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Out of Empire: an introduction to the story of the Australian Instructional Corps, 1921-1955.

INTRODUCTION

The story of the Australian Instructional Corps (AIC) is much more than just an account of the life of the Corps as the permanent force posting unit for the Warrant Officer Instructors of the Australian Army from 1921 to 1955. (1) For almost all of its first fifty years, from Federation in 1901 until the 4th June 1947, the Australian Army was a citizen force. (2) The Corps, as the training agency of this citizen army between the two world wars, played a critical role in preparing the army for war and in the training of the 2nd Australian Imperial Force (AIF) during the Second World War. The Army as an organization of government was not isolated from either the political process or the economic situation that Australia found itself in after the Great War, and later experienced in the Great Depression. Defence was directly affected by politics and economics which impacted on the Army and had a filter effect on each of the permanent force members who made up the Australian Instructional Corps. The full history of the Corps, currently in production, will seek to demonstrate the vital role played by the AIC in the total defence process of Australia before, during, and after the Second World War. By amplification and expansion it will attempt to ascertain the correct significance of the Corps to Australia. Additionally the history will attempt to clarify the role of the AIC as a source of Australian military power for the Empire between the two world wars.

Accepting that the role of the AIC was the training agency for the citizen army leads to the question "What did the Army train for?" There is an ongoing historical debate concerning whether the task of the between-wars Army was preparing for invasion or simply for actions with which to repel raids. During his period in office from October 1929 to November 1930 Prime Minister Scullin made clear to the Army his policy supporting the "raids" concept. (3) This was endorsed by his successor Prime Minister Lyons at a cabinet decision on 15 February 1932 where it was agreed the role of the Army was "to be based on the provision for defence against raids". (4) However there is evidence that senior officers actively encouraged the Army to plan for invasion. (5) Clearly, because of its crucial training task, the Australian Instructional Corps was in the thick of this controversy. What role did the Corps play? How did the Corps actually do its work? How significant was this role in the defence of Australia? An attempt to unravel answers to these questions is the principal aim of the full history of the Corps.

Prominent military historians such as Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia, (6) and Albert Palazzo, Defenders of Australia, The Third Division, 1916-1991, (7) writing about the inter-war period, have already explored the important story of how ill prepared Australia was to commit to a major war in 1939. Although the research and conclusions reached by Grey and Palazzo might be perceived to cast doubts on the efficiency of the task undertaken by the Corps, it must be acknowledged at the outset that these reputable historians have produced creditable evidence backing up their claims. Indeed in A Century of Service; 100 years of the Australian Army (2001), Lt-General Peter Cosgrove comments "When World War II arrived ... the Army was even less prepared than it had been in 1914". (8) The proposition that findings by Grey and Palazzo are correct and accurate poses the question, "How had Australia arrived at the crisis in 1939 so unprepared?" Had there been lessons from the Great War 1914-1918 which had demonstrated the importance of preparedness that had been neglected or forgotten?" Providing answers to these questions also prepares a background against which the task of the Australian Instructional Corps for "training all soldiers as well as men called up for compulsory military training" (9) can be judged.

The theme of this short introduction to the history of the Australian Instructional Corps is based on the premise that metaphorically "the AIC was a uniquely Australian child of a British mother, a child that grew up between the two world wars". The title, "Out of Empire", has been deliberately chosen because there is evidence to demonstrate that the Corps was a 'child of empire'. It is contended that it was the 'needs of empire' which saw the Corps raised in 1921, and after WWII similarly the 'demise of empire' was a significant contributory factor leading to the disbandment of the Corps in 1955.

THE BIRTH OF THE CORPS

As a result of the operational experience gained by the AIF in the Great War the citizen army was re-organized on a divisional basis as the Australian Military Forces (AMF) in 1921. (10) To cope with this much larger organization, important changes were made to the manner in which this new army was to be administered and trained. The organization which had run the Army since Federation, the Administrative and Instructional Staff (A & I Staff) was disbanded in October 1921. (11) To replace the A & I Staff, two new Australia wide posting units for officers and senior non commissioned officers were raised. The higher ranking of these two units, the Australian Staff Corps was formed on 1 October 1920 and included all the officers of the combat arms. (12) Similarly on 14 April 192l the Australian Instructional Corps, consisting of "Permanent Instructional Staff (Commissioned Quartermasters, Warrant and Non Commissioned Officers)" was raised and took over the task of training the AMF. (13)

In his Annual Report for 1921 the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt.-Gen. Sir Harry Chauvel stated,
 The Permanent Instructional Staff (Warrant & NCO's) has been
 re-organized to include Instructors of Technical Arms, Artillery,
 Engineers etc, and formed into the Australian Instructional Corps,
 with one seniority list for officers and one for other ranks. The
 Corps is 61 below establishment, and the shortage at this juncture
 is exceedingly serious, as it throws extra work on the existing
 staffs in regard to unit training and administration, both in home
 training and at camps. (14)


The AIC was an Australia wide posting unit to which, with few exceptions, the majority of permanent force warrant officers belonged. The Corps had an establishment consisting of 48 commissioned Quartermasters and 552 Warrant Officers. (15) The commissioned quartermasters were all Class 1A Warrant Officers and held honorary ranks as Lieutenants, Captains and Majors. They were addressed as QM and Hon. Maj, or QM and Hon. Capt, or QM and Hon. Lieut. The Corps, after the Royal Australian Artillery, was probably the second largest Permanent Military Force (PMF) unit in the AMF with its establishment strength of 600. (16) Some extent of the prominence in size of the AIC can be gauged from the fact that the total PMF in 1922 was 1,600 all ranks. (17) Unlike the Staff Corps which had a chain of command from the Chief of Staff downwards, the AIC had a flat structure because it was totally composed of Staff Sergeant Majors and Warrant Officers, a small number of whom were commissioned Quartermasters. The AIC members were individually posted to Battalions, Regiments, Brigades and Divisions. For administration and discipline the members were then held "under command" of the senior AMF or Staff Corps officer of the unit to which they had been posted. This system of command was not without its problems. While the AIC Quartermasters held commissioned rank, on parade they were actually subordinate to the senior combat officer present, a fact that was subject to a complaint, upheld in favour of the Staff Corps Captain against an AIC Hon. Major by the Military Board in 1925. (18)

A combination of economic and political factors dealt the post war Army massive blows even before it had chance to securely position its new divisional structure. The plans of the 1919 Swinburne Report for "Six infantry and two mounted divisions and their proper proportion of corps and line of communication troops, a total of approximately 180,000 troops". (19) were soon modified by the government. In 1920 in his address at the commencement of the Senior Officers Conference, the Minister of Defence "pointed out that finances were straitened" and this set the tone on deliberations. (20) The Conference eventually recommended that the Army Establishment should be "two cavalry divisions, four infantry divisions and a local defence fifth division". (21) Even this reduction was modified and after the 1920-1921 Washington Naval Conference, (22) while there were seven militia divisions on paper, the actual strength was 31,000, while the permanent force was reduced to 1,600. (23) Progressive reductions of the Army size from 1920 until 1935 were felt throughout the permanent forces and the effect on the AIC will be discussed as the story unfolds chronologically.

QUARTERMASTER AND WARRANT OFFICER APPOINTMENTS

The British Army, strongly institutional regarding rank and privilege, brought in as appointments the titles of Quartermaster and Warrant Officer which recognised long and distinguished service by senior soldiers without providing either promotion or increased pay. The Quartermaster, as the name suggests, was originally the officer of the regiment who organised where the troops would be billeted or quartered when on campaign. Writing about the British Army between 1777 and 1855 Richard Holmes provides an excellent description,
 The Quartermaster, responsible for supplying the battalion with all
 its requisites from ammunition and accommodation to food and fuel,
 was always an ex-ranker: for most of this period held the
 commissioned appointment of quartermaster, and was eventually
 granted formal rank--as in lieutenant and quartermaster. (24)


The Australian Army adopted the appointment title Quartermaster, and followed the British Army tradition of granting honorary rank to accompany the appointment.

The appointment of Warrant Officer also follows the tradition of the British Army. From earlier times non commissioned officers had two ranks, those of Corporal and Sergeant. In addition the senior sergeant of a regiment carried the rank of sergeant-major because he was the senior non commissioned officer. Non commissioned officers, like all soldiers in the British Army of earlier times, were subject to summary justice. The range of punishments including flogging, discharge and death, all of which were within the powers of the commanding officer. For senior non commissioned officers this all changed when the (British) Army Board, on their own authority, issued individual soldiers with a Warrant confirming their status in the Army as distinct from simply within their own (single) regiment. The significance of the Warrant of Appointment for senior soldiers meant that when charged with an offense, they could no longer be dealt with by summary proceedings. (25)

The British Army of the Victorian era introduced a fourth rank for non commissioned officers with the designation of Staff Sergeant-Major (SSM). The duties of this non commissioned officer were administrative which was denoted by the 'Staff' title. Staff Sergeant-Majors were ranked above Sergeants but below the Regimental Sergeant-Major (RSM). The AIC initially used the rank system of Staff Sergeant-Majors which started at SSM Class I (Warrant Officer Class 1A) an example being :-
 No. 548 WOI T.J. Ikin is appointed Temporary Staff
 Sergeant-Major, 1st Class, with the temporary
 rank of Warrant Officer, Class 1, graded "A" for
 the purpose of pay, 12th December 1940 and allotted
 for duty as Comd. S. M., W. Cored (approved
 7.2.41--248/715/1464). (26)


through to SSM Class 3 (Warrant Officer Class II):-
 2351 T/S.Sgt. D. M. Gran appointed Temporary Staff
 Sergeant-Major, 3rd Class, with the temporary
 rank of Warrant Officer, Class II on 17.1.41.
 (248/15/1428). (27)


Changes in appointments and ranks within the Australian Army over 100 years has transposed the Quartermaster appointment into a technical commission, the Warrant status has been adopted as a rank, and the Staff Sergeant-Major has become a Staff Sergeant.

AIC UNIFORM

AIC members were recognisable because their uniform was different from the conventional AMF uniform in three distinctive ways; shoulder straps, badges of rank and Corps badges. AIC members wore two (2) half an inch wide scarlet stripes, with half an inch gap between them, on both shoulder straps; they wore badges of rank enclosed in an oval wreath on the right sleeve only, except for Class One Warrant Officers, (28) and from 1930 onwards, they had the distinctive AIC badge with the red and blue enamel backgrounds. From 1921 to 1930 the AIC wore the badge previously worn by the A & I Staff which was the gold 'Rising Sun' badge with the crown set against red enamel. The change to AIC gold 'Rising Sun' badge with the crown set against a red enamel background and words "Australian Instructional Corps" against a blue enamel background were the result of a national competition held within the Army in 1930 for which 57 designs were submitted. (29) The distinctive AIC badge was used both as a large hat badge and smaller collar badges. There was no distinctive badge for officers, in the AIC both Officers and Warrant Officers wore the same badges (McPherson, C.W., MM, 2002, pers. Comm., 25 November).

The members of the AIC were held in great respect throughout the Army, but like many familiar institutions, they acquired at least one nickname. The Swan Street Sappers quotes an in-between wars engineer revealing "Distinctive red stripes on members' epaulettes earned them the nickname 'rosellas'". (30)

AIC TASKS AND DUTIES

The Australian Instructional Corps was an Australia wide organisation and the tasks of AIC members were spread through all arms and services of the Army. In 1922 AIC members were posted to each of the Headquarters, all of the designated Training Areas, Cavalry Regiments, Infantry Battalions, the Royal Australian Field Artillery (RAFA), the Australian Fortress Artillery (AFA), the Royal Australian Garrison Artillery (RAGA), the Australian Garrison Artillery (AGA), the Royal Australian Engineers (RAE), the Australian Engineers Field (AE Field), the Australian Engineers Fortress (AE Fortress), the Signals Corps, the Australian Medical Corps, the Australian Service Corps and the Australian Veterinary Corps. (31) The 1922-1923 Establishment of five hundred and fifty nine men (559) consisted of forty one (41) Quartermasters, twenty one (21) Class I A Warrant Officers, one hundred and sixty four (164) Class 1B Warrant Officers and three hundred and seventy four (374) Class II Warrant Officers. (32)

All AIC Warrant Officers were involved in either General Instructional Duty or Regimental Duty. By far the largest number of AIC members was involved in Instructional Duties, actual numbers being ten (10) Staff Sergeants-Major, 1st Class (WO1A) and five hundred and five (505) Staff Sergeants-Major 2nd and 3rd Class (WO1B & WOII). (33) By comparison, apart from thirty three (33) members on Regimental Duties with the Royal Australian Garrison Artillery, there was one (1) Battery Sergeant-Major with the RAFA, six (6) members with RAE being two (2) Regimental Storekeepers & four (4) Company Sergeant-Majors, two (2) Dispensers with AMC and two (2) Company Sergeant-Majors with the ASC. On Regimental Duties with the Royal Australian Garrison Artillery were two (2) Armament Clerks (WOIA & 1st Class Master Gunners), Nine (9) 1st Class Master Gunners (WO1A), Two (2) Regimental Sergeants-Major, Five (5) 2nd and 3rd Class Master Gunners, Two (2) Bandmasters, Three (3) QM Sergeants and Ten (10) Battery Sergeants-Major. (34)

Members of the Corps often had two roles if they were commissioned quartermasters. They frequently acted as adjutants for regiments in addition to their primary activities in materiel supply as in the case of QM & Hon. Capt. C Mills OBE, appointed Adj. & QM 3rd Div. Signals on 24 Sept 1929. (35) Commonly they were posted as Officiating Area Officers with responsibilities for several regimental units in a segment of a Military District an example being
 No. 298 Warrant Officer (Class II.) C. Deves, AIC is appointed
 Officiating Area Officer, Area 3A (Granville), 2nd Divisional
 Area, vice No. 53 Warrant Officer (Class I.) W. H. Barham,
 AIC, dated 5 November 1923. (36)


AIC Warrant Officers and Non Commissioned Officers were posted to the Field Force Units of Infantry and Cavalry in the Militia force as Instructors, frequently with the position of Regimental Sergeant Major as occurred to No.102 Warrant Officer, Class 1 (Hon. Lt.) G. D. Duncan, AIC appointed R.S.M of the 24th Battalion on 20th April 1923. (37)

TRAINING OF INSTRUCTORS

At the end of the Great War, with the much larger divisional structure about to be introduced, the AMF was well aware of the urgent need for Instructors. In 1919 with the A & I Staff still operating, the Army organised No. 1 School of Instruction held at Liverpool from 22 August 1919 to 20 November 1919 with 260 students. This was followed by No.2 School of Instruction, also with 260 students, from 8 January 1920 to 7 April 1920. (38) The results of the two courses were combined and the 379 successful candidates, who joined the AIC when it was raised, were then placed in order of examination merit that subsequently became the seniority listing. (39)

Just prior to the establishment of the AIC the Army had opened the Central Training Depot (CTD) at Liverpool on 11 July 1921. (40) The CTD was intended to run a range of courses from Training Recruits to Training Instructors. This the CTD was able to achieve for a short period of time, until it became a victim of the budget cuts described elsewhere. No.1 Course was run from August 1921 until February 1922 with 70 students, however only 20 were successful. (41) No.2 Course had commenced in late 1920 but as a result of budget cuts the Military Board decided to close CTD temporarily and the course was discontinued. Colonel Newton notes succinctly:
 With the closing of the Central Training Depot in 1922 there
 were no Instructor Courses held until 1935. (42)


Political decisions on defence economy with the 1922 Budget cuts, the 1929 change in policy by the Scullin Government and the Great Depression all combined to restrict Army Instructor Training from 1922 to 1935. It was not until after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, China, that the Lyons Nationalist Government then put in place a modest five year programme of defence rearmament. The training of Instructors began in earnest again in 1935 at the Small Arms School (SAS), Randwick with No.1 (Special) AIC Course from 12 February to 12 June 1935 with 24 students. This was followed by No.2 (Special) AIC Course from 4 February to 13 June 1936 where out of 24 students, 20 were successful. (43) For the next three years, the Small Arms School progressively ran Number 3 (Special), No. 4 (Special), No.5 (Special) 8 February to 11 June 1938, (44) 6 and 7 (Special) AIC Courses, qualifying a total of 307 Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery students. (45)

The advent of the commencement of the Second World War once more brought changes to the manner in which instructors were trained. No. 8 (Special) AIC Course was held at the Central Training Depot, Liverpool commencing 1 August 1939, (46) with 113 infantry and cavalry students qualifying in January 1940. (47) No.9 (Special) AIC Course, for infantry only, from 10 February to 7 June 1940, (48) was held conjointly at Randwick and Liverpool by SAS and CTD, and 157 students qualified. (49) This proved to be the last AIC Course ever held as places were advertised for No.10 (Special) Course 13 July 1940 to 24 August 1940, (50) but it was cancelled. The incredible demands on Army training caused by the raising of the 2nd AIF with four (4) new Divisions for the Second World War caused the Army to open a number of new training schools from 1940 onwards. The existing four (4) Army schools of 1921-1939 increased to thirty nine (39) by 1945. (51) After the war, for the Interim Army and the Regular Army, the number of Schools stabilised at thirty four (34). (52) The increased number of specialised "Corps Schools" based on the "Services" placed great demands on the requirement for a great many specialist instructors in the post war period from 1945 onwards. The shift from general instruction to specialist instruction was a major factor in decreasing need for an Army wide Instructional Corps based on a Central Training system.

REDUCTIONS

As a result of economic conditions in the inter-war period impositions on defence and the Army were forced on the AIC and their numbers were reduced on several occasions. This process actually commenced prior to the raising of the Corps. At that time there were 234 PMF Warrant and Non Commissioned Officers who had attained Commissioned rank with 1st AIF. The Military Board solution, using AIF seniority, was to appoint 22 permanent Quartermasters, 20 temporary Quartermasters and grant the remaining 192 the Honorary rank of Lieutenant. (53) As all of these men were PMF Warrant and Non Commissioned Officers they were paid as soldiers and not as officers. Among the temporary quartermasters was the sole Victoria Cross recipient in the Corps and the PMF, Capt John Newland, VC. (54) It is reported he threatened resignation if refused a permanent Quartermaster commission but the Military Board refused to change its ruling because there were five senior to him. (55) The Minster agreed with the Military Board but used his discretion, the result being, The Governor-General in Council has approved of the undermentioned ex-Warrant Officer of the Permanent Military Forces being appointed, from the Reserve of Officers, Area Officer of a Training Area and Quartermaster of a unit of the Citizen Forces, dated 1st January 1922 with salary commencing at the rate of 350 [pound sterling] per annum:
 To be Quartermaster and Honorary, Captain.- Captain J.E. Newland,
 V.C. (Ex. Min. No. 2). (56)


There is little doubt that the Washington Naval Conference and the Hughes Government desire to cut the defence vote caused the next wave of reductions in the PMF. It cut very deep; seventy two (72) regular officers out of a total of three hundred (300) were compulsorily retired. (57) Bad as this was, worse was to follow on 30 June 1922 with the Australian Instructional Corps losing one hundred and sixty nine (169) from an establishment of six hundred (600). (58) The Australian Army historian commented that one immediate result was that "training courses for instructors went into abeyance until 1935". (59)

Defence cuts continued throughout the nineteen twenties. In 1928, in its last year of office the Bruce-Page Nationalist government effected a reduction in the permanent force of 230 all ranks. (60) When James Scullin and Labor came to power on 12 October 1929 he immediately moved to suspend "Universal Training" and cancel remaining military camps for that training year. Forced to consider retrenchment once more the Military Board identified 247 all ranks "including 65 Staff Corps Officers and 123 Warrant Officers". (61)

RELIGION, POLITICS AND THE AIC

There is an old adage in the Army that in an officers' mess two subjects are not discussed, religion and politics. It may be possible when all the information on an "AIC Nominal Roll" has been collected to provide a statistical breakdown on the religions professed by members of the AIC, at present this is not possible. On the second subject of politics, there are existing records relating to involvement by members. A number of AIC Officers and Warrant Officers offered themselves as candidates at local elections, and to do this they sought official permission. In 1934 QM & Hon. Maj. J. W. Shreeve, AIC posted to 1/15 Royal New South Wales Lancers (RNSWL) residing at Northmead was asked by Northmead Progress Association to represent them as a Councillor on the Blacktown Shire Council. Permission was granted to proceed with the nomination. (62) In a similar situation, Staff Sergeant Major 3rd Class (WOII) R. Dewar, AIC applied for, and was granted permission, to contest the vacancy on Claremont Municipal Council, Perth in 1933. 5th Military District Commander reported,
 The applicant is due for retirement in November 1934, and as it
 would appear to be an advantage to have an ex-soldier on the
 Council the application is forwarded and recommended for
 favourable consideration. (63)


Not so fortunate was WO1 B J. Mouchmore, RAGA, Master of the S.S. Mars. His application in 1924 to contest in the Queenscliff Borough elections was rejected by the Military Board on the grounds that his application was similar to a Warrant Officer of the Australian Instructional Corps where "approval could not be given to the application". (64)

In the Federal political sphere, whether it was the communist left or the fascist right, the Army authorities were relentless in pursuing culprits in attempting to keep politics out of the Army. While there is little evidence available that communism did cause some anxiety to the Army hierarchy in the early post war period, it was the activities of the New Guard in the second decade between the wars that caused sharp Army reaction. It is quite possible that a number of AIC members was involved with the New Guard however there is only evidence of one QM actually charged with membership. This officer had served with Lt Col Campbell and had meetings with Mr De Groot and Major Scott. When fronted by the Commandant of the Artillery Schools of Instruction, the QM maintained the New Guard had contacted him because he had previously been a member of a Melbourne organisation presided by General White. (65) Without detailed knowledge of New Guard membership concerning this "secret army of the right", (66) in the case involving this QM, on current knowledge the 'innocent until proved guilty' verdict must stand in his case. As a postscript to these activities it needs to be stated that for the Army, the maxim described at the commencement of this section of AIC history is still the correct mess etiquette in the second century of the Australian Army.

CONDITIONS OF SERVICE

Viewed from the conditions of service enjoyed by the Australian Defence Force (ADF) in its second century of operation, the problems encountered by AIC Members appear dreadful at best. Probably the greatest injustice occurred in 1929 when not only the AIC, but the whole permanent force had to take up to eight (8) weeks unpaid leave for economic reasons to stave off further redundancies. (67) Within the Corps the difficulties experienced by AIC staff throughout the in-between war period mostly concerned conditions of service related to medical treatment and accommodation.

The huge advances in medical technology and the greatly increased availability of public hospitals has reduced many previously life threatening operations to routine procedures. In contrast medical operations performed in the nineteen thirties were often both dangerous and costly. In March 1939 WOII Le Serve was diagnosed with sub-acute appendicitis by the Regimental Medical Officer (RMO) and was not fit for duty. However, because his absence would have caused substantial problems for his militia unit's annual camp when the 15th Light Horse Regiment was coping with greatly increased numbers due to the approaching war, WOII Le Serve went to camp. His problem worsened, he developed acute appendicitis and was operated at the Lismore Base Hospital incurring lees of 17.17.00 [pounds sterling]. Had WOII Le Serve missed the camp and gone instead to the Departmental Hospital at Randwick he would have incurred no cost. The Military Board sought advice from the Deputy Director General Medical Services (DDMS) who recommended refusal of payment because "Illness deemed as not contacted on duty". After seeking Ministerial authority for payment, the Military Board subsequently ruled "the cost of operations involving the administration of anaesthetic cannot be admitted as a charge against public funds". (68) With the average basic wage at 3.19.00 [pounds sterling] per week, for a conscientious Warrant Officer, doing his very best for his regiment and the Army while obviously sick, the rejection of such a large payment costing over 5 weeks wages must have seemed intolerable. (69) In a somewhat similar situation in 1938, WOII Sparrow stationed at Clare, South Australia was found to be suffering acute appendicitis and was admitted to Clare hospital where his appendix was removed, all in a three hour period. Charged 21-00-00 [pounds sterling] for the operation WO Sparrow sought reimbursement that was disallowed because, Military Financial Regulations and Instructions, paras. 234-238, provide only for payment of hospital maintenance fees and do not provide for reimbursement of fees charged by medical practitioners for operations. (70)

The other constant problem for AIC staff was accommodation. Instructional Corps members were subject to frequent moves, and the family went with them. Costs of removal were posted against the Department of Defence and always subject to audit. Removals could be as simple as moving from one side of Sydney to the other, (71) or across the state, inter state and overseas in peace and war. (72) George Osgood, who joined the RAN at 16 in 1939 and later became a POW, remembers moves as a child from Arncliffe to Orange and finally Paddington as his father, NP 3706 (later NX41519) WO1 Athol Osgood took various postings (Osgood, G, 2003, pers. comm. 22 April). Accommodation problems were considered by the Military Board on 19 October 1921 when claims involving 17 QM and WOs unable to rent houses were examined in detail. (73) Accommodation problems continued throughout the in-between wars period and were to become items on the Military Board Agenda once more when Darwin became a focal point of military interest in the Northern Territory. (74) However there were some positive results concerning travel and accommodation as demonstrated in the situation where a newly promoted Warrant Officer earning 3.18.00 [pounds sterling] per week, (75) was able to include his widowed Mother as a dependent, and thus claim a 1st class rail fare of 6.11.5d [pounds sterling] for her to his new appointment. (76)

HEROES AND VILLAINS

In the process of constructing a Nominal Roll of the Australian Instructional Corps because none exists, it has become apparent that the Corps contained a staggeringly high number of highly decorated officers and soldiers. Awards for the 505 presently documented cases include 1 Victoria Cross (VC), 7 Military Crosses (MC), 2 Distinguished Service Orders (DSO), 1 Cross de Guerre (C de G), 2 Distinguished Conduct Medals (DCM), 9 Military Medals (MM), 1 Military Medal & Bar (MM & Bar) and 1 Mention in Dispatches (MID) all awarded for gallantry on active service. Peace time service awards for exceptional devotion to duty, from the same group reveals 5 Officers of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) and 10 Members of the same order (MBE). With the expectation that the Nominal Roll can possibly reach 5,000 it is clear, apart from the single Victoria Cross, each of these numbers quoted will increase considerably.

As is reflected in all levels of society, the AIC was no exception and did have its share of villains. One married Quartermaster, with a distinguished war record, purported to be a single gentleman in order to obtain a young lady's favours. After receiving complaints from the young lady's fiancee, the Adjutant General invoked a Court of Inquiry which, although critical of this officer's behaviour, found "no military offence had been committed". (77) In another situation a Warrant Officer complained about unfair dismissal when he was not asked to re-engage. Investigation revealed that he had altered travel warrants "for the purpose of proceeding on or returning from his annual recreation leave" which he was not entitled to do. (78) Perhaps the most unfortunate case was the Warrant Officer, recalled from active service, who had used a woman friend to pose as his wife to claim marriage allowance. Although he was entitled to claim the allowance, the Courts-Martial ruled that this money was for his wife and for another woman to claim was "Forgery". (79) Equally depressing was the AIC Warrant Officer listed in Military Orders as "struck off strength as from 16th February 1923, having been posted as a deserter on that date". (80) At this distance of time from the event, the conditions that caused such a highly qualified permanent NCO to desert from the service of the Army can only be speculated upon.

SUPERANNUATION AND PAY

When the Corps was formed the prospects of the Army as a career for Warrant Officers and NCOs was less than encouraging. Soldiers were only permitted to sign on for 3 years at a time, and the Army authorities had a number of reasons available to effect discharge whenever they felt it necessary. In his first report as Inspector General, reviewing the Instructional Staff, Sir Harry Chauvel commented on declining standards caused by "low rates of pay and the absence of a pension system". (81) Commenting on the AIC in 1923 General Chauvel went further,
 The real difficulty in regard to the Corps is the unattractiveness
 of its pay and privileges as balanced against the qualifications
 demanded and the duties imposed. From a commercial point of view
 alone it will be seen that the practicality of securing and
 retaining the services of a highly trained man for wages lower than
 those of a manual worker is remote. (82)


However the conditions of service for the Australian Instructional Corps did improve with a Superannuation Act and better rates of pay, so that by 1925 General Chauvel could report,
 A young man can look forward to a reasonable standard of living
 throughout his service and a pension amounting to approximately
 half pay at the end of it. (83)


Wages and conditions in the Army and the Corps throughout the in-between war period suffered the economic effects of peace time restrictions and the Great Depression and were generally quite poor. It was only when Australia started the re-arming programme from 1935 onwards did prospects appear better for career soldiers.

The Second World War put everything on "hold". However, even after the Second World War, there were still difficulties attached to Army pay and conditions as Jeffrey Grey reveals in 1949
 The basic problem which faced the services (they) were unable to
 meet their manpower targets and the government consistently refused
 to allow them to improve rates of pay and conditions of service
 which might have made the services a more attractive option in a
 time of full employment. (84)


MOVEMENT TOWARDS WAR

The rising nationalism of Japan and its activities in Manchuria in 1933-34 forced Australia and its allies in the Pacific region to meet this strongly emerging threat. (85) As the re-armament process slowly took place from 1935-1939 the AIC and the PMF increased in size. The peace-time Corps establishment remained almost unchanged throughout the between-wars period. This changed drastically with war establishments introduced for 1940-41 with 185 QMs and 1,039 WOs, a total of 1,123 all ranks. The war establishment included a proposal to temporarily commission a further 23 QMs for Army Headquarters and 26 QM s for Army Schools. (86) Similarly, at the same time the PMF had increased to 3,500. (87) Signs of a change in the fortunes of the AIC came with the raising of the Darwin Mobile Force (DMF) in 1939. (88)

The significance of the DMF was that it was the first ever field force unit raised by the PMF. (89) All DMF soldiers had to be enlisted as Gunners because the Defence Act specifically rejected enlistment of permanent infantry soldiers. The DMF had several roles one of which was to provide experience to soldiers to allow them to join the AIC. (90) Lt Col. L.F. Guest, a graduate of No.9 (Special) Course, CTD, recalled a number of DMF members on his course (Guest, L.F., 2003, pers. comm., 2 April). Thus practical experience of soldiering in Australia's far north was to be important in the way in which the Corps was able to respond to the challenge posed by the Second World War to the AMF.

WORLD WAR II

The Second World War was to provide both the opportunity and at the same time a watershed for the AIC. By late 1942 the Corps had almost ceased to exist as a separate entity. (91) A large number of the Corps members enlisted in the 2nd AIF in key Warrant appointments such as Regimental Sergeant Majors (RSMs), Arthur Newton, No.2 (Special) Course became the RSM of 2/17 Bn (Newton, A, "A Full Military Life", 1971), Colonel Guy Fawcett, OBE, No.4 (Special) Course had been the RSM of the Darwin Mobile Force in 1938 and was commissioned into 2/27 Bn (Fawcett, G, 2003, pers. comm., 25 May). Additionally, significant numbers of AIC members were commissioned both into the permanent forces and the AMF. There is little doubt of the effectiveness of the instructional work of the Corps in wartime operations relating to both the AMF and the 2nd AIF but it will need further research before the full story can be told. To this end much of the work of the Corps, devoted to aspects of training through logistics and mechanization, moving from peacetime to active service needs to be examined and analysed. Completion of the AIC Nominal Roll will enable the war time careers of the AIC members to be studied in detail to provide firm evidence of the contribution of the AIC to the Army and to the defence of Australia. The work of the Corps on active service concluded at the end of the Second World War in August 1945 when the disbandment of the 2nd AIF saw the return of AIC members to the PMF. However, by 1946 the Corps had become part of the new 'Interim Army'.

A REGULAR AUSTRALIAN ARMY

As a direct result of the bombing of Darwin and the threat to the Australian mainland caused by the war in the Pacific, the Australian government had been forced to realise that the rationale of using citizen armies had serious limitations for both defensive and offensive operations. At the end of the war the government came up with a totally new post war defence policy. Flowing from this new policy, a major reorganisation of the Australian Army took place in 1947. (92) From a 'citizen army' model the Federal Government now moved to create a 'regular army' based on a brigade formation "Field Force" capable of operating at home and overseas. (93) When the Australian Army moved from its 'interim phase' to the 'regular force concept', the task of the AIC was rapidly taken over by the Schools raised by the "Arms" (infantry/cavalry/engineers/ signals) and "Services" (transport/medical etc.) of the army. As previously mentioned the original 4 (four) Army Schools operating from 1919-1939 by the end of World War 2 had expanded to 34 (thirty four) Army Schools. Specialization now included Armour, Artillery, Signals, Ordnance, Electrical & Mechanical, Medical, Intelligence, Education and a range of gender specific Schools. (94)

Of major consequence to the operations of the AIC was the change initiated by the Australian Infantry Corps, which formed a School of Infantry at Bonegilla near Albury. (95) Colonel C. W. McPherson, MM, psc, an AIC Staff Sergeant-Major with 21st Light Horse Regiment at Wagga Wagga, NSW, attended No.1 School in 1944 (McPherson, C. W., 2002, pers. comm., 25 November). The staff of the School of Infantry then took over the training of junior officers and non commissioned officers (NCOs) in instruction and regimental duties. For the first time in 30 years this key task of the Army was not undertaken by the AIC, and although not significant at the time in hindsight it can be viewed as the 'beginning of the end' for the Corps. Equally significant, although again not recognised at the time, was that as the "Arms" and "Services" of the Australian Regular Army (ARA) raised their respective Corps Schools, numbers of AIC staff were selected for senior appointments within these training establishments. (96) Clearly, diminishing numbers and the dilution of roles, were both to seriously effect the work of the AIC. In this situation also, the provision of a Nominal Roll will assist in tracing the careers of Corps members such as QM and Hon. Lt. V. E. Dowdy transferred from being Brigade Sergeant-Major 2 Cav Brigade, Armidale to QM and Adjt (T) of 15 Light Horse Regiment at Lismore in late 1939. (97) After transferring to the Staff Corps he later became Brigadier Vincent Dowdy, Director of Supplies and Transport (Newton, A.J.C, MBE, 2002, pers. comm., 1 October).

By early 1946 on the political scene, the British Empire was disintegrating and the needs of empire were being replaced by new global and regional alliances. Both Britain and Australia had now come to conclude that these new situations could not be properly served by reliance on a citizen army and expeditionary forces. Although in Australia there were still citizen forces operating in a reserve capacity, their training was centralised and gradually taken over by the "Arms" and "Services" Corps Schools. The conflict in Korea and the "Cold War confrontation" was to provide the Federal Government of the day with the strong rationale for legislation to provide for a permanent army to fight where directed, and for the role of the citizen forces to be a second line for home defence. (98)

DISBANDMENT

When the 'interim army' was disbanded 14 August 1952, (99) and the Australian Regular Army formed and the AIC members were gradually absorbed into regular army units, the few that remained in the Corps continued to oversee training for school cadets until the early nineteen fifties. (100)

One Quartermaster who served almost the entire length of the Corps existence was Alfred Robert Ethridge (DOB 12 June 1894). After commissioned service (Lt) with the 48th Kooyong Regiment prior to WWI, he enlisted as an A/SSM Instructional Staff (A&I Staff) on 20th October 1915. Throughout WWI he was an Instructional Staff Warrant Officer training troops in Australia. At the end of First World War he graduated from No.2 School of Instruction at Liverpool in 1920. Thus SSM Ethridge became an original founding member of the AIC in 1921. Six months after the AIC was established he was promoted PMF Warrant Officer Class II, and in 1927 he was promoted Warrant Officer Class I. WO Ethridge served with a number of 3rd Division units as RQMS and RSM including the 24th and 39th Battalions. In 1938 he became T/QM and Hon. Lt with the 39th Bn and entered WWII as a T/Capt and Instructor at Officer Training Units (OCTU) and Schools (OCS), later joining the Military Secretary's staff as a Major. After the war he was appointed Capt (QM) in 1948 and later Major (QM). Major Ethridge retired from the "Interim Army" in April 1951 having served 39 years and 326 days (Ethridge, D, 2003, pers. comm., 8 May).

The practical end of the Corps came in 1953 when the remaining Warrant Officers, (AIC) became Warrant Officers, (ARA). (101) The legal end occurred on 19 May 1955 when the Australian Army Regulation 68 was issued removing the Australian Instructional Corps from 'Order of battle' of the Australian Army. (102)

DID TRAINING WORK & THE AIC PROVIDE DEFENCE OF AUSTRALIA?

Considerable research is still required to find the evidence and produce the analysis clearly demonstrating that the training provided by the AIC greatly contributed to the defence of Australia particularly in World War Two. At this point the evidence points to a qualified "yes". Recalling his AIC service WOII Tom Dawson, who graduated from No.9 (Special) Course, Small Arms School, stated "In 1940 we conducted an Officers' and NCO's course of three weeks in Townsville, then a 3 months camp at Miowera, North Queensland where the whole Battalion began from scratch" (Dawson, T.A., 2002, pets. comm., 27 June). The official Army historian of WWII Gavin Long concludes,
 The militia ... did produce both a nucleus of officers capable of
 successfully commanding platoons, companies and battalions in
 action, and a body of useful NCO's. (103)


The fact that the training provided by the AIC was based on the British model and not always suited to Australian conditions had not escaped the notice of Army Authorities. From 1935 onwards Colonel Lavarack as Chief of the General Staff (CGS) had worked to create a 'permanent force tactical school'. However as Jeffrey Grey points out,

Lavarack's aim of an Australian tactical system suited to Australian conditions was only met fully after the outbreak of the war with Japan. (104)

SUMMARY

As a brief overview "Out of Empire, An introduction to the history of the Australian Instructional Corps 1921-1955" has suggested that metaphorically the life and death of the Corps has been bound to the needs of Empire, and later its demise. The circumstances involved in the raising of the Corps have been explored including the origins of its rank structure. Details of Corps operations and individual members are investigated through 'Religion and Politics', 'Conditions of Service', 'Heroes and Villains' and 'Superannuation and Pay'. Some of the economic, political and military constraints on the operations of the Corps have been identified and analysed.

Although the work of the AIC between the wars and leading up to World War Two has outlined much detail remains to be identified and analysed. Acknowledging that logistics and mechanization have impacted on training in the Australian Army through both peace and war, the work of the Corps in these areas has yet to be explored and dissected. Similarly, activities of the Darwin Mobile Force and war records of the 2nd AIF will provide a wealth of material to expand this brief introduction to the story of the AIC into a full and profound history of the Corps. The demise of Empire after the Second World War set in train the transformation of the citizen army, through the interim army to a regular army. The rise of specialist "arms and services" schools provided the circumstances that culminated in the disbandment of the Australian Instructional Corps in 1955 as it disappeared from the Australian Army 'Order of Battle'.

Historians have recognised that the citizen army which comprised the 2nd AIF acquitted themselves equally as well in battle as did their fathers who formed the 1st AIF. In acknowledging the debt Australia owed to the 2nd AIF it is fitting that the last words on this small story of the Australian Instructional Corps should come in a tribute from Lt-Gen. Sir Harry Chauvel who wrote
 The Warrant Officer of the Instructional Corps has been for years
 and always will be, the backbone of our citizen army. (105)


(1) Arthur Newton, 'The Australian Instructional Corps', Army Journal, No. 267, August 1971, Canberra, Directorate of Military Training, pp 29-52.

(2) Graeme Sligo, The Development of the Australian Regular Army, The Second Fifty Years: The Australian Army 1947-1997, eds. Peter Dennis & Jeffrey Grey, Canberra, School of History, University College, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, 1997, 22.

(3) Jeffrey Grey, A Military History, of Australia, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, 1999, p 133.

(4) Claude Neumann, Australia's Citizen Soldiers, 1919-1939: A Study of Organization, Command, Recruiting, Training & Equipment, MA thesis, University of New South Wales at Duntroon, 1978, p 93.

(5) Albert Palazzo, Failure to Obey: The Australian Army and the First Line Component Deception, Australian Army Journal, Volume 1, Number 1, June 2003, Canberra, Land Studies Warfare Centre, p 42.

(6) Grey, A Military History of Australia, p 139.

(7) Albert Palazzo, Defenders of Australia: The 3rd Australian Division 1916-1991, Australian Military History Publications, Sydney, 2002, p 87.

(8) Peter Cosgrove, 'Introduction', A Century of Service: 100 years of the Australian Army, Army History Unit, 2001, p xiv.

(9) P. Dennis, J. Grey, E. Morris & R. Prior, The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1995, p 72.

(10) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt. General Sir H. G. Chauvel, GCMG, KCB Melbourne 31 May 1921, Parliamentary Report No. 154, 10 November 1921.

(11) Dennis, Grey, Morris & Prior, The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, p 75.

(12) Dennis, Grey, Morris & Prior, The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, p 75.

(13) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, 31 May 1921, Item 71, p 17.

(14) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, 31 May 1921, Item 78, p 17.

(15) Report for the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt. General Sir H. G. Chauvel, GCMG, KCB Melbourne 31 May 1925, Parliamentary Report No. 24, 14 July 1925, Item 89, p 20.

(16) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt. General Sir H. G. Chauvel, GCMG, KCB, Melbourne, 31 May 1928, Parliamentary Report No. 257, 13 September 1928, item 50.

(17) Perry, The Commonwealth Armies, p 160.

(18) Military Board Agenda No. 188/1925, "QM's Power of Command", National Archives of Australia, Melbourne Office, MP367/1, Item 409/3/2000.

(19) Report on Certain Matters of Defence Policy, Melbourne June 30th 1919, Department of Defence, Item 2.

(20) Report on the Military Defence of Australia by a Conference of Senior Officers of the Australian Military Forces 1920, Department of Defence, Page 3.

(21) Report on the Military Defence of Australia by a Conference of Senior Officers of the Australian Military Forces 1920, Item 3 (i).

(22) Heather Radi, "1920-29", A New History of Australia, ed. Frank Crowley, Melbourne, William Heinmann, 1980, p 364.

(23) Gavin Long, Australia in the War of 1939-1945: Series 1 Army, To Benghazi, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 1952, p 4.

(24) Richard Holmes, Redcoat; The British Soldier in the Age of Horse & Musket, London, HarperCollins, 2001, p 113.

(25) Holmes, Redcoat; The British Soldier in the Age of Horse & Musket, p121.

(26) Australian Army Orders, Melbourne, 28 February 1941, AAO 22, Australian Instructional Corps, 2. Temporary Promotions, Page 47.

(27) AAO 22, 28th February 1941, p 48.

(28) Newton, 'The Australian Instructional Corps', 48.

(29) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number B1535, Symbol Number 716/2/182, AIC Badge Design, 1930.

(30) Rob Youl, Swan Street Sappers, 1860-1996: A History of the Engineer Training Depot, Swan Street, Melbourne & of Sappers in Victoria, Melbourne, HQ Logistic Support Force Engineers, 1995, p 13.

(31) Military Order 422-1923 (29/9/23), Permanent Forces-Annual Establishments, 1923-24, (i) Australian Instructional Corps,

(32) Military Order 422-1923 (29/9/23)

(33) Military Order 422-1923 (29/9/23)

(34) Military Order 422-1923 (29/9/23)

(35) Military Order 425-1923 Allotment for Duty Officers of the Permanent Forces; Appointment P.B.559/16/833.

(36) Military Order 514-1923 Australian Instructional Corps, Officiating Area Officers, P.B. 559/15/3191.

(37) Military Order 202-1923 Australian Instructional Corps, Officiating Area Officers, Appointment, P.559/36/117.

(38) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 34.

(39) Military Order 167-1920 Instructional Staff (W. & N.C.O. 's), 24/4/20, A609/24/447.

(40) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 36.

(41) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 38.

(42) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 39.

(43) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 41.

(44) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number MP 385/3, Symbol Number 929/7/344, No.5 Course AIC

(45) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 41.

(46) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number MP 385/3, Symbol Number 27/20/719, No. 8 Course AIC

(47) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 42.

(48) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number MP 385/3, Symbol Number 27/20/807, No.9 Course AIC

(49) Newton, "The Australian Instructional Corps", p 43.

(50) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number MP 385/3, Symbol Number 27/20/808, No10 Course AIC

(51) Allied Landforce Schools as at 24 Feb 44, Appendix "L", Sheet 3.

(52) Allied Landforce Schools as at 24 Feb 44, Appendix "L", Sheet 2.

(53) Newton, 'The Australian Instructional Corps', p 35.

(54) Lionel Wigmore, They Dared Mightily, Canberra, Australian War Memorial, 1986, p 102.

(55) Newton, 'The Australian Instructional Corps', p 36.

(56) Military Order 22-1922, Gazette Notices, Extracts from Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. 3, of 12th January 1922, Permanent Military Forces, Australian Instructional Corps.

(57) Long, Australia in the War of 1939-1945: Series 1 Army, To Benghazi, p 5.

(58) Military Order 288-1922 Australian Instructional Corps, Warrant Officers, Discharges, AM Regulation 358(1) xii.

(59) Jeffrey Grey, The Australian Army, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 2001, p 78.

(60) Grey, The Australian Army, p 78.

(61) Grey, The Australian Army, p 39.

(62) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number B1535, Symbol Number 859/16/298, Civic Activities, 1934.

(63) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number B1535, Symbol Number 859/16/298, Civic Activities, 1933.

(64) National Archives, Victoria, Series Number B1535, Symbol Number 859/16/298, Civic Activities, 1924.

(65) National Archives, New South Wales, Series Number SP1141/1, Symbol Number SP33/1/30, QM & Hon. Lt. H H Downey, MC, AIC, Disloyalty due to New Guard Association, 1933.

(66) Stuart Macintyre, A Concise History of Australia, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, 1999, p179.

(67) Long, Australia in the War 1939-1945, Series 1 Army, To Benghazi, p 14.

(68) National Archives, Victoria, Series No.B1535, Control Symbol 738/3/452, S. A.M. LeServe, 1939.

(69) John Barrett, We Were There: Australian Soldiers of World War II tell their stories, Penguin Books, Melbourne, 1987, p 104.

(70) National Archives, Canberra, Series No.A472/6, Control Symbol W3141, R. W. Sparrow, AIC, WOII, Payment of Surgical Fees, 1941.

(71) National Archives, NSW, Series No.SP1008/1, Control Symbol 512/1631, 2770 Warrant Officer II H. Fisher, Transfer from 1/19 Bn to 20/54 Bn, 1939.

(72) National Archives, NSW, Series No.SP196/3, Control Symbol H3, 511 QM & Hon. Lt .J. E. Hendry, 1936.

(73) Military Board Proceedings, 19th October 1921, Item Taken without Notice, Transfer of members of the Australian Instructional Corps--Claims arising out of inability to rent houses.

(74) Military Board Proceedings, 30th October 1936, Item 101/1936 Case of WO Ferres.

(75) Military Board Proceedings, 16th November 1921, Item 409/1921.

(76) National Archives, Canberra, Series No.MP385/3, Control Symbol27/20/673, No. 7 Course, WOII W. R. J. Shields, 1939.

(77) National Archives, Victoria, Series No.MP367/1, Control Symbol 452/1/246, Mr. Rollins complaint against QM & Hon. Maj. T. J. Farrow, AIC, 1928.

(78) National Archives, Victoria, Series No.B1535, Control Symbol 701/12/101, C. H. Brown, 1931.

(79) National Archives, Canberra, Series No.A471/1, Control Symbol 70929, Court-Martial--NP4974 W02. J. C. Carson, AIC, 1945.

(80) Military Order 188-1923 Australian Instructional Corps, Struck Off Strength, P559/15/608.

(81) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt. General Sir H. G. Chauvel, GCMG, KCB, Melbourne, 31st May 1921, item 80.

(82) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt. General Sir H. G. Chauvel, GCMG, KCB, Melbourne, 31st May 1923, Parliamentary Report No. 25, 17th July 1923, item 149.

(83) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt. General Sir H. G. Chauvel, GCMG, KCB, Melbourne, 31st May 1925, item 89.

(84) Grey, A Military History of Australia, p 196.

(85) A. T. Ross, Armed and Ready: The Industrial Development and Defence of Australia 1900-1945, Turton & Armstrong, Sydney, 1994, p 111.

(86) National Archives, South Australia, Series D844, Control Symbol 55/3/29, Schedule "A", Australian Instructional Corps, Quartermasters & Warrant Officers, Annual Establishment 1940-41.

(87) Perry, The Commonwealth Armies, p 161.

(88) K. H. Trevan, "The Darwin Mobile Force" in The Army Journal, Number 275, April 1972, pp 3-17.

(89) Trevan, "The Darwin Mobile Force", p 5.

(90) Trevan, "The Darwin Mobile Force", p 5.

(91) Sligo, "The Development of the Australian Regular Army 1944-1952", p 27.

(92) Sligo, "The Development of the Australian Regular Army 1944-1952", p 22.

(93) Sligo, "The Development of the Australian Regular Army 1944-1952", p 35.

(94) Allied Landforces Schools, 22 Feb 44, Appendix "I", Sheets 1-3.

(95) Newton, The Australian instructional Corps, p 43.

(96) Newton, The Australian Instructional Corps, p 45.

(97) National Archives, NSW, Series SP1008/1, Control Symbol 512/7/956, QM & Hon Lt. V E Dowdy Transfer Armidale to Lismore, 1940.

(98) K. G. Cooke, "One Army" in The Second Fifty Years: The Australian Army 1947-1997, The Army History Unit, Canberra, 1997 p 78.

(99) Sligo, The Development of the Australian Regular Army, p 45.

(100) Dennis, Grey, Morris & Prior, The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, p 72.

(101) Newton, The Australian Instructional Corps, p 31.

(102) Newton, The Australian Instructional Corps, p 30.

(103) Long, Australia in the War of 1939-1945: Series 1 Army, To Benghazi, 31.

(104) Grey, The Australian Army, p 102.

(105) Report of the Inspector General of the Australian Military Forces, Lt. General Sir H. G. Chauvel, GCMG, KCB Melbourne 31 May 1923, p 24.
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