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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDY OF EGYPTIAN AND COMMON WEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES(CIS) LONG STAPLE COTTON AND SPINNING POTENTIAL EVALUATION AT RING AND COMPACT SPINNING SYSTEMS UNDER SOME MECHANICAL VARIABLES.

Byline: N.Mahmood, M.Q.Tusief, M.Arshad and M.Azeem

ABSTRACT

Different cotton varieties have different Physico- Chemical properties and play a significant role in the quality characteristics of end product. Egyptian cotton varieties have better fibre physical and chemical properties as compared to CIS varieties. Similarly compact spinning system proved itself better as compared to ring spinning system to improve the strength related properties of the yarn at low twist and high spindle speeds. Compact spinning produces a new yarn structure, as the edge fibres are incorporated into the yarn due to the elimination of the spinning triangle, so that the harmful effects of the spinning triangle on yarn characteristics are eliminated. The compact yarns possess less hairiness, better strength, better uniformity and lower values of thick & thin places and neps compared to the conventional ring-spun yarns.

The present study was planned to explore the physico-chemical study of Egyptian and CIS long staple cotton and spinning potential evaluation at ring and compacts pinning systems under some mechanical variables. This paper endeavors to optimize the application of best combination of Twist multiplier and Spindle speeds at ring and compact spinning system for Egyptian and CIS cotton varieties

Keywords: Physico-chemical Analysis of Egyptian and CIS cotton varieties, Mechanical Variables.

INTRODUCTION

Egyptian cotton is the world's finest cotton because it has some noble characteristics which set it apart from other natural fibers. The length of the fiber makes it possible to make the finest of yarns without sacrificing the strength of the yarn. The strength of the fiber makes yarn and fabric more solid and more resistant to stress. Its ability to absorb liquids gives fabrics made of Egyptian cotton deeper, brighter and more resistant colors. Its softness feels like nothing else in the world. Egyptian cotton is hand picked which guarantees the highest levels of purity (Anonymous, 2007). CIS cotton is grown in fifteen independent states; Uzbekistan is the major CIS cotton producer having its share about 60 percent of total production and is the second largest producer. Tajikistan is famous for fine extra-long staple cotton varieties (Islam, 1995). Along with the good quality of cotton, different spinning techniques also have significant impact on the quality of the yarn and fabric.

Compact spinning technoly has been gaining much more interest since its first commercial introduction by International Textile Market Association (ITMA)-Paris in 1999. It is a modified ring spinning process which has special advantages and can be used in both short and long staple yarn spinning areas. In this system the spinning triangle is reduced to its elimination. Because the high area of spinning triangle is unfavorable for getting more and more fibres in the yarn cross section and provide more fibre loss. However, in compact spinning, the drafted fibres emerging from the nip line of the front roller of the drafting arrangement are condensed in a line. The other advantage of the compact spun system is the fly and dust reduction in the department. The cleaning re-quirement is reduced when compared to conventional ring spinning frames.

The compact-spun yarns' tenacity and elongation (%) values are higher than the conventional ones, but at the high twist level, the elongation values of compact and convential ring yarns were very similar. Yarn hairiness is very important for the weaving preparation and process, so compact weaving yarns have more advantages than conventional ring yarns in terms of yarn hairiness and yarn strength. (Celik and Kadoglu, 2004).

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The present research work was initiated in the Department of Fibre Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The chemical tests were carried out in the Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and Spinning of samples were performed and tested at Nishat Textile Mills Limited, Sheikhupura Road Faisalabad. The details of materials used and methods applied to test the various quality characteristics of the raw material and ultimate yarn samples are given here under.

Materials : The lint cotton samples of Egyptian cotton varieties Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS cotton varieties Elisa, Sultop and Surex were collected from the running stock of the mills. Physical characteristics of cotton fibres i.e. staple length, length uniformity index, fibre strength; fibre fineness and fibre elongation (%) were estimated by High Volume Instrument (HVI-900SA), A fibre testing system manufactured by M/S Zellweger Uster Ltd. (Switzerland) according to ASTM Standards (2008).

FIBRE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Cellulose Content: Cellulose content was estimated by the method as described by AOAC. (1990). The Cellulose content of cotton was calculated using the following formula.

Cellulose% = Oven dry wt. after treatment - Ash wt. x 100 Total Dry Sample weight

Pectin Content: The percentage of pectin was determined by extraction of pectin substances with 0.05 N HCL and pectin substances were calculated as calcium pectate, after precipitation from HCL extracted with calcium oxide. The estimation was made according to the detail given by Kertesz (1961).

Protein Content: The percentage of protein in raw cotton was estimated by determining total nitrogen by Kjeldahl's method. In this method, first the percentage of nitrogen was calculated by the following formula N % age =Vol. of acid used x 0. 0014 x Vol. of sample x 100 Wt. of sample (gm) x 10 ml of diluted sample Then it was multiplied by 6.25 (constant factor) to get protein, according to the detail given in AO AC (1990).

Wax Content: The wax content was estimated by the method as prescribed by AOAC (1990). The amount of wax was represented on the basis of original cotton weight.

Ash Content Ash content was determined by the method as by adopted and recommended by AOAC (1990). The amount of ash was calculated on the basis of original cotton weight.

###Twist###Spindle###Spinning

Cotton variety (C)###multiplier###speed (S)###system

###T.M(T)###(M)

Egyptian###CIS###

cotton###cotton###

C1= Giza70###C4=###Elisa###T1 = 3.6###S1###= 20000###M1=Ring

C2= Giza86###C5=###Sultop###T2 = 3.7###S2###= 21000###M2=Compa

C3= Giz 88###C6=###Surex###T3 = 3.8###S3###= 22000###ct

All yarn samples were tested for the following physical properties according to the standard methods given as under.

Yarn Evenness and hairiness: Yarn evenness (U%) and hairiness were determined by measuring the variation in capacity occurring as the yarn passes through the measuring slots according the procedure as given in the manual of Uster Evenness Tester-4 (UT-4).

YARN CHARACTERISTICS

Yarn preparation: The following variables were selected for making yarn of 80s count.

Atmospheric Conditions The testing work was carried out under the standard laboratory conditions, which were maintained at (65+-2) % relative humidity and (20+-2) Cdeg temperature.

Analysis of Data: Completely Randomized Design was applied in the analysis of variance of data for testing the differences among various quality characteristics as suggested by Faqir (2004). Duncan's Multiple Range test was also applied for individual comparison of means among various quality characters. The data were subjected to statistical manipulation on computer by employing M-Stat microcomputer program as devised by Freed (1992)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COTTON

Span Length: Egyptian cotton varieties showed significant differences from each other. The range of fibre length for the tested varieties was found between 32.77 to 35.56 mm. The highest value of 35.56 was recorded for Giza-70 followed by Giza-88 and Giza 86 with their mean values as 34.80 and 32.77 mm respectively. These results were very close with those recorded by Basu and Chellamani (2006) who noted the staple length value 34.35 and 32.47 mm for Egyptian cotton varieties Giza-70 and Giza-86, respectively. The results also match with El-Sayed and Sanad (2007) who measured that Giza-70, Giza-86 and Giza-88 have staple length values, 35.50, 33.00 and 35.20, respectively. He further stated that Giza-86 falls in the category of long staple cotton. Among other long staple Egyptian cotton varieties Giza-86 has the longest fibre length in this category. CIS cotton varieties showed significant differences from each other.

The range of staple length for the selected varieties was found between 32.77 to 33.27 mm. highest value of 33.27 was recorded for Surex followed by Elisa and Sultop with their mean values as 33.02 and 32.77 mm, respectively. These finding are in close agreement with the results of Islam (1995)who stated that CIS cotton varieties ranged from 32.50 to 34.00 mm. Fibre length is the principle character of cotton, which has a close correlation with other properties and due to its natural behavior it varies not only between verities but with in the same boll .

Length Uniformity Index: Egyptian cotton varieties showed non-significant differences from each other. The range of length uniformity index for the selected varieties was found between 86.70 to 88.00 percent. The highest value of 88.00 was recorded for Giza-88 followed by Giza-70 and Giza-86 with their mean values as 87.90 and 86.70 percent, respectively. These results stood close to those of El-Sayed and Sanad (2007) who reported that length uniformity index values for Giza-70, Giza-86 and Giza-88 were 87.0, 87.0 and 86.7, respectively. Similarly, Elshakankery et al. (2008) reported that extra long staple cotton varieties Giza-70 and Giza-88 have uniformity (%) values as 87.5 and 88.0, respectively. While CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other in aspect of length uniformity index. The range of length uniformity index for the selected varieties was found between 84.90 to 85.80 percent.

