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Original inventories of early New York Jews (1682-1763).

[Editor's Note: In this issue, American Jewish History commences publication of all known surviving inventories of the Jews of colonial New York City. Inventories, compiled shortly after death and submitted to the appropriate court, list all property owned by the deceased, including personal possessions, real estate, cash on hand, debts owed to others, and debts owed to the estate. Inventories are therefore a source of vital information to the historian, shedding light upon such matters as social and economic status, contemporary business practices, family relationships, cultural interests, religious practices, and prevailing economic conditions. They are also of value to genealogists.

Leo Hershkowitz, professor of history at Queens College of The City University of New York, has meticulously transcribed the twelve surviving inventories of the Jewish inhabitants of colonial New York City. In addition, he has provided a general introduction to the collection and introductions to each inventory. We begin publication of this important collection with Professor Hershkowitz's general introduction, followed by seven of the extant inventories, beginning with the earliest, Asser Levy's. Levy is the most famous of the original Jewish settlers of early New York while it was still New Amsterdam, a man familiar to students of early American Jewish history because of his struggle against Governor Peter Stuyvesant on behalf of civic rights for the colony's Jewish inhabitants. American Jewish History has previously published Levy's inventory (80: 21-55). We republish it in this issue not only in the interest of presenting the complete collection but also because of revisions and refinements Professor Hershkowitz believes are in order. The remaining five inventories will appear in our next issue.

More than three decades ago, American Jewish History published the extant wills of the Jewish inhabitants of eighteenth-century New York under Professor Hershkowitz's editorship. The American Jewish Historical Society subsequently published them in a single volume entitled Wills of Early New York Jews (1704-1799), along with the extensive editorial commentary that accompanied them in the journal's pages. It is to be hoped that the inventories and editorial accompaniment that we now present will also be published eventually as a single volume, thereby making both the wills and the inventories of New York's earliest Jewish residents accessible to scholars in book form.]

Introduction

Inventories listing the property of decedents add considerably to a neglected area of American Jewish historical investigation. Twelve such documents from the colonial period are presented here. The oldest extant, that of Asser Levy (1682-1683), is the most detailed and possibly the most intriguing, but no less so are those of Joseph Bueno de Mesquita (1708-1710), Esther Brown, the only woman (1708), Isaac Pinheiro (1709/10), or any of the others. The last inventory is that of Mordecai Gomez (1763). With only one exception, these very important sources have never been published before, and, with the exception of that one, the inventory of Asser Levy, rarely if ever cited, much less used for purposes of analysis.

The decedents were part of a small group of Jews who comprised perhaps 1/2 of 1 percent to as much as 1 percent of the population of New York at the beginning of the eighteenth century, with a peak of about 1.5 percent in February 1734. (1) A few held office, and several served in the militia. Some probably voted, although at times this caused a measure of protest. Their impact on politics is very difficult to gauge. Nevertheless, it was there. For example, an Assembly act passed in 1730 specifically included Jews among those protected by law from attack by slaves. (2) Between 1729 and 1730, they were also allowed to build a synagogue. The Dutch had denied this request, but Jews never seem to have made an issue of that refusal, possibly because a synagogue required funding and there were so few to bear the costs--and these were so transient. There had been a certain lack of permanence in the settlement earlier, and the building of a synagogue was a sign of a positive commitment that the community would now stay and flourish. It was also an indication of an enhanced political status.

The inventories are highly permanent documents. They represent a summation of individual existence and were meant for the use of the immediate family. But they were also public and hence a part of history.

Inventories are legal processes meant to protect the interests of the widow, children, and other family members of a decedent. Legislation specified procedures for the filing of letters of administration and inventories. Such concerns date early in English law. The Duke's Laws of March 1665 contain the first such provisions in New York, and under its terms the widows and children of an intestate were given immediate relief requiring only the appraising of the estate by four people appointed by the court. (3)

By an act of 1692 regulating intestate property, two persons were to be appointed by town or county officials to bring in a "True and Perfect" inventory. A wife was entitled to be the administratrix. If only orphans were involved, administrators were to take care of the children, making sure especially that the orphans were instructed in the "Holy Protestant Religion." Only the governor or his surrogates were allowed to probate wills, issue letters of administration, and approve all inventories. (4) In the case of Jewish inventories, Jews were often chosen to administer estates. (5) The question of children and religious affiliation was not raised. Four administrators appear in the first inventory, Asser Levy's, and two as required by the act of 1692 in each of the subsequent ones.

These inventories contain new information found in no other sources. Asser Levy's inventory contains possibly the oldest extant ledger to be found for the formative Jewish community. At Isaac Pinheiro's death in 1710, his Five Books of Moses with bells and vestments was valued at 150 [pounds sterling]. It had been sold to Pinheiro for 25 [pounds sterling]/6 by the executors of Joseph Bueno De Mesquita's estate This reference in Mesquita's inventory in 1708 is among the first in New York to such religious materials. Mesquita also owned five slaves as well as a variety of textiles, furniture, and a silver-hilted sword. The list of merchants who purchased various items from his estate is a valuable index of the contemporary business community.

Like wills, few of the inventories mention real property. Colonial Jews, except for Asser Levy, do not seem to have speculated in real estate. Few joined in the vast land schemes put together during the eighteenth century. Perhaps the Jews of colonial New York could not surmount socio-economic barriers, or perhaps they did not yet feel secure enough to make such investments. On the other hand, they were active merchants who conducted business with many of New York's aristocracy. Interestingly, libraries, art works, and musical instruments are rarely mentioned.

Peter Kalm, the Swedish naturalist who visited New York in 1748, commented that Jews were not separate from the general population. They own property and "enjoy all the privileges common to the other inhabitants." (6) These inventories support this assessment of achievement.

Relatively little is known of colonial New York regarding the Jewish community. There are extant records of the first years of the synagogue, Shearith Israel, organized in 1728. Information relating to trading activity can be found in newspaper advertisements, as well as in the Nathan Simson Letter Books and the provincial customs accounts in the Public Record Office in London. Discussions of social relationships are almost exclusively centered in the published letters of Abigail Franks. (7) Most of the material needed for study--correspondence, journals, diaries, even deeds, mortgages, and court proceedings--when they do exist are usually fragmentary. Expressions of personal views and feelings are rare, with few exceptions, one being the aforementioned Franks letters. Basically, there is little information and a great many questions. Moses Levy was elected constable in New York's East Ward in 1719. He refused to serve. Why? For that matter, why was he elected? Several other Jews, including Jacob Franks, were also chosen for that position. Why? What did Levy and Franks think was the reason for their election? Here history is silent. What did the members of the Jewish community think of their fellow New Yorkers? What part did Jews play in politics? Were they supporters of Governor William Cosby at the time of the John Peter Zenger affair? What did Jacob Franks think of such issues as libel laws and of the truth as a defense in such cases? What did Jews think of New York and its problems, such as water, fire, and crime? Here speculation exists, but little evidence. These inventories at least add some information and help fill in some empty spaces. They accordingly deserve careful study.

