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PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF FISH CHIPS MADE FROM Luciobarbus esocinus (Heckel, 1843).

Byline: N. K. Kuzgun

Keywords: Fish chips, Luciobarbus esocinus, Fatty acids, Amino acids, Sensory evaluation.

INTRODUCTION

The worldwide demand for ready-to-eat products is constantly increasing. As a result of today's rapid pace of life, the consumption of fast foods has become increasingly popular, and the question of how to maintain a healthy and balanced diet is now an important issue in many societies. Fish is an excellent food to achieve this, and it can play a significant role in human nutrition. The potential benefits of consuming fish come from the presence of proteins, minerals, vitamins and essential unsaturated fatty acids (Guler et al., 2008). Amino acids are essential for health; a lack of them leads to a number of diseases (Mohanty et al., 2014). Fish protein has a high nutritive value due to the essential amino acids that it contains (Beklevuk et al., 2005; Larsen et al., 2007). Potato chips are a popular consumer good in Turkey and they are eaten by people of all ages.

In recent years, per capita consumption of chips has increased at a great rate in both Turkey and around the world (Karaton Kuzgun, 2017). Many different varieties of these products are currently available in the consumer marketplace. Adding fish supplements to these types of product should be seriously considered for the purposes of promoting health (Egemen, 1986; Richardson, 1990; Eksi and Karadeniz 1996; Karagozlu et al., 2000; Obatoluve and Cole, 2000). In a study conducted on the Tigris asp (Aspius vorax), Duman et al., (2013) obtained surimi powder and produced fish chips using different proportions of this powder. In an organoleptic evaluation of flavor and taste, the chips with a 5% proportion of the powder received the highest scores from the panelists. Dincer et al., (2015) produced sardine chips. They investigated the chemical composition, shelf life and fatty acid composition of those products.

Uzun et al. (2006) determined the nutritional composition and energy values of a number of different potato and corn chips produced in Turkey. Karaton Kuzgun (2017) determined the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of fish chips. According to the results of this research, a group of panelists (n=65) liked the group of fried fish chips most. Nevertheless, only a limited of studies to date have fully investigated the fatty acid and amino acid content of fish meat-enriched chips. The current study was designed the evaluate to investigate the use of L. esocinus in the production of fish chips and determine changes in physicochemical levels as a result of the different cooking techniques used.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Preparation of the fish: In this study, high-value L. esocinus (Heckel, 1843) was caught in the Keban Dam Lake. The fish was transported to the laboratory in Styrofoam boxes with ice.

Preparation of chips samples: Fish chips were prepared by following the method of Gogus and Kolsarici (1992) in a modified form. The fish brought to the laboratory was decapitated and skinless fillets were produced. The basic mixture for the fish chips consisted of 680g minced fish, 200g corn starch, 500ml cold water, 300g flour, 300 corn flour, 25g salt and 7g thyme. For the groups with sauce, 30g of pepper sauce containing 3g of pepper was added. The resulting mixture was blended in order to obtain a paste with a homogeneous consistency. This paste was first compressed with a 0.7 mm extractor and then passed through a double-walled extractor (Ampia, 150, Italy). After the product had been molded into chips, half of the groups were fried with sauce and without sauce for three minutes at 180 AdegC in sunflower oil and the remaining half was baked for five minutes at 180 AdegC in the oven.

Thus, the groups with sauce and without sauce were both cooked with two different cooking methods, resulting in four different experimental groups: Fried with sauce (A), Fried without sauce (B), Baked with sauce (C), Baked without sauce (D). The study was replicated twice.

Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis: In order to conduct the chromatographic analysis of the fatty acids found in lipids, they need to be transformed into non-polar, volatile and stable methyl ester derivatives. Methyl esters were obtained by a small modification of the method reported by TS EN ISO 12966-1, (2015). Lipid samples were diluted with 2ml of n-heptane in a clean, stoppered tube and 0.2 mL of potassium hydroxide (2 N KOH in methanol) was added. The mixture was vortexed for 30 seconds at room temperature and centrifuged at 4000 rpm for ten minutes. Finally, the top layer was separated for FAME analysis.

