Next Article:POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF POLYMORPHIC PROTEASE- ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-2 (PAR-2) GENE DISPLAYING CORRELATION WITH SKIN PIGMENTATION IN CATTLE.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters