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PREPARATION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF GARLIC BASED YOGURT.

Byline: Qureshi A.M - Email: asifmqureshi@hotmail.com, Hassan S.Y , Sulariya A.M and Rashid A. A

ABSTRACT: Garlic based yogurt was prepared and its Physio-Chemical analysis was done. Different parameters such as moisture contents, ash contents, fat contents, protein contents, total solid mass, acidity and lactose contents were studied. The results revealed that the nutritional values of yogurt were slightly increased with the addition of garlic powder in different concentrations.

Keywords: Yogurt, Garlic, Nutritional evaluation.

INTRODUCTION

Bourlioux, and Pochart [1] defined yogurt as, "A coagulated milk product that results from the fermentation of lactic acid in milk by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus".

Yogurt is one of the most widely distributed dairy products. Yogurt has a smooth texture, mildy sour and pleasant flavor. It is obtained from milk soured by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus [2], and also by Lactobacillus helvetius and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp [3]. Yogurt in different forms with diverse local names is made through out the world [4].The composition of yogurt is dependent on the type and source of milk and a range of seasonal factors [5,6].

Dairy products have generally been considered an excellent source of high-quality protein, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and the B vitamins riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 [7].

Proteins in yogurt are of excellent biological quality, as are that in milk, because the nutritional value of milk proteins is well preserved during the fermentation process [8]

It has been argued that protein from yogurt is more easily digested than is protein from milk, as bacterial predigestion of milk proteins in yogurt may occur [9,10].Both the caseins and the whey proteins in yogurt are rich source of Amino acids (93%) and high in nitrogen availability is high [11,12]. Amino acids like proline and glycine are present in free form and higher contents in yogurt than in milk [13].

Yogurt shelf life is based on whether the products display any of the, physical Chemical, microbiological or sensory characteristics that are unacceptable for consumption. Studies of changes in these quality characteristics during storage would be instrumental in predicting the shelf life of the product. [14] Functional foods which include probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are claimed to have a positive effect on health [15].

Garlic is a frost-hardy bulbous perennial erect herb of 30-100 cm in height with narrow flat leaves and bears small white flowers and bulbils [16]. It has long been taken as a tonic, a bactericide and a popular remedy for various ailments [17]. More recently, however, it has been recognized as a medicinal plant for the prevention of blood circulatory disorders [18,19], cancer [20,21,22,23].

Garlic has been considered as a rich source of carbohydrate, proteins and phosphorus. Ascorbic acid contents are reported to be very high in green garlic [24].The acute and fatal garlic poisoning in human is reported to be very rare. Since the consumption and level of sulphur-containing ingredients of garlic that are supposed to be toxic are so low.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Nestle milk; Gelatin, sugar and garlic powder (National) are used as raw material. Lactobacillus spp was used as starter culture. Yoghurt was prepared with the method described by [25] Different concentration of galic was added in yogurt.(0.05 and 0.1 i.e., 5% and 10%) and then mixes it. Garlic based yoghurt was packed in disposable cups, covered with aluminum foil. The cups were stored in refrigerator at 4oC for further experimentation.

Physio-chemical Analysis

The physio-chemical analysis was carried out during 15 days of storage period.

Protein: Protein and nitrogen contents of yogurt samples were determined by Kjeldahl method according to the BS 1741-5.2 [26].

Fat: Fat was determined (on wet weight basis) by Soxhlet's method by using this formula, % Fat = g of fat in dry sample/g fat of in wet sample 100 [44].

Total solid: Total solids were determined by following formula, % Total solids (wt/wt) = wt. Of dry sample/ wt. of wet sample 100 [45].

Moisture: Moisture contents of yogurt were determined by oven dry method [27] and calculation were carried out by using following formula: Moisture % = wt. of fresh sample - wt. of sample after drying x 100/weight of sample

Ash: Ash contents were determined by following formula: Ash % = wt of crucible and Ash - wt of crucible x 100/wt of sample

Lactose: The lactose in yogurt sample was determined by the gravimetric method described by AOAC official methods [28].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Physio-chemical analysis

Moisture: The moisture content of garlic based yogurt is shown in Table 1. The average moisture % of different samples is as follow: for X=84.71 %, X1=83.44 %, X2=83.21 % and X3=83.12. Kamruzaman, et al., [29] calculated the maximum moisture content of plain yogurt was 82.90 %. They revealed that the moisture content of yogurt was decreased during storage period is due to the evaporation rate of moisture content during storage at refrigerated condition. Hamdan, et al., [30] and Bills, et al., [31] stated that the moisture contents decreased from 86.90 % to 84.95 % during refrigerated storage. According to Mohammad, et al., [32] the equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) of garlic powder was found to be 14%. These results were close to our findings.

Protein: The protein % of garlic based yogurt is indicated in Table 2. Hussain, et al. [33] reported that the average protein content of probiotic yogurt was 5.4 % and that of natural yogurt was 5.3 %. There it has been reported that the protein contents in garlic powder was 17.5 % [34] which increase the quality of garlic based yogurt. Nwinuka, et al., [35] reported that the crude protein contents ranged 17.35% in garlic powder. These results were close to our findings. According to Law and Haandrikman [36], the proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria is essential for their growth in milk. The increase in protein contents in yogurt depends on the proteolytic activity of Lactic acid bacteria which hydrolyses proteins into peptides and amino acids. Lactic acid bacteria require a wide range of amino acids for growth and their proteolytic enzyme complement is able to split most types of peptide bonds [37].

Probably, the free amino acid present in yogurt was the result of hydrolysis of protein under the influnce of proteolytic enzymes. During the storage period these free amino acids again combine to form the peptide bonds that transform into protein. Hence the protein contents of yogurt increased during storage.

Ash: Ali, et al., [38] studied the quality of yogurt made in laboratory and available in the market and found the average ash contents 1.12 %. The content of ash of freeze-dried garlic was 3.6% [39]. The ash content of garlic based yogurt is shown in Table 3. The ash % of all yogurt samples is given below: X=0.94 %, X1=0.99, X2=1.03 % and X3=1.04.

As a result, garlic enhanced ash contents of garlic based yogurt. These values were close to our findings Fat: Ahmad [40] reported that the fat contents of yogurt have the maximum range of 4.5 %. In another experiment Mutlu, et al., [41] reported that the fat contents of bio yogurt ranged from 3.1 % to 4.5 % during storage period. The garlic powder has the fat contents that range between 0.1 % to 0.6 % [34] and there was no significance increase fou%, X2=4.65 % and X3=4.67 % the control X with X1, X2 and X!!3.

Figure 4(a) Fat % in yogurt within 15 days

Lactose: The garlic powder has the Carbohydrate contents 71.4 [34] In nonfat yogurts made from skim milk fortified with high milk protein powder showed the lactose contents 1.6 % to 7.9 % with different treatments in control yogurt sample [42]. The average lactose % for different yogurt samples is listed below: X=5.15 %, X1=5.74 %, X2=5.79 % and X3=5.83 %. These ranges close to our findings. So there was a significance increase in lactose % as we compared different yogurt samples with the control.

Total solids: Muhammad, et al., [43], estimated the highest range of total solids in yogurt as 17.1 %. These are close to our findings. The average % of total solids is given below: X=15.29 %, X1=16.56 %, X2=16.78 % and X3=16.88 %. The average total solids content of probiotic yogurt was 17.75 % and that of natural yogurt was 19.2 % [33].

Table 1. Moisture % in Yogurt prepared by Garlic Powder during Storage of 15 days.

Treatment Moisture % in Yogurt within 15 Days of storage

###0 Days###5 Days###10 Days###15 Days

X###84.78###84.72###84.68###84.65

X1###83.50###83.46###83.43###83.38

X2###83.28###83.22###83.19###83.16

X3###83.18###83.14###83.09###83.05

Table 2. Protein % in Yogurt prepared by Garlic Powder during Storage of 15 days.

Treatment###Protein contents % in Yogurt within 15 Days of storage

###0 Days###5 Days###10 Days###15 Days

X###4.76###4.77###4.79###4.80

X1###5.20###5.21###5.22###5.24

X2###5.28###5.30###5.31###5.32

X3###5.32###5.33###5.35###5.36

Table 3. Ash % in Yogurt prepared by Garlic Powder during Storage of 15 days.

Treatment###Ash contents % in yogurt within 15 days of storage

###0 Days###5 Days###10 Days###15 Days

X###0.92###0.93###0.94###0.96

X1###0.98###0.99###0.99###1.00

X2###1.02###1.04###1.04###1.05

X3###1.03###1.04###1.05###1.06

Table 3.4 Fat contents % in Yogurt Prepared by Garlic Powder during Storage.

Treatment###Fat contents % in yogurt within 15 days of storage

###0 Days###5 Days###10 Days###15 Days

X###4.41###4.43###4.43###4.44

X1###4.60###4.61###4.62###4.63

X2###4.64###4.65###4.66###4.66

X3###4.66###4.67###4.68###4.69

Table 5. Lactose % in Yogurt prepared by Garlic Powder during Storage of 15 days.

Treatment###Lactose contents % in yogurt within 15 days of storage

###0 Days###5 Days###10 Days###15 Days

X###5.13###5.15###5.16###5.15

X1###5.72###5.73###5.74###5.75

X2###5.78###5.79###5.80###5.81

X3###5.81###5.82###5.83###5.84

CONCLUSION

Physio-Chemical analysis of garlic based yogurt during 15 days storage period was done by using different parameters. The nutritional values of garlic based yogurt are higher as compared to the plain yogurt. Where as the value of protein, lactose, fat, acidity and total solids increased slightly whereas moisture contents decreased.

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1. Department of Zoology, Govt. College of Science Wahdat Road, LAHORE.

2. Department of Food and Biotechnology Research Center of PCSIR Laboratories, Complex Lahore.Email: asifmqureshi@hotmail.com. Email: shaheryar49@hotmail.com.
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Author:A.M., Qureshi; S.Y., Hassan; A.M., Sulariya; A., Rashid A.
Publication:Science International
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Mar 31, 2011
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