PREFERENCES, RENUNCIATION AND OPPORTUNITIES IN LEISURE PRACTICES OF VULNERABLE YOUNG PEOPLE/ PREFERENCIAS, RENUNCIAS Y OPORTUNIDADES EN LA PRACTICA DE OCIO DE LOS JOVENES VULNERABLES/ PREFERENCIAS, RENUNCIA E OPORTUNIDADES NA PRATICA DE LAZER DE JOVENS VULNERABLES.
"(...) In essence, vulnerability can be seen as a state of high exposure to certain risks and uncertainties, in combination with a reduced ability to protect or defend oneself against those risks and uncertainties and cope with their negative consequences. It exists at all levels and dimensions of society and forms an integral part of the human condition, affecting both individuals and society as whole" (United Nations, 2003, p. 8)
Regarding the United Nations approach on vulnerability, Katzman (2000) indicates that vulnerable youth population is characterized by the "inability to take advantage of available opportunities, in different socio-economic areas, in order to improve their welfare situation or prevent their deterioration" (Kaztman, 2000, p. 281) and whose vulnerability also implies "the risk of being harmed by the change or permanence of specific external and / or internal situations" (Busso, 2005, p. 16).
The group of vulnerable young people has, on the other hand, large living spaces dedicated to leisure, understanding this concept as occupation of free time, which is its traditional reference in studies about leisure (Cuenca, 2014). In this field, we have many studies about leisure practices of youth. However, there is very little information available--beyond the extensive documentation on casuistry and particular experiences--regarding these practices in the most vulnerable young people (MacDonald & Marsh, 2005; Woelfer, 2014; Melendro, Garcia-Castilla & Goig, 2016).
Recalling the definition given above by Kaztman, the use of the available opportunities has to do, at first, with the possibility of such opportunities actually occurring. This is much more difficult in the case of vulnerable young people, whose leisure poverty is linked to structural disadvantages and to the scarce or insufficient availability of spaces and resources; among them, the economic resources stand out (Alguacil, Camacho, & Hernandez, 2014; Corr, 2014; Temes, 2014). As Alguacil, Camacho and Hernandez proposed (2014), these structural disadvantages relate with the idea of social vulnerability considered as downward mobility, which is a concept that mediates between inclusion and exclusion and that often refers to both social groups and territories or places at risk or in decline, joining therefore the double bind between space and social structure. As these authors noted, social vulnerability expresses a complex problem which, in order to be addressed, "requires an analysis and a multidimensional intervention" (Alguacil, Camacho, & Hernandez, 2014, p. 77-78).
Along with this, this use of opportunities is directly related to the training of young people so that they can identify and address them, especially during their leisure time. Several investigations have stressed on this topic and have raised the importance of the idea that professionals working with vulnerable youth at social risk should help them develop diversified skills in relation to the search for resources, decision-making and personal initiative in their leisure practices. It has been proven that, when this condition is fulfilled, their motivation and perception of success improve, while reducing anxiety and fear of failure and increasing self-confidence (Darling, 2005; MacDonald & Marsh, 2005; Smith, Smoll, & Cumming, 2007; Larose et al., 2010). As stated by Firzly, Sirois-Leclerc and Blanchard (2015, p. 668669), in their research work, "educators consider themselves responsible for the development of diverse skills of young people, such as the decrease of anxiety and fear of failure, and a better organization of leisure and positive personal development that increases self-confidence". On the other hand, Haudenhuyse, Theeboom and Nols (2013, p. 11), in their study on socio-educational practices with vulnerable youth in the leisure time dedicated to sport, indicate the need to develop "an educational attitude that can focus on the well-being of young people and tackle an educational practice not based on abstract ideas about pro-social or positive development through sport, but based on the particular needs of young people and their life situations... Any framework used must be flexible enough to effectively address the ever-changing challenges faced that young people face". Therefore, it will be important to investigate the elements of these diversified capacities and their presence in the main leisure practices of vulnerable young people in Spain. Among this list of leisure practices, we stand out sporting and ICT activities, as well as cultural performances such as movies or concerts. However, a significant amount of their leisure time can be considered as passive, and this would include the time spent with friends, watching TV, going out and at home alone (Corr, 2014; Lopez-Noguero, Sarrate, & Lebrero, 2016). This does not differ much from the main leisure practices of young people in Spain, who listen to music and go out with friends in 90% of cases, and use the computer, watch television, practice sports, rest or do nothing in 70-89% of cases (INJUVE, 2016, p. 337).
All in all, the aims of this research are: analyze the preferences in the practice of leisure activities of vulnerable young people; explore the renunciations of a leisure activity that they like, their reasons to do it and the possible relation to gender; and finally, find out if the importance that they give to the training capacities differs depending on whether they quit practicing any leisure practice. We consider capabilities as opportunities for vulnerable young people to take advantage and improve their personal and social life and, ultimately, their social inclusion.
The present work provides partial results of the research project R&D&I Resortes about leisure, training and employment of young students, conducted between 2013 and 2016. This is a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Its main target is to determine if the most vulnerable young people can take advantage of the opportunities that arise from their leisure practices in order to improve their life trajectories. First, we carry out a descriptive study which seeks to identify the preferences in leisure activities. Secondly, we investigate the difficulties that they find through the study of the reasons why they quit practicing some type of leisure activity that they like, and if there are significant differences regarding gender. Thirdly, we analyze whether the renunciation of the leisure practices affects the importance that young people give to their training capacities, considered as opportunities for their life trajectories.
Consequently, two working hypotheses are proposed according to the set objectives in this article: 1) the renunciation of a leisure activity is related to gender of vulnerable young people; 2) the renunciation of a leisure activity affects the importance that vulnerable young people give to their training capacities.
The sample gathers young people in Spain who study Compulsory Secondary Education, Baccalaureate, Intermediate Level Vocational Training and Initial Professional Qualification Programme (PCPI) in every autonomous community. The total sample of the research included 2694 students (men, n = 1385, 51.4%, women, n = 1309, 48.6%). Using a simple random sampling, we chose youth population in Spain in the typology of studies and programs indicated above. Also, proportional allocations were carried out according to strata taking into account: the amount and distribution of students from all autonomous communities, type of study, ownership of the educational centers, course and gender. For this sample selection, a confidence level of 95% was established.
In the sample we can find students between the ages of 16 and 19 years old, most of them reaching the age of majority (M [+ or -] DE: age: 18.15 [+ or -] 1.51). However, we selected for this work a sub-sample based on young people displaying more variables related to situations of vulnerability.
An estimation was made on those cases that met at least one of the following criteria: (1) student belonging to a family unit presenting incomes equal to or less than 500 euros per month; (2) student studying Initial Professional Qualification Programme (PCPI); (3) student whose situation presents the lack of a mother or father and / or student who are in foster care; (4) student presenting unemployment situation of the parents or having one of them unemployed and the other dedicated to household chores; (5) student presenting a situation where neither parent / legal tutor completed their studies; (6) student with an average score lower than 5 points (out of 10) in their studies; and (7) student which are scarcely or not at all satisfied with their family life (due to loss of attention or opportunities, impaired communication or permanent family conflicts, etc.). As a result, the sample of vulnerable young people for this study reached 783 students (men=417, 53.3%, women=366, 46.7%). The average age coincides with the age of majority (M [+ or -] SD: age: 18.19 [+ or -] DT: .493).
Data collection was performed through an ad-hoc questionnaire that studied the elements of youth and consisted of 44 items categorized in seven dimensions aimed at the students: sociodemographic data, school life, family life, leisure time, health and quality of life, studies and labor market in the future, entrepreneurship and training.
The questionnaire was validated by 14 experts in the field and external to the project context, as well as through a pilot test conducted on a 10% of the sample, in eight autonomous communities. Specifically, this article focuses on the demonstration of the results of the block corresponding to Leisure Time by means of the items 21, 32 and 33 and the block corresponding to Training and Entrepreneurship using item 44, referred to capacity building. The students had to express their preferential practice of leisure activity, whether quit practicing some type of leisure activity and the reasons why they give up. They also had to express the degree of agreement with the statement presented in each of the items in a rating scale based on Likert-type scale from 1 to 5 (1 strongly disagree, 5 strongly agree).
