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PREDOMINANCE AND DETECTION OF DIFFERENT EIMERIA SPECIES CAUSING COCCIDIOSIS IN LAYER CHICKENS.

Byline: H. A. Bachaya, M. A. Raza, M. N. Khan, Z. Iqbal, R. Z. Abbas, S. Murtaza and N. Badar

ABSTRACT

Poultry sector is not only the source of animal protein it also plays a vital role in the employment generation. This organized and vibrant sector is adversely affected by the protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria which causes Coccidiosis. During the months of July 2009 to June 2010, 500 gut samples of layer chickens along with 250 faecal droppings (litter samples) were collected for the detection of different Eimeria species (coccidian parasite) predominance in the different localities of district Muzaffar garh. Four different species of Eimeria i.e. E. maxima, (30.20%), E. tenella, (39.93%), E. mitis, (19.13%) and E. necatrix (10.74 %) were isolated from 298/500 (59.60%) infected gut samples. The results also indicated that young layer chickens (60.16%) have greater infection ratio as compare with adults (37%). In addition to this it was also observed that highest predominance of coccidiosis was scrutinized during the month of September (73.33%) while lowest during April (42.86%).

Key words: Predominance, eimeria species, coccidiosis, layer.

INTRODUCTION

Poultry sector, is an imperative source of animal protein (meat and egg), has recorded a considerable development in employment generation (directly/ indirectly) for 1.5 million people with stout growth of 8-10 percent during the year 2010-11 in Pakistan. Its share is 24.8 percent in the total meat production of the country (Anonymous, 2011). This organized and vibrant sector is adversely affected by the protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria, which resides and multiplies in intestinal mucosa causing coccidiosis (Hadipour et al., 2011); characterized by dysentery, enteritis, emaciation, drooping wings, poor growth, low production (Rehman, et al., 2010; Awais et al., 2012) with high rate of mortality and morbidity (Shirzad et al., 2011). Due to higher stocking densities and intensive husbandry practices, its incidence is being increased in poultry (Nnadi and George, 2010).

Eimeria spp is omnipresent and can survive in infected birds and the environment for long times (McDougald, 2003). It causes high mortality in young chicks because most of the Eimeria spp affects birds between the age of 3 and 18 weeks (Nematollahi et al.,2009; Toulah, 2007).

Intestinal tract mucosa of different animals and birds is affected by about 1800 Eimeria spp (Haug, et al., 2008) and in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) nine different Eimeria spp are recognized (Morgan et al.,2009). In which E. brunette, E. maxima, E. necatrix and E. tenella are highly pathogenic, while E. acervulina, E. mitis and E. mivati are less pathogenic; and E. praecox and E. hagani are the lesser pathogenic (Nematollahi et al., 2008; Jadhav et al., 2011).

Different workers have investigated the predominance of coccidiosis in various classes of poultry birds in the different regions of Pakistan (Ayaz et al., 2003; Rehman, et al., 2010; Awais et al., 2012). The endeavor of this work is to expand the knowledge of the epidemiology of coccidial infections in layer flocks having open sheds by studying the geographical distribution of coccidial infections, predominance, infection levels, and the Eimeria species present in layer populations at district Muzaffar garh with reference to age of layer chickens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Collection of samples: A total of 500 gut samples of layer birds suspected for coccidiosis were collected randomly in polythene leather bags from different floor systems and poultry farms located at different regions of District Muzaffar garh from July 2009 to June 2010. In addition

to this total (n=250) fresh faecal droppings (litter samples) were also collected randomly in sterilized zipper polythene bags from different floor systems and poultry farms.

During sampling in the field, we orally obtained information from chicken keepers regarding mortality patterns among different age groups, dynamics of flock size, number of eggs laid before incubation, percentage hatch, number successfully brooded and number that attain adulthood. Both types of samples were labeled with necessary information and brought to Poultry production Lab Muzaffar garh immediately for further analyses.

Sample examination: All the intestines and caeca were opened and their contents (faeces) were collected in a beaker. The faeces were macerated overnight in potassium dichromate solution at 37oC. The suspension was filtered through a muslin cloth and allowed to sediment. The supernatant was discarded and the oocysts in the sediment were separated by floatation method in saturated sodium chloride solution. They were examined microscopically and the different Eimeria species were identified on the basis of shape and size of sporocysts and sporozoites (Levine, 1985). The litter samples were processed for the isolation of Eimeria species according to the method described by Levine (1985).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

298 out of 500 gut samples of layer chicken were found positive and predominance of coccidiosis was 59.60% (298/500). The infection was observed all around the year (Table I) but the intensity was higher in the months of September (73.33%) and October (70%) respectively while low in the month of April (42.86%). This may be due to high level of humidity combine with temperature in these months of the year as shown in the table below, E. tenella had the highest predominance rate (39.93%), followed by E. maxima (30.20%) in layer chickens (Table II) while the predominance of coccidial infection among adult layer chickens (6 weeks and above) was 37% and among the younger layer chickens (3-4 weeks) was 74% (Table III). These results are in concurrence with the report of (Muazu et al. 2008) which stated that the predominance of coccidial infection among adult bird was 36.7% and among the younger birds was 52.9%.