The highest value of 85.80 was recorded for Sultop followed by Elisa and Surex with their mean values as85.0 and 84.90 percent respectively. These results stand close to those of Grigoryev (2003) who found that length uniformity value, while comparing different cotton varieties, were between 82.8 to 87.8 %. Similarly, Malik and Hussain (2007) measured the length uniformity value as 83.50 and 85.30 for CIS (Elisa) and CIS (Sultop). Uniformity index is closely related to the staple length of cotton fibre as; Tayyab (2001) explained that uniformity index increased significantly with the increase of staple length. Lower micronaire values yielded the less uniformity index and the highest value of fibre length showed best uniformity index. Hence Egyptian cotton, having more fibre length as shown in Table1, has more uniformity index as compared to that of CIS varities.

Fibre Strength: The analysis of data regarding fibre strength of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-1 revealed that the differences between the samples of these varieties studied for fibre strength were highly significant. On further comparison of individual mean values for fibre strength, Egyptian cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of fibre strength for the selected varieties was found between 40.0 to 41.0 g/tex. The highest value of 41.0 was recorded for Giza- 88 followed by Giza-86 and Giza-70 with their mean values as 40.30 and 40.0 g/tex, respectively. The results are very close to those investigated by El -Sayed and Sanad (2007) who investigated that the range of fibre strength for Egyptian long stapled cotton varieties varies between 35.0 to 45.0 g/tex, while for extra long staple cotton it varies between 45.0 to 47.0 g/tex.

The mean values as given in table-1 for fibre strength, CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of fibre strength for the selected varieties was found between 35.80 to 36.50 g /tex. The highest value of 36.50 was recorded for Sultop followed by Elisa and Surex with their mean values as 36.10 and 35.80 g/tex respectively. Different findings have been reported about fibre strength by some researchers, Malik and Hussain (2007) discussed that the range of fibre strength for CIS cotton varieties lies between 32.30 to 36.80 g /tex. The fibre strength is positively correlated to fibre fineness value as koo and Suh(2005) resulted that micronaire showed strong positive correlation with single fibre strength, independently of the diameter and negative correlation with single fibre elongation at the end of each spinning process. That is why Egyptian cotton has more fibre strength as compared to that of CIS varieties as shown in table 1.

Fibre Fineness: The analysis of data regarding fibre fineness of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-1 revealed that the differences between the samples of these varieties studied for fibre fineness were non-significant. On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-1 for fibre fineness, Egyptian cotton varieties differed non-significantly from each other. The range of fibre fineness for the selected varieties was found between 4.10 to 4.50 ?g/inch. The highest value of 4.50 was recorded for Giza-86 followed by Giza-70 and Giza-88 with their mean values as 4.30 and 4.10 ?g/inch respectively. The present results for fibre fineness were closer to Mohamed et al. (2003) who stated that Egyptian cotton variety Giza-88 is characterized by its extra long staple with 35.0-36.1 mm at 2.5% span length and 17.2-18.8 mm at 50% mean length and 4.3-4.5 micronaire reading.

On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-1 for fibre fineness, CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of fibre fineness for the selected varieties was found 4.20 to 4.60. The fineness value of 4.60 was recorded for Sultop followed by Elisa and Surex with their mean values as 4.30 and 4.20 ?g/inch respectively. The present results were supported by the findings of Grigoryev (2003) who confirmed that the micronaire value for Russian cotton varieties ranged from 3.7 to 5.1 ?g/inch. Similarly, Liu et al. (2001) mentioned that fibre fineness is the most essential cotton fibre quality parameter, which determines quality of the product and market value of yarn. Fibre strength is positively correlated to fibre fineness values and maturity, as well diameter of the fibre. This all predicts the better characteristics of the end product.

