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Origins of the Naxalite movement.

THE ORIGINS of the Naxalite movement lie in the "pro-Chinese" faction in the Communist Party of India (Marxist) that had become increasingly dissatisfied with the policies and ideological positions of the party. In 1967, Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal, two well-known leaders, led an armed peasant uprising in the village of Naxalbari in West Bengal. This uprising inspired most of the local study groups to coalesce into the All-India Coordinating Committee of the Communist Revolutionaries of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), led by Mazumdar and Sanyal. This coordinating committee would lead a series of localized armed movements in villages/districts all around the country, including the states of Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh etc. In 1968 the coordinating committee left the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and reconstituted itself in 1969 as the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). However, by 1971 the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) had been destroyed and much of its leadership are either dead or in prison. The party had fragmented into several competing factions due to ideological and political differences. The most important faction to emerge out of the splintered movement was the Central Organizing Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), which after having dissolved in 1977 gave birth to the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) [People's War Group] in Andhra Pradesh under the leadership of Kondapalli Seetharamaiah. In the resulting years the People's War Group expanded to several other states including Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. In 1991 Seetharamaiah was replaced by Muppala Lakshman Rao, alias Ganapathi, as the General Secretary of the party. In 2004 he was elected as the General Secretary of the CPI (Maoist).


Parallel to the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) another group, Dakshin Desh, was formed around a journal of the same name. Due to a series of ideological differences the group opted to not join the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) and continued its operations independently. It started its activities in the Jangal Mahal area of West Bengal, in an area that includes Lalgarh. In 1975 the group renamed itself the Maoist Communist Center and expanded its activities to Bihar where it gained a strong foothold, resulting in constant conflict with the People's War Group and the death of cadre on both sides. In 1998 the Maoist Communist Center (India) and People's War Group issued a joint declaration calling for increased involvement in their guerrilla movements finally leading to the 2004 merger.

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Title Annotation:Communist Party of India
Author:Jain, Dhruv
Publication:Canadian Dimension
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2010
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