This rate is higher as compared to result of other survey in Nigeria that (Fabiyi, 1984) reported predominance 30% and also stated that coccidiosis has been identified in all parts of the world as a deadly disease of flocks, with resultant economic losses.

###Temperature ( C)###Humidity (%)

###Minimum Maximum###Minimum###Maximum

July 2009###25.0###44.5###18###68

August###25.8###42.0###39###85

September###21.3###39.5###38###89

October###13.0###38.5###35###91

November###6.8###32.0###33###95

December###3.4###27.2###27###93

January 2010###3.5###24.2###34###89

February###4.8###29.4###23###93

March###11.5###39.0###24###94

April###10.0###44.5###9###79

May###21.5###49.5###12###66

June###25.0###45.5###18###68

Table I: Predominance of Eimeriosis in suspected guts of layer chickens during different months

Sr. No.###Months###No. of gut samples examined###No. of gut infected###Predominance %age

1###July 2009###40###27###67.50

2###August###35###20###57.14

3###September###45###33###73.33

4###October###30###21###70.00

5###November###45###27###60.00

6###December###50###32###64.00

7###January 2010###55###35###63.63

8###February###45###24###53.33

9###March###50###28###56.00

10###April###35###15###42.86

11###May###30###16###53.33

12###June###40###20###50.00

Total###500###298###59.60%

The result obtained in this work associated with the four species of Eimeria support the statement of (Khan et al., 2006) which identified the E. maxima, E. tenella, E. mitis and E. necatrix from poultry litter. On the other hand (Hadipour et al., 2011) reported that at least four species of Eimeria (e.g., E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. necatrix and E. maxima) were found in the litter of flock while the E. tenella was the most rampant species (24%) followed by E. acervulina (18%), E. necatrix (12%), and E. maxima (10%).

Table II: Predominance of different Eimeria species in layer chickens at Muzafar garh district

Months###No. of###E. maxima###E. tenella###E. mills###E. necatrix

###infected Sample###%###Sample###%###Sample###%###Sample###%

###samples###+va###Predominance###+ve###Predominance###+ve###Predominance###+ve###Predominance

July2009###27###7###25.93###13###48.14###7###25.93###0###0.00

August###20###5###25.00###6###30.00###4###20.00###5###25.00

September###33###10###30.30###12###36.36###6###18.18###5###15.16

October###21###6###28.57###11###52.38###3###14.29###1###4.76

November###27###11###40.74###10###37.04###3###11.11###3###11.11

December###32###8###25.00###15###46.87###7###21.88###2###6.25

January###35###11###31.43###14###40.00###4###11.43###6###17.14

2010

February###24###10###41.67###8###33.33###4###16.67###2###8.33

March###28###7###25.00###11###39.29###5###17.86###5###17.85

April###15###5###33.33###6###40.00###4###26.67###0###0.00

May###16###4###25.00###5###31.25###6###37.50###1###6.25

June###20###6###30.00###8###40.00###4###20.00###2###10.00

Total###298###90###30.20###119###39.93###57###19.13###32###10.74

Table III: Predominance of coccidiosis in different age groups of layer chickens (faecal droppings)

###Young layer chicken###Adult layer chicken

Sr. No###No. of faecal Faecal sample No. of infected###%###Faecal sample No. of infected

###examined###examined###samples###age###examined###samples###%age

1###50###20###12###60.00###30###11###36.67

2###30###12###7###58.33###18###5###27.78

3###35###18###8###44.44###17###8###47.06

4###45###25###17###68.00###20###7###35.00

5###25###15###6###40.00###10###4###40.00

6###35###20###14###70.00###15###6###40.00

7###30###13###10###76.92###17###6###35.29

Total###250###123###74###60.16###127###47###37.00

Conclusion and recommendations: Species of Eimeria identified in this study are not the only specie causing the coccidiosis in the layer chickens of the district, there may be other species in another area of the country therefore we advocate the researchers to go around the country for the isolations of other species of Emeria.

Acknowledgment: The authors are thankful to Dr. Rab Nawaz Kusar (DDLO), Dr. Ihsan-ur-Rehman Akbar (ADIO), Dr. Rao Naveed Shehzad, Dr. Hassan Farooq Kazmi, Dr. Nadeem Sial, Dr. Rana Sultan, Dr. Khalid Rasool, Dr. Rafiq Samija, Dr. Hafiz Hayat Faiz and Dr. Jamshed Attari (Veterinary Officers) for their technical support during the conduction of this research.

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Author:Bachaya, H.A.; Raza, M.A.; Khan, M.N.; Iqbal, Z.; Abbas, R.Z.; Murtaza, S.; Badar, N.
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Sep 30, 2012
Words:2418
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