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PERCEPTION OF THE TEACHERS OF ARTS FACULTY, UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI ABOUT THE SIGNIFICANCE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS.

Byline: Rizwana Muneer *

ABSTRACT

This study on "Perception of the Teachers of the Arts Faculty, University of Karachi about the significance of Audio-Visual aids in teaching: Problems and Prospects" was conducted on the teachers of the Faculty of Arts, University of Karachi to know how they perceive the need and importance of Audio-visual aids in teaching, and to what extent they were involved in using audio-visual aids. Also to look into the problems being faced by them in using audio-visual facilities in classroom teaching and practice and what were the future prospects. This was a descriptive study based on an empirical approach, The data were collected through a pre-constructed questionnaire. The analysis of the data was made with the help of Simple Frequency and Percentage Distribution Tables. Discussions on Conclusions were made for Recommendations to strengthen the teaching methodology for the improvement of quality of education.

1.INTRODUCTION

The world is getting smaller and smaller with the introduction of better and faster means of communication. People expect quick, clear and complete information presented in an interesting and attractive manner. Gone are the days when people were contacted with only listening to the information. Now they expect visuals in support of whatever they listen to. Whether it be political propaganda, business information or educational communication, audio-visual means are being extensively used for the achievement of objectives.

Audio Visual Aids, Optical, Electronic and other devices and related supplies that are designed to enhance learning through the combined senses of learning and sight. e.g. sound, motion pictures. printed materials and television. Frequently two or more of these components are combined into electronic distribution systems, some of which incorporate remote or dial access capabilities. (Edgar 1969)

Audio-Visual aids are those aids, which assist the teaching process, by which teaching and learning both become attractive, interesting and sophisticated. It solves the teaching problems which occur during teaching situations. Audio-Visual aids are basically a journey for arrival to a destination which is the educational aim and objective.

SPECIFICATION OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS

v Audio Visual Room for storage of A.V. material

v Audio Visual Service: for selecting, preparing. caring for and making available to members.

v Audio Visual Technician A staff member performing assigned skilled activities.

v That equipment which enhances the teaching and learning process by using material of Sight or Sound for presenting information, e.g.; language tape and video cassettes. (International Technology Educational Association, http://wwwitea.org)

v The instructional aids which make the learning experience far more concrete and memorable (Richard and Elizabeth 1988, P-47)

Significance of Audio-Visual Aids in teaching.

v Serve as time-saving devices.

v Are more interesting and attractive.

v Discourage the tendency of becoming a book-worm

v Supplement the efforts of communication.

v Enhance creativity and activate the learners.

v Make the teaching profession research-oriented.

v Keep pace with time.

EFFECTS OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

Through audio-visual aids a teacher can be easily able to transfer his or her feeling and experience and lay the foundation of a dynamic personality with positive results which is reflected by :!

Knowledge

v Enhance understanding

v Give attention and concentration .

v Maximum use of sensation

Skill

v Motivates practice

v Forms attitude

v Demonstrates skills and assists the learner

Attitude

v We can develop interest of students towards learning

v Up-date students in this fast-growing communication age

v Environmental influences maintain an outstanding discipline

v Students become great imitators in a positive perspective.

USAGE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

When? Why? How?

When should we use them?

v To capture student's interest in a subject.

v To start discussion.

v To save time.

v To reinforce learning.

Why are Audio-Visual Aids useful in teaching

v For getting accurate idea of something.

v Pupils remember pictures better than the words they hear.

v If students hear words and see pictures at the same time they remember even better.

How can we use Audio-Visual Aids in teaching

v Use A.V aids as a part of a of demonstration talk.

v Use the real thing, whenever possible, by which students can put together rather than just look at it.

v Make A.V. Aids which we can afford.

v Keep AV Aids simple.

TYPES OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

(a) To know the perception of the teachers about the need and significance of Audio-Visual Aids in teaching at a higher level of education.

(b) To know the existing facilities of Audio-Visual Aids in their departments.

(c) To inquire into the problems they face due to lack of required Audio facilities in their department.

(d) To know the future prospects regarding facilities in provision of Audio! Visual Aids in their departments.

3. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

This study was a Descriptive Study on the teachers of the Faculty of Arts, University of Karachi. Descriptive research involves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or answer questions convening the current status of the subject of the study (Gay 1992 Ch-1 P-20).

Population of the Study.