All these documents relate to various merchants. None are of craftsmen or of those who could be described as poor. An exception was Asser Levy, who was a kosher butcher but also a real estate investor and a merchant. As a group, they contributed to society, adding to the vital flow of trade and commerce. As Jews and merchants, they helped their coreligionists by opening avenues of opportunity and acceptance. Willingly or not, they were in the forefront of the struggle for economic and religious freedom. This is an achievement not too often recognized. In 1657, Asser Levy fought for and gained citizenship rights for the Jews of New Amsterdam. In 1672, Rabba Couty, a merchant inhabitant of New York, won a case in Jamaica, when the court held that, as a resident of New York, his property was protected from seizure. Still, the issue of the right to trade and to be treated as a freeman, regardless of religious affiliation, remained. The English Trade and Navigation Act of 1660 restricted trade between England and its colonies in order to prevent foreign encroachments by the Dutch, the French, and Jews. It was merchants who finally achieved the lifting of such restrictions on Jews, allowing them to be accepted as citizens and to be treated under law as freemen and as members of society. (8) Isaac Rodriquez Marques in 1697, Mordecai Gomez in 1714, and others whose inventories are included here obtained freemanship. In 1715 and in 1740, changes made in the law made the process much more accessible. Naturalization could be obtained after a seven-year period of residence, and, while fees were still required, there was no religious requirement. (9)

The inventories presented here are edited to conform as closely as possible to the original text. Errant spelling, lack of punctuation, and curious abbreviations are preserved, although some editors change the diphthong "y" to modern "th." Only occasionally are changes made, and then for clarity's sake. The letters "ll" used in the original are our lb., which is given in brackets. The ditto columns are so in the original and stand for florins and stivers. The occasional X in the left column might indicate a bad or corrected debt. Where no values are shown, none was given in the original. Despite evident peculiarities, the text is usually very understandable, benefitting from as little editorial interference as possible. One interesting aspect of the Asser Levy inventory is the language, which is a curious mixture of Dutch and English. Dutch words like neger (Negro), tot (to or from), platels (plates), dochter (daughter), or twalf (twelve) are used alongside English words, an indication that, in the late seventeenth century, bilingualism and the Dutch were stubbornly and significantly in evidence.

The originals of the seven inventories that follow are in the library of the American Jewish Historical Society. In Asser Levy's case, however, two originals exist, one reported on April 24, 1682 which is in the library of the American Jewish Historical Society, the other, for February 9, 1683, which is in the archives of Congregation Shearith Israel in New York City. The transcription here incorporates the beginning of the February 1683 document with the bulk of the April 1682 document.

(1.) Extracted from Barbara Rubin, "An Analytical Study of the Jewish Population of New York City 1700-1734" (M.A. Thesis, History Department, Queens College, The City University of New York), passim.

(2.) Colonial Laws of New York, 5 vols. (Albany, 1894-96), II, 679-88.

(3.) Ibid, I, 8-10. This was the Court of Sessions. However, the Mayor's Court made appointments in the matter of Asser Levy.

(4.) Ibid., I, 300-303.

(5.) On October 20, 1676, Letters of Administration were granted to Isaac Continho of the company of Isaac Continho and Edward Rawlins, when the latter "lately unfortunately drowned." This firm, the consignee of the wares of Isaac Perero and Abraham and Aaron Barneh, valued at f:277, 19.6 by four appraisers including Cornelis Steenwyek and Nicholas Bayard, produced an inventory of the enterprise in Mayor's Court under Continho's direction. This inventory, no longer extant, may be the first such filed concerning a Jewish New Yorker. New York State Library, Albany, Will Liber I, 1665-1680, 253-54.

(6.) Peter Kalm, Travels Into North America, 2 vols. (London, 1772), I, 191. For an overview of the colonial Jewish experience, see Eli Faber, A Time for Planting: The First Migration, 1654-1820 (Baltimore, 1992).

(7.) Leo Hershkowitz and Isidore S. Meyer, eds., The Lee Max Friedman Collection of American Jewish Colonial Correspondence: Letters of the Franks Family (1733-1748) (Waltham, 1968), passim.

(8.) For a discussion of trade laws, see Lawrence A. Harper, The English Navigation Laws (New York, 1939), 59, 197.

(9.) For an overview of the relevant acts, see also Leo Hershkowitz, "Some Aspects of the New York Jewish Merchants in Colonial Trade," in Aubrey Newman, ed., Migration and Settlement: Proceedings of the Anglo-American Jewish Historical Conference (London, 1971), 101-17.

ASSER LEVY (1682-1683)

Asser (Assur) Levy was seemingly born in Vilna and died in New York in February 1682. The exact date of his demise is not known, nor is the place. He must have died quite suddenly, probably in his home or butcher shop, located at opposite corners of Wall and Pearl Streets. He left no will, and his widow testified that his accounts were in "great confusion." (1) Levy was evidently active until the time of his death. His account books cover the period 1660 to early 1682. He was a witness to a bill of exchange in April 1681, and on December 21, 1681 he appeared in court in King's County. (2)

On April 24, 1682, his widow Miriam (sometimes Maria in contemporary records) was given letters of administration by Acting Governor Anthony Brockholls empowering her to settle the estate, to recover all debts, and to collect all credits due, "rendering a just account thereof according to the Law." (3) Miriam Levy was prepared, for an inventory dated April 24, 1682 was presented, but the last page states that it was filed in accordance with Mayor's Court orders of May 9 and September 12, 1682. It was signed by four court appointees on February 9, 1683. Three of the signatures, those of John Lawrence, Thomas Codrington, and Cornelis Steenwyck, were crossed out, leaving only Nicholas Bayard's, suggesting that the first three may have affixed their names on April 24, prior to the court orders.

There are five known Levy inventories: two originals and three clerk's copies. An original dated April 24, 1682 is reproduced here because it is the most complete, containing as it does an account of the estate's debtors and creditors. Another original inventory, dated February 9, 1683, is also signed by four appraisers, but it does not contain debtor-creditor accounts. The first section of the February 1683 document is added to the April 1682 inventory published here; it does not differ much otherwise from the latter. Both original inventories were copied, that of April 24 into Will Liber 19B, located at the New York State Library, Albany, New York, and that of February 9 into Will Liber 2 and Will Liber 19B. These contemporary copies differ little from the originals. (4)

Miriam Levy's evident haste in settling the estate may have stemmed from some very involved matters concerning the large number of creditors and debtors in the Levy account, as well as some contested and confused lines of inheritance.