The questionnaire was applied one single time, completed in pencil and paper format in one sole session held during school hours in every educational center. The duration of the survey was approximately forty-five minutes. The participants were informed of the purposes of the study; their participation was voluntary and anonymous, and followed specific guidelines. Total confidentiality of responses was assured and the bias avoided. The fieldwork was undertaken during the years 2015 and 2016.
Likewise, the application of the questionnaire was conducted in educational centers during school hours. The anonymity of the participants remained fully guaranteed and the ethical principles of social research were fulfilled (Mesia, 2007).
2.4. Data analysis
Descriptive analyzes were performed to statistically represent the sample and determine the leisure practice preferences of vulnerable young people as well as their reasons for renunciation of any leisure activity that they like. Once the database was defined, and in order to examine the relationship between the categorical variables, an analysis of the different items was applied using: contingency tables, Pearson's chi-squared test and its significance and the Phi coefficient and Cramer's V. In order to measure the effect of the renunciation of some leisure activity over their capabilities, Student's t-distribution was used. The confidence level established was 95% (p <.05). All analyses were performed using the SPSS v.22.0 software.
A first descriptive study was carried out to know the first option of the preferential leisure activities of the potentially vulnerable students. This information is collected in the item 21.a, which gathered responses of 60.5% of the sample of vulnerable youth (474 out of 783), and, as mentioned in this article, in relation to other researches, the majority of students in situation of vulnerability for the practice of a leisure activity choose to perform a sportive physical activity, in cooperation or competition (soccer, basketball, volleyball...) and / or individually (running, swimming, skating...) representing 26.2% of the activities practiced during their leisure time and followed by listening to music, going out with friends or using ICT's (videogames or social networks).
The reasons for the renunciation (item 33) of a leisure activity that they like are multiple. We recoded the variable into four categories to group this information. The four categories of reasons for renunciation are: lack of resources, relational reasons, personal reasons and other reasons.
The reasons for the renunciation (item 33) of a leisure activity that they like are multiple. We recoded the variable into four categories to group this information. The four categories of reasons for renunciation are: lack of resources, relational reasons, personal reasons and other reasons.
Figure 3 exposes a comparison according to gender of vulnerable youth explaining the reasons for renunciation of a leisure activity that they like. First, we find a relationship between the two variables in a situation of vulnerability and reasons for renunciation of the practice of a leisure activity ([chi-square] = 10.9; p = .027; Cramers V = .027), especially in relation to resource availability. Similarly, it is observed that the variable gender stands out in the population of vulnerable youth ([chi-square] = 12.6; p = .000; Cramers V = .000), which seems to make a difference, even among the most vulnerable young people.
Specifically, in terms of monetary resources, vulnerable young people have 15 euros a week on average for their expenses, 6 euros less (28.5%) than the average of young people their age, who have 21 euros a week (INJUVE, 2016, p. 344). On the other hand, it is confirmed that vulnerable young people who attend compensatory education (PCPI / Basic Vocational Training) give up to a greater extent to their leisure practices, due to the lack of resources or relational reasons (I have nobody to practice with, my family forbids it...), clearly more than the population of young people who come, in general, from other type of educational resources ([chi-square] = 24.3; p = .019; Cramers V = .019).
Then, and following our second hypothesis, it is observed in table 2 that there are differences between the assessments on the abilities of vulnerable young people who quit practicing leisure activities that they like. As we can see, the renunciation of the practice of some leisure activity influences the importance that vulnerable young people give to the capacities to be trained, that is to say, they actually differ in their evaluations depending on whether they quit or not practicing a leisure activity.
This second hypothesis is partially fulfilled because only two out of the eight capabilities present different values. In particular, the choice of quitting or not quitting affects the assessment that vulnerable youth makes of the capability creativity and innovation (3.56), reaching a higher value when the renunciation actually happens. In addition to that, dispersion (DT:1.181) is moderate, so the degree of agreement in the response is similar among the participants.
