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Owen Barfield's marginalia in Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur.

THROUGHOUT the long span of his career, Owen Barfield made numerous contributions to the field of literary study. The Romantic leanings of his philosophy of language, which he expressed in his Poetic Diction and Romanticism Come of Age, as well as his interest in Coleridge's writings in particular, make him a person of great interest and value to literary studies (Tennyson xxv-xxix). An additional boon to literary studies is the discovery of Barfield's copy of the two-volume edition of Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur, which contains extensive markings and annotations that offer scholars an interesting glimpse into Barfield's thoughts on Malory's text (See Appendix). The discovery of the existence of these marginalia is fortuitous, for little research exists that discusses Barfield's interest in Malory's Morte.

The primary focus of existing criticism, specifically Michael Blechner's "Tristram in Letters: Malory, C. S. Lewis, Updike," concerns an exchange of five letters between Barfield and his close friend C. S. Lewis in June 1947 that was begun by Barfield as a joke in response to Lewis's review of Eugene Vinaver's The Works of Sir Thomas Malory, also published in 1947.

This friendly debate is one of many intellectual exchanges in which Barfield and Lewis engaged throughout their long friendship. Indeed, Barfield and Lewis's most famous debate about "the question of epistemology [and] the nature of knowing" is well known in the literary community and well documented as the "Great War" (Tennyson xxvi). Lionel Addy, in his C. S. Lewis's "Great War" with Owen Barfield, attributes the emergence of the "Great War" to two sources of dispute: "Lewis's ... efforts to dissuade Barfield from belief in Anthroposophy" and "his disagreement with Barfield's contention that poetry initially conveyed knowledge and that therefore imagination disseminated truth" (13). Their debate has provided scholars with valuable insight into the philosophies that colored the writings of both men (Tennyson xxvi). As with the "Great War," Blechner demonstrates that Barfield and Lewis's exchange of letters regarding Sir Tristram and King Mark can also provide insight into the values of both men.

Prior to the publication of Vinaver's edition, the 1485 edition of William Caxton (Malory's editor) was the edition on which subsequent ones "[were] based--directly or indirectly" (Vinaver v). Vinaver's groundbreaking edition, however, is not based on Caxton's edition but rather on the Winchester manuscript, which was serendipitously discovered by W. E Oakeshott in 1934 and which consequently transformed Malory studies (Vinaver vi). According to Vinaver, the Winchester manuscript is "more complete and authentic than Caxton's edition" and, thus, provides readers with a much more representative picture of "what Malory really wrote" (vi). Additionally, Vinaver asserts that the Winchester manuscript
   enables us to see Malory's work in the making--not as a single
   book such as Caxton produced under the spurious and totally
   unrepresentative title of Le Morte Darthur, but as a series of
   separate romances each representing a distinct stage in the
   author's development, from his first timid attempts at imaginative
   narrative to the consummate mastery of his last great books. (vi)


Vinaver's dissatisfaction with Caxton's editorial decisions thus elucidates his reasoning for publishing his edition under the new title The Complete Works of Sir Thomas Malory (vi, cviii).

In his review of Vinaver's edition, which appeared in the Times Literary Supplement on 7 June 1947, Lewis praises Vinaver's achievement, stating, "[Vinaver's edition] is a very great work and a work which hardly any other man in England was qualified to perform" ("Morte" 273). Lewis's praise of Vinaver extends beyond this review as well. In his 1963 essay entitled "The English Prose Morte," Lewis writes, "[Vinaver's edition] is an indispensable work of which English scholarship may well be proud" (27). Lewis further credits Vinaver with producing an edition that was relevant and accessible for contemporary readers, stating, "he has made a new approach, and one which many modern pilgrims will find more congenial ... [and] far more digestible by contemporary critical conceptions than the old Morte" ("English Prose" 27).

Lewis does, however, question some of Vinaver's assertions in his preface and introduction, particularly his attempts "to reconcile the book with [Malory's criminal reputation] by arguing that the book is less noble than has usually been supposed, and even that the idea of its 'nobility' is largely derived from Caxton's preface" ("Morte" 273). According to Lewis's review, the nobility present in Malory's Morte "can be very accurately called nobility if the noble is defined as the opposite of the vulgar ... But how different such nobility may be from the virtues of the law-abiding citizen will appear if we imagine the life of Sir Tristram as it would be presented to us by King Mark's solicitors" ("Morte" 273).

Walter Hooper, in the second volume of his Collected Letters of C. S. Lewis, notes that it is this questioning which provides the impetus for Barfield's "lark" with Lewis that began on 11 June 1947 (Lewis, Letters 781). Similarly, Simon Blaxland-de Lange states in his biography Owen Bar field: Romanticism Come of Age, that Barfield and Lewis's "correspondence was inspired by [this specific] passage in Lewis's essay" (325). In their exchange of letters, Barfield and Lewis essentially act out Lewis's proposed scenario: Barfield poses as an attorney for King Mark under the names Barfield & Barfield and debates Tristram's actions with Lewis, who poses as a legal representative of Sir Tristram under the names Blaise & Merlin (Lewis, Letters 781).

That Barfield would engage in this literary debate (albeit a joking one) with Lewis suggests that Barfield was not only familiar with the particulars of Lewis's review of Vinaver's edition (and possibly with Vinaver's edition itself), but that he also may have had a strong interest in other characters and themes in Malory's Morte. Thus, the goal of the transcription of these annotations is to shed additional light on the context and implications of Barfield and Lewis's friendly debate as well as to provide information that could draw attention to the possible connection between the themes found in Malory's Morte and themes found in Barfield's other writings.

BARFIELD'S copy of the Everyman's Library edition, bound in green cloth, was originally published in 1906 and reprinted in 1934 (volume two) and 1935 (volume one). The exact dates of Barfield's notes and annotations are, unfortunately, unknown. Each volume of the edition does contain an ownership label; however, the label was placed after Barfield's death and simply reads, "From the Library of Owen Barfield 1898-1997." Barfield's edition was published before the publication of Vinaver's The Works of Sir Thomas Malory in 1947, the edition which C. S. Lewis reviewed just prior to Barfield and Lewis's exchange of letters, and is therefore based on Caxton's edition of Le Morte D'Arthur rather than on the Winchester manuscript.

Barfield's extensive markings and annotations consist primarily of vertical lines drawn in the margins to indicate interest in certain passages; however, Barfield also underlines select passages and writes a small number of marginal comments. The vast majority of these markings and annotations are written in pencil; a small number of the annotations are written in blue ink. In addition to these textual marginalia, Barfield's edition contains two pages of handwritten notes, which have been inserted between pages 56 and 57 and pages 402 and 403 in the second volume, as well as handwritten notes in pencil on the end pages of each volume.

The many subjects of Barfield's marginalia are quite diverse, ranging from characters such as Nimue, Sir Tor, Sir Dinadan, and Sir Percivale; to interest in the historical and literary origins of the legend; to themes such as love triangles (involving Lancelot, Guinevere, and Eliane as well as Tristram, Isoud, and Palomides), adultery, and the quest for the Sangreal. Barfield also makes note of interesting words and details, such as raundon, pointling, bobaunce, the number of knights at the Round Table, and the historical location of Camelot in Winchester. Despite the wide range of interests, Barfield's marginalia point to a decided preoccupation with the following characters and following themes: Galahad and the Siege Perilous, various characters' use of prophecy, a comparison of Galahad and Lancelot, Balin's dolorous stroke and its consequences, and Arthur's family.

Barfield devotes a large number of his notations to sections of Malory's Morte which mention Galahad, the pure-hearted son of Sir Lancelot and one of the few to "achieve the Sangreal" (2:130). In addition to these many textual notations, volume two of the Morte also contains a page of handwritten notes inserted between pages 402 and 403, and Barfield has devoted one full side of this page, written in bright blue ink, to "References to Galahad." On the verso, Barfield has compiled notes, written in pencil, on "References to the Siege Perilous," the seat at the Round Table in which only Galahad may sit.