Asser Levy is surely the best-known colonial Jewish resident of New York. New York City has an Asser Levy Place and an Asser Levy Public School. A great deal has been written about his extremely interesting and productive career as merchant, butcher, real estate entrepreneur, and, perhaps most importantly, his struggle to gain for himself and his fellow-Jews the equal protection of law. Yet, little is known about his background or family relationships. His inventory provides some important information about these matters.

Levy possibly arrived in New Amsterdam aboard the St. Catherine or on the St. Charles, early in September 1654. He has always been counted among the legendary twenty-three Jews popularly considered refugees from Brazil, although that is by no means certain. More likely, Levy arrived from Amsterdam together with Jacob Barsimon and Solomon Pieterson on board the Peartree on August 22, 1654 or shortly thereafter. Levy is not listed in extant congregational minute books of the Brazilian Jewish community, which tends to support a non-Brazilian origin.

Very litigious, Levy was in court on September 14, 1654 with Riche Nunes, each demanding payment from the other because of sums "disbursed on his account at Gamonike," apparently either Jamaica or the island of Tamarca, Brazil. It is not clear whether Asser Levy was with Nunes and her husband at "Gamonike," or if Nunes merely represented Levy's business interests on the island. While this suit was pending, Levy found himself again in court on October 5, 1654, when one Jan Martyn, acting as attorney and agent for sailors who "brought Jews here from the West Indies," demanded payment of 106 florins still remaining due. Levy argued that all his goods had previously been sold at public auction after he had offered to pay for the freight, and that he therefore did not have money and was not now bound to pay. Martyn and the captain of the St. Catherine or the St. Charles had sued others for passage and freight, but in Levy's case only for freight, thus indicating that Levy had not been on board. His arrival with the other Jewish passengers therefore cannot be documented. (5)

Solomon Pieterson testified that there were twenty-three Jews, "big and little," aboard a ship arriving in New Amsterdam. (6) Unfortunately, he did not provide names, nor did he explain what he meant by "big and little." No children are specifically mentioned in any existing record, and few, if any, are noted for the last half of the century. By 1655, seven more Jews were in New Amsterdam. There were an additional two in 1656, two more in 1657, and three in 1658-1660. Of these, only five--Nunes, De Mereda, the Israels, and Ambrosius--clearly arrived in New Amsterdam from Brazil via the West Indies. The Peartree and the St. Catherine (or St. Charles) arrived in New Amsterdam in the summer of 1654, the Peartree from Holland and the others from the Caribbean. There were probably more Jews, including Levy, on the first vessel than Barsimon and Pieterson. (7)

Levy sometimes signed his name Asser Levy van Swellem. "Swellem" may be the Westphalian city of Schwelm just east of Dusseldorf. If it is, Levy may have lived in Germany for a time. Why he wrote his name this way even as late as 1681 is not known. (8) Two documents in the Gemeente Archief in Amsterdam reveal that, on April 26, 1660, he was in Amsterdam seeking money owed him, and that, on May 24 of the same year, he announced he was going to Germany. Was he possibly traveling to Schwelm? In these two documents, he is referred to as Asser Levy Wilde and as Asser Levy alias Aster Wilde, an intriguing reference, especially because he signed the May document in Hebrew as Asser, "son of Judah Leib of blessed memory, Vilna." (9) Possibly, a Dutch clerk copied "Wilde" when he heard Levy say "Vilna" or "Wilna." Wilde as a family name is otherwise difficult to explain. A Vilna relationship seems plausible. Given the Cossack pogroms of 1648-1658, Levy's Eastern European connection seems even more certain. It would appear that Valentine Vanderwilde, who married Rachel, Levy's sister, and that David and Simon Vanderwilde, who were in New York by the 1680s, also came from Vilna. Furthermore, Jacob Barsimon, who was also in Amsterdam in 1660, may possibly have come from Eastern Europe.

Levy lived for some time in Amsterdam, but he was granted neither burgher nor poorter rights. He was given burgher rights in New Amsterdam along with other Jews on April 20, 1657, something which appears to have been denied him in Amsterdam. Levy implied that he was a burgher or resident in Amsterdam when he sought this privilege in New Amsterdam, but this is not borne out by archival records. Although Levy produced a burgher certificate from Amsterdam, not further identified in the record, it was not his. Again, Levy was not a poorter and thus could not hold office, engage in retail trade, or enjoy the protection of the guilds. Jews could buy poorter rights for the period of a year, but Levy seems not to have done so. (10)

Asser Levy Wilde married Miriam, probably born Israel, possibly in Amsterdam, but there is no record of this marriage in Amsterdam archives. (Jews were required to register only after 1695.) A David and an Abraham Israel were in New Amsterdam in 1654, and they were certainly Jews from Brazil. An Abraham Israel was 36 years old in 1650, and he was identified as a "high German Jew" living in Amsterdam. His father was Isaac Israel. Abraham was still in Amsterdam in 1661, then aged 47. Were they related to Levy? Are they the Sephardic Israels of New Amsterdam? Not likely. There was a Jacob Israel in New York in 1680-1681. However, Miriam was the sister of Judith Israel, also called Judith Armes, whose daughter was Hannah Israel. On folio seven of the Levy inventory appears a reference to "ye sister" of Miriam Levy, who was promised "one velvet casjack," and that sister was probably Judith Israel. Miriam died in New York sometime in 1688, one the few Jews known to have died in seventeenth-century New York. Asset Levy was the only one of the initial contact group known to have died in the city. (11)

The Levys seem not to have had any children. References in the inventory are to money from the estate to pay creditors and to maintain Mrs. Levy, but no mention is made of offspring.

Who is "my cosen Simon" who appears in the inventory? Is this Simon Valentine Vanderwilde? It is possible that Asser Levy's sister, Rachel, who had married Valentine Falck (Valck), was related to Simon Valentine and thus, through marriage, somehow became "my cosen." In the inventory, Levy has an account with one Assur (possibly Assur Michaels, Levy's nephew-in-law) whom he also calls "my cosen." Could Assur's father have been a brother of Asser Levy's father? In the January 8, 1689 inventory of Theophilus Turford's wife, mention is made of "the great kettle" pawned for eighty pounds of beef to "Ashur the Jew." (12) It is possible that the "cosen" Assur was in the butcher trade, thus following in the footsteps of Asser Levy. It is an intriguing reference.

