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PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE WORKING IN THE CULTURAL AND ARTISTIC FIELD OF THE NEED TO PRACTICE MOTOR ACTIVITIES.

Introduction

In modern society, performing arts encompass a multitude of occupations that are carried out more or less in front of the general public. Today's artists interact with or react to the attending audience, as in the case of stand-up comedy shows or quiz shows. The examples are numerous and the list could continue, but what we want to reveal is that professionals in this field require complex artistic and motor preparation.

The curriculum of art faculties for drama section, 1st and 2nd years of study, includes, besides the specific subjects, physical education courses, body expression courses, as well as nonverbal theatrical language, stage improvisation, ballet. Some faculties also provide sports disciplines, such as: martial arts, fencing, freestyle wrestling, horse riding. These courses aim at developing the artists' motor skills and potential to engage in diversified and spectacular roles (Universitatea "Hyperion", 2015).

From the perspective of the expert in drama and film arts, Mihail Cehov says that the artist must find "the best friend" in his/her body. The body is the instrument through which the artist manages to express creative ideas on stage. A body with underdeveloped or overdeveloped muscles disturbs mental activity, which has effects on the cognitive and emotional levels. This refers to artists who exaggerate with transforming their bodies through surgical or sports-related means to the detriment of the artistic act, the argument being that the audience will be focused on body, not on performance. (Cehov, 1953)

The view of drama specialists is similar to ours, as professionals in the field of physical education and sports. Contemporary artistic act needs a solid foundation of theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Increasing the artistic potential is based on creating a balance between physical and mental aspects. The constant practice of motor activities can contribute to reducing daily demands and can support the development of artistic performance. The field belongs to performing arts, but also to physical culture, as a form of mastering the body in both its artistic approach and everyday life. In a professional achievement, the actor's thought must perfectly match the situation in which his/her character is put, without overlooking the complex actions that happen around and must be taken into account. Maximising artistic performance is based on the highly accurate responses of the actor's body. (Dragnea, Bota, 1999; Kjolberg, 2004)

The practice of motor activities by all people, from younger to older ages, has become a desideratum of physical education as a continuing process. The dynamics of social development requires the human being to cope with physical and mental occupational challenges. Thus, extending the practice of physical exercise from school institutions to all ages allows for obtaining a motor support suitable to the demands. So, the term "lifelong learning" is complemented by another one, namely "lifelong physical education". (Bota, 2011)

Concerns about awareness of the need to practice physical exercise in a systematic way have been topics of global interest. Since the 1960s, campaigns have been launched to promote sport for all, initially in the United States and then in Norway. The Council of Europe took up the idea in 1966, and subsequently, in 1978, at the 20th UNESCO Conference, the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport was adopted. (Bota, 2011)

Contemporary society provides a multitude of opportunities for practicing various forms of movement.

Specialists talk about the "time budget", which needs to be managed, and require the harmonisation of professional activities with those performed outside working hours (Bourdieu, 1986).

The new technological era has enabled the creation of highly-efficient sports equipment and facilities for outdoor recreation and has revolutionised seasonal sports. The last decades have developed virtual technology, turning video games, Facebook and Instagram into entertainment. The major concern of millions of people is to explore new hobbies and interests or to socialise with others.

These scientific advancements contribute to the progress of mankind, but generate a worrying impact on the physical fitness and health status of the young people, who, in their leisure time, prefer the computer.

In the context of leisure offers, technological evolution and the expansion of the Internet change the behaviour of the 21st century individual. The barometer of physical and sports activities reveals that 46% of people never practice physical and sports activities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle has become a major issue for public health. Romania subscribes to the European requirements related to the implementation and achievement of short-, medium-and long-term strategies. They refer, among other things, to the practice of physical education and sports throughout the lifespan (Eurobarometer, 2018; MTS, 2016).

The level of education and the health status, which play a major role in the quality of a society and the productivity of a nation, have enabled physical education to become a permanent education system. It is thus confirmed the importance of building and developing the leisure and recreational habits of people when they are young, because such an attitude will be adopted throughout their lives. (Sas, 2002)

Lifelong education is part of the self-education of citizens and aims at maintaining their physical and mental health. Reaching a certain level of awareness of the need to practice physical exercise systematically involves self-education and self-development. (Bota, 2011; Dragnea, Bota, 1999; Healthy Kids, 2018)

The practice of motor activities by all people working in the cultural and artistic environment is not only a means for preserving health, but also a response to the individual's desire to practice forms of movement that ensure their physical development and meet their need for recreation, entertainment, compensation or improvement (Epuran, Holdevici, Tonita, 2001; Epuran, 2013 Dragnea, Bota, 1999).

The importance of physical activities, which have their own autoplastic and autotelic goals, is recognised and exploited by experts in both the sports field and the cultural and artistic field (Epuran, 2013,).

The committed man of modern society is active, aware and respects the body as a "working tool". Activity generates positive attitudes on the physical and mental levels, the choice of the type of motor activity being also determined by the psychophysiological and psychological behavioural typology attached to the attitudes in the individual personality structure. (Epuran, 2011)

In this context, for professionals in the cultural and artistic environment, movement is a prerequisite without which they could not progress to the standard required by their occupations and could not cope with the competition (Epuran, 2011). The practice of motor activities is an important factor in the formation of a rational lifestyle, in close correlation with the occupational activities of the cultural and artistic environment.

In contemporary society, there are plenty of offers for practicing different forms of movement, which meet the strong requirements for everything that is new and effective. Individuals living in modern society are very busy, time is extremely precious, and technical and scientific developments can provide them with very quick and easy access to information about various forms of movement. In their quest, those eager to move can also make wrong choices. Ultramodern, high-tech, computer-assisted, with wireless connection on the cell phone, the "sensational recipe" movement programmes are getting to replace even the most capable "master trainer".

The specialist in physical education and sports needs to adapt permanently and have a "live" contact with this kind of individual specific to modern societies. Awareness of individuals will enable them to make appropriate choices about the practice of different forms of movement. Motor activities should be suitable to their motivations and biological, sanogenetic, prophylactic, compensatory needs, or to their physical fitness or appearance. (Macovei, Ganciu, Ganciu, 2010; Epuran, 2005)

Purpose

The purpose of the research is to find out the opinions of people working in the cultural and artistic field, mainly in performing arts, on the practice of motor activities. Specifically, we wanted to identify the presence of some forms of movement in the daily schedule of artists. Our investigation also aimed to find out if they had previous motor experience in practicing performance sport, which would determine some of their current preferences.

Method

The research is based on the survey method using an opinion questionnaire. The questionnaire was created in July 2017 via the Word Office program and was administered between 01.11.2017 and 31.01.2018. The respondents were 248 people working in the cultural and artistic field, in the public and private sectors or as freelancers. They were investigated in two ways: directly (134 subjects), during the professional training sessions and the summer-autumn conferences of 2017, and online (114 subjects), by distributing the questionnaires via email and having them back after completion.

The selection of subjects used the targeted non-probabilistic sampling, because we wanted to address a particular category of population (Sava, 2013).

The questionnaire included 11 items made up of open questions and closed questions, with multiple-or single-choice responses, some items having pre-coded responses, so the subjects had the possibility to choose.

The identification questions, as well as a brief presentation of the subject, are placed at the beginning, because the respondents have a high cultural level and are pretty familiar with the administration of feedback questionnaires at the end of training sessions and conferences. Within the questionnaire, some items focus on the present, others focus on the past, and finally the subjects must respond to items aimed at the future.

Results

The results were tabulated and analysed using the SPSS statistical software, version 18. The reliability of the questionnaire, which was not a standardised one, was tested by calculating the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (internal consistency) that had the value 0.719, so higher than 0.70, which provided reliability (Popa, 2009).

* Item 1: In what cultural and artistic field do you work?

