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POPULATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF MONKEYS IN SELECTED PROTECTED AND NON-PROTECTED AREAS OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA.

Byline: K. Karim S. Anuar. M. S Dauda T. O and H. Nidaullah

: Abstract

Population of monkeys in Peninsular Malaysia has been inconsistent with regards to their numbers. At a certain times they deemed pest because of their large numbers like Macaca fascicularis a listed protected animal as per local Government jurisdiction. Here we evaluated population status along with recruitments rate considering three species i.e. Long-tailed Macaques Dusky-Leaf-Monkeys and Pig-tailed Macaques at seven randomly selected areas in Peninsular Malaysia. For analysis Generalized Linear Model and Probability Density Function (pdf) analyses were conducted. As a result we perceived Kolmogorov values 0.153-0.479 and Anderson statistics 33.258-103.45.

The geometric pdf ( Equation prescribed P = 0.05114) which precisely coincides with the population distribution of the mentioned species. Further it has been assumed that the smaller number of monkeys posses higher probability as compared with higher numbers in specified colony and vice versa. The results suggested that Bukit Selambau possessed highest parametric frequencies for some of the population indices except the adult male exhibited highest frequencies in Botanical gardens (x=2.917). Overall species of Long-tailed Macaques was found predominantly (x=20.688) among the selected areas. Further we established the colony size as 1- 17 individuals per group. Generally the likelihood rate of recruitment index was 0.099 for the three species.

Key words: Rate of recruitment group size seasonal effect geometric pdf adducible Duncan Multiple range Test.

INTRODUCTION

The status of monkey species available in Peninsular Malaysia has always been inconsistent. At a certain time they were deemed pest due to their large number (Schweitzer 2014; Sha et.al. 2009). However species like the Macaca fascicularis are listed in the category of protected animals which cannot be killed nor captured without prior and legal permission from the Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia (Zain et. al 2011; Sha et. al. 2009). The uncertainties of group recruitment on the basis of individual members of monkey are inimical for the appropriate management and its habitat. Previous studies related to monkeys in the Peninsular Malaysia have focused on ecology and management of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and their interface with human (Zain et. al 2011).

Further status and conservation of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) have been studied in Sabah state East Malaysia (Sha et. al 2008) along with primate ecology (Clutton-Brock 1977). However there is no research study which have been focused on the status evaluation (population) in terms of the sites (protected and non protected areas) rate of recruitment and weather conditions. Such information's would be useful in future endeavors for the better administrational directions of the monkeys. Generally a sound and proper protocols would be essential for any natural resources authentication and to evaluate its status for the denizen of natural environment. To overcome the imminent mis-managemental obstacles through considering the previous history and make some comprehensive decisions on the basis of recommended outcomes.

Recruitments have been defined as the addition of new individual to a population while rate of recruitment is defined as the number of new organisms/infants reaching a size/age where they would represent a viable target for certain purpose (Martha et. al 2014). This study posited that a significant difference is existed in the population of monkey at different selected sites of the study; also the population differs according to the prevailing weather conditions. Present study was conducted on three species of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis Macaca nemestrina and Trachypithecus obscurus) in seven selected areas (Botanical Gardens Penang Cerok To`kun Penang Bukit Juru Penang Gunung Jerai Kedah Bukit Selambau Kedah Taiping Zoo Perak and Pondok Tanjung Perak) in the Northern Peninsular Malaysia The general objective of this study was to assess the population status of monkeys during different weather conditions at various study sites.

While the specific objectives focused concentratedly to assess the difference between monkeys population in protected and non-protected areas as well as to examine the population components in term of species and rate of recruitment of monkeys at different sites.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: This study was conducted between January 2012 and December 2013 in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. Which is located near to north Singapore border along with Southern Thailand and eastern part of the Indonesian isle (Sumatra) between 99o to 105o east and 1o to 7o north having total land area of 131587 km2. It is composed of highlands shore zones tidal plains (Fuentes et al. 2011) also carry the tropical rain forest peat swamp timberlands with mangrove forests and dipterocarp forests (Mohd-Azlan 2006). Present study was carried out in seven randomly selected areas of peninsular Malaysia i.e. Penang Botanical Gardens Cerok To`kun Penang Bukit Juru Penang Gunung Jerai Kedah Bukit Selambau Kedah Taiping Zoo Perak and Pondok Tanjung Perak (Figure 1). The study sites were further divided into protected and non-protected areas. The climatic condition is tropical humid and worm around the year with temperature ranges 21oC to 32oC.