In addition, an Asser Levy, aged thirty-nine, was living in Vloyenburg, the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam, in 1692; he could be "Ashur the Jew," possibly in fact, Asser Levy's cousin. (13)

On March 24, 1685, Ansel (Asser) Samuel Levy and his wife Miriam, Asser's widow, filed a bill of complaint against Simon Vanderwilde. Ansel Samuel (also known as David) had married Miriam, Asser's widow, on January 1, 1685, "by license," this less than three years after her husband's death. In the bill, the couple declared that Simon, a butcher, and his brother, David Valentine Vanderwilde, had attempted to gain control of the estate. Simon, the "pretended heir of Asser Levy," by an "act of assembly" of January 16, 1685, had brought action as a "contrivance" to "defeat them of their lands and houses." The couple argued that debts of the estate were worth more than the estate itself, and that they had settled accounts fairly. They asked for a subpoena to stay the proceedings until a hearing in equity could be rendered. The value of the inventory was given at 553 [pounds sterling]/15, of which 335 [pounds sterling] was in real property in the city. David (Ansel Samuel) Levy further stated that he had been offered 150 [pounds sterling] by Simon to "goe to Jamaica and leave the old woman," and to abide by any decision reached as to the division of the estate.

Ansel agreed to abandon the "old woman," but he did not agree to give up his interest in the Asser Levy slaughterhouse. Ansel claimed he had been tricked into the agreement, partly because he did not know English. Furthermore, he had not received the 150 [pounds sterling] and had been deprived of counsel, inasmuch as Simon had retained all or almost all the "Lawyers and Attorneys within the province." He was arrested for having broken his agreement with Simon and placed in jail. He asked release and an end to Simon's writ. The Vanderwildes were ordered to appear in the Court of Chancery, but the results of the case are not known. One of the documents in the proceedings was signed in Hebrew, "aenshle bar Shmuel segal ha leeve" ("Ansel son of Samuel Levy). (14) There is little question that all the parties were related, but just exactly what the relationships were is not clear.

There are two parts to the Asser Levy inventory, one of the most detailed of such records for seventeenth- and eighteenth-century New York. One itemizes household and business articles, including real estate holdings, and the other is the list of debtors and creditors to the estate.

Levy, as is well known, was by trade a butcher in New Amsterdam, having been made so on October 15, 1660, although excused from killing hogs. (15) On January 8, 1678 he successfully petitioned the Common Council for permission to build a slaughterhouse at the southern end of Wall Street together with Gerrit Roos, who was a sworn butcher as of 1656. (16)

A number of the listed items, such as the two chopping knives, the numerous "tensers" (knives or wooden plates or boards) and iron pots, a copper kettle, tin "challenders" (colanders), brass scales, and skimmers could have been used in Levy's butcher shop, and, of course, also in his kitchen. The two "dreeping" pans, two brass skimmers, two brass plates, and two pewter "basons" also indicate that Levy may have kept a kosher shop and/or home. This assumption is reinforced by the number of some articles: twelve pewter plates, seven brass kettles, ten iron "potts," six pewter porringers, and eleven earthen plates. The Levy household was small, comprised solely of his wife and himself, suggesting that the dishes, large as they were in number, were used half for meat and half for diary, in keeping with dietary laws.

Levy did not have on hand large quantities of cloth, tobacco, or flour, common trading items of New York merchants, although, as seen in the inventory, he dealt in quantities of flour. He had a considerable amount of silver and some gold in the form of two pairs of pendants, rings, and a bodkin--surely for personal use; but these were, as always, a good form of capital if one had to flee suddenly. He had some gold pieces and other coin, but only in small quantity, not enough to indicate involvement in such trade. Some of the silver, including a cup, spice box, and "chaine for my book," could have been used for religious purposes, while the watch, tankard, and cornelia tree provided symbols of ease as well as serving as forms of portable wealth.

It would appear that most of the listed items were for household use, and thus the inventory can be used to reconstruct something of the Levy home. The Levy house was probably a gabled structure containing a cellar, kitchen, a front and back room on the main floor, and chambers and garret on the second story and attic. The front or main room often served as an office or store. While the inventory makes no mention of tiles, often found in Dutch homes, there were nine pictures which could have decorated the household walls. The kitchen, probably in the cellar, would have in it the plates, porringers, and colanders, and, at the fireplace, andirons, kettles, and "dreeping panns." (17)

The first pages of the inventory are largely a description of an early colonial kitchen and, in Levy's case, something of what was in his butcher shop. Later pages are largely a description of livingroom or bedroom articles. These include chamberpots, a desk, twelve chairs, and, while there is no mention of a table, a "great long table cloth." Note the mention of two beds and two "pele" (pole) beds, as well as four blankets and four "cloaths or spreads." It is likely that sleeping accommodations were set into the walls, the hideaway "slaap banck," the living room by day becoming a bedroom at night. In any event, there were sleeping quarters for two.

Where did Levy live? On June 8, 1662, he purchased a lot from Barent Gerritsen between Hoogh [Stone] and Slyck Steegh [South William]. (18) Levy sold this property to Jochem Backer in 1667. (19) On June 1, 1663, Wessel Evertsen, having recently completed a house, sold the property of what is now 59 Stone Street to Levy, who ten years later conveyed it to John Harpending. (20) Obviously a friend of Evertsen's, Levy was appointed a guardian of his children in 1670. Levy might have purchased two lots on Mill Lane [South William Street], the later site of the Mill Street synagogue, but no deeds are extant. (21) In 1665, Levy, residing on Stone Street, was taxed two florins. He was the only Jew listed. In the same year, he petitioned to stand guard with other citizens rather than pay a special tax reserved for Jews. The petition was granted. (22) In 1655 and in February 1664, he had been taxed, as were many other burghers, to help build fortifications. In 1664, he was the only known Jew listed. His tax rate was roughly average, about half that of wealthier burghers. (23)

Where did Levy have his butcher shop? Sometime about 1663, Levy purchased the property of Daniel Litscho from the latter's widow, Annetie Claes Croesens. Litscho was a sergeant with the Dutch West India Company and had served in Brazil in 1646. He died sometime around 1661. He had a tavern and land on Pearl Street just inside the city wall (Wall Street). Present-day 125 Pearl Street and 65 Wall Street were part of the Litscho property. (24) Litscho also purchased lots just north of the wall on Pearl Street. These properties were sold in October 1678 to Levy, who used the lots to build a "public Slaughter house." (25) It would seem the Levy residence at the time of his death was part of the Litscho property, possibly the former tavern, on the southwest corner of Wall and Pearl just inside the wall, and that his slaughterhouse was on the northeast corner of Wall and Pearl, outside the wall, for the Common Council on February 16, 1677 had ordered all abattoirs outside it. (26)

The Levys were well-dressed and had a servant. Mijnheer Levy must have looked most elegant in his black velvet jacket and broadcloth black coat and breeches, silver-banded sword, black hat, stockings, and pantofeles (slippers) with silver buckles, while Miriam Levy was a proper Dutch mevrouw in her "suite" with the scarlet petticoat, bodice, cosjack (cossack), lace cap, shoes and "redd" worsted stockings, wearing a gold bodkin, linen hood, and gold pendants. The couple had the services of at least one "Negro boy."