Fibre Elongation (%): The analysis of data regarding fibre elongation (%) of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-1 revealed that the differences between the samples of these varieties studied for fibre elongation (%) were highly significant. On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-1 for fibre elongation (%), Egyptian cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of fibre elongation (%) for the selected varieties was found between 5.10 to 6.70 %. The highest value of 6.70 was recorded for Giza-86 followed by Giza-70 and Giza-88 with their mean values as 5.50 and 5.10 % respectively.

The results are aggregating with El-Sayed and Sanad (2007) noted the range for Extra long stapled Egyptian cotton was 5.40 to 5.80 and for long staple Egyptian cotton varieties it was between 6.40 to 7.80. The results were also confirmed by Malik and Hussain (2007) who found that Egypt (Giza 88) has lowest elongation % and also it was found to have very good fibre strength. The influence of fibre elongation on yarn quality and weaving performance is well known. On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-1 for fibre elongation (%), CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of fibre elongation for the selected varieties was found between 5.90 to 7.10 %. The highest value of 7.10 was recorded for Sultop followed by Surex and Elisa with their mean values as 6.40 and 5.90 % respectively. The results are aggregating with Grigoryev (2003) who expressed that fibre elongation (%) for Russian cotton varieties ranged from 5.80 to 6.70.

Similarly, Malik and Hussain (2007) resulted that CIS cotton has a fibre elongation (%) range as 5.60 to 7.60 among which CIS (Sultop) has a very good elongation %.

Fibre chemical characteristics

Cellulose content The analysis of data regarding cellulose content of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-2 revealed that the differences between the samples of these varieties studied for cellulose content were significant. On further comparison of individual mean values for cellulose content, Egyptian cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of cellulose content for the selected varieties was found between 90.65 to 92.00 percent. The highest value of 92.00 was recorded for Giza-86 followed by Giza-70 and Giza-88 with their mean values as 91.05 and 90.65 percent respectively. The present results were also partially agreed with the results given by Naeem (1982) who recorded that cellulose content for different varieties of cotton ranged from 89.36 to 93.65 percent.

On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-2 for cellulose content, CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of cellulose content for the selected varieties was found between 89.35 to 90.00 percent. The highest value of 90.00 was recorded for Sultop followed by Elisa and Surex with their mean values as 89.50 and 89.35 percent respectively. It was because of large percentage of cellulose that cotton is such a versatile and widely used material. From table 2, it is clear that Egyptian cotton varieties showed better cellulose content as compared to that of CIS varieties. Because of this Egyptian Cotton varieties Showed better results in respect of span length, fibre uniformity index and fibre finess as stated by Khan( 1994).

Pectin Content The analysis of data regarding pectin content of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-2 revealed that the differences between the samples of these varieties studied for pectin content were highly significant. The range of pectin content for the selected varieties was found between 1.15 to 1.29 percent. The highest value of 1.29 was recorded for Giza-88 followed by Giza-70 and Giza-86 with their mean values as 1.24 and 1.15 percent respectively. The present results matched with those of Anwar (2001) reported that averages values for pectin substances range between 1.25 to 1.55 % for cotton fibres. On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-2 for pectin content, CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of pectin content for the selected varieties was found between 1.35 to 1.40 percent.

The highest value of 1.40 was recorded for Surex followed by Elisa and Sultop htheir mean values as 1.38 and 1.35 percent respectively. The findings of present study partially matched with those of Haq (1993) who narrated that the variations in pectin content may be due to genetic soil fertility, agronomic treatments, etc.

Protein Content The analysis of data regarding protein content of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-2 revealed that the differences between the samples of these varieties studied for protein content were highly significant. Egyptian cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of protein content for the selected varieties was found between 1.31 to 1.39 percent. The highest value of 1.39 was recorded for Giza-88 followed by Giza- 70 and Giza-86 with their mean values as 1.35 and 1.31 percent respectively. The results of present investigation were in approximately agreement with the results reported by Wakelyn (1975) who stated that only a very small part of cotton fibre is protein (typical value, 1.30percent). On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-2 for protein content, CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other.

The range of protein content for the selected vrieties was found between 1.47 to 1.60 percent. The highest value of 1.60 was recorded for Surex followed by Elisa and Sultop with their mean values as 1.55 and 1.47 percent respectively. The findings of present study partially matched with those of Cook (1993) who stated that cotton fibre, as it was picked from the plant and contained about 1 to1.5 percent protein. Further narrated that protein increased with increasing immaturity of the fibre.