At present the Faculty of Arts has twenty-one Teaching Departments. The population of the study constituted a total of 18 Departments of the Faculty of Arts, Departments of Mass Communication, Library and Information Science and Visual Studies were deliberately excluded from the population to have homogeneity in sampling the population. It is because the above-mentioned three departments have more facilities of Audio-visual devices in comparison to other departments of the Faculty.

Sample Population

The telephone directory of the university was used to draw the sample of the study. Twelve (66.6%) departments out of eighteen departments of the faculty were selected on a simple random basis. Thus two teachers from each department of the sample were selected. The size of the sample was based on 24 teachers. The respondents were contacted incidentally. They were supplied a redesigned and pre-constructed questionnaire for the data of the study.

Method of Data Collection and Data Analyses

The data were collected on a pre-constructed and pre-tested questionnaire. The analysis of the data was done through the statistical method of Simple Frequency and Percentage Distribution tables. In the light of data analysis all the conclusions, discussions, and recommendations were made.

4. SUMMARY OF THE DATA

1. Designation, Qualification and Service Experience of the Teachers.

The data revealed that the majority of the respondents 29.1 was of Associate Professors, whereas 25.0 each were Professors and Lecturers. On the other hand 2 J.8 were Asstt. Professors.

Out of 24 respondents 16.66 were Ph.D whereas 25.0 were M.Phil and the majority of them 58.66 were M.A.

Table 1

Distribution by Designation###

Designation###Fre###Per###

Professor###6###25.0###

Associate Professor###7###29.1###

Asstt. Professor###5###20.9###

Lecturer###6###25.0###

Total:###24###100###

Table -2

Distribution by Qualification

Qualification###Fre###Per

M.A###14###58.3

M.Phil###6###25.0

Ph.D###4###16.6

Total:###24###100

As far as teaching experience was concerned the majority of the teachers 33.3 had 6-10 years experience, 20.8 teachers had below 5 years 16.6 had 16.6, 12.5 had 21-25, and the lowest percentage of teachers 8.3 had 11-!15 years, 26-30 years teaching experience respectively.

2. Opinion regarding Significance of Audio-Visual Aids on Teaching and Reasons.

As far as significance of audio-visual aids in teaching, a great majority 75.0 of teachers opined positively. (Tb-3) Similarly about the various reasons in support of the significance of AV aids in teaching, the majority of the teachers were found either agreed or highly agreed (Tb-4).

Table - 3

Distribution by the Opinion about Significance of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching at University Level

Opinion###Fre###Per

Yes###18###75.0

No###-###-

To some extent###6###25.0

Total###24###100.0

Table - 4

Distribution by the Reasons of Significance of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching

###Highly

Reasons###Agreed###Agreed###Dis-agreed###Total

###Fre (%)###Fre(%)###(%)###Fre(%)

Serve as time-saving device###16###4###4###24

###66.6###16.6###16.6###100.0

Interesting and Attractive###2###18###4###24

###18.5###75.0###16.6###100.0

Dis-covering the tendency###13###5###6###24

of becoming book-worm###54.0###20.8###25.0###100.0

Supplement efforts of###14###3###7###24

communication###58.3###12.5###29.0###100.0

Enhance creativity and###15###7###2###24

activate learners###62.5###29.0###8.3###100.0

Make teaching profssion###6###11###7###24###

research-centered###25.0###45.8###29.0###100.0

Keepin pace with time###18###2###4###24

###75.0###8.3###16.6###100.0

3.Opinion about the effects of audio-visual aids on knowledge, skills and attitude in teaching.

The teachers 100.0 admitted that audio-visual aids in teaching enhance understanding of the students, whereas 75.0 of them opined that they gave attention and concentration and 54.0 of the teachers disclosed that audio-visual aids in teaching provide maximum use of sensation.

Table - 5

Distribution by Opinion about Effects of Audio-Visual Aids on Knowledge In Teaching

###Highly

Opinion regarding###Agreed###Agreed###Dis-agreed

knowledge###Fre (%)###Fre (%)###(%)

Enhance understanding###24###-###-

###100.0

Give attention and concentration###48###4###2

###75.0###16.6###8.3

Maximum use of sensation###13###5###6

###54.0###20.8###25.0

Similarly the majority of teachers emphasized that audio-visual aids in teaching have great impact on the skills and attitude of the students.