Responses address several categories as follows: "student at, singer, if YES, what kind of music do you perform?; instrumentalist, if YES, what instrument?; actor, if YES, what roles are you cast in?; singer and actor, if YES, which of the following genres: music hall, revue, opera, operetta, other--which one?; show producer, if YES, which of the following: television, radio, MC for public events, MC for private events; other occupations in the cultural and artistic field, namely?" Figure 1 illustrates item 1--identification of the respondents' professions and statistical analysis of the collected responses
Figure 1. Professions of the respondents

Instrumentalist    36%
Actor              11%
Singer and actor   12%
Other              41%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


The results show that 59% of respondents working in the cultural and artistic environment have "life-performing session" occupations. Of them, 36% are instrumentalists, 12% are singers and actors, opera, operetta and music hall artists, 11% being only actors. There are also categories of occupations that ensure the achievement of "artistic compositions" (41%). Percentages by subcategory for "other" are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Descriptive data of the professions by subcategory for "other"

IT/ Equipment manager                     1%
Artistic manager/ Tour manager           16%
Visual art/ Sound                        18%
Artistic                                 19%
Dancing                                  22%
Show producer Production/ Organisation   24%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


* Item 2: How do you spend your leisure time?

Responses can be multiple, but the subjects' options are the following: listening to music, reading, studying, watching TV, going to movies, theatre, opera, concerts, going out with friends, playing computer games/ surfing the web, practicing sports activities. Figure 3 illustrates item 2--investigation of the activities performed by the subjects outside working hours. Responses highlight what subjects do in their leisure time.

Thus, we can make a behavioural profile of artists as regards some activities that are somehow trendy and possibly relaxing for them. At the top of leisure preferences, we find "listening to music" and "reading, studying", with 77% and 70%, respectively. They are followed by social and cultural activities, with 54% and 53%, respectively. Although sports activities are not in the top of leisure preferences, 45% of respondents practice them.
Figure 3. Spending leisure time

                                       Yes   No

Practicing sports activities           45%
Playing computer games/ Surfing...     32%
Going out with friends                 54%
Going to movies, theatre, opera,...    53%
Watching TV                            36%
Reading; studying                      70%
Listening to musk                      77%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


* Item 3: Do you practice physical/motor activities to stay in shape? (YES/NO; if YES, which of the following activities: gymnastics, fitness, dancing, park/ stadium running, recreational cycling, outdoor walks/ mountain hiking, other activities)

Figure 4 illustrates item 3, which has a bifurcated question, meaning that the YES response leads to multiple choices in a series of motor activities (this will be presented in Figure 5). The practice of physical/motor activities is confirmed by 79% of subjects.
Figure 4. The practice of physical/motor activities

Yes   79%
No    21%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


Participants were free to choose more activities, which was reflected in the percentages shown in Figure 5. Thus, 57% prefer outdoor walks and mountain hiking. Close percentages are also recorded for ball sports games and fitness activities, 39% and 34%, respectively. Martial arts and sports games with and on wheels (roller skating, skateboarding, cycling, motorcycling etc.) are practiced by 7 to 10% of respondents. Gymnastics, dancing, park running have important percentages allocated in the daily physical activity schedule. "Other activities" is a category including less practiced sports, such as boxing, basketball, table tennis, tennis.
Figure 5. Practiced activities

Sports games with/on wheels       7%
Martial arts                     10%
Su mrner/ winter sports games    19%
Otlier activities                26%
Ball sports games                39%
Outdoor walks/ Mountain hiking   57%
Park/stadium running             24%
Fitness                          34%
Recreational cycling             20%
Dancing                          28%
Gymnasties                       24%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


* Item 4: How much time do you spend on practicing sports activities? (once a month, once a week, twice a week, three times a week, every day, I do not spend time on practicing sports activities, I exercise only for the artistic roles that require show/stage movement, another option, namely?)

It is noted that 21% of respondents constantly practice motor activities, which are included in their daily schedule. 16 to 19% spend one day, two or even three days per week on practicing sports activities, while 15% do not allocate time to these activities. There are also respondents who, by their profession, have to do with different forms of physical activity. Figure 6 shows the percentages recorded for item 4.
Figure 6. Time allocated to physical activities

Another option                                         3%
I exercise only for the artistic roles that            3%
require show/ stage movement                           6%
Once a month                                          15%
I do not spend time on practicing sports activities   16%
Three times a week                                    18%
Once a week                                           19%
Twice a week                                          21%
Every day

Note: Table made from bar graph.