Regarding the conflict management variable, we can also find differences in vulnerable young people depending on whether the renunciation happens or not. Likewise, students who quit practicing a leisure activity are the ones who give the higher rate to this capability for their training (3.22), unlike students who do not give up (3.03), even though when the dispersion of data (DT:1.240) in the group of those who do not resign is slightly higher than in the group of students who actually give up. For this reason, we can conclude that the dispersion of the data shows a lower degree of agreement on the tendency of responses given by those who do not give up, in contrast to those who actually quit.
In any case, both results show that giving up on practicing a leisure activity is related to a tendency to value in a greater degree the importance in the training of such capabilities as creativity and innovation and conflict management. Our objective consisting in the analysis of the influence of the reasons for the renunciation or not of a leisure activity in the assessment of vulnerable young people in order to prove the importance of determined capabilities is completely fulfilled.
4. Discusion and conclusions
In line with the target set in this research, we have provided relevant information about the different ways which young people in Spain can take advantage of the opportunities emerged from their leisure practices in order to enhance their personal and social lives, as stated in the outcome obtained. Consecutively, we interpret the main results and discuss them in connection with other studies about the same topic.
Firstly, regarding the preferences in the leisure practice of vulnerable young people, we can observe that they are quite similar to the likings of the rest of youth population in Spain (INJUVE, 2016). In the specific case of vulnerable people, the results of the investigation indicate as preferential, from top to bottom, sporting activities (26.3%), ICT activities (18.9%) and music activities (8.2%) (Garcia-Castilla et al., 2016). Youth in Spain Report 2016 (INJUVE, 2016) points out as preferential activities, from top to bottom: sportive physical activities and music activities (more than 90% in both cases) and ICT activities (between 70% and 89%). The only difference noted is the preference to choose ICT activities rather than music activities in the case of vulnerable young people.
However, while the leisure practices of vulnerable young people are mainly passive, such as watching TV, going for a walk around the neighborhood, sharing with friends or being alone in their bedrooms (Corr, 2014; Lopez-Noguero, Sarrate & Lebrero, 2016), leisure practices of youth in Spain is far more diversified, including activities as travelling, reading books, newspapers and magazines (50%-69%), or less frequently, hiking, going to museums or exhibitions, going to the theatre and conferences and colloquia (20%) (INJUVE, 2016, p. 337).
Secondly, regarding the renunciation of the leisure practices of vulnerable young people, the concept of leisure poverty mentioned in the introduction of the present work is substantially confirmed (Alguacil, Camacho & Hernandez, 2014; Corr, 2014; Temes, 2014). As seen in the section for results, this research highlights the relationship between the variables at-risk of vulnerability and reasons for the renunciation of a leisure practice that they like, particularly in relation to resource availability (73.6%). Similarly, we observe that in the group of vulnerable young people, the variable gender stands out, making a difference and generating a gap even in the case of this group. This contrasts with the researches on youth population as a whole, where the renunciation of the leisure practices is caused fundamentally due to the lack of free time, especially in the case of women (Stodolska, 1999; Jackson, 2000; Madariaga, A., & Romero da Cruz, 2016).
Thirdly, and as we stated in the introduction of the present article, the seizing of opportunities is closely connected to youth training to identify them and tackle them through leisure activities. In this respect, our research inquired young individuals about those capacities linked to leadership, commitment and motivation, creativity and innovation, communicative capacity, conflict management, negotiation and decision-making, own time and team's time management and search for resources for the seizing of opportunities in their life trajectories (Busenitz, West, Shepherd, Nelson, Chandler, & Zacharakis, 2003; Osorio & Pereira, 2011; Marulanda, Montoya, & Velez, 2014). As stated by Bandura (1977), people tend to avoid the risky situations that they feel incapable to face, while they get involved more easily in activities when they feel capable of facing them.
As confirmed in the outcome of this research, even though the differences in the rating are not very significant, if we take a look to the capabilities analyzed by young people we can find that they feel better trained at commitment and motivation, creativity and innovation and communicative capacity (3.6--3.5 out of 5), while they feel that they are less prepared in leadership, conflict management (despite their positive opinion on this capability), search for resources and own time and team's time management (3.1--3.3 out of 5). The work by Rodriguez, De-Juanas and Gonzalez (2016) also reveals the benefits of vulnerable youth regarding the formative aspects and capacitation destined to the achievement of more and better opportunities for their life trajectories.