Table - 6

Distribution by Opinion about Effects of

Audio-Visual Aids on Skills in Teaching

Opinion regarding Skills Agreed Fre (%) Highly Agreed Fre(%) Dis-agreed (%)

Motivate practice###10###4###10

###41.6###16.6###41.6

Formation of attitude###15###7###2

###62.0###29.0###8.3

Demonstration of skills###11###6###7

in assessment of learners

Table-7

'Distribution by the Opinion about the Effects of Audio-Visual Aids on Attitude in Teaching

###Highly

Opinion regarding attitude###Agreed###Agreed###Dis-agreed

###Fre(%)###Fre(%)###(%)

Develop interest of students###24###-###24###

towards learning###100.0###100.0

Update students in this###24###-###24

fast-growing communication age###100.0###100.0

Environmental influences###24###-###24

on discipline###100.0###100.0

4. Space for Audio-visual services, technicians and equipment available in the departments.

Discovered that 41.6 of the departments had space for audio-visual services whereas 58.3 departments had no space. On the other hand the majority 75.0 of departments disclosed that they had plans for developing independent rooms for audio-visual services in the future. (Fig 2, 3)

Table -8

Distribution by existing Audio-Visual Equipment in the Department

Equipment###Fre###Per

Overhead projector###10###41.0

Slides projector###8###33.3

TV###8###33.3

Cassette Player###8###33.3

Computer###15###62.5

Printer###15###62.5

White Board###11###45.8

Video camera###2###8.3

Scanner###1###4.1

5. Access of available Audio-Visual equipment to staff members and suggestions for improvement in audio-visual facilities in the department. The majority of the teachers had access to using available equipment of audio-visual aids in the department. The majority of the teachers suggested that the university should provide adequate funds to their respective departments for AV facilities and the departments should also approach resourceful persons in this regard.

6.The figure below shows a clear picture of existing audio-visual equipment in the department studied.

CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

1.In this study the majority of the respondents were Associate Professors and at the same time the majority also had quite good and reasonable service experience. This conclusion enables us to observe that the significance of audio!visual aids in teaching has been realized by teachers on account of their vast professional experience and positive attitude that could be conducive to any plan of development in the future regarding Audio-Visual services in their respective departments.

2.Regarding the academic qualifications of the respondents, the majority 58.6 held M.A degrees. This is also a clear indicator to understand that they were aware about the significance of audio-visual aids in teaching, although they did not posses M.Phils and Ph.Ds in the majority. The great majority of the teachers were fully aware about the significance of audio-visual aids in teaching. In this connection they put various relevant reasons. The teachers in the majority also emphasized that audio-visual aids in teaching have great impact on the knowledge skills and the attitude of the students.

3.It was discovered that the teachers in the majority and in the majority of the departments in the Faculty of Arts had access to all the available equipment of audio-visual aids in their departments.

4.The teachers in the majority suggested that: (a) the departments and their leadership should approach resourceful persons to assist them in having adequate modern equipment of audio-visual aids in teaching, (b) the university should take more interest in providing funds to the departments for managing the affairs of audio-visual aids in teaching.

5.The teachers have also realized that the university has been doing its best to provide adequate Audio-Visual Aids and develop Information Technology in all the departments.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1.All the Departments of the Arts Faculty should have an independent audio!visual room in their respective departments.

2.Well-qualified and trained technicians should be appointed in reasonable grades to operate the equipment of audio-visual aids.

3.The Faculty members should also learn the skills and techniques of operating modern devices of audio-visual aids.

4.Besides the assistance of the University, the departments should also develop their own resources to equip themselves with modern devices of audio-visual services in teaching.

5.Finally all the audio-visual equipment should be handled and operated with care. In this regard the student advisors of the departments should take responsibility for monitoring the affairs of the audio-visual rooms of the department.

REFERENCES

1.Dale Edgar, Audio-visual Methods in Teaching 3rd ed New York Holt Dryden 1969.

2.Gay L.R, Educational Research, Macmillan Publishing Co. USA 1992.

3.New Standard Encyclopedia (1978) Vol-1, PPA 748-A 749.

4.Richard and Elizabeth, The Facts on File, Dictionary of Education. New York, Oxford 1988.

* Author is working as a Assist. Professor. Dept. of Education, University of Karachi
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Publication:New Horizons
Date:Jun 30, 2008
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