Rainfall occurs in two rainy seasons that linked with Southwest Monsoon from May to September and Northeast Monsoon from November to March (Suhaila and Jemain 2009).

The data were randomly and continuously collected in the above seven different habitats located in three states of Peninsular Malaysia. The selected seven study sites were further subdivided in protected and non- protected habitat. The protected habitat consisted of four locations i.e. Botanical Gardens Penang Cerok To'kun Penang" Gunung Jerai Kedah" and Taiping Zoo Perak". While the non-protected habitat composed on three locations which were; Bukit Juru Penang" Bukit Selambau Kedah" and Pondok Tanjung Perak". Further detail regarding the selected study sites with geographical positioning data and particular of monkey's species habitation are given in table 1.

Study subjects and Data collection: The data were collected from 8.00am to 6.00pm and sampling sub- session was fifteen observations per hour. Three species of monkeys were studied including Macaca fascicularis Macaca nemestrina and Trachypithecus obscurus which were commonly distributed in most of study areas. The opportunity of counting and recognizing was higher in Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina because they usually approached to took food from human habitations. Trachypithecus obscures spent most of their time in trees and rarely comedown to ground. Data with respect to the number of monkeys in a group consisted; number of males number of females number of juveniles (male/female) number of sub-adults (male/female) and adults were considered.

Data analysis: The data collected were analyzed using summary statistics (like means standard error of mean and variance). The total frequency of the encountered monkeys species was tested for five different probability distributions including Uniform geometric logarithmic negative binomial and poisson probability distribution function. The most parsimonious of the pdf was selected using both Kolmogorov and Anderson test (Hubert 1967). Hypothesis was tested using generalized linear models while the mean of the significantly different frequencies was separated using both Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Least Significance Difference (LSD). The recruitment rate index (RRI) (Lima and Rodrigues-de- Paula 2013) was obtained using; Equation

Where fi = number of the infant and ft = number of the individuals encountered in the study site. Both SAS version 8 and Easy Fit were deployed in this study.

RESULTS

Among different age groups of monkeys both male and female consisting juvenile sub-adult and adult age groups possessed highest mean frequency at Bukit Selambau in non-protected area (Table 2). The corresponding mean frequencies for male were 3.967 (juvenile) 2.667 (sub-adult) 2.917 (adult) and for female were 5.567 (juvenile) 3.7 (sub-adult) 4.667 (adult) respectively (Table 2). Whereas the likelihood frequencies in case of infant age groups were dissimilar irrespective of gender in the non-protected areas of Bukit Selambau. But the highest mean frequency in case of infant (2.083) was obtained at Cerok To'kun Penang. Further the interpretation of these results suggest that (i) highest population of the monkeys were obtainable at Bukit Selambau on the basis of population size and (ii) the higher frequencies of monkeys at any sites the greater will be the chance of variability (increase) in population and vice versa.

The data analysis pertaining to distribution function (pdf) of the total frequency with regards to monkeys exhibited the responding Kolmogorov statistics between 0.153 and 0.479 while the Anderson statistics were ranged between 33.258 and 103.45. Based on ranking of the mentioned statistical tests the geometric probability density (Figure 2A) suits best to the distribution of the total frequencies as given below; Equation

The expected value of this (pdf) is P the 1 P variance is P and the parametric P is 0.05114. While both the K and Anderson statistics both concluded a lesser pdf value (Table 6). It have been justified that the probability of appreance is maximum for the number of monkeys ranged between 1-17 individuals in a group whereas the minimum probability of appearance will be accessed if the number of monkeys ranged between 25 44 individuals in a group.

The analysis of Generalized Linear Model (GLM) resulted that the animals frequency by weather were significantly different in case of infants juveniles sub-adults and adults. The corresponding F-statistics mean were; infants (6.500) juveniles (9.16 4.53) sub- adults (6.36 3.45) and adults (6.21 3.04) (Table 3). The mean values exhibited the effect of weather have a heterogeneous impact upon the population structure. Further the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) concluded that the mean frequencies for sunshine were maximum (Pless than 0.01) than the cloudy and rainy weather for infant Juvenile and sub-adult. However the one category i.e; adult possessed the highest mean frequencies (Pless than 0.05) in case of raining (Male: 2.56 Female: 4.12) followed by cloudy weather (Male:1.951 Female: 3.044) (Table2). The result illustrated that the differences pertaining to weather conditions impacted various structural frequencies in different classes of monkeys.

