Overview of acid optimization in impregnation method for sugarcane bagasse activated carbon production.
The term of activated carbon is come from the word "carbon" and "active" which carbon mean raw material undergoes a carbonization process (burning in high temperature) while active is a material in carbon condition undergoes activation process to open a pore surface area as maximum as it can to increase adsorption rate of activated carbon . Activated carbon has widely been used in industries in order to purify, decolorize, deodorize, dechlorinate, detoxicate, filter, recover salts and used as catalyst and catalyst support. Those industries are food processing, pharmaceuticals, chemical, petroleum, mining, nuclear, automobile and vacuum . Activated carbons that available in the market today require high cost. Thus, several studies have been conducted to replace the raw material of producing activated carbon such as rice husk, bamboo, sugarcane stalk, tamarind kernel powder, palm shell, babool wood, bagasse fly ash, ashoka leaf powder, coir pith and banana pith .
Sugarcane bagasse is a new alternative as a replacement to existing product of activated carbon. Bagasse pitch is a waste product from sugar refining industry. It is the name given to the residual cane pulp remaining after sugar has been extracted. Bagasse is composed largely of cellulose, pentose and lignin . It is made up of 45-55% of cellulose, 20-25% of hemicelluloses, 18-24% lignin, 1-4% ash and less than 1% waxes. Cellulose structure is believed to be the reason of capability of sugarcane bagasse to act as adsorbent. Bagasse is the fibrous waste left after the extraction of sugar juice from crushed cane. This by-product has been used in many ways such as being burnt as fuel to provide energy for plant, processed into pulp for papermaking, used as a reactant in the chemical industry and used as an additive in animal feed. Since bagasse is a highly carbonaceous agricultural by product, a natural outlet would be used bagasse as a feedstock in the manufacturer of activated carbons . Figure 1 shows activated carbon made from sugarcane bagasse.
2.0 Production of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse:
Basically, there are three method involves in proction of activated carbon. There are physical activation process, chemical activation process and combination of physical and chemical activation process.
2.1 Physical and Chemical activation:
Physical activation is a two-step process in production of activated carbon. These two steps involved namely carbonization and subsequent activation of the resulting char . In carbonization process, the raw carboneceous material were carbonized in an inert atmosphere before the resulting char is activated in the presence of carbon gasification reactants such as carbon dioxide, steam or air, or any suitable combination of gaseous activating agents.
Chemical activation process is a one-step method with the activating agents such as zinc chloride (ZnCl2), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is mixed into the raw material and the end product is washed to remove the excess chemicals . Chemicals employed in chemical activation (ZnCl2, H3PO4, and H2SO4) are effective at decomposing the structure of the raw material and forming micropores . Figure 2 and 3 below shows sugarcane bagasse before and after chemical activation process. There are many researchers that used various chemicals for impregnation of various agricultural products before it being carbonized. Table 1 below show several raw materials and impregnation method used by previous researchers.
Eventhough there are several researches have been done on production of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse, but there were lack information on optimization of acid used and thorough impregnation method of chemical activation. Most of the previous research used various types of acid with certain concentration only. Therefore, and extensive research should be conducted to study the optimization of acid used in impregnation method, in order to produce a better performance of sugarcane bagasse activated carbon.
Received 12 March 2015
Accepted 28 April 2015
Available online 24 May 2015
The author would like to express gratitude to the Ministry of Education Malaysia under Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS: Vot 1456), Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE) and Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia for the support in preparing this paper. Grateful acknowledgement also goes to all that are involved directly and indirectly in completing this paper.
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(1) Wan Suraya, R.W.S. (2) Mohd Adib, M.R. and (3) Rafidah, H.
(1,2) Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
(3) Department of Civil Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.
Corresponding Author: Wan Suraya Raihan Wan Suleiman, Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor Malaysia.
E-mail: surayasuleiman.797@gmail. com
Table 1: Impregnation method and uses of agricultural waste activated carbon Raw material Chemical used in Uses impregnation method Thevetia peruviana 10% sodium sulphate Removal of dyes from textile waste water Thevetia peruviana 30% H3PO4 Removal of dyes from textile waste water Thevetia peruviana 30% ZnCl2 Removal of dyes from textile waste water Thevetia peruviana 10% KOH Removal of dyes from textile waste water Sugarcane bagasse H2SO4 Groundwater treatment Sugarcane bagasse Concentrated ZnCl2 Phenol adsorption Sugarcane bagasse ZnCl2 Phenol adsorption Sugarcane bagasse NaOH Phenol adsorption Sugarcane bagasse H3PO4 Methylene blue adsorption Sugarcane bagasse 20% H3PO4 Methylene blue adsorption Sugarcane bagasse ZnCl2 Remove of basic dyes in water matrix Coconut fibre Saturated ammonium Removal of soluble solution petroleum fraction polluted water Palm kernel KOH Jacaranda fruit 37% (p/p) H3PO4 Methylene blue (Mimosifolia) adsorption Hazelnut bagasse ZnCl2 Removal of acid blue 350 Macadamia nutshell ZnCl2, KOH Methylene blue adsorption Rice husk ZnCl2 Methylene blue adsorption Pecan shell H3PO4 Removal of trace metal in drinking water Raw material Additional Ref. information Thevetia peruviana Thevetia peruviana  is impregnate for 24 hours Thevetia peruviana Material is  impregnated 24 hours Thevetia peruviana Material is  impregnated with a boiling solution for 24 hours Thevetia peruviana Material is  impregnated for 24 hours Sugarcane bagasse Impregnation ratio  of H2SO4 to bagasse is 28 ml:10 g Sugarcane bagasse Impregnation ratio  of bagasse to ZnCl2 is 1:2 Sugarcane bagasse Impregnation ratio  of ZnCl2 to bagasse is 1:1 Sugarcane bagasse Impregnation ratio  of bagasse to NaOH is 1:3 Sugarcane bagasse Impregnation ratio  of H3PO4 to bagasse is 1:1 Sugarcane bagasse Impregnation ratio  of H3PO4 to bagasse is 2:1 Sugarcane bagasse Bagasse is  impregnate for 1 hour at ratio 1: 1 Coconut fibre Coconut fibre is  impregnate for 8 hours Palm kernel Impregnation ratio  of material to KOH is 20 g to 200 cm3 Jacaranda fruit Impregnation ratio  (Mimosifolia) of material to H3PO4 is 50 g: 50 ml Hazelnut bagasse Impregnation ratio  of ZnCl2 to bagasse is 3:1 Macadamia nutshell Material is  impregnated for 1 hour Rice husk Material is  impregnated for 1 hour Pecan shell 
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|Author:||Wan Suraya, R.W.S.; Mohd Adib, M.R.; Rafidah, H.|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Jun 15, 2015|
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