Comparing the practice of leisure activities and the capabilities and skills of vulnerable young people, understood as opportunities, we can assert that, in the field of physical-sportive practices, which are the favorite leisure activities of vulnerable young people, many researches point out that these physical activities enable the development of certain and fundamental capacities as self-regulation, self-efficacy, participation, sense of coherence in action and sense of collective belonging (Lindstrom, 2010; Super, Hermens, Verkooijen, & Koelen, 2014; Haudenhuyse, Theeboom, & Nols, 2013; Toering, Elferink-Gemser, Jonker, Van Heuvelen, & Visscher, 2012). Australian authors Kermer, et al. (2014) explain how depressive symptoms in vulnerable youth decrease when the levels of physical activities are higher and the use of screens is lower. On the other hand, we find the investigation on youth and the protection system in the Netherlands by Super at al. (2014) particularly interesting in this sense, given that it highlights the importance of self-regulation through sports in this population. Self-regulation displays high rates in its different elements (planning, monitoring, self-assessment, effort, reflection and self-efficacy) and correlates a higher capacity of youth to gain knowledge and skills in different fields and to overcome situations of social disadvantage. As stated by researchers, "from the perspective of a positive development of youth, self-regulation capabilities can be considered an internal asset which may help youth to get ready for a healthy and productive adulthood" (Super et al. 2014, p. 703). Finally, and as Garcia-Castilla et al. (2016, p. 31) emphasized, we cannot forget gender differences regarding the preferences in sportive physical leisure activities: "while women practice physical activities to a lesser extent and prefer other type of leisure practices, men prefer collective sports as compared with women, who lean more towards other physical activities related to art, corporal expression and / or recreation outdoors".
With reference to the use of ICT technologies as the second choice in the list of preferential activities of vulnerable youth, they have been studied as a training resource particularly interesting as an opportunity for them (Livingstone & Hawdon, 2009), given that the starting point of this special group is located in a less balanced position when comparing them to the rest of youth population in such training areas as formal education, family context or work environment. As Ferreira, Pose and De Valenzuela (2015) explained, vulnerable youth spends significantly more time than the rest of youth population in electronic leisure activities, like using chats and social networks, using their cell phones as entertainment (between 33% and 41%), as well as watching videos in YouTube (Davies, Coleman, & Livingstone, 2014). It is also relevant the high degree of satisfaction (84%) attributed to ICT leisure activities by vulnerable youth (Melendro, Garcia-Castilla, & Goig, 2016). This interest and dedication to ICT technologies involves a growing distance of family life, given that, as Valdemoros, Sanz-Arazuri and Ponce de Leon (2017) formulated, when ICT technologies are not a preferential leisure practice in kids, their relational capabilities (cohesion, flexibility, family functioning) are enhanced.
In contrast, the use of ICT technologies might as well strengthen diverse capabilities, since they increase interaction and communication possibilities, helping to a better use of opportunities to build inclusive personal and social trajectories or to avoid risky situations or behaviors (Valdemoros, Sanz-Arazuri & Ponce de Leon, 2017; Blaya, 2015; Lepicnik & Samec, 2013; Morduchowicz, 2012). Melendro, Garcia-Castilla and Goig (2016) explain how the positive assessment of the training that vulnerable youth receive via ICT technologies must include the capability for conflict management and, along with it, other ones as communicative and leadership capacities. For their part, Hermosilla and Torres (2012), in their studies on the inclusive and transforming use of ICT technologies, proposed the training and capacitation of vulnerable youth using certain basic elements that go beyond the simple instrumental learning. To name but a few, the elaboration of personal and collective communication methods and the creation and development of interpersonal relationships to promote respect, tolerance, debate and reflection.