Wax Content: The analysis of data regarding wax content of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-2 revealed that the differences between the samples of these varieties studied for wax content were highly significant.

On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-2 for wax content, Egyptian cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of wax content for the selected varieties was found between 0.40 to 0.58 percent. The highest value of 0.58 was recorded for Giza-88 followed by Giza-70 and Giza-86 with their mean values as 0.53 and 0.40 percent respectively.

The results of present study for wax content were in agreement with the results observed by Anwar (2001) who observed the range of wax as 0.40 to 0.65 percent. Similarly, Brushwood (2005) observed that yarn ends down increased in ring spinning as alcohol extractable, wax, and total light metal content increased. Evenness, neps, thin and thick places decreased as alcohol extractable, wax content, and total metal content increased. On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-2 for wax content, CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of wax content for the selected varieties was found between 0.50 to 0.65 percent. The highest value of 0.65 was recorded for Surex followed by Elisa and Sultop with their mean values as 0.62 and 0.50 percent respectively.

The results of present study with respect to wax content approximately matched with the results recorded by Pandey and Iyengar (1970) who declared that wax content of different cotton varieties for all species ws about 0.61 percent. They further reported that for the same wax content, even the cotton from the sme specie showed different degree of strength.

Ash Content: The analysis of data regarding ash content of cotton varieties for Egyptian viz., Giza 70, Giza 86, Giza 88 and CIS viz., Elisa, Sultop and Surex presented in table-2 revealed that the differences between the average values of these varieties for ash content were highly significant.

The comparison of individual mean values as given in table-2 for ash content, Egyptian cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of ash content for the selected varieties was found between 0.95 to 1.25 percent. The highest value of 1.25 was recorded for Giza-88 followed by Giza- 70 and Giza-86 with their mean values as 1.14 and 0.95 percent respectively. The results of present study matched with the findings of Strang (1967) stated that the cotton with extremely low ash proved the most undesirable with the highest end breakage. He further reported that the best spinning cotton had an ash between 0.95 and 1.2 percent. On further comparison of individual mean values as given in table-2 for ash content, CIS cotton varieties differed significantly from each other. The range of ash content for the selected varieties was found from1.19 to 1.30. The highest value of 1.30 was recorded for Surex followed by Elisa and Sultop with their mean values as 1.27 and 1.19 percent respectively.

The ashcontent results of selected varieties were in approximate agreement with the recordings of Naeem (1982) who presented the range of ash contents as 1.39 to 1.526 percent. Similarly, Brushwood (2003) observed that wax, reducing sugar, extractible alcohol, ash residue and total light metal concentrations were all micronaire dependent. As micronaire increased their concentration tended to decrease.

YARN CHARACTERISTICS

Yarn Evenness (U %): The statistical analysis of variance and comparison of individual means for yarn evenness (U %) are given in Table 3. The results indicate that the effect of cotton varieties (C), twist multiplier (T) and spinning system (M), spindle speed (s) were highly significant. The individual comparison of mean values given in table 3 regarding to U % value for CIS cotton varieties Elisa, Sultop and Surex and Egyptian cotton varieties Giza-70, Giza-86 and Giza-88 showed the significant difference with respect to each other. The more unevenness value was obtained by CIS cotton varieties Elisa, Surex and Sultop as 12.022, 11.993 and 11.856 respectively, followed by Egyptian cotton Giza-70, Giza-86 and Giza-88 as 10.773, 10.759 and 10.742 respectively. The results of evenness in present investigation are close in range than the findings of Ureyen and Gurkan (2008) who concluded that fibre strength has the greatest effect on yarn unevenness. Higher strength prevented the fibres from rupture.

Therefore, decrease in fibre rupture increased the evenness of yarn, as verified by Ureyen and Kadoglu (2006) who analyzed that yarn unevenness was mainly affected by yarn count and roving unevenness. Among fibre properties, strength has the greatest effect on the yarn unevenness and higher fibre strength lead to a better yarn evenness value. Comparison of individual means of yarn evenness due to spinning systems M1 and M2 presented in table 3 showed significant differences with respect to each other. The highest value of yarn unevenness is obtained at conventional machine (M1) as 11.510 percent followed by the modified machine (M2) as 11.206 percent. The present research gets full support from the findings of Strumillo et al. (2007) who stated that yarns manufactured by the EliTe compact spinning frame in comparison with yarns manufactured by the conventional ring spinning frame are characterized by higher tenacity, smaller unevenness of their linear density measured on short segments.