The aged monkeys were adopted to rain as compared with the infant and juvenile. Regarding the study site statistical analysis (GLM) for the monkey's number per site were significantly varied. The corresponding F- statistics were 12.47 (Infants) 4.47 (Juvenile males) 6.19 (Juvenile females) 6.21 (Sub-adult males) 8.21 (Sub-adult females) 10.40 (adult males) and 5.91 (adult females) which was greater than F(6 253) = 3.67 (Table 4). The DMRT revealed that the mean numbers in monkey population were highest at Bukit Selambau in case of juvenile sub adult and adult for both gender (male and female) Which was higher than Cerok To'kun for the corresponding means numbers in monkey's population. The study site Gunung Jerai consisted of maximum mean frequencies for male sub-adult where Botanical gardens exhibited highest mean frequencies for female sub-adult. Further we assumed that there were no regularity in numbers of group members in speficied population.

However Bukit Selambau Cerok Tokun and Botanical gardens revealed highest mean frequencies of monkeys. From the results it is clear that Bukit Selambau a non- protected area possessed highest mean frequencies of monkeys. In addition the remained two; Cerok To'kun and Botanical gardens consisted the maximum frequencies of monkeys which were announced as the protected areas (Table 4).

The mean (GLM) frequencies of monkeys' in a population according to species illustrated significant differences in term of male and female for juveniles sub- adults adults.. The corresponding F-statistics values were 5.820 7.790 for juvenile 21.800 3.210 for sub-adult and 31.530 24.160 for adult (Table 5). The DMRT grouping showed that the frequencies of Macaca fascicularis were significantly higher than Macaca nemestrina followed by the least significant species; Trachypithecu sobscurus (Table 5). The mean rate of recruitment index (RRI) was 0.099 with maximum value 0.500 which indicate that the animals during the study period could be turned or recruited through the birth half of the population for a specific site. Similarly RRI decreases in case of Macaca nemestrina; the maximum to Trachypithecus obscurus; the minimum showed variation in the rate of recruitment across the species considering the study sites (Figure 3).

Highest RRI was obtained with sunshine while raining condition returned the least RRI (Figure 3). This conclude that the animals possessed the capability of maximum recruitment rate ultimately explode their population and warranting the Ministry of Wildlife and National Park for controlled harvesting (Schweitzer 2014).

Table 1. Geographical co-ordination (GPS) within study areas of the three monkeys species

###Land###Geographical

###Study Areas###Areas###Positional System###Species

###(KM2)###(GPS)

###05 26.265" N###Macaca fascicularis and

###Botanical Gardens###2.4

###100 17.437"E###Trachypithecus obscurus

###05 21.522"N###Macaca fascicularis and Macaca

Protected

###Cerok To`kun Penang###3.5

###areas

###100 29.606"E###nemestrina

###05 49.716"N###Macaca fascicularis and Macaca

###Gunung Jerai Kedah###5.2

###10027.517"E###nemestrina

###Macaca fascicularis Macaca

###04 51.285"N

###Taiping Zoo Perak###1.8###nemestrina and Trachypithecus

###100 44.989"E

###obscurus

###05 20.055" N###Macaca fascicularis and

Non-protected

###Bukit Juru Penang###7.1

###100 24.457"E###Trachypithecus obscurus

###Areas

###05 39.509"N

###Bukit Selambau Kedah###10.3###Macaca fascicularis

###100 33.807"E

###05 02.101"N###Macaca fascicularis and Macaca

###Pondok Tanjung Perak###8.1

###100 43.679"E###nemestrina

Table 2. Summary Statistics of the total Monkey Population of three species (Macaca fascicularis Macaca

###nemestrina and Trachypithecus obscurus)

###Sites###Infant###Juvenile###Sub Adult###Adult

###Mean###Variance###Mean###Variance###Mean###Variance###Mean###Variance

###Botanical###0.6880.16###1.198###2.6040.24###2.712###2.000.021###2.213###2.9170.32###4.972

###Garden Penang

###Cerok Tokun###2.0830.14###0.707###3.5830.51###9.507###1.8610.23###1.951###1.7220.21###1.577

###Penang

###Gunung Jerai###1.0570.17###0.996###2.8290.36###4.617###2.0860.25###2.198###1.9140.20###1.375