Finally, we tackle music activities, which are the third group of preferred activities chosen by vulnerable youth. As Woelfer (2012) stated, even though music is considered an important part of adolescence and youth, little we know about the relationship between music and excluded and vulnerable and excluded youth. In their research, a significant part of homeless youth listens to music everyday (98%) and present eclectic musical tastes. Music plays an important role in their emotional control and regulation of relationships with people. This work also notes the significant relation between music activities and a massive use of ICT technologies. Wald (2011) explains how participation in musical activities boost competences and capabilities in homeless youth, such as self-confidence, self-esteem, interest in group activities, teamwork and perception of new attitudes in society, among others.
In conclusion, we check that is essential to fight leisure poverty of vulnerable youth in order to facilitate vital and social opportunities. On the one hand, by using resources that can reduce the high percentage of renunciations of leisure practices because of this. On the other, improving the access to those opportunities and its proper use through socio-educational interventions planned in accordance with the elements highlighted in this article: take as referential point the preferences in leisure practices--sportive physical activities, music and ICT technologies--as a motivational and training reference, and the capabilities which make vulnerable youth feel secure and competent, such as commitment and motivation, creativity and innovation and communication skills. Moreover, interventions on other capabilities where young people feel vulnerable, such as conflict management, search for resources, time management, decision-making or leadership must be strengthened.
However, this study has limitations in its analyses, and it is necessary to deepen into the reasons of renunciation of vulnerable students in order to obtain more detailed information, as well as into those variables which affect female students and make them give up more often than men. Further studies on these issues will predictably have a significant effect in the approaches of socio-educational interventions on this group of population and in strategy development and creation of resources that can combat exclusion processes and promote participation and social commitment of vulnerable youth in our society (Cuenca, 2011; Goyette, Pontbriand, et Bellot, 2011; Goyette, Mann-Feder, Turcotte, & Grenier, 2016).
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Francisco Javier Garcia-Castilla. Facultad de Derecho. UNED. Despacho 0.28. C/ Obispo de Trejo, 2. Madrid 28040. E-mail: email@example.com
Miguel Melendro Estefania. Facultad de Educacion. UNED. Despacho 253. C/ Juan del Rosal, 14. Madrid 28040. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Catherine Blaya. HEP du Canton de Vaud. UER de Pedagogie Specialisee. E-mail: Catherine. email@example.com
Francisco Javier Garcia-Castilla. Doctor en Sociologia en el Programa de Exclusion y Politica Social por la Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid. Es licenciado en Sociologia y diplomado en Trabajo Social por la misma universidad. Es Profesor Contratado Doctor, y actualmente esta adscrito al departamento de Trabajo Social en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia. Ha sido profesor en la diplomatura de trabajo social de la UNED, y actualmente lo es en diversas asignaturas en el grado de esta titulacion, ademas de participar como docente en tres masteres relacionados con estrategias de intervencion con jovenes. Ha participado como investigador en cuatro proyectos I+D+i. Entre sus publicaciones destacan capitulos de libro y articulos relacionados con la infancia, adolescencia y juventud. Ha desempenado diversos cargos academicos siendo el ultimo de ellos el de Vicerrector Adjunto de Extension Universitaria, Cursos de Verano, Cultura y Deportes de la UNED.
Miguel Melendro Estefania. Doctor en Educacion. Profesor del Departamento de Teoria de la Educacion y Pedagogia Social. Facultad de Educacion (UNED). Director del Master en Accion Socioeducativa con colectivos vulnerables: familia, infancia, adolescencia y juventud. Codirector de TABA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH (Grupo Internacional de Investigacion sobre Inclusion Social y Derechos Humanos). Lineas de investigacion en intervencion/accion socioeducativa con infancia, adolescencia y juventud en dificultad social, transito a la vida adulta, educacion eco-social y pensamiento complejo en educacion.
Catherine Blaya. Doctora en Ciencias Sociales por la Universidad de Portsmouth (Reino Unido). Profesora en la Universidad de Capacitacion de los Docentes de Canton de Vaud (Suiza) y responsable cientifica del LASALE (centro de investigacion sobre la prevencion del abandono escolar). Presidente del Observatorio Internacional de la Violencia en Medio Escolar desde 2013. Ha realizado numeras investigaciones cientificas comparativas sobre los jovenes en situaciones dificiles, clima escolar, violencia y acoso escolar y ciberacoso. Ha publicado 38 articulos en revistas cientificas, 10 libros y 31 capitulos de libros, entre los que destacan: School Bullying: Another Form of Violence (2001); Violence in Schools and Public Policies (2002); Violence et Maltraitance en Milieu Scolaire (2006); Decrochages scolaires, l'ecole en difficulte (2010); Les ados dans le cyberespace, prises de risque et cyberviolence (2013); International perspectives on cyberbullying (in Press).