Also, Celik and Kadogu(2004) concluded that the compact yarns possess less hairiness, better strength, better uniformity and lower values of thick & thin places and neps compared to the ring yarn. As regard to the twist multiplier results revealed that the highest value of yarn evenness 11.499 percent is recorded for T3 (3.8) followed by 11.332 and 11.241 percent are recorded for T2 (3.7) and T1 (3.6) respectively, which shows significant effect on yarn evenness. These results are supported by Sanaullah (2008) who concluded that for twist multiplier the maximum twist showed best results for yarn strength parameters, yarn elongation and yarn hairiness, whereas lowest twist appeared well in cases of yarn imperfections and yarn evenness.

Moreover, Bau et al. (2009) who concluded that the mean unevenness value (U %) increased with increase in yarn fineness. The comparison of individual means concerning to single yarn strength due to spindle speed (S) is represented in table3. The highest value of U percent 11.464 is recorded for S3 (22000 rpm) followed by 11.359 and 11.250 for S2 (21000 rpm) and S1 (20000 rpm) respectively. The results have significant differences with respect to each other. These results are supported by Chaudhuri (2003) who stated that at the higher spindle speed, the drafting force becomes higher. So, at the higher drafting force the average fibre tension at the front roller will cause an increase in the dragging out of the sliver into the front roller- nip. This dragging out of undrafted sliver into the nip of the front roller and if subsequent retreat under the action of internal elastic force would cause an increase in the irregularity that would offset the randomization effect of the speed. Yarn Hairiness:

The statistial analysis of variance and comparison of individual means for yarn hairiness are given in Table 4. The results indicate that the effect of cotton varieties (C), spinning system (M), spindle speed (S) and interaction CXT were highly significant while twist multiplier (T) and all the other interactions were non-significant.

The individual comparison of mean values given in table 4 regarding to hairiness value for CIS cotton varieties Elisa, Sultop and Surex and Egyptian cotton varieties Giza-70, Giza-86 and Giza-88 show the significant difference with respect to each other. More hairiness is obtained by CIS cotton varieties Elisa, Surex and Sultop as 2.664, 2.646 and 2.640 respectively, followed by Egyptian cotton Giza-86, Giza-88 and Giza-70 as 2.545, 2.491 and 2.459 respectively. CIS cotton produces more hairy yarn than Egyptian cotton.

The results of present study relating to yarn hairiness are supported by Altas and kadoglu (2006) who noted that fineness has the maximum effect on yarn hairiness among the fibre properties, followed by fibre length, whereas maturity contributes very little towards hairiness. Fineness, length and long-fibre percentage jointly influence the formation of yarn hairiness to a con-siderable extent.

The comparison of individual mean values for yarn hairiness due to spinning systems M1 and M2 presented in table 4 shows that values have significant difference with each other. The highest mean values of hairiness in yarn is obtained for conventional ring spinning system (M1) as 2.816 followed by modified compact spinning machine (M 2) as 2.333. Thus it can be stated that modified machine (M2) performed better for yarn hairiness than conventional machine (M1). The present research gets full confirmation from the findings of Nikolic et al. (2003) who observed that a lower value of Uster hairiness was determined in compact yarn produced on the Suessen spinning machine in comparison with conventional spinning machine. Likewise, Beltran et al. (2007) postulated that one of the advantages of the compact spinning system over traditional ring spun yarns is a substantial reduction in yarn hairiness.

The analysis of data regarding to twist multiplier indicates the highest value of yarn hairiness percentage is 2.577 for T2 (3.7) followed by 2.575 and 2.571 percent for T1 (3.6) and T3 (3.8) respectively. The values have non-significant difference with respect to one another.