* Item 5: Do you practice physical/motor activities? (individually, with a professional trainer at the gym, with a personal trainer, another option, namely?)

We have found that 80% of respondents practice motor activities individually, 22% with a professional trainer at the gym and only 6% work with a personal trainer. Figure 7 shows the results for item 5.
Figure 7. Way of practicing physical activities

Individually                            80%
With a professional trainer at the gym  22%
With a personal trainer,                 6%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


* Item 6: Did you practice sport in childhood? (YES/NO; if YES, what sport/sports did you practice?)

Figure 8 highlights that 66% of subjects practiced sport in childhood.
Figure 8. The practice of sport in childhood

Yes,  66%
No,   34%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


Figure 9 shows the sports practiced by the surveyed respondents. It should be noted that the first option expressed by each participant was taken into account.
Figure 9. Practiced sports

Ball sports games,            45%
Swimming,                     14%
Dancing,                      13%
Gymnastics,                   10%
Martial arts,                  9%
Athletics,                     7%
Summer/winter sports games,    3%
Chess,                         1%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


Most subjects practiced ball sports games (football, handball, basketball, volleyball) - 45%, followed by swimming - 14%, dancing - 13% and gymnastics - 10%. Martial arts and athletics have low percentages, 9% and 7%, respectively.

* Item 7: What is your main reason to participate in physical/motor activities? (please choose only one option! keep body shape - weight and size, maintain physical fitness, relax/ get rid of stress, socialise/ meet new people, meet friends, improve performance, participate in various competitions)

Participants in the study have chosen one of the options stated above, which motivates them to practice motor activities. Figure 10 shows the recorded results. Thus, 36% of subjects focus on maintaining their physical fitness and 31% on relaxation and getting rid of stress. Keeping body weight and size represents, for 25% of respondents, the motivation for practicing motor activities. Low and very low percentages, 6%, come to the options concerning performance improvement and only 1% to socialisation and meeting friends at the gym.
Figure 10. Motivation for practicing physical activities

Maintain physical fitness       36%
Relax/ Get rid of stress        31%
Keep body shape (weight/size)   35%
Improve performance              6%
Socialise/ Meet new people       1%
Meet friends                     1%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


* Item 8: Were you or are you part of a sports team? (yes, I am part of a sports team, namely; yes, I was part of a sports team, but I gave up; only during sports classes in: school, high school, faculty, the workplace; I was not part of any sports team; I was exempt from physical education)

As seen in Figure 11, 43% of respondents were not part of sports teams. Also, 28% were members of sports teams during physical education classes and 23% were part of sports teams for a period of their lives. Another sample, representing 4%, includes subjects who are still members of sports teams. These three samples with previous experience and the one made up of subjects who are still members of sports teams account for 54%.
Figure 11. Team membership

I was not pert of any sports team,                   43%
Only during sports classes in school, high school,   28%
faculty, the workplace,
Yes, I was part of a sports team, but I gave up,     23%
Yes, I am part of a sports, team,                     4%
I was exempt from physical education,                 2%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


* Item 9: How do you relate to the following sports? (aerobic gymnastics, fitness, swimming, athletics, tennis, football, basketball, volleyball, martial arts/ judo, cycling, other) The surveyed subjects were free to choose more options. Figure 12 shows the responses indicating how they relate to different sports activities and disciplines. Thus, 36% of subjects practice fitness and 28% swimming, followed by the practice of aerobic gymnastics and cycling - 18% and 17%, respectively. Also, 41% of subjects say that tennis is one of the sports they would like to practice, followed by swimming - 40%. Their preferences also include aerobic gymnastics, athletics, basketball, volleyball, martial arts and cycling, with percentages between 19 and 28%.
Figure 12. Relation to different sports

              I         I          I would   I do not  I am not sure
              practice  practiced  like to   want to   I would
                                   practice  practice  practice it
                                   it        it

Aerobic       17%       18%        20%
gymnastics
Fitness       36%       22%        22%
Swimming      28%       24%        40%
Athletics      6%       23%        19%
Tennis         8%       22%        41%
Football      12        30%         9%
Basketball     6%       26%        19%
Volleyball     1%       38%        20%
Martial arts   3%       29%        27%
/ Judo
Cycling       18%       22%        28%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


* Item 10: Do you think there is a need for physical/motor activity programmes that meet the physical and psychological requirements specific to occupations in the cultural and artistic field? (YES/NO)

According to Figure 13, 93% of respondents believe that the practice of motor activities focusing on individual needs is both beneficial and necessary.
Figure 13. Opinions on specific motor programmes

Yes   93%
No     7%

Note: Table made from pie chart.


This is also revealed by the responses recorded to item 11 (see Figure 14), which refers to the respondents' options regarding their participation in the practical study for the implementation of specific motor programmes.

* Item 11: Would you be willing to participate in a project that includes personalised physical/motor activities adapted to your needs? (YES/NO, please motivate briefly) Respondents have shown their willingness to participate in a project that promotes personalised motor activity programmes adapted to the needs and specifics of their profession, the percentages being highlighted in Figure 14.
Figure 14. Agreement on participation in the practical study

Yes   79%
No    21%

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Discussion

Analysing the responses to the questionnaire items, we have found that:

* 45% of respondents practice sports activities in their leisure time. This percentage entitles us to believe that there is a sports and social culture among artists, which is highlighted by

* The surveyed participants prefer outdoor walks and hiking, possibly due to the physical and mental benefits provided by the contact with nature.

* The large number of participants in motor activities reflects the existence of a previous sports culture. The surveyed subjects are aware of issues related to maintaining physical appearance, physical fitness and health.

* Respondents have experience in ball sports games, athletics, gymnastics and fitness, and therefore have suitable motor background and skills specific to these sports.

* Respondents believe that it is important for them to stay in good physical and mental shape, and also to have appropriate harmonious body size.

* The way in which they relate to different sports reconfirms their motor experiences in the specified sports, as well as their desire to have new experiences in the field of sports. Certain sports, such as tennis and cycling, which benefit from intense media promotion, are also among the subjects' preferences. Swimming is in the top of the respondents' preferences. Regarding some sports games, there are for and against responses that we also find among the sports practiced by our subjects. Their relatively contradictory choices might be justified by injury prevention. The preservation of bodily integrity may be a requirement in certain professional contracts.

Conclusions

Based on the obtained results, the relevance and consistency of the questionnaire supported by the statistical analysis performed, we conclude:

* The surveyed subjects are aware of the importance of practicing physical activities and sports regularly, also indicating the spheres of influence of the movement, such as that of health.

* Fitness, aerobic gymnastics, dancing and light athletics programmes (functional training sessions) are among the motor activities preferred by the investigated subjects.

* Respondents practice both with a trainer and independently, which reveals the existence of physical culture and self-education.

* This paper, through its topic and content, falls within the broader context of the study on leisure behaviour aimed at the participation in motor programmes adapted to the specific literature, the curriculum of specialised faculties, our previous articles and reports (Universitatea "Hyperion", 2015).

the occupational specificity of the cultural and artistic environment.

Acknowledgements

We thank all participants for the courtesy of completing our opinion survey.

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VLADUTU GEORGETA (NICOLA) (1), MACOVEI SABINA (1), ZAHIU MIHAELA (1)

National University of Physical Education and Sports, 140 Constantin Noica St., Bucharest, Romania georgeta.vladutu@gmail.com, sabina_macovei@yahoo.com, mihaela.zahiu@gmail.com * the abstract was published in the 18th I.S.C. "Perspectives in Physical Education and Sport" - Ovidius University of Constanta, May 17-19, 2018, Romania

Received 11 march 2018 / Accepted 9 may 2018
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Title Annotation:Original article
Author:Georgeta, Vladutu (Nicola); Sabina, Macovei; Mihaela, Zahiu
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 15, 2018
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