Many of Barfield's notations focus on prophecies about Galahad's future. In volume two, Barfield places a vertical line in the margin of a passage in which a hermit prophesies to King Arthur and his knights about the upcoming birth of Galahad, the one and only knight who will be able to sit in the Siege Perilous and "win" the Grail (2:124). Barfield then draws attention to the circumstances surrounding Galahad's conception and birth, which also contain prophetic elements. He marks the margins of page 126 with vertical lines next to passages that describe Lancelot's meeting with Pelles at Pelles's castle. In these marked passages, Pelles's thoughts reveal both his knowledge of Lancelot's future affair with Elaine, Pelles's daughter, and his knowledge that as a result of their affair, Galahad will be conceived. Moreover, Pelles's thoughts prophesy that Galahad will save his country and attain the Grail (2:126). Barfield also marks passages on pages 127-28 in which Elaine's thoughts convey similar foresight and prophecy. After arranging to have Lancelot tricked into being intimate with her, Elaine is certain that she will conceive Galahad and that he will be both "the best knight of the world" and "the most noblest knight of the world" (2:127-28).

Prophecy about Galahad's future as a knight also comes from other characters, and Barfield is sure to note these passages. He uses a vertical line in the margin to highlight a passage where Sir Bors visits Pelles's castle, sees Galahad, and is told by a woman holding the Grail that "this child is Galahad, that shall sit in the siege perilous, and achieve the Sangreal, and he shall be much better than ever was Sir Launcelot du Lake, this is his own father" (2:130). In volume one and in his handwritten notes in the end pages of volume two, Barfield also notes Merlin's prophecy that Galahad will be one of only two knights who may wield Balin's sword. Additionally, Barfield references page 169 as containing a description of the sword's "origin" (1:70). Finally, Barfield notes the prophecy of Percivale's sister: Galahad will "be buried" in the city of Sarras along with her and Percivale after completing the Grail quest (2:252).

IN addition to identifying instances of prophecy, Barfield's notations identify Galahad's role in healing King Pellam, a descendant of Joseph of Arimathea, who suffered a dolorous stroke from Balin. Barfield makes a marginal notation of a [gamma] next to the passage that describes how during his quest for the Sangreal, Galahad restores Pellam's health with the blood of Christ, supplied by Joseph of Arimathea. Galahad's name, along with Joseph of Arimathea's, is underlined in the text.

Another notation draws attention to Galahad's similar role in healing his grandfather, King Pelles. In the second volume, Barfield draws a vertical line in the margin next to a passage in which Percivale's sister speaks to Galahad of his grandfather's injury from a spear and refers to Pelles as "the maimed king" (2:242-43). He also includes a note written in pencil on the recto of an end page in volume two opposite the last page of advertisements in which he writes, "242 his name was Pelles. Maimed by a spear." Barfield also draws vertical lines in the margins next to passages in which a vision of Christ appears to Galahad and gives him blood with which to heal King Pelles (2:265). His final marginal notation highlights the passage in which Galahad "anoint[s] [Pelles's] legs" with Christ's blood, thus healing him (2:266).

Barfield's notations also focus on how Galahad stands apart from the other knights of the Round Table, particularly his father, Sir Lancelot. Some of these notations do highlight sections in which Malory points to the similarities that exist between Galahad and Lancelot. For example, Barfield places a vertical line next to a passage in which Sir Bors sees Galahad for the first time and remarks on Galahad's physical resemblance to Lancelot (2:129). Additionally, Barfield marks a passage in which Guinevere states that Galahad "must needs be a noble man, for so is his father that him begat" (2:168). He also places a vertical line next to Guinevere's observation that both Lancelot and Galahad are direct descendants of Christ and includes a notation in the end pages of volume two that reads "[e]xalted pedigree of Lancelot and Galahad" (2:170). Finally, Barfield marks a passage in which Merlin prophesies that only Lancelot and Galahad will be able to wield Balin's sword (1:70).

However, Barfield has also noted a number of passages in which Galahad is referred to as superior to Lancelot and to every other knight in the realm. Barfield marks passages that indicate of all the knights in Arthur's court, only Galahad is able to sit in the Siege Perilous. An example is the following: "This is he by whom the Sangreal shall be achieved, for there sat never none but he, but he were mischieved" (2:168). Both Pelles's and Elaine's prophetic words to Lancelot about Galahad similarly describe him as a knight who will be "the best knight of the world" (2:126-128).

Barfield marks a passage that specifically compares Galahad to Lancelot, in which a maiden at Pelles's castle states, "this child is Galahad, that shall sit in the siege perilous, and achieve the Sangreal, and he shall be much better than ever was Sir Launcelot du Lake, this is his own father" (2:130). Moreover, Barfield marks a passage in which Lancelot himself recognizes his inability to surpass Galahad and states, "For in the quest of the Sangreal I had forsaken the vanities of the world had not your lord been. And if I had done so at that time, with my heart, will, and thought, I had passed all the knights that were in the Sangreal except Sir Galahad, my son" (2:395).

In addition to showing this contrast between Galahad and Lancelot, Barfield makes note of passages that reveal Lancelot's faults, most notably his spiritual flaws, which prevent him from being as great a knight as Galahad. For instance, Barfield marks a passage in which an old man in the court of King Pelles instructs Sir Bors, Lancelot's cousin, to tell Lancelot that
   sin is so foul in him he may not achieve such holy deeds [as Bors
   achieved], for had not been his sin he had passed all the knights
   that ever were in his days; and tell thou Sir Launcelot, of all
   worldly adventures he passeth in manhood and prowess all other, but
   in this spiritual matters he shall have many his better. (2:132)


Barfield also places a vertical line in the margin next to the words of a hermit who chastises Lancelot for his sin:
   And for your presumption to take upon you in deadly sin for to be
   in His presence, where His flesh and His blood was, that caused you
   ye might not see it with worldly eyes; for He will not appear where
   such sinners be, but if it be unto their great hurt and unto their
   great shame; and there is no knight living now that ought to give
   God so great thank as ye. (2:190)


Additionally, Barfield marks a passage in which Lancelot himself acknowledges his spiritual failings, stating, "never did I battle all only for God's sake, but for to win worship and to cause me to be the better beloved [by Guinevere], and little or nought I thanked God of it" (2:190).

Barfield also draws two vertical lines next to a passage in which Lancelot disobeys a warning not to enter a holy chamber containing the Grail and is physically injured as a result (2:257). In contrast, Barfield marks passages that highlight Galahad's spirituality, such as those in which Galahad is referred to as "the servant of Jesu Christ," witnesses a vision of Christ, and upon death "find[s] the life of the soul" (2:265, 267-69).

IN addition to the character of Galahad, Barfield s notations reflect an interest in the far-reaching consequences of knights' actions. Such actions are often accompanied with foreboding prophecies. One such instance surrounds the story of Balin and the origins of the dolorous stroke. Barfield places a vertical line in the margin next to passages in which Balin kills Lanceor and fails to prevent the suicide of his lady (1:52, 55). Barfield then uses his marginal notations to trace the consequences of Balin's actions.

Barfield draws attention to Merlin's words to Balin by making both a vertical line in the margin on page 55 and a reference to that page on the verso of the end page of volume one. Because Balin did not prevent the suicide of Lanceor's lady, Merlin prophesies that Balin will first gravely injure King Pellam, "the truest knight and the man of most worship that now liveth" with "a stroke most dolorous that ever man struck" (1:55). Merlin states that this dolorous stroke will leave Pellam wounded "for many years" (1:55). Additionally, Balin's dolorous stroke will affect more individuals than Pellam. Merlin states that as a result of Balin's stroke, "three kingdoms shall be in great poverty, misery and wretchedness twelve years" (1:55).

Barfield draws further attention to these far-reaching consequences by referencing page 64 on the verso of the end page of volume one. This page provides the account of the dolorous stroke by which Pellam is injured with the same spear used to pierce the heart of Christ. As a result of the dolorous stroke, Pellam's castle is destroyed. Barfield continues to note the consequences of Balin's actions by placing a vertical line next to a passage in which the survivors of the castle's destruction state, "... O Balin, thou has caused great damage in these countries; for the dolorous stroke thou gavest unto King Pellam, three countries are destroyed, and doubt not but the vengeance will fall on thee at the last" (1:65). Ultimately, Balin's actions result in consequences that only Galahad can remedy, as Barfield's previous notations demonstrate. Showing the final result of Balin's actions, Barfield marks a passage in which Balin suffers the prophesied "vengeance" when he and his brother Balan, unaware of each other's identity, kill each other in battle (1:65, 68).