Francisco Javier GARCIA-CASTILLA *, Miguel MELENDRO ESTEFANIA * & Catherine BLAYA **
* Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia
** Universidad de Capacitacion de los Docentes de Canton de Vaud
Received date: 13.IX.2017
Reviewed date: 25.IX.2017
Accepted date: 21.XI.2017
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR'S ADDRESS: Francisco Javier Garcia-Castilla. Facultad de Derecho. UNED. Despacho 0.28. C/ Obispo de Trejo, 2. Madrid 28040. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
FUNDS: The current article is linked to the subproject of the research "De los tiempos educativos a los tiempos sociales". Ocio, formacion y empleo de los jovenes en dificultad social" (EDU2012-39080-C07-07), included within the Research Project De los tiempos educativos a los tiempos sociales: <<La construccion cotidiana de la condicion juvenil en una sociedad de redes. Problematicas especificas y alternativas pedagogico-sociales>> (coordinated project EDU2012-39080-C07-00), cofinanced within the framework of the National Plan R&D&I assisted by the Minister of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, 2007-2013).
Table 1: Sample and sub-sample according gender and vulnerability Vulnerable Non--vulnerable Total Jovenes young people Gender young Total Frequency % Frequency % people Woman 366 46.7 943 49.3 1.309 48.6 Man 417 53.3 968 50.7 1.385 51.4 Total on 783 100 1.911 100 2.694 100 the sample Table 2: Assessment made by youth on the presence in their training of capabilities whose response was /was not related to the renunciation of a leisure activity. Capabilities Renunciation Media Standard Similar Vulnerable youth to a leisure deviation variances? activity Leadership Yes 3.13 1.256 no No 3.07 1.298 Commitment Yes 3.65 1.074 no and motivation No 3.52 1.107 Creativity Yes 3.56 1.181 no and innovation No 3.34 1.188 Conflict Yes 3.54 1.059 no management No 3.53 1.145 Own time and Yes 3.22 1.149 no team's time No 3.03 1.240 management Negotiation and Yes 3.38 1.116 no decision-making No 3.38 1.146 Own time and Yes 3.28 1.101 no team's time No 3.34 1.134 management Search for Yes 3.33 1.180 no resources No 3.27 1.154 Capabilities Student's t-test Vulnerable youth t gl. Sig. Leadership .660 552.767 .510 Commitment 1.645 551.370 .101 and motivation Creativity 2.392 538.469 .017 and innovation Conflict .052 574.270 .959 management Own time and 2.031 571.235 .043 team's time management Negotiation and -.001 554.177 .999 decision-making Own time and -.601 544.412 .548 team's time management Search for .737 507.621 .461 resources Source: Own elaboration. Figure 1. Main leisure activities chosen as 1st option by vulnerable young people % Sportive physical 17.4 activity, in cooperation or competition (soccer basketball, volleyball ...) Individual sportive 8.8 physical activity (running, swimming, Skating ...) Listening to music 8.2 Going out with friends 7.3 Watching TV (generally, 7.3 Favorite shows ...) Playing videogames 6.1 Social networks 5.6 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 2. Vulnerable young people quitting the practice of a leisure activity according to gender QUIT PRACTICING DO NOT PRACTICING LEISURE ACTIVITIES LEISURE ACTIVITIES WOMEN 42.5 57.5 MEN 29.9 70.1 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 3. Reasons for the renunciation to a leisure activity according gender of vulnerable young people WOMEN MEN Lack of resources 43.2 30.4 Relational causes 1.6 3.9 Personal reasons 8.9 7 Other reasons 2.7 2.3 Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Author:||Garcia-Castilla, Francisco Javier; Estefania, Miguel Melendro; Blaya, Catherine|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
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