Table 1.Comparison of individual mean values of fibre Physical properties of Egyptian and CIS cotton varieties fibre

Mean values having different letters, differ significantly at 0.05 level of probability###

Cotton varieties###Mean values of Fibre Physical properties###

Egyptian Cotton###Span Length###Length Uniformity###Fibre Strength###Fibre Fineness###Fibre

###(mm)###Index (%)###(g/tex)###(mike)###Elongation (%)

C1= Giza-70###35.56a###87.90###40.00a###4.30###5.50d

C2= Giza-86###32.77b###86.70###40.30a###4.50###6.70b

C3= Giza-88###34.80a###88.00###41.00a###4.10###5.10e

CIS Cotton###

C4= Elisa###33.02b###85.00###36.10b###4.30###5.90c

C5= Sultop###32.77b###85.80###36.50b###4.60###7.10a

C6= Surex###33.27b###84.90###35.80b###4.20###6.40b

Table.2 Comparison of individual mean values of Chemical properties of Egyptian and CIS cotton Varieties

Cotton varieties###Mean values of Fibre Chemical properties###

Egyptian Cotton###Cellulose content###Pectin content%###Protein content Wax content % Ash content %

###(%)###%###

C1=Giza-70###91.05ab###1.24c###1.35cd###0.53d###1.14c

C2=Giza-86###92.00a###1.15d###1.31d###0.40f###0.95d

C3=Giza-88###90.65ab###1.29bc###1.39c###0.58c###1.25ab

CIS Cotton###

C4= Elisa###89.50b###1.38a###1.55a###0.62b###1.27a

C5= Sultop###90.00b###1.35ab###1.47b###0.50e###1.19bc

C6= Surex###89.35b###1.40a###1.60a###0.65a###1.30a

Mean values having different letters, differ significantly at 0.05 level of probability.

Table.3 Comparison of individual treatment Means for yarn Evenness

###Cotton variety (C)###Twist multiplier T.M (T)###Spindle speed (S)###Spinning system (M)

Egyptian cotton###CIS cotton###

C1 = 10.773c###C4 = 12.022a###T1 = 11.241c###S1 = 1.250c###M1= 11.510a

C2 = 10.759c###C5 = 11.856b###T2 = 11.332b###S2 = 11.359b###M2= 11.206b

C3 = 0.742c###C6 = 11.993a###T3 = 11.499a###S3 = 1.464a###

Mean values having different letters differ significantly at 5% level of significance.

Table.4 Comparison of individual treatment means for Yarn Hairiness.

###Cotton variety (C)###Twist multiplier T.M (T)###Spindle speed (S)###Spinning system (M)

Egyptian cotton###CIS cotton###

C1 = 2.459d###C4 = 2.664a###T1 = 2.575###S1 = 2.523c###M1= 2.816a

C2 = 2.545b###C5 = 2.640a###T2 = 2.577###S2 = 2.574b###M2= 2.333b

C3 = 2.491c###C6 = 2.646a###T3 = 2.571###S3 = 2.626a

Mean values having different letters differ significantly at 5% level of significance

The comparison of individual means concerning to yarn hairiness due to spindle speed (S) is represented by table 4 the highest value of yarn hairiness 2.626 percent is recorded for S3 (22000 rpm) followed by 2.574 and 2.523 for S2 (21000 rpm) and S1 (20000 rpm) respectively. The results have significant differences with respect to each other. The present results are very close to the findings of Chaudhuri (2003) who stated that Yarn irregularity shows a trend of variation with increases in spindle speed. Yarn hairiness also increases with the increase in spindle speed. Moreover, Srinivasan and Balamurugan (2009) stated that yarn hairiness is greatly influenced by the increased tension created by the balloon. Higher spindle speed exerts higher load on the yarn, which increases hairiness. Also, Tang et al. (2006) resulted that the effect of yarn hairiness on skin friction coefficient on the surface of a rotating yarn package was inversely proportional to spindle speed.

Conclusions: Fibre physical and chemical characteristics of cotton varieties show that Egyptian cotton proved itself excellent than CIS cotton, especially in case of fibre strength property. Egyptian cotton has greater fibre strength and greater cellulose content and less pectin and protein content than CIS cotton. Egyptian cotton varieties generated better results for yarn evenness and yarn hairiness as compared to CIS cotton yarn. Giza-88 and Sultop overall performs better from the Egyptian and CIS cotton categories respectively.

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Department of Fibre Technology University of Agriculture Faisalabad Department of Irrigation and Drainage University of Agriculture Faisalabad
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