Male

###Kedah

###Taiping Zoo###1.4050.08###0.247###2.1430.25###2.564###0.9290.16###1.141###1.3570.14###0.772

###Perak

###Bukit Juru###1.5120.86###0.306###2.2190.35###5.126###1.4390.17###1.252###1.8050.15###0.961

###Penang

###Bukit Selambau###1.7670.18###1.013###3.9670.68###13.826###2.6670.49###7.057###2.4330.30###2.668

###Kedah

###Pondok Tanjung###1.4620.17###1.43###2.6350.30###4.785###1.8850.19###1.869###2.3080.17###1.433

###Perak

###Botanical###0.6880.16###1.198###4.2920.29###3.998###3.2920.28###3.828###3.2080.40###7.53

###Garden Penang

###Cerok Tokun###2.0830.14###0.707###5.2500.71###18.021###2.8060.41###5.99###2.9440.32###3.711

###Penang

###Gunung Jerai###1.0570.17###0.996###5.2570.47###7.726###2.5430.23###1.785###2.7140.32###3.681

###Kedah

Female

###Taiping Zoo###1.4050.08###0.247###3.4050.36###5.515###1.9760.21###1.926###2.4520.17###1.278

###Perak

###Bukit Juru###1.5120.86###0.306###3.5370.39###6.255###1.7800.24###2.276###3.2680.32###4.201

###Penang

###Bukit Selambau###1.7670.18###1.013###5.5670.85###21.495###3.7000.53###8.355###4.6670.68###13.816

###Kedah

###Pondok Tanjung###1.4620.17###1.43###4.5190.38###7.706###2.9610.22###2.548###4.0190.30###4.804

###Perak

Table 3. F-statistic and mean separation for the Population of the three species under different weather

###Conditions.

Parameter###infant###Juvenile###Sub Adult###Adult###Mean of

###Total

###Frequency

Fstatistic###6.50###9.16###4.53###6.36###3.45###6.21###3.04###1.54

DF###2###2###2###2###2###2###2###2

Cloudy###1.3132b###3.0055a###4.7198a###1.6868b###2.6923a###1.9505b###3.0440b###18.412a

Sunshine###1.7143a###2.7922a###4.3247a###2.3377a###3.0909a###2.2597ab###3.6883ab###20.208a

Raining###0.9600c###1.1200b###3.0800b###1.0000c###1.6400b###2.5600a###4.1200a###14.480b

Table 4. F-statistic and mean separation for the Population of the three species at Different Area.

Parameter###Infants###Juveniles###Sub-adults###Adults

F-statistic###12.47###4.47###6.19###6.21###8.21###10.40###5.91

DF###6###6###6###6###6###6###6

Botanical Gardens###0.688d###2.604bc###4.292ab###2.000bc###3.292ab###2.917a###3.208bc

Cerok tokun###2.083a###3.583ab###5.250a###1.861bc###2.806bc###1.722d###2.944c

Bukit Juru###1.512b###2.220 c

###3.537b###1.439 cd

###1.781e###1.805 cd

###3.268bc

Gunung Jerai###1.057c###2.829 bc

###5.257a###2.086 b

###2.543cd###1.914 bcd

###2.714c

Bukit Selambau###1.767ab###3.967 a

###5.567a###2.667 a

###3.700a###2.433 ab

###4.667a

Taiping Zoo###1.406b###2.143c###3.405b###0.929d###1.976de###1.357d###2.452c

Pondok Tanjung###1.462b###2.635bc###4.519ab###1.885bc###2.962bc###2.308bc###4.079ab

Table 5. F-statistic and mean separation for the Population of the monkey by Species.

Parameter###Infants###Juveniles###Sub-adults###Adults###Total

###Frequency

F-statistic###2.900###5.820###7.790###21.800###3.210###31.53 24.160###19.230

DF###2###2###2###2###2###2###2###2

Macaca fascicularis###1.521a###3.303a###4.951a###2.014a###2.852a###2.366a###3.859a###20.688a

Macaca nemestrina###1.438a###2.453b###4.250ab###1.953a###2.703a###1.813b###2.734b###17.344b

Trachypithecus###1.115b###2.103 b

###3.769b###1.295 b

###2.449a###1.808b###2.795b###15.333b

Table 6. Summary of the probability distribution function for the Total frequency of the Monkey.

###s/N###Distribution###Kolmogorov###Anderson

###Statistic###Rank###Statistic###Rank

###1###Uniform###0.15336###1###81.01###4

###2###Geometric###0.2843###3###33.258###1

###3###Logarithmic###0.47896###5###103.45###5

###4###Neg. Binomial###0.30171###4###43.63###2

###5###Poisson###0.20152###2###79.959###3

DISCUSSION

The goal of this study was to evaluate monkeys population in selected protected and non-protected areas of Peninsular Malaysia. The predominance frequencies of monkeys in Bukit Selambau showed in this study contradict the results of Panchanathan (2005) who concluded that Proboscis monkeys were not observed in villages and agricultural land. Similarly an evaluation of the species of Sambar and Muntjak habitats using geostatistical modeling established that Rhesus monkey showed great affinity towards large distances from human settlements and high tree densities surround by low shrubs (Kushwaha 2004). In another study Cawthon (2005) observed that Rhesus macaques are exceptionally adapted to coexisting with humans and thrive near human settlements in both urban and agricultural areas. Rhesus macaques can be said to be adaptive to living close to human as long as human are not posing any threat to them like it has been noted in India.

However they would definitely prefer the former when they are poached upon for safety of their dare life too. Two reasons adducible to this predominance include i) Controlled Cropping - Unpublished reports said that in controlled cropping of the monkey in recent year by the Malaysia's Department of Wildlife and National Parks almost 250000 monkeys were killed (Schweitzer 2014: Sha etal. 2009) and ii) Malaysia wildlife protection Act 1974 which listed Macaca fascicularis as a protected animal that cannot be killed and captured without permission from the Department of Malaysia Wildlife and National Parks (Zain et al 2011 Sha et. al 2008). The latter reason can enhance migration of monkey during controlled harvesting as earlier stated while the former would ensure their security with humans.

In addition monkeys colonies consisted of a few individuals among which differences were noticed in the structures with respect to weather conditions. The average group size of 12.3 individuals per colony has been reported in some areas of India (Chetry et al. 2003). Whereas the higher number of individuals in groups mentioned by Chetry and co-authors (2003) coincided with our corresponding mean higher numbers of monkeys colony. In a study conducted by Gonzalez-Martinez (2004) perceived that the Rhesus macaque consisted various numbers of individuals per colony in a specified study site; i) the size of Sierra Bermeja Rhesus population derived from research colonies during observation was 65-85 individuals and ii) the Rhesus population in mountainous regions were found as 40-45 individuals per colony.

Such observations concluded that the monkeys numbers in a specified colony was not fixed which were parallel to our observations. Such findings might be dependent on factors like the rate of recruitments in a population etc. (Maestripieri and Hoffman 2012).

Another goal of present study was to assess the monkeys population structure in term of species component. The dominance species observed was Macaca fascicularis which posses the capabilities to adopt any environmental and weathers conditions. Which further have significant impact on the birth ratios immigrations deaths and emigrations of the mentioned species. Moreover the BIDE (Birth Immigration Death and Emigration) have been described as four major determinants of population structure (Fedigan et.al. 1983). The predominance nature of Macaca fascicularis justified by Crocket and Wilson (1980) is in line with our findings they claimed that the species were usually most abundant in swampy habitat which have been visualised in most part of their study area. In the last the highest RRI values in our study presented by Macaca nemestrina suggested that RRI is not a function of frequency where the most populous species of the day might not be the most populous species of tomorrow.

It would therefore be worthwhile to carry out adequate inventory to ascertain the population structure before controlled cropping and avoid population mismanagement.

It can be concluded that the implementation of GLM (Generalized Linear Model) for such kind of studies and the likelihood further applications could easily be employed in any type of quasi research. In present study it have been observed that the monkeys colony size as well as the rate of recruitment in preliminary population census will be essential before regular population control measures should be taken. It is worth recommending that periodic controlled harvesting of monkey would be essential to avoid imminent population explosion evident in the rate of recruitment index and consequently avoid the nuisance of the animal. Further it is suggested that socio-economic characteristics survey of the living people around study areas should be carried out.

Acknowledgements: The authors wish to acknowledge the support provided by the School of Biological Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia for providing the field work transportation facilities. The University Grant Scheme (RU-PRGS USM) provided by the University Sains Malaysia is equally acknowledged. We are grateful for the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan provided by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia to Karimullah and the TWAS-USM PostDoctoral Fellowship provided to Dauda T.O. and Hafiz NidaUllah.

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