The Asser Levy inventory provides an intriguing view of one of the early inhabitants of New York. Although the inventory value of 550 [pounds sterling] was not large, of twenty such contemporary documents examined for comparative purposes, only seven were worth as much or more. Francis Richardson's inventory, taken in September 1688, totaled some 1860 [pounds sterling]; William Cox's in September 1689 was valued at 1805 [pounds sterling]. The richest New Yorker, Cornelis Steenwyck, had an inventory valued at more than 15,000 [pounds sterling]. Levy was not the wealthiest of New Yorkers, but he surely had achieved considerable status in his adopted city. (27)

It is apparent that his career touched the lives of the most prominent, such as Cornelis Steenwyck, a mayor and merchant, Nicholas Bayard, who was also a mayor and who was involved in the Jacob Leisler affair, and Olaf Stevenson Van Cortlandt, founder of that well-known family. There are many other such names that appear, but there are also those of the poorest, such as Hans, servant of Cornelis Hoogeboom. Many of the names are of tradesmen or craftsmen, such as Thomas Taylor, hatter, John the pipemaker, and Jacobus, a turner. Others are of farmers. Several names are those of butchers like Levy. There are also the names of sailors and seemingly middling merchants. A number are of women, like Ruth the turner, Anna Elizabeth, Ruth Bos, and a few widows, like Widow Gibbs. All told, some 400 names are listed, of which more than half cannot be found in the basic reference, Edmund B. O'Callaghan's Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York.

There are many intriguing aspects to the Levy inventory. Obviously, it adds to an understanding of the business, if not the social involvement of Levy with his contemporary New Yorkers. The extensive relationships appears to have overcome any religious barrier. There is no evidence of either rejection by or discrimination on the part of the general community. If there was, it seems not to have affected Levy's business activity. He remained and died in the city, while most of his coreligionists left after a few years' stay. What was there about him that caused this difference? Here history is unfortunately silent. Levy left no letters or diaries, and no contemporary commented about any personal or financial contact. The general paucity of such information for this early colonial period therefore makes the inventory especially valuable. Few such detailed inventories are still extant. Careful study of its contents should add considerably to our understanding of the world of Asser Levy.

To elucidate references to obscure words in the inventory, a glossary of terms follows the transcription.

Account of y aprisement of ye Estate of Asshe Levy deceased made ye 9th of February 1682/3 Inventory

In pursuance of two orders of Court of Mayor and Alderman directed to us underwritten ye 9th day of May and ye 19th day of September last wee have upon ye 9th day of February 1682/3 being first sworne as ye law directs valued and apprized ye Estate of Assher Levy deceased, presented to us by ye Widdow and administratrix of said Estate, as followeth viz:

The Lott of ground and buildings thereupon left by Assher Levy at his decease, and at present in ye possession of ye administratrix, Cittuated within ye Citty of New Yorke at ye Water gate

328 [pounds sterling]

The Slaughter house and Penn without ye gate in company with Gerret Janse Roos, and all ye Privileges according to patent for One moyety

181 [pounds sterling]
[FOLIO I]
Inventory of ye Estate of Assur Levy deceased
made ye 24th day of April Anno 1682

The houses and land bought of
Anna Litsco deceased, according to
bill of Sale dated                           318 [pounds      0:      0
                                              sterling]:
one Coper Kittle                                      1:     10:      0
one Spitt & fire pann say dreeping pan                0:     10;      0
three bras scales with ballances                      0:     12:      0
one bras barbers bason                                0:      2:      0

two bras Candle Sticks                                0:      4:      0
two tinn challanders                                  0:      3:      0
two brass platels                                     0:      5:      6

twelf pewter platels                                  2:      0:      0
two pewter basons                                     0:      7:      0
one pewter butter hogg                                0:      3:      0
one platel of pewter                                  0:      2:      0
Six pewter porringers                                 0:      6:      0
one half pintes pott                                  0:       1      6

two halfe mintses
one mostart pott
one Salt Seller                                       0:      6:      0
one Small butter cann

three pewter flesshes                                  1      2:      0

one great pewter can                                  0:      6:      0
one quart ditto

two tinn dreeping panns                               0:      5:      0
one yron. pott hanger & 2 andyrons                    0:      9:      0

one butter fryer
two iron fire tangs
one yron spoon and
two bras Skimmers                                     0:      8:      0

two small Spits
two potts Coverts                                     0:      5:      0

achteen thrensers                                     0:     10:      0
one bras Lamp                                          0      2:      0
one brass pann                                        0:     11:      0
two pewter Springs

one bottle ditto
Two porringers                                        0:      3:      0

VERTE                                        329 [pounds      1:      0
                                              sterling]:

[FOLIO 2]

transported from ye other side               329 [pounds      1:      0
                                              sterling]:
five pound spun yearne                         0 [pounds      7:      6
                                              sterling]:
* eighteen skipple of wheate                          2:     14:      0

two pistolls & holsters                               0:     15:      0
* Six pound cotton wigg                               0:     12:      0
* one barrell flower                                  2:     10:      0
Seaven brass kettles & and one pann                   2:     10:      0
Seaven yron potts                                     1:      8:      0
three yron panns                                      0:      6:      0
Some wooden & arthen ware & other
  old necessaries in ye house                         1:     10:      0
tenn pewter threnchers                                0:      6:      0
two pewter basons                                     0:      4:      0
four ditto platels                                    0:      7:      0
three ditto Chamberpots                               0:     10:      0
two choping knives                                    0:     14:      0
one mortar
two Looking glasses                                   0:      8:      0
three wooden cases                                    1:      2:      0
three pewter canns                                    0:      4:      0
nine pictures                                         0:     12:      0
one Sabbath Lamb                                      0:     10:      0
* one hatt for /70:                                   0:     10:      0
one Chist                                             0:     10:      0
* one Sword hilted with Silver                        0:      6:      0
* one box with wampum about /30                       0:     15:      0
  of ye vendue of Ann Litsco
* one black velvett jackett                           2:      0:      0
* one black grof grane
  briches & Coate
one grae: ditto & Coate
one dark broadcloth coate
  & Stuffe briches                                    6:      0:      0
* two Linnen briches                                  0:      5:      0
one p[ie]ce table Cloathe &
  nepkins cloth                                       1:      7:      0
* one drest leather Skinn & 1 pr
  Do Stokins                                          0:     12:      0
four cloaths or Spreads                               1:     10:      0
one sword with a band                                 0:      9:      0
two paire Shoes & 1 pair pantofles                    0:     10:      0
to Thom[as] Lambert Some Silver and
  gold of Ann Litsco
two Caps                                              0:      2:      0
Six cortins and valons                                0:     15:      0
two bedds                                             5:     10:      0
twelf Cussons great and small                         3:     10:      0
two pelow beds I Ditto                                 1      5:      0
four blanketts, I rugg                                 1     10:      0
One Chist                                             0:     10:      0
one Secret Seller close Stool                         0:      8:      0