Barfield's interest in the consequences of actions also extends to the character of Arthur, specifically in regards to his relationships with his family members. Indeed, the first piece of marginalia in Barfield's copy of Malory's Morte is a handwritten copy of Arthur's family tree on the inside cover of volume one. Similarly, Barfield has made the notation "Genealogies 8.35." in pencil on the recto of the end page of volume one. He also marks page 8 of volume one, which describes the marriages of Arthur's sisters Morgause, Elaine, and Morgan le Fay.

Through his notations, we see that Barfield pays close attention to the consequences of Arthur's unwitting relationship with Morgause. Barfield places a vertical line in the margin of page 35 by a passage that provides an account of Morgause's conception of Mordred by Arthur. Likewise, on the recto of the end page of volume one, Barfield has written "Mordred 35.37"; these pages refer to Mordred's conception and the resulting prophecy which Merlin reveals to Arthur. Barfield also writes "Morgause (p.8)" in the bottom left hand corner of page 34 of volume one, which describes her entrance in Arthur's court as a spy. Noting another example of the consequences of poor actions, Barfield marks the passage in which Merlin states, "God is displeased with you, for ye have lain by your sister, and on her ye have gotten a child that shall destroy you and all the knights of your realm" (1:37).

Barfield's notations not only direct attention to the consequences of this relationship with Morgause but also highlight the treacherous actions of Arthur's other half-sister, Morgan le Fay, who is married to King Uriens and is, as Barfield's notations point out, "a great clerk of necromancy" (1:8). On an end page in volume one, Barfield has included a handwritten notation of references that states, "Morgan le Fay 8.59.95.98. 101. Book IV." Of most interest to Barfield is her attempt to murder Arthur. Barfield marks a passage in which Arthur entrusts Morgan le Fay with the scabbard of Excalibur (1:59). However, she betrays him, giving the real Excalibur and scabbard to her lover, Accolon, and sends a false replica back to Arthur, and Barfield places vertical lines next to the passages that describe her actions (1:100-101). Finally, Barfield marks a passage in which Arthur is now aware that Morgan le Fay cannot be trusted, for "his sister was his own enemy" (2:18).

WHILE the greatest number of Barfield's marginalia focus on characters who are members of Arthur's court, he does devote a small number of his notations to the story of Tristram and marks passages that refer to Tristram's prowess as a knight--specifically, that Tristram is "the strongest and the highest knight of the world; for he was called bigger than Sir Launcelot"--and makes a notation in the end pages of volume one about Tristram's "expert[ise] in venery" (1:275; 2:57-58). As was previously noted, Barfield's annotations do reveal an interest in Tristram's story and thus could be of interest to scholars of C. S. Lewis due to Barfield and Lewis's exchange of letters regarding Sir Tristram (see p. 57 of this essay).

The focus of Barfield's marginalia, however, has less to do with Tristram's conflict with King Mark than with Tristram's conflict with Sir Palomides, who is also in love with Isoud. Indeed, Barfield's lone notation about King Mark appears on the verso of an end page in volume one, where he writes, "Charity at the Court of King Mark 287," referencing the scene in which Morgan le Fay's enchanted horn exposes the unfaithfulness of Isoud and the majority of the other women of the court. Concerned with the relationship between Tristram and Palomides, Barfield places a vertical line next to a passage that describes the fight between Tristram and Palomides, "for both they fought for the love of one lady" (1:282). Barfield also references this passage in his notations on the verso of an end page in volume one. Furthermore, Barfield places a vertical line next to a passage that states, "When Sir Tristram saw that beast he put on his helm, for he deemed he should hear of Sir Palomides, for that beast was his quest" (2:58).

According to Blechner, Barfield and Lewis's debate reveals their belief that in Le Morte D'Arthur, "law [is ultimately] overpowered by force" (31). While Barfield's notations do not focus specifically on Tristram's conflict with Mark, Barfield's interest in Tristram's skills as a knight as well as his display of might in his battle against Palomides could shed light on Blechner's assertion that Barfield and Lewis considered Tristram to be responsible for causing "the ethical standards of Arthur's knights ... [to be] so weakened that eventually everyone comes to rely on 'grete force'" (31). Furthermore, although Barfield does not draw attention to passages concerning Tristram's interactions with Mark, he does note passages in which Tristram plans to resolve conflicts with other characters through the use of force. For instance, Barfield marks a passage in which Tristram states his intent to fight Elias to "deliver Cornwall from the old truage" (2:23). Tristram boldly states, "And therefore lightly call his messenger and he shall be answered, for as yet my wounds be green, and they will be sorer a seven night after than they be now; and therefore he shall have his answer that I will do battle tomorn with him" (2:23).

Barfield's copious markings and notations of Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur provide scholars with a wealth of insight into his thoughts about and interests in the text as well as avenues for further research into possible connections between the writing of Barfield and Malory. One avenue for additional research of Barfield's potential interest in Malory emerges in his seminal work Poetic Diction, in which Barfield, while tracing the emergence of "prose as an imaginative medium" in British literature, classifies Malory's writing as "poetic prose" (148). Although Barfield credits Shakespeare and his contemporaries with being the "first" to conduct "serious experiments with prose" in this way, his mention of Malory could suggest that he considered Malory to be an innovative prose writer for his time (148).

Ultimately, by cataloguing these marginalia, this essay hopes that Barfield's focus on the character of Galahad as the spiritual standard for all other knights, his interests in prophecy and consequences, and the context of his debate with C. S. Lewis have been made clear. Barfield's annotations suggest a deep-seated preoccupation with these themes that has the potential to lead to fruitful research in the future.

Appendix:

Malory's marginalia in his two-volume Everyman's Library edition of Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur.

* Notations in which Barfield's handwriting could not be clearly distinguished are indicated with a question mark in square brackets. Comments which I have added to Barfield's notations are also enclosed in square brackets.

Volume One

Underlining:

viii-ix: "Most of Malory's originals prove to have been romances written in French, which he, as a rule, reduced greatly in length in the process of giving the work an English garb."

xi: "The year of the composition of the Historia Brittonum was, according to M. A. de la Borderie, no other than A.D. 822 ..."

xii: "The next references to Arthur, which deserve to be mentioned, occur in the Annales Cambriae, the oldest existing manuscript of which was completed in 954 or 955... The next entry in point comes under the year 537, and runs thus--Gueith cam lann [i.e., the Battle of Camlan] in qua Arthur et Medraut corruerunt."

xxvi: "A convenient pocket-guide to the wider field it indicates may be had in Miss Jessie L. Weston's Survey of Arthurian Romance (in Nutt's 'Popular Studies in Mythology, Romance and Folklore')."

64-5: "And King Pellam lay so, many years sore wounded, and might never be whole till Galahad the haughty prince healed him in the quest of the Sangreal, for in that place was part of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, that Joseph of Arimathea brought into this land, and there himself lay in that rich bed."

81: "Then was he ware of another knight coming with great raundon, and each of them dressed to the other, that marvel it was to see ..."

181: "Then at the high feast evermore they should be fulfilled the whole number of an hundred and fifty, for then was the Round Table fully complished."

192: "Fie upon thee, false kitchen page, I will never pray thee to save his life, for I will never be so much in thy danger."

Marginal Notes:

xii: "why?" written in left margin: "For, though the majority of the twelve battles were fought in what we now call the North of England or the South of Scotland, some of them undoubtedly took place in the south of the Island, such as the battle of Urbs Legionis, which must have been either Chester on the Dee or Caerleon on the Usk; and still farther south must have been that of Mons Badonis."

34: "Morgause (p. 8)" written in bottom left hand comer: "And thither came to him, King Lot's wife, of Orkney, in manner of a message, but she was sent thither to espy the court of King Arthur; and she came richly bisene, with her four sons ..."

65: "[gamma]" written in right margin: "till Galahad the haughty prince healed him in the quest of the Sangreal, for in that place was part of the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, that Joseph of Arimathea brought into this land, and there himself lay in that rich bed."

76: "Nimue" written in left margin: "Right so anon came in a lady on a white palfrey ..."

Vertical lines in margins highlighting portions of the text:

ix-x: "Now, if we suppose the Bretons in their migration from Great Britain, to have carried with them the stories current about Arthur in the southern districts of this country, it may be further supposed that, ages later, those of their descendants who submitted to the Normans in the eastern portion of Brittany must have translated their popular stories about Arthur into their adopted Norman French." [interest in language also indicated on page viii]

x: "In other words, Professor Zimmer's views led me to draw the following two-fold conclusion: --(1) The older romances relating chiefly to Arthur and his Men are of Breton rather than of Welsh origin, while (2) the reverse is the case with the Grail romances."

xi: "The year of the composition of the Historia Brittonum was, according to M. A. de la Borderie, not other than A.D. 822, and the words relating to Arthur read as follows"

xv: "In South Wales an elaborate but popular story lodges Arthur and his Knights in a cave at Craig y Ddinas, in Glamorgan, while the peasantry of South Cardiganshire, relating the same story, locate it elsewhere, and call the sleeping hero not Arthur but Owen, a name the memory of which used to be kept fresh by ballad singers"

xxvi: "... Drystan came to be styled one of 'the Three stout Swineherds of the Isle of Britain.' Or take another instance, namely the statement that Arthur had not one wife Gwenhwyvar, Malory's Guenever, but three wives in succession, all called Gwenhwyvar"

35: "... so they were agreed, and he begat upon her Mordred, and she was his sister, on his mother's side, Igraine"

37: "... God is displeased with you, for ye have lain by your sister, and on her ye have gotten a child that shall destroy you and all the knights of your realm."

49: "... he went straight to her and said, Evil be you found; ye would have my head, and therefore ye shall lose yours, and with his sword lightly he smote off her head before King Arthur."

52: "... the Irish knight [Lanceor] smote Balin on the shield, that all went shivers of his spear, and Balin hit him through the shield."

55: "Me repenteth, said Merlin; because of the death of that lady thou [Balin] shalt strike a stroke most dolorous that ever man struck, except the stroke of our Lord, for thou shalt hurt the truest knight and the man of most worship that now liveth, and through that stroke three kingdoms shall be in great poverty, misery and wretchedness twelve years, and the knight shall not be whole of that wound for many years."

65: "And all that were alive cried, O Balin, thou has caused great damage in these coutnries; for the dolorous stroke thou gavest unto King Pellam, three countries are destroyed, and doubt not but the vengeance will fall on thee at the last."

68: "And at that time there was none of them [Balin and Balan] both but they had either smitten other seven great wounds, so that the least of them might have been the death of the mightiest giant in this world."

70: "... there shall never man handle this sword but the best knight of the world, and that shall be Sir Launcelot or else Galahad his son, and Launcelot with this sword shall slay the man that in the world he loved best, that shall be Sir Gawaine."

70: "Also the scabbard of Balin's sword Merlin left it on this side the island, that Galahad should find it."

71: "But Merlin warned the king covertly that Guenever was not wholesome for him to take to wife, for he warned him that Launcelot should love her, and she him again; and so he turned his tale to the adventures of the Sangreal."

76: "... there came a knight riding all armed on a great horse, and took the lady [Nimue] away with him with force, and ever she cried and made great dole. When she was gone the king was glad, for she made such a noise."

78: "Sir Gawaine would no mercy have but unlaced his helm to have stricken off his head. Right so came his lady out of a chamber and fell over him, and so he smote off her head by misadventure. Alas, said Gaheris, that is foully and shamefully done, that shame shall never from you; also ye should give mercy unto them that ask mercy, for a knight without mercy is without worship"

80: "Early on the morrow there came to Sir Gawaine one of the four ladies that had heard all his complaint, and said, Sir knight, what cheer? Not good, said he. It is your own default, said the lady, for ye have done a passing foul deed in the slaying of the lady, the which will be great villainy unto you"

81 : "Then was he [Sir Tor] ware of another knight coming with great raundon, and each of them dressed to the other, that marvel it was to see" (Barfield's emphasis)

84: "... so [Sir Tor] told and made proofs of his deeds as it is afore rehearsed, wherefore the king and the queen made great joy. Nay, nay, said Merlin, these be but japes to that he shall do; for he shall prove a noble knight of prowess, as good as any is living, and gentle and courteous, and of good tatches, and passing true of his promise, and never shall outrage."

87: "Now, what is your name? said Pellinore, I pray you tell me. Sir, my name is Sir Meliot of Logurs, and this lady my cousin hight Nimue, and the knight that was in the other pavilion is my sworn brother, a passing good knight, and his name is Brian of the Isles."

89: "... [King Pellinore] gave them lands, and charged them never to do outrageousity nor murder, and always to flee treason"

96: "So, as Sir Bagdemagus rode to see many adventures, it happed him to come to the rock whereas the Lady of the Lake had put Merlin under the stone"

99: "Yet she was false, for she was one of the damosels of Morgan le Fay. Anon she went unto Sir Damas, and told him how be would do battle for him"

100: "Right with that there came a dwarf with a great mouth and a flat nose, and saluted Sir Accolon, and said how he came from Queen Morgan le Fay, and she greeteth you well, and biddeth you be of strong heart, for ye shall fight to-morrow with a knight at the hour of prime, and therefore she hath sent you [Accolon] here Excalibur Arthur's sword, and the scabbard"

101: "... brought unto Sir Arthur a sword like unto Excalibur, and the scabbard, and said unto Arthur, Morgan le Fay sendeth here your sword for great love. And he thanked her, and weened it had been so, but she was false, for the sword and the scabbard were counterfeit, and brittle, and false."

101: "The meanwhile that they were thus at the battle, came the damosel of the lake into the field, that put Merlin under the stone; and she came thither for love of King Arthur, for she knew how Morgan le Fay had so ordained that King Arthur should have been slain that day, and therefore she came to save his life."

102: "Then were they wroth both, and gave each other many sore strokes, but always Sir Arthur lost so much that it was marvel he stood on his feet, but he was so full of knighthood that knightly he endured the pain."

111: "And when Sir Gawaine wist that, he [Uwaine] made him ready to go with him; and said, Whoso banisheth my cousin-germain shall banish me. So they two departed, and rode into a great forest, and so they came to an abbey of monks, and there were well lodged."

121: "Will ye, said Sir Gawaine, promise me to do all that ye may, by the faith of your body, to get me the love of my lady? Yea, sir, said she [Lady Ettard], and that I promise you by the faith of my body."

129: "And Sir Pelleas was a worshipful knight, and was one of the four that achieved the Sangreal"

133: "When the emperor understood their coming he made ready his Romans and all the people between him and Flanders. Also he had gotten with him fifty giants which had been engendered of fiends; and they were ordained to guard his person"

134: "And in the presence of all his lords he resigned the rule of the realm and Gwenever his queen to them, wherefore Sir Launcelot was wroth, for he left Sir Tristram with King Mark for the love of Beale Isoud."

134: "If I die in this journey I will that Sir Constantine be mine heir and king crowned of this realm as next of my blood. And after departed and entered into the sea at Sandwich with all his army, with a great multitude of ships, galleys, cogges, and dromoundes, sailing on the sea."

135: "After, him seemed there came out of the orient, a grimly boar all black in a cloud, and his paws as big as a post; he was rugged looking roughly"

135: "Then the dragon flew away on an hight, and came down with such a swough, and smote the boar on the ridge"

141: "... ye had lost no worship; for I call it folly, knights to abide when they be overmatched. Nay, said Launcelot and the other, for once shamed may never be recovered."

193: "... the green knight commanded thirty knights privily to watch Beaumains, for to keep him from all treason."

195: "... all that night the red knight made three score knights to watch Beaumains, that he should have no shame nor villainy."

211: "As for that threatening, said Sir Gringamore, be it as it be may, we will go to dinner. And so they washed and went to meat"

236: "... for after Sir Gareth had espied Sir Gawaine's conditions, he withdrew himself from his brother, Sir Gawaine's, fellowship, for he was vengeable, and where he hated he would be avenged with murder, and that hated Sir Gareth."

275: "Then was Sir Tristram called the strongest and, the highest knight of the world; for he was called bigger than Sir Launcelot, but Sir Launcelot was better breathed."

276: "The meanwhile one of the knights of the castle rode unto Sir Galahad, the haut prince, the which was Sir Breunor's son, which was a noble knight, and told him what misadventure his father had and his mother."

282: "And there began strong battle on both parts, for both they fought for the love of one lady, and ever she lay on the walls and beheld them how they fought out of measure, and either were wounded passing sore, but Palamides was much sorer wounded. Thus they fought tracing and traversing more than two hours ..."

283: "... and there recommend me unto Queen Guenever, and tell her that I send her word that there be within this land but four lovers, that is, Sir Launcelot du Lake and Queen Guenever, and Sir Tristram de Liones and Queen Isoud."

Notes:

The inside cover of volume one contains a handwritten family tree of Arthur's relations.

On verso of the last page of advertisements handwritten notes in pencil:

"Dolorous Blow 55 66"

"Lancelot & Guinevere 71"

"Tor 73-75.81. K.T.L. [?]"

"Sir Palamides the Saracen 250"

"Message from Isoud to Guenever 283"

"282 H[?]"

"Charity at the Court of King Mark 287"

On recto of next page, handwritten notes in pencil, erased and partially rewritten in blue ink:

"Genealogies 8.35."

"Mordred 35.37"

"Death of King Lot 58"

"Sangreal 59.62.70.71.96"

"Morgan le Fay 8.59.95.98. 101. Book IV"

"'Wife or Paramour' 63"

"Lancelot-Gawaine-Galahad 70"

"Camelot = Winchester....

"Nimue 76. 87.96. 101. 104. 122-23 (& Merlin) 90"

"Character of Gawaine 111. 121. 236"

"Pelleas one of the four that achieves the Sangreal 12[?]"

"141 Dis[?] Valour"

"181 Round Table--'150'"

"192"

"276 Sir Galahad, the haut prince (Son of Sir Breunor)"

"[?] 52"

"J/Arimathea 65"

Bookmark between pages 180 and 181

Volume Two

Underlining:

130: "And right so he saw come in a light, that he might well see a spear great and long that came straight upon him pointling, and to Sir Bors seemed that the head of the spear brent like a taper."

188: "But I have marvel of this sleeping knight that had no power to awake when this holy vessel was brought hither."

189: "And when he was clene armed he took Sir Launcelot's horse, for he was better than his; and so departed they from the Cross."

212: "Then thou beheld the sinners and the good men, and when thou sawest the sinners overcome, thou inclinist to that party for bobaunce and pride of the world, and all that must be left in that quest, for in this quest thou shalt have many fellows and thy betters."

238: "... but there they might not land, for there was a swallow of the sea, save there was another ship, and upon it they might go without danger."

241: "Fair brother, said she to Percivale, it befell after a forty year after the passion of Jesu Christ that Nacien, the brother-in-law of King Mordrains, was borne into a town more than fourteen days' journey from his country, by the commandment of Our Lord, into an isle, into the parts of the West, that men clepyd the isle of Turnance."

244: "Sir, said she [Solomon's wife], syne it is so that this knight ought to pass all knights of chivalry which have been tofore him and shall come after him, moreover I shall tell you, said she, ye shall go into Our Lord's temple, where is King David's sword, your father, the which is the marvelloust and the sharpest that ever was taken in any knight's hand."

Marginal Notes:

189: exclamation point in right margin next to underlining: "And when he was clene armed he took Sir Launcelot's horse, for he was better than his; and so departed they from the Cross."

193: half bracket around "When Merlin had ordained the Round Table, he said, by them which should be fellows of the Round Table the truth of the Sangreal should be well known."

194: half bracket around "Then Merlin answered that he would do so. And then he made the Siege Perilous, in the which Galahad sat in at his meat on Whitsunday last past."

195: "p. 176, 242" written in right margin alongside odd symbol: "Sir, said the good man, ye have heard much of Joseph of Aramathie, how he was sent by Jesu Christ into this land for to teach and preach the holy Christian faith."

235: half bracket around "Bors, go hence, and bear thy brother no longer fellowship, but take thy way anon right to the sea, for Sir Percivale abideth thee there."

238: exclamation point in left margin: "... but there they might not land, for there was a swallow of the sea, save there was another ship, and upon it they might go without danger."

264: Half bracket around "Then King Pelles and his son departed."

264: "257" written in left margin: "With that they heard the chamber door open, and there they saw angels; and two bare candles of wax, and the third a towel, and the fourth a spear which bled marvellously, that three drops fell within a box which he held with his other hand. And they set the candles upon the table, and the third the towel upon the vessel, and the fourth the holy spear even upright upon the vessel."

265: brackets around "for this night it shall depart from the realm of Logris, that it shall never be seen more here. And wotest thou wherefore? For he is not served nor worshipped to his right by them of this land, for they be turned to evil living; therefore I shall disherit them of the honour which I have done them."

"And therefore go ye three to-morrow unto the sea, where ye shall find your ship ready, and with you take the sword with the strange girdles, and no more with you but Sir Percivale and Sir Bors. Also I will that ye take with you of the blood of this spear for to anoint the maimed king, both his legs and all his body, and he shall have his health."

267: "263" written in right margin: "And so he laid him down and slept a great while; and when he awaked he looked afore him and saw the city of Sarras. And as they would have landed they saw the ship wherein Percivale had put his sister in. Truly, said Percivale, in the name of God, well hath my sister holden us covenant."

269: Half bracket around "Sithen was there never man so hardy to say that he had seen the Sangreal."

Vertical lines in margins highligting portions of the text:

13: "So on the morn the king made him knight in Camelot. But the king and all the knights thought it would be long that he proved a good knight. Then at the dinner, when the king was set at the table, and every knight after he was of prowess, the king commanded him to be set among mean knights; and so was Sir Percivale set as the king commanded. There was there a maiden in the Queen's court that was come of high blood, and she was dumb and never spake word. Right so she came straight into the hall, and went unto Sir Percivale, and took him by the hand and said aloud, that the king and all the knights might hear it: Arise, Sir Percivale, the noble knight and God's knight, and go with me; and so he did. And there she brought him to the right side of the Siege Perilous, and said, Fair knight, take here thy siege, for that siege appertaineth to thee and to none other. Right so she departed and asked a priest. And as she was confessed and houselled then she died. Then the king and all the court made great joy of Sir Percivale."

16: "And in the same wise he [Dinadan] smote Sir Mordred and Sir Agravaine. And after, in the quest of the Sangreal, cowardly and feloniously they slew Dinadan, the which was great damage, for he was a great bourder and a passing good knight."

18: "When King Arthur understood the letter, he mused of many things, and thought on his sister's words, Queen Morgan le Fay, that she had said betwixt Queen Guenever and Sir Launcelot. And in this thought he studied a great while. Then he bethought him again how his sister was his own enemy, and that she hated the queen and Sir Launcelot, and so he put all that out of his thought."

23: Tristram speaking: "And therefore lightly call his messenger and he shall be answered, for as yet my wounds be green, and they will be sorer a seven night after than they be now; and therefore he shall have his answer that I will do battle tomorn with him."

47: "And he [Dinadan] had such a custom that he loved every good knight, and every good knight loved him again."

47: "And so Sir Launcelot smote down Sir Dinadan, and made his men to unarm him, and so brought him to the queen and the haut prince, and they laughed at Dinadan so sore that they might not stand."

50: Launcelot speaking: "God forbid that ever we meet but if it be at a dish of meat. Then laughed the queen and the haut prince, that they might not sit at their table; thus they made great joy till on the morn, and then they heard mass, and blew to field."

51 (in blue ink): "Then was Sir Dinadan brought in among them all. And when Queen Guenever saw Sir Dinadan brought so among them all, then she laughed that she fell down, and so did all that there were."

57-58: "... for Sir Tristram was that time called the best chaser of the world, and the noblest blower of an horn of all manner of measures; for as books report, of Sir Tristram came all the good terms of venery and hunting, and all the sizes and measures of blowing of an horn; and of him we had first all the terms of hawking, and which were beasts of chase and beasts of venery, and which were vermins, and all the blasts that longed to all manner of games. First to the uncoupling, to the seeking, to the rechate, to the flight, to the death, and to strake, and many other blasts and terms, that all manner of gentlemen have cause to the world's end to praise Sir Tristram, and to pray for his soul."

58: "When Sir Tristram saw that beast he put on his helm, for he deemed he should hear of Sir Palomides, for that beast was his quest."

60: "[Sir Bleoberis] stood in a doubt whether he would turn or hold his way. Then he said to himself: I am a knight of the Table Round, and rather than I should shame mine oath and my blood I will hold my way whatsoever fall thereof."

124: "Afore the time that Sir Galahad was gotten or born, there came in an hermit unto King Arthur upon Whitsunday, as the knights sat at the Table Round. And when the hermit saw the siege perilous, he asked the king and all the knights why that siege was void. Sir Arthur and all the knights answered: There shall never none sit in that siege but one, but if he be destroyed. Then said the hermit: Wot ye what is he? Nay, said Arthur and all the knights, we wot not who is he that shall sit therein. Then wot I, said the hermit, for he that shall sit there is unborn and ungotten, and this same year he shall be gotten that shall sit there in that siege perilous, and he shall win the Sangreal."

126: "And therewithal [at the castle of King Pelles] there was such a savour as all the spicery of the world had been there. And forthwithal there was upon the table all manner of meats and drinks that they could think upon."

126: "And when this thing goeth about, the Round Table shall be broken; and with thou well, said the king, this is the holy Sangreal that ye have here seen. So the king and Sir Launcelot let their life the most part of that day. And fain would king Pelles have found the mean to have had Sir Launcelot to have lain by his daughter fair Elaine. And for this intent: the king knew well that Sir Launcelot should get a child upon his daughter, the which should be named Sir Galahad the good knight, by whom all the foreign country should be brought out of danger, and by him the Holy Greal should be achieved"

127: "Wit you well that Sir Launcelot was glad, and so was that lady Elaine that she had gotten Sir Launcelot in her arms. For well she knew that same night should be gotten upon her Galahad that should prove the best knight of the world; and so they lay together until underne of the morn"

128: "Then this fair lady Elaine skipped out of her bed all naked, and kneeled down afore Sir Launcelot, and said: Fair courteous knight, come of king's blood, I require you have mercy upon me, and as thou art renowned the most noble knight of the world, slay me not, for I have in my womb him by thee that shall be the most noblest knight of the world."

128: "And as fast as her time came she was delivered of a fair child, and they christened him Galahad; and wit ye well that child was well kept and well nourished, and he was named Galahad by cause Sir Launcelot was so named at the fountain stone"

129: "And when the king and Elaine his daughter wist that Sir Bors was nephew unto Sir Launcelot, they made him great cheer."

129: "And ever Sir Bors beheld that child in her arms, and ever him seemed it was passing like Sir Launcelot. Truly, said Elaine, wit ye well this child he gat upon me."

130: "And so came in a white dove, and she bare a little censer of gold in her mouth, and there was all manner of meats and drinks; and a maiden bare that Sangreal, and she said openly: Wit you well, Sir Bors, that this child is Galahad, that shall sit in the siege perilous, and achieve the Sangreal, and he shall be much better than ever was Sir Launcelot du Lake, this is his own father."

130: "So Sir Bors was confessed, and for all women Sir Bors was a virgin, save for one, that was the daughter of King Brangoris, and on her he gat a child that hight Elaine, and save for her Sir Bors was a clean maiden,"

132: "... but sin is so foul in him [Launcelot] he may not achieve such holy deeds, for had not been his sin he had passed all the knights that ever were in his days; and tell thou Sir Launcelot, of all worldly adventures he passeth in manhood and prowess all other, but in this spiritual matters he shall have many his better."

132: "Go hence, thou Sir Bors, for as yet thou art not worthy for to be in this place."

133: "So the noise sprang in Arthur's court that Launcelot had gotten a child upon Elaine, the daughter of King Pelles, wherefore Queen Guenever was wroth, and gave many rebukes to Sire Launcelot, and called him "false knight."

134: "So when Elaine was brought unto Queen Guenever either made other good cheer by countenance, but nothing with hearts. But all men and women spake of the beauty of Dame Elaine, and of her great riches."

136: "Alas, madam, ye [Guinevere] do great sin, and to yourself great dishonour, for ye have a lord of your own, and therefore it is your part to love him; for there is no queen in this world hath such another king as ye have."

137: "... and I dare say and make it good that all kings, christian nor heathen, may not find such a knight, for to speak of his [Launcelot's] nobleness and courtesy, with his beauty and gentleness."

140: "And within a while Sir Percivale had slain all that would withstand him; for Sir Percivale dealt so his strokes that were so rude that there durst no man abide him?'

143: "And therewith he alit, and put his horse from him; and then they [Percivale and Hector] came together an easy pace, and there they lashed together with noble swords, and sometime they struck and sometime they foined, and either gave other many great wounds."

164: "In the meanwhile that they thus stood talking together, therein came twelve nuns that brought with them Galahad, the which was passing fair and well made, that unnethe in the world men might not find his match: and all those ladies wept. Sir, said they all, we bring you here this child the which we have nourished, and we pray you to make him a knight, for of a more worthier man's hand may he not receive the order of knighthood. Sir Launcelot beheld the young squire and saw him seemly and demure as a dove, with all manner of good features, that he weened of his age never to have seen so fair a man of form?'

167: "By God, fair fellows and lords, we have seen this day marvels, but or night I suppose we shall see greater marvels. In the meanwhile came in a good old man, and an ancient, clothed all in white, and there was no knight knew from whence he came. And with him he brought a young knight, both on foot, in red arms, without sword or shield, save a scabbard hanging by his side. And these words he said: Peace be with you, fair lords."

167: "And the old knight said unto the young knight: Sir, follow me. And anon he led him unto the Siege Perilous, where beside sat Sir Launcelot; and the good man lift up the cloth, and found there letters that said thus: This is the siege of Galahad, the haut prince. Sir, said the old knight, wit ye well that place is yours. And then he set him down surely in that siege."

167-68: "And then he [Galahad] said to the old man: Sir, ye may now go your way, for well have ye done that ye were commanded to do; and recommend me unto my grandsire, King Pelles, and unto my lord Petchere, and say them on my behalf, I shall come and see them as soon as ever I may."

168: "Then all the knights of the Table Round marvelled greatly of Sir Galahad, that he durst sit there in that Siege Perilous, and was so tender of age; and wist not from whence he came but all only by God; and said: This is he by whom the Sangreal shall be achieved, for there sat never none but he, but he were mischieved. Then Sir Launcelot beheld his son and had great joy of him."

168: "I would fain see him, said the queen, for he must needs be a noble man, for so is his father that him begat, I report me unto all the Table Round."

169: "... and with this sword he slew his brother Balan, and that was great pity, for he was a good knight, and either slew other through a dolorous stroke that Balin gave unto my grandfather King Pelles, the which is not yet whole, nor not shall be till I [Galahad] heal him. Therewith the king and all espied where came riding down the river a lady on a white palfrey toward them"

171: "Yea, forsooth, said the queen, for he is of all parties come of the best knights of the world and of the highest lineage; for Sir Launcelot is come but of the eighth degree from our Lord Jesu Christ, and Sir Galahad is of the ninth degree from our Lord Jesu Christ, therefore I dare say they be the greatest gentlemen of the world. And then the king and all estates went home unto Camelot, and so went to evensong to the great minister"

171: "Then anon they heard cracking and crying of thunder, that them thought the place should all to drive. In the midst of this blast entered a sunbeam more clearer by seven times than ever they saw day, and all they were alighted of the grace of the Holy Ghost. Then began every knight to behold other, and either saw other, by their seeming, fairer than ever they saw afore. Not for then there was no knight might speak one word a great while, and so they looked every man on other as they had been dumb. Then there entered into the hall the Holy Greal covered with white samite, but there was none might see it, nor who bare it. And there was all the hall fulfilled with good odours, and every knight had such meats and drinks as he best loved in this world. And when the Holy Greal had been borne through the hall, then the Holy Vessel departed suddenly, that they wist not where it became: then had they all breath to speak."

176: "Sir, said Galahad, by this shield be many marvels fallen? Sir, said the knight, it befell after the passion of our Lord Jesu Christ thirty-two year, that Joseph of Aramathie, the gentle knight, the which took down our Lord off the holy Cross, at that time he departed from Jerusalem with a great party of his kindred with him."

177: "And then there he shewed him the right belief of the Holy Trinity, to the which he was agreed unto with all his heart; and there this shield was made for King Evelake, in the name of Him that died upon the Cross?'

188: "But I have marvel of this sleeping knight that had no power to awake when this holy vessel was brought hither."

190: "And for your presumption to take upon you [Lancelot] in deadly sin for to be in His presence, where His flesh and His blood was, that caused you ye might not see it with worldly eyes; for He will not appear where such sinners be, but if it be unto their great hurt and unto their great shame; and there is no knight living now that ought to give God so great thank as ye"

190: "Truly, said Sir Launcelot, that were me full loth to discover. For this fourteen year I never discovered one thing that I have used, and that may I now wyte my shame and my misadventure. And then he told there that good man all his life. And how he had loved a queen unmeasurably and out of measure long. And all my great deeds of arms that I have done, I did for the most part of the queen's sake, and for her sake would I do battle were it right or wrong; and never did I battle all only for God's sake, but for to win worship and to cause me to be the better beloved, and little or nought I thanked God of it."

194-195: Barfield marks chapter three of book fourteen in its entirety, in which Percivale leaves his aunt, visits a monastery, and meets King Evelake.

195-96: "When the king thus had made his prayers he heard a voice that said: Heard be thy prayers, for thou shalt not die till he have kissed thee. And when that knight shall come the clearness of your eyes shall come again, and thou shalt see openly, and thy woulds shall be healed, and erst shall they never close. And this befel of King Evelake, and this same king hath lived this three hundred winters this holy life, and men say the knight is in the court that shall heal him. Sir, said the good man, I pray you tell me what knight that ye be, and if ye be of King Arthur's court and of the Table Round. Yea, forsooth, said he, and my name is Sir Percivale de Galis. And when the good man understood his name he made great joy of him."

212: "Then thou beheld the sinners and the good men, and when thou sawest the sinners overcome, thou inclinest to that party for bobaunce and pride of the world, and all that must be left in that quest, for in this quest thou shalt have many fellows and thy betters."

220: "Yes, said the good man, that know I, but there shall be but few of your fellows with you. All is welcome, said Sir Bors, that God sendeth me."

235: "That night Bors rested him there; and in his sleep there came a voice to him and bad him go to the sea."

235: "... and at a broken wall he rode out, and rode so long till that he came to the sea. And on the strand he found a ship covered all with white samite, and he alit, and betook him to Jesu Christ. And as soon as he entered into the ship, the ship departed into the sea, and went so fast that him seemed the ship went flying, but it was soon dark so that he might know no man, and so he slept till it was day. Then he awaked, and saw in middles of the ship a knight lie all armed save his helm. Then knew he that it was Sir Percivale of Wales, and then he made of him right great joy; but Sir Percivale was abashed of him, and he asked him what he was. Ah, fair sir, said Bors, know ye me not? Certes, said he, I marvel how ye came hither, but if Our Lord brought yea hither Himself. Then Sir Bors smiled and did off his helm. Then Percivale knew him, and either made great joy of other, that it was marvel to hear."

235: "Then said Sir Percivale: We lack nothing but Galahad, the good knight."

239: "... he shall never be weary, and he shall not think on joy nor sorrow that he hath had, but only that thing that he beholdeth before him. And as for this sword there shall never man begrip him at the handles but one, but he shall pass all other."

242-43: "Sir, said she [the damosel], there was a king that hight Pelles, the maimed king. And while he might ride he supported much Christendom and Holy Church. So upon a day he hunted in a wood of his which lasted unto the sea; and at the last he lost his hounds and his knights save only one: and there he and his knight went till that they came toward Ireland, and there he found the ship. And when he saw the letters and understood them, yet he entered, for he was right perfect of his life, but his knight had none hardiness to enter; and there found he this sword, and he drew it out as much as ye may see. So therewith entered a spear wherewith he was smitten him through both the thighs, and never sith might he be healed, nor nought shall tofore we come to him. Thus, said she, was not King Pelles, your grandsire, maimed for his hardiness?"

246: "Lo, lords, said she [Percivale's sister], here is a girdle that ought to be set about the sword. And wit ye well the greatest part of this girdle was made of my hair, which I loved well while that I was a woman of the world."

246: "Now let me begin said Galahad, to grip this sword for to give you courage; but wit ye well it longeth no more to me than it doth to you."

252: "Then Galahad and his two fellows start up to her, and lift her up and staunched her, but she had bled so much that she might not live. Then she said when she was awaked: Fair brother Percivale, I die for the healing of this lady, so I require you that ye bury me not in this country, but as soon as I am dead put me in a boat at the next haven, and let me go as adventure will lead me; and as soon as ye three come to the City of Sarras, there to achieve the Holy Grail, ye shall find me under a tower arrived, and there bury me in the spiritual place; for I say you so much, there Galahad shall be buried, and ye also, in the same place. Then Percivale understood these words, and granted it her, weeping."

257: "Fair sweet Father, Jesu Christ, if ever I [Lancelot] did thing that pleased Thee, Lord for Thy pity never have me not in despite for my sins done aforetime, and that Thou show me something of that I seek. And with that he saw the chamber door open, and there came out a great clereness, that the house was a bright as all the torches of the world had been there. So came he to the chamber door, and would have entered. And anon a voice said to him, Flee, Launcelot, and enter not, for thou oughtest not to do it; and if thou enter thou shalt forethink it. Then he withdrew him aback right heavy. Then looked he up in the middes of the chamber, and saw a table of silver, and the holy vessel, covered with red samite, and many angles about it, whereof one held a candle of wax burning, and the other held a cross, and the ornaments of an altar. And before the holy vessel he saw a good man clothed as a priest. And it seemed that he was at the sacring of the mass. And it seemed to Launcelot that above the priest's hands were three men, whereof the two put the youngest by likeness between the priest's hands; and so he lift it up right high, and it seemed to show so to the people."

257: "And when he saw none about him that would help him, then came he to the door a great pace, and said: Fair Father Jesu Christ, ne take it for no sin though I help the good man which hath great need of help. Right so entered he into the chamber, and came toward the table of silver; and when he came nigh he felt a breath, that him thought it was intermeddled with fire, which smote him so sore in the visage ..."

263: "Then rode they a great while till that they came to the castle of Carbonek. And when they were entered within the castle King Pelles knew them; then there was great joy, for they wist well by their coming that they had fulfilled the quest of the Sangreal. Then Eliazar, King Pelles' son, brought tofore them the broken sword wherewith Joseph was stricken through the thigh."

263: "And a little afore even the sword arose great and marvellous, and was full of great heat that many men fell for dread. And anon alit a voice among them, and said: They that ought not to sit at the table of Jesu Christ arise, for now shall very knights be fed. So they went thence, all save King Pelles and Eliazar, his son, the which were holy men, and a maid which was his niece"

264: "O knights, said he, marvel not, for I was sometime an earthly man. With that they heard the chamber door open, and there they saw angels; and two bare candles of wax, and the third a towel, and the fourth a spear which bled marveUously, that three drops fell within a box which he held with his other hand. And they set the candles upon the table, and the third the towel upon the vessel, and the fourth the holy spear even upright upon the vessel."

265: "And at the lifting up there came a figure in likeness of a child, and the visage was as red and as bright as any fire, and smote himself into the bread, so that they all saw it that the bread was formed of a fleshly man"

265: "This is, said he, the holy dish wherein I ate the lamb on Sher-Thursday. And now hast thou seen that thou most desired to see, but yet hast thou not seen it so openly as thou shalt see it in the city of Sarras in the spiritual place."

265: "Also I [vision of Christ] will that ye take with you the blood of this spear for to anoint the maimed king, both his legs and all his body, and he shall have his health."

266: "And Galahad went anon to the spear which lay upon the table, and touched the blood with his fingers, and came after to the maimed king [Pelles] and anointed his legs. And therewith he clothed him anon, and start upon his feet out of his bed as an whole man, and thanked Our Lord that He had healed him."

266: "That same night about midnight came a voice among them which said: My sons and not my chief sons, my friends and not my warriors, go ye hence where ye hope best to do and as I bad you. Ah, thanked be Thou, Lord, that Thou wilt vouchsafe to call us, Thy sinners. Now may we well prove that we have not lost our pains."

266: "Then prayed Galahad to every each of them, that if they come to King Arthur's court that they should salute my lord, Sir Launcelot, my father, and of them of the Round Table; and prayed them if that they came on that part that they should not forget it."

267: "Galahad, thou shalt have thy request; and when thou askest the death of thy body thou shalt have it, and then shalt thou find the life of the soul."

267: "And so he laid him down and slept a great while; and when he awaked he looked afore him and saw the city of Sarras. And as they would have landed they saw the ship wherin Percivale had put his sister in. Truly, said Percivale, in the name of God, well hath my sister holden us covenant."

268: "And anon when he came to the sacrament of the mass, and had done, anon he called Galahad, and said to him: Come forth the servant of Jesu Christ, and thou shalt see that thou has much desired to see. And then he began to tremble right hard when the deadly flesh began to behold the spiritual things. Then he held up his hands toward heaven and said: Lord, I thank thee, for now I see that that hath been my desire many a day. Now, blessed Lord, would I not longer live, if it might please the, Lord. And therewith the good man took Our Lord's body betwixt his hands, and proffered it to Galahad, and he received it right gladly and meekly. Now wotest thou what I am? Said the good man. Nay said Galahad. I am Joseph of Aramathie"

269: "Fair lord, salute me to my lord, Sir Launcelot, my father, and as soon as ye see him, bid him remember of this unstable word. And therewith he [Galahad] kneeled down tofore the table and made his prayers, and then suddenly his soul departed to Jesu Christ"

395: "For in the quest of the Sangreal I had forsaken the vanities of the world had not your lord been. And if I had done so at that time, with my heart, will, and thought, I had passed all the knights that were in the Sangreal except Sir Galahad, my son."

400: "Ah Launcelot, he said, thou were head of all Christian knights, and now I dare say, said Sir Ector, thou Sir Launcelot, there thou liest, that thou were never matched of earthly knight's hand. And thou were the courteoust knight that ever bare shield. And thou were the truest friend to thy lover that ever bestrad horse. And thou were the truest lover of a sinful man that ever loved woman."

Notes:

Notes on the end pages of volume two in pencil.

On the verso of the last page of advertisements: "12. Percival & the Siege Perilous ([?])."

On the recto opposite the last page of advertisements:

"48 [written in pencil, crossed out, covered by "47" in blue ink] Dinadan's 'custom'"

"47.50.51 [in blue ink] Guenever's sense of humor (puns?) [in blue ink]"

"57 Tristram an expert in venery"

"61 Lamorack and Percivale's brother."

"164 Galahad 'entabled' 487 A.D."

"169 Origin of Galahad's sword: Balin--Balan--Pelles"

"X 171 Exalted pedigree of Lancelot and Galahad

Appearance of Sangreal"

"X 176 Sarras"

"188 Lancelot's [?]"

"X 195 Evelake, the sick king"

"235 the fish Ertanax--will" [Actual reference is on 239] "240 K. T. A. The sword that [begin strike through]maimed him[end strike through] [written above "maimed him":] [?] his father Labor"

"X 242 his name was Pelles. Maimed by a spear."

"263-266 Grail [?]"

"267 Sarras Death of Galahad"

"X 176 Sarras (Evelake & Joseph)"

"Nacien 209. 215, 217 t, 241"

Inserted Pieces of Paper: Slip of paper inserted between pages 56 and 57 in volume two.

On verso: handwritten notes in pencil:

"194 Merlin and the Round Table"

"190 Lancelot's [?] error 137 his [?] xoo [?]"

"126 Pellas [?] Elaine = Lancelot"

"129 Bors Lancelot's nephew 133"

"165 Kinghting of G by Lancelot G sits in Siege Perilous"

"Transition 213" [in pencil, crossed out, rewritten in pen]

"[?] Percival's upbringing [?]"

"[?] Percival [?] Athens[?] to London"

"Percival's Mother is Lamorak's 139"

"2 Boars [?] & [?] ([?] & Palomides also p 143)"

"some men say"

"134. either made other good cheer by countenance, but nothing with hearts" [Guinevere and Elaine]

On recto: handwritten notes in pencil: "How Percival fought 140"

Slip of paper inserted between pages 402 and 403 in volume two.

On recto handwritten notes in bright blue ink:

"Morte d'A Darthur"

"(Vinaver's Index)"

"References to Galahad"

"(Castor's Redoris [?])"

"Book II 16. 19. (Balin & Balan)"

"1. XIV the whole (L. & Elaine)"

"[?]XI"

"XII 14"

"XIII & XVII t (the whole) Quest of the Holy Grail"

"XVIII 1. (L. & Guinevere)"

"9. (Fair Maid of Astolot)"

"XIX 11.

"XXI 9 (Dolorous[?] Death & Departing)"

"XVIII 21 Salute my lorde Sir L. my Father"

"[begin strike through]XVH-21[end strike through]" "OVER" in bottom right hand corner

On verso handwritten notes:

"References to the Siege Perilous"

"III 4."

"X 23 (Percival directed to the right side of"

"XI 1. (L. & Elaine)"

"X 4"

"XII 14 (& Galahad)"

"XIII 2 ([?] appears" "3 & 4 & 5 Galahad seated"

"XIV 1-2 Percival's [?] [?] Merlin's Founding of the Round Table & of the S. P. (NB. Also tells him [Percivale] of his mother's death)"

"XV 4 Hermit Tale L. [?] G. is his Son."

Works Cited

Adey, Lionel. C. S. Lewis's "Great War" with Owen Barfield. ELS monograph series, no. 14. Victoria, B.C.: U of Victoria, 1978.

Barfield, Owen. Poetic Diction: A Study in Meaning. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.

Blaxland-de Lange, Simon. Owen Barfield: Romanticism Come of Age: A Biography. Forest Row [England]: Temple Lodge Pub, 2006.

Blechner, Michael Harry. "Tristran in Letter: Malory, C. S. Lewis, Updike." Tristania 6.1 (1980): 30-37.

Hooper, Walter. "Owen Barfield." 1 July 2009. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 5 August 2009. <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/printable/68789>.

Lewis, C. S. The Collected Letters of C. S. Lewis: Books, Broadcasts, and the War, 1931-1949. Ed. Walter Hooper. Vol. 2. New York: Harper San Francisco, 2004.

--. "The English Prose Morte." Essays on Malory. Ed. J. A. W. Bennett. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1963.7-28.

--. "The Morte Darthur." The Times Literary Supplement. 7 June 1947: 273-274.

Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte D'Arthur. Ed. Ernest Rhys. 2 Vols. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1934 & 1935.

Tennyson, G. B. A Barfield Reader: Selections from the Writings of Owen Barfield. Hanover: UP of New England, 1999.

Vinaver, Eugene. Preface and Introduction. The Works of Sir Thomas Malory. By Sir Thomas Malory. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1947. v-cix.
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