Gas chromatographic condition: Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters was performed using a Shimatzu GC-2010 device. Injector and detector temperatures were maintained at 250AdegC and 270AdegC respectively. The furnace temperature was also maintained at 90-240AdegC. Fatty acids were identified by comparing them with the standard FAME mixture consisting of 37 items. The results of GC analysis were expressed as% +- standard error (TS EN ISO 12966-1, 2015).

Amino acid analysis: For amino acid analysis, the samples were fired with 6 N HCl at 150 AdegC for 2 hours, then filtered through a 45 u filter. In determining the free amino acid composition of the samples, the HPLC method described by Aristoy and Toldra, (1991) and Antoine et al. (1999) was used. Elution Buffer A Na2HPO4, Na2B4O7 and NaN3 (pH 8.2) and Elusion Buffer B acetonitrile: methyl alcohol: water (45:45:10) were used. A prominence fluorescence detector and Zorbax Eclipse-AAA 4.6 x 150 mm, 3.5 um HPLC (Shimadzu LC-20 AT Prominence Liquid Chromatograph) were used to determine the free amino acid composition of the samples. OPA (ortho-phthalaldehyde) and FMOC (9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate) were used as the derivatization reagents for amino acids and then, 0.4 N borate (pH: 10.2) was used as the buffer solution. Readings were conducted at 1.5 ml/min flow rate, 2% Buffer B concentration, and for 40 min.

After the procedures mentioned above, amino acids such as valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, arginine, histidine, threonine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, serine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, cysteine, and proline were tested with an RF20A detector.

Sensory analysis: Five experienced panelists, who were academic staff trained in sensory descriptors, evaluated the quality of the fish chips. Panelists evaluated the samples' appearance, odor, color, flavor, crispiness, fish odor and general acceptability on a 10-point hedonic scale ranging from 'Cannot be consumed' (1) to 'Excellent' (10) (Altug Onogur and Elmaci, 2011).

Statistical analysis: IBM SPSSA(r)22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) statistical package software was employed for the statistical analysis of the data acquired in this study. The statistical significance of the differences among groups was investigated by means of variance analysis (One-Way ANOVA), using Duncan's (Duncan, 1955) multiple range test. The p<0.05 was considered significant (Ozdamar, 2001).

Table 1. Fatty acid profile of fish chips (mg 100 g).

Symbol###Fish###Dough###A###B###C###D

14:0###0.77+-0.09a###0.57+-0.06b###0.47+-0.01b###0.47+-0.01b###0.49+-0.01b###0.54+-0.02b

16:0###21.58+-1.48c###18.53+-1.01bc###9.04+-0.94a###8.67+-1.07a###18.02+-0.01b###18.02+-0.01b

16:1###11.72+-0.36c###10.18+-0.14b###1.44+-0.01a###0.94+-0.01a###12.14+-0.13c###11.80+-0.79c

18:0###3.79+-0.13bc###2.12+-0.11a###4.11+-0.02c###3.49+-0.41bc###3.35+-0.04b###3.20+-0.20b

18:1n9###23.87+-0.86a###22.62+-0.59a###30.37+-0.27b###30.07+-0.07b###23.50+-0.41a###23.01+-0.00a

18:2n6###5.32+-0.26a###11.77+-0.56b###29.67+-0.33e###30.19+-0.18e###14.88+-0.10d###13.67+-0.22c

18:3n3###5.23+-0.63c###4.31+-0.02b###0.59+-0.02a###0.47+-0.00a###3.63+-0.03b###3.87+-0.01b

20:3n6###6.58+-0.00f###4.11+-0.01c###3.55+-0.00b###3.44+-0.00a###4.11+-0.01e###4.10+-0.01d

20:4n6###3.52+-0.03d###1.39+-0.06c###0.88+-0.03b###0.87+-0.01b###0.39+-0.01a###0.43+-0.00a

20:5n3###2.51+-0.26c###1.57+-0.23b###1.97+-0.01b###1.75+-0.03b###0.98+-0.01a###0.96+-0.00a

22:0###1.74+-0.05c###0.92+-0.05b###1.75+-0.06c###2.04+-0.05d###0.04+-0.00a###0.04+-0.00a

22:2###0.91+-0.06c###5.51+-0.00b###3.53+-0.00c###4.87+-0.01d###4.86+-0.05a###5.93+-0.04a

22:1n9###0.42+-0.13a###0.23+-0.05a###1.69+-0.00b###2.12+-0.08c###0.33+-0.03a###0.33+-0.02a

24:0###2.43+-0.33###2.34+-0.00###1.78+-0.01###1.40+-0.01###3.85+-0.14###4.82+-0.31

24:1###0.97+-0.02d###0.51+-0.02b###0.85+-0.04c###0.77+-0.04c###0.29+-0.02a###0.21+-0.01a

22:6n3###3.72+-0.29b###2.78+-0.01a###4.46+-0.02c###4.08+-0.05bc###4.98+-0.01d###4.94+-0.04d

n6/n3###1.66+-0.38a###1.43+-0.51a###4.63+-0.03b###5.22+-0.02b###1.89+-0.02a###1.63+-0.08a

PUFA/SFA###0.87+-0.02a###1.02+-0.05a###1.94+-0.13b###2.09+-0.19b###0.92+-0.01a###0.86+-0.02a

DHA/EPA###1.52+-0.05a###2.41+-0.34b###1.24+-0.02a###1.18+-0.01a###3.03+-0.01c###3.05+-0.03c

Table 2. Anova data.

###Symbol###Ss###Df###Ms###F-value###Sig.

n6/n3###Between Groups###29.092###5###5.818###41.206###0.000

###Within Groups###0.847###6###0.141

###Total###29.939###11

DHA/EPA###Between Groups###7.546###5###1.509###39.026###0.000

###Within Groups###0.232###6###0.039

###Total###7.778###11

PUFA/SFA###Between Groups###4.273###5###0.855###9.570###0.008

###Within Groups###0.536###6###0.089

###Total###4.809###11

Table 3. Amino acid composition of fish chips (g/100g).

Amino acids###Fish###Dough###A###B###C###D

###Essential Amino Acids

Valine###0.01###0.00###0.01###0.01###0.00###0.02

Leucine###0.12###0.00###0.04###0.01###0.01###0.08

Isoleucine###10.20###2.01###3.06###1.51###4.01###5.49

Lysine###2.91###0.20###1.00###0.22###0.37###0.41

Methionine###0.01###0.01###0.05###0.01###0.06###0.05

Phenylalanine###0.15###0.03###0.04###0.02###0.07###0.08

Arginine###0.54###0.05###0.21###0.07###0.10###0.22

Histidine###0.05###0.02###0.08###0.04###0.04###0.04

Threonine###1.72###0.24###0.33###0.10###0.30###0.47

###Non-Essential Amino Acids

Tyrosine###0.88###0.05###0.05###0.02###0.05###0.08

Aspartic acid###0.96###0.03###0.31###0.15###0.07###0.08

Serine###0.38###0.16###0.29###0.08###0.40###0.45

Aspargine###0.00###0.00###0.30###0.12###0.00###0.00

Glutamine###0.01###0.01###0.01###0.04###0.01###0.01

Glycine###0.02###0.01###0.00###0.01###0.00###0.00

Alanine###0.46###0.49###0.01###0.03###0.01###0.01

Cystine###0.05###0.01###0.00###0.01###0.01###0.01

Proline###5.35###0.67###1.00###1.99###2.43###3.55

###Evaluating Parameters

TEAA###15.71###2.56###4.82###1.99###4.96###6.86

TAA###23.82###3.99###6.79###4.44###7.94###11.05

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fatty acids composition: A total of 16 fatty acids were identified in the lipids of L. esocinus meat, the chips mixture, and chips samples (Table 1). The fatty acid composition of the fish chips made with L. esocinus is given in Table 1. The major fatty acids in the fish meat included palmitic (21.58+-1.48 mg/100 g), stearic (3.79+-0.13 mg/100 g), oleic (23.87+-0.86 mg/100 g), linoleic (5.32+-0.26 mg/100 g) and linolenic (5.23+-0.63 mg/100 g) acids. In a separate study, the fatty acids found in the largest quantities in samples of A. Boyeri were palmitic at 27.1+-3.2 mg/100 g, oleic at 4.6+-0.3 mg/100 g and docosahexaenoic acid at 24.8 +-3.9 mg/100 g (Tanakol et al., 1999). The findings of this study are similar to our study findings. Among the fatty acids of greatest nutritional importance, the n-3 series stands out. Oleic acid (18:1n9) was found at levels of 22.62+-0.59, 30.37+-0.27, 30.07+-0.07, 23.50+-0.41 and 23.01+-0.00 mg/100 g in the chips mixture and the A, B, C and D samples respectively (Table 1).

In this study, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the amount of oleic acid (18:1n9) between the groups. On the other hand, linoleic acid (18:2n6) was found to be 30.19+-0.18 mg/100 g in the fried samples without sauce, the maximum ratio within the chips produced (Table 1). The ratios of the fatty acids DHA/EPA found during the stages of the chips' production (fish meat, chips mixture, fried chips with sauce, fried chips without sauce, baked chips with sauce and baked chips without sauce) respectively were 1.52+-0.05, 2.41+-0.34, 1.24+-0.02, 1.18+-0.01, 3.03+-0.01 and 3.05+-0.03 mg/100 g (Table 1). The values of DHA/EPA in the samples are in accordance with those findings obtained by other authors (Izci et al., 2011).

The n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios during the production of the chips were found to be 1.66+-0.38, 1.43+-0.51, 4.63+-0.03, 5.22+-0.02, 1.89+-0.02 and 1.63+-0.08 mg/100 g (fish meat, chips mixture, fried chips with sauce, fried chips without sauce, baked chips with sauce and baked chips without sauce, respectively) and there significant differences were observed throughout the process (p 0.05). When the experimental groups were examined for odour. group A received the highest score (8.28 +- 0.45) and the samples that had only been baked received the lowest score (7.71 +- 1.03) (Fig. 1). There was no significant difference based on difference in odour between the groups (p> 0.05). The color score for the chips was in the interval 9.14 +- 0.98 - 7.57 +- 1.04 points (Fig. 1). There were statistically significant differences between fish chip groups according to the color scores (p 0.05). The differences between experimental sample groups were not statistically significant (p> 0.05) when the L. esocinus-enriched chips samples were reviewed by the panelists for crispness; and the group scores were similar as well (Fig. 1). Based on the scores given by the panelists. It was pointed out that the chips with the sauce that had been fried were their favorite (9.28 +- 0.69); and the ones they liked least were those with sauce that had been baked (7.71 +- 1.05) (Fig. 1). The difference between the experimental groups was significant (p <0.05). In their study. Izci et al.. (2011) determined the general acceptability score for their chips to be 8.33 +- 0.18. This result is consistent with the findings of the present study.

Yuksel et al.. (2014) enriched wheat chips with omega-3 fatty acid by adding flaxseed. They found that panelists gave higher sensory scores to the flaxseed-enriched wheat chip samples.

Conclusion: Chips consumed worldwide in the form of products with low nutritional value. such as potato chips and corn chips, can be supplemented with fish for the purpose of enhancing their nutritional value. Furthermore. fish chips produced in this way could be marketed to consumers as fast food. By adding various spices and different sauces the range of products available could be expanded. Thus also contributing to the development of the global economy and also, The lipid characteristics and amino acid contents of fish chips made using fish meat vary according to the cooking methods. The losses in content of DHA and EPA in cooking with frying method is higher than other methods.

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