Verte                                        374 [pounds      5:      0
                                              sterling]:
[FOLIO 3]

Transported from ye other side               374 [pounds      5:      0
                                              sterling]:
A Flaske Seller Case with bottles                [pounds      0:    5:6
                                               sterling]
One deske                                             0:      6:     0:
Two leather cheares                                   0:     17:      6
term cheares
* four cours hatts                                    0:     16:      0
two hang mackes                                       0:     15:      0
Heaven earthen platels                                0:      2:      0
four earthen flower potts                             0:      2:      0
two table Cloaths                                     0:      7:      0
one Callico Cloath for a bedd                         0:      6:      0
one greate long table cloath                           1      0:      0
eleaven table cloaths                                 2:     10:      0
one ditto with Lace                                   0:      8:      0
* twelf new Shirts
* nine half woven ditto                               6:      0:      0
Sixteen woman Smocks
Six Linnen drawers                                    0:     15:      0
two petticoats, one woman Suite
  with a redd petticoate
one blew pettiecoate
one paire boddice
one Coloured Casjack
one Scarlett petticoate, one Silke
  ditto, one velvet casjack promised
to ye Sister of Miriam Levy, one hood,
  one muffe, one black Silke apron
  three paire redd worsted Stockings
* Two paire Silke Stockins                            0:      7:      0
3 el green Say                                        0:      9:      0
two mostard disches                                   0:      1:      0
pellow bear twelf paire Slives
  great & Small                                       2:     10:      0

Six white aprons
twinty four napkins                                   1:      4:      0
two clothes with bone lace                            1:     15:      0
Six towells                                           0:      6:      0
Six & fourteen neckcloths with Lace &
  without                                             1:      0:      0
twelf hand ketchers Say 6                             0:      4:      6
one silver eare wearing
* one paire Silver buttons                            0:     12:      0
* One Silver knife
* twinty five ducatons                                9:      7:      6
* one ditto with a ring                               0:      7:      6
* fourteen Rix dallars                                4:      7:      6
* one giilted pids [pies]                                     6:      0

Verte                                        411 [pounds     12:      0
                                               sterling]

[FOLIO 4]

transported from the other sides             411 [pounds     12:      0
                                              sterling]:
Seaven half Crowns                                    1:      1:      0
four heavy bevers;                                    2:      8:      0
twinty two Silver Spoons
one Silver forke
three Silver gobletts
one Silver tankert
one Silver mustart pott
  * wt. 10 lb one Silver cup
with two eares
Five Silver Small cups                               48:      0:      0
one ditto & one goblett
two Silver Salt Sellars
one Silver Cup
two Silver Sawsers
one Silver cup
one Silver Spice box
a Cornelia tree cup
  with Silver
two Silver platels

A Silver girdle with hanging keyes                    --      --
one ditto with 3 Chains with hookes                   --      --
one gold bodkine                                      --      --
two Silver ditto                                      --      --
* Silver to a band for a Sword                        1:      4:      0
Silver for my booke with a cheane                     --      --
* One Silver hatt band                                0:     13:      6
one Silver timbler                                    --      --
* one Silver bell                                     0:     18:      0
* one Silver watch                                    1:      0:      0
* two paire Silver buckles                            0:      8:      0
1 d(oze)n white Linnen hoods                          --      --
1 d(oze)n ditto ditto Santeen                         --      --
2 parle cords                                         --      --
3 hals cloathes                                       --      --
8 ditto & 8 do of another Sort                        --      --
three mans caps with lace                              0:     6:      0
twelf womans with do                                  --      --
Some Linnen to my weaving of Small
  consequence
two paire gold pendants
* fiveteen gold rings Say 13 at                      10:      7:      6
* fifty Skiple of Salt or thereabout                  2:     10:
* two barrells tarr                                   1:      4:      0
* timber to build a house & planks                   12:      0:      0
in Sundry pcs. gold to ye value of /300
  wampum valued                                      13:     10:      0

transported to folio                         507 [pounds      2:      0
                                              sterling]:

[FOLIO 5]
Balance of Debtors
No. 1 to 6 Several old amounts of no value from ao 1660 to 1669
No. 6ao 1669 & 1679

fo. 3. Hans Christophel                                    f. 9.
6. Stoffel van Laar                                          22.
37. Arent Jurians Lansman                                   107.     10
72. Richard Cornel                                           15.
79. Doctor Spry                                             178.
      No. 7 ao 1671
fo. 3. William Bredevelt                                   f 58.
   Dirk Storm                                                20.
6. Pieter ye Frensman                                        60.      7
9. Thomas Tierkse                                            24.
   Jacob at N.Utrecht                                        22.
11. John ye glasier Carrman                                  14.

14. Arent Everts Molenaer 60.
    Hendrick De Bremer                                        8.      6
17. Lambert Huybert mol                                      17.      7
    Jacob Theunis Loper                                      28.
    John Hendrix Jinnor at New Harlem                        17.
20. Joris Demus                                              53.
    Pieter Lokermans Senior 8 bev(ers)                       10.      7
23. Henry Bos                                                 9.
25. Leendert Phillips f                                       44   118.
    Barent Shoemaker                                         6.8
    Claas Rotterdam 2 Minkes                          16      4.     19
    Paulus Jurkse                                              9
26. Lysbeth Ringhout                                          40
    Gissel Alberts                                           f24
29. Andrew Messingar                                       f453.      3
31. Jacob Janse                                              19.     10
33. Nowel Morris Fransman                                    28.
40. Adrian Vincent                                           22.      3
42. John Vinghout 25 [skiple)                               150.
      wheate or
53. Hendrik ye weaver 30 [skiple]
      pease or                                              150.
55. Marretie Van Es                                          20.      5
57. Charles ye Frenshman                                      5.
61. Cornelis Plevier                                        110.      4
    Nowell Fransman 19 [skiple]
      wheat or                                              114.

                                [FOLIO 6]

fo61. Comelis Bogart                                        f39.
      Jurian Theirmis                                         9.
62. Arent Vanderberg 26 (skiple)
      wheate or                                             156.
    Phillip Pieters                                           7.
    Henry van Allen                                           9.      6
    Lewis Cobus                                               5.     12
70. Anna Tidemans                                            16.     10
71. William Parker 2 bevers                                   16     22
    John Risbel                                               7.     10
73. Arent Vanderberg & Helmer
    Otto II bevers & /88                                      6.
76. Kinertie Hendrix                                         27.      6
79. Joris Wolsey                                             27.      6
                                                     No. 8 AO 1672
24. Thomas Berryman                                         f41.     15
43. William Wittingar                                       100.
49. Capt. Santfort                                           33.
52. Elias Comelise                                           41.
56. Yong Hunt                                                11.
    John Qnomby (Quimby)                                      7.
                            No. 9 AO 1673
2. Anthony deMilt 254 (lb.)
   flower &                                                 f52.     15
7. Jacobus Vandewater                                        32.      3
9. Joris Wolsey                                               4.
10. Claas Janse Stavast                                      24.
27. Jochern Englebart
30. Joseph Rendel                                            13.
32. Carel Demorant at bedfort                                       14.
    Lodewyck Pos                                             55.      8
32. Maes Melln at Esopus                                     41.
33. Edward Wittaker do                                       45.      6
35. Pieter Bayard                                             6.
    John Risbell                                             11.
37. Gillis Johnse                                            63.
38. Carsten ye Miller                                        39.     58
    Samuel Oliver at Esopus                                 100.
    Titus de Vries                                           33.
42. Simon at N:Utrecht                                        9.

                                [FOLIO 7]

                                    No. 9

42. William Montagne                                        f82.     18
43. Thomas Lodewyx                                           10.      8
    Thomas Elgar                                             12.
44. Daniell Peryer at Esopus
56. Harmen Thomase bever 18                                  47.
57. The Estate of John Copall                               442.     18
61. Daniell Whitehead                                        20.
63. Isaaak Abrahams (Abrahamsen)                             43.
64. Joost Caspers at Kykinyt                                 20.
69. Anthony Kooke at Esopous                                476.
    Roelof Swartwart 20 sk(ipl)e wheat &                     21.
72. Reynier Williams open

                            No 10 AO 1674

1. Anthony Janse widow                                      f72.      5
5. John Jeffort                                              32.     18
7. Paulus tot bedfort                                         8.
14. Jan Mertens de weaver 144 &                              30.
26. Hermanus van Bursum                                     156.     12
35. Wessel Everts erfgenamen                                546.      1
37. Albert Alberts Obruyn                                   f49.     10
    John Benew                                               37.
55. Cornelis Hogeboom                                       221.
57. Thomas Vardon                                             8.     12
58. John Joosten at Marbletown                               18.
    Hans Servant to Hogeboom                                  6.
No. 11 AO 1675
No. 11 fo 2. Andries Jochems                                f37.     14
3. Arent Prall at Esopus                                    283.     17
4. Arent Isaaks                                              60.      8
   Adrian van Laar                                           60.      2
5. Barent Coerten                                            66.     12
7. Bastian Elli                                              36.
30. Cornelis Dirkse                                          15.      4
33. Dirk Janse Hoogelandt                                    57.
34. Elias Dorrelandt                                        106.     16
35. Henry Newton                                             20.     15
39. John Phillip                                             18.

                                    Verte

                                [FOLIO 8]

No. 11 AO 1675
38. Cornelis Janse Visscher                                  f4.     12
41. John Huyt at Eastchester                                132.     16
42. John Gerrets at N. Utrecht                               44.
    John Pieters Cooper                                      60.     12
43. John Olphelt                                             50.      5
44. Jochem Andrews widow                                     83.
47. Joris Davids                                             75.     10
55. Mettie Wessels widow                                      9.
57. Johannis Nevins                                          99.      2
63. Thomas Janse at Gouannis                                 10.      3
68. Augustine free neger                                    258.     18
    Peter Johnse Meet                                        49.     10
    Pieter Johnse Scole                                      46.      5
    Phillip Johnse widdow                                   153.      7
    Muhiell Mot at Esopus                                    59.
69. Pieter Janse soldier                                     55.     16
71. Peter Bakberen at Newtown                               171.     19
75. Stephanis Van Cortland                                  218.     11
76. Helmer Otto                                              65.      4
79. Ahasuerus Silversmith                                     8.
8z. Thennis Gisberts bogart                                 f23.     16
    Dirk'Storm                                               60.
83. John Winder                                               69
85. John Adams                                               12.
    Joseph Buttler                                           55.
87. Harmen de Wilt at Esopus 14l 1/2 skiple                 849.
    Wheate at
88. Jan ye Glasier Senior                                    23.     10
    Jonathan Latimar                                         16.
89. Francis Rombout                                          39.      4
90. Thomas Mathyse                                          199.     10
No 12 AO 1676
To 2 Jacobus Vander                                         f21.      5
   Thennis Jacobs at ye Esopus                              135.
   22 1/2 Skiple wheate
4 Robert Peacok                                             222.
5 Adrian Geverts Vandervlet                                 318.
14 John Pieters Schoemaker                                   64.

                                    Verte

                                [FOLIO 9]

No 12 AO 1676 & 1677
15. William Boyall                                          f34.      6
18. Adolph at N. Harlem                                      11.
19. John Barents in Flakbos
    one cow, hefer, butter &                                213.
22. Anthony free neger                                       25.
    Mr. Whitehead Arthur Coll                                10.
23. Johannis Verveelen                                       71.
24. Richard Bryan                                            61.     10
26. Egbert Meynders                                          94.      1
32. Geertrim Hibons                                          68.     10
    Hendrik Janse at Angstyns farm                           65.      5
32. John Cornelis buys                                      172.      6
    Cornelis Carsen about                                   600.
34. Jacob Gisberts at Crenpelbos                             80.      8
37. Hark Siboutse                                            40.
    Joseph Lee                                               24.
43. Casper Kerstens                                           8.
48. Walter Webly                                             55.      2
    Capt. Thomas Smith                                      267.     17
49. Thomas Conink                                          f145.      5
53. fytie Cornelis                                            5.
    frans Lee                                               172.      2
    frans France                                             81.
56. Job at Capt Mannings                                     80.   9 1/2
57. William Fissher                                         929.     10
58. Roelof Jonse Taylor in white 30                          50.
    Skiple and John Nagel                                    30.
61. Jacob Ven Eyck                                           67.
62. Jan Hanse at bedfort                                    125.
65. Samuell Godwin                                            8.
70. Gerret Thennis at Albany in
    wheat 199 Skiple.                                      is 1188.
72. Pieter Lassing at ditto                                 129.      4

                               [FOLIO 10]

No 12 AO 1676 & 1677
Fo 74. Anna Elysabeth                                      f131.
76. John Shakerly,                                           80.      4
77. Capt Salisbury                                           54.      2
    John Thomas Widdow N Utrecht                             25.
78. Josias Hun                                               20.
    Samuel] Drake                                            68.     10
    Carsten at ye great Kill                                  6.      8
    Carsten Cornelis                                         10.
79. John Richards                                            41.      7
82. Cornelis van bursum                                    1505.     14
    Pieter Wessels Carman                                    57.     16
83. Pieter Roelof                                           364.      2
    David Osburne- at Eastchester                             4.     10
85. Cornelis Pieters Carpenter                                1.      0
    Thomas ye pleyman                                        52.
88. Nicholas de Laplaine                                      6.

                               [FOLIO 11]

No 13 AO 1678: 1679: 1680
fo 1. Adrian Dirkson                                        f52.     15
   Watie Porter                                               7.
   Barent Jacobs Ditto                                        9.      4
   Mr. Williams                                               6.     10
   Hester Webber                                             37.     14
   John ye weaver of Fleisshing                              35.      5
   Dirk Johns at ye Ferry                                   144.     15
   Lowrence Ahasuerus                                        69.
2. Richard Hedly                                             76.
6. Hendrick Matusysen at N:Utrecht                          350.      1
8. Joresy in ye whale boght
     (Wallabout)                                             24.
   Arent Janse Vogel                                        100.      4
   Joris Hall to ye Esopus                                  692.     15
   William Notingarn at ditto                               287.      8
   Wessel Tenn Brock at Ditto to                            466.     10
10. Coenradus Vanderbeek                                     74.      3
12. Gisbert Elberts                                          79.      7
    Phillip Piene                                            197
    Jan Varkenson                                             29
    Claas Catsveghter open
15. Jan Brewer                                             f106.     13
    Gerret Hendrix blew boore                                36.
16. Catherina de Silla                                      187.
    Hugo Barents                                             372      5
    Barent Egbertse                                         179.
17. Hendrick Timonsen                                       103.      4
    Arent Prall                                              40.     10
18. Barent Joosten & Jan Hanse                              285.      6
    Sibrant Jansen                                            6.
    Evert Wessels                                            66.
20. Engeltie Burgers                                        277.     19
21. Jan Harmense taylor                                     470.      4
    Johannis Lamontagne                                     267.      4
    John Roelofs at Flakbos                                 120.      4
    Jacques Corteljou                                       194.
22. Rachel Bos                                               60.
    Gretie Wessels                                          162.      3
    Claas Look                                               23.
    John Kingdom                                             93.     16

                               [FOLIO 12]

No 13
24. David Hendriks 50 pce wood &                            f30.     16
    Everet Hedeman                                           43.
25. Joris Jacobs at ye ferry                                 40.
    Hendrick Harmens droog Straet                           228.     12
    Isaak Van Vleck                                          25.     17
    Pieter Scham                                            124.     13
26. Jacob Young open
    John Cornelisse at Boswyk                                16.
    Wrn Leg Carpenter                                        90.
27. Jonathan Provoost                                        56.
    Andrew Borende open
    Harmen Hay                                               30.
29. Daniell de Haert                                        300.      9
    John Jackson at Eastchester                              29.
    Samuell Gardner Westchester                              28.
    John Coppen                                              83.     10
30. John Hendrix vryman                                     362.     16
    Susanna Verplank                                        108.     16
    Minnie Johannis                                         185.      1
    Amadoor foupie                                          127.     15
31. Staet de groot                                           57.
32. Resolve Waldron                                         130.     15
    Johannis Vermelye                                       238.      4
    John Johnse Mol                                          84.
    Thomas Rogers 7 bevers                                   33.
    Baltus Bayard 2 lb. flower &                             24.     14
    John Smith at Newtown                                    54.
34. Ralph Doxy at Do                                        219.      3
    John Janse Van Rynen                                    135.
    James Hatten                                             66.
35. Capt John Palmer                                         76.
37. Dirk Hattum                                             160.
38. Jurian Haegel                                             5.
39. John banning                                             72.      4
40. Reyn Arents in Flackbos                                  18.     18
41. Yong Adam Mott                                           10.     10
    Jarvis Marshall                                          65.     18
    Thomas Coaker                                             6.
43. Neeltie tot boswyck                                      54.
45. Adolph Picters                                          f75.      8
46. Jacob Stryker                                             30
    Capt. Thomas De Lavall                                  208.     14

                               [FOLIO 13]

No 13
48. Nicholas Bayard                                        f348.      3
49. Catherina Van Werven                                     15.      2
50. Jacob Kip                                               262.
51. Jan Adrians dochter                                      36.
54. Jacob Hansen                                             14.
55. John Peters Vandeventer                                  30.
    Dirkie Roelofs.                                          50.
    Catrina in Paulus daughter                               26.
56. Abraham Corbett                                           5.
58. Abraham Verplank                                         41.     13
59. Rem Janse at ye Whal bough
    (Wallabout)                                              32.
    Peter Cornelis boswyck                                    5.
60. Willem White                                            513.
61. Jan Lewis                                               129.
63. Pieter Parmentier                                        50.
    Dirk Smith                                               35.     18
64. Thomas Lambert                                         f225.      8
66. John Butcher                                            275.      4
68. Widow Gibs                                                6.     10
73. Nelis de Sweet                                           13.      6
74. William Loverage                                        130.
    Cornelis Vanderburgh                                     16.
75. John Vigne                                              101.      5
76. Lowrence Janse tot Harlem                                45.
    William Jacobs                                           50.      4
    William Bogardus                                        114.      7
77. Allard Anthony                                          619.      7
80. John Cavelier                                            40.      7
81. Barent Alberts 30 planken &                             559.     10
    Humphry Davenport                                        16.      9
83. Ruth ye Turner                                           36.     18
    Alexander Cockeveer                                      24.     10
84. Barent Gerrets taylor                                    70.     10
    Thimotheus Gabry                                         45.
85. Nicholas de Meyer                                       111.     10
87. Hendrik Barente                                          40.     12
88. Frans Hendrix                                            56.      4
    Albert Cornelison                                       149.
89. Henry Pawling                                          1932.      5

                               [FOLIO 14]

No 13
89. Gerret Hendrix butcher                                  f61.
90. Adrian Cornelis                                          26.      5
    Mr. Snosel                                              100.
91. Simon Hakens                                             23.
    Thomas Stevens                                           12.
92. Harmen Hendrix
94. Christopher Hoogland                                     437      1
    Jacob Leisler                                             14
    Jeronimo Carpenter                                         3
    Thermus Janse Fisher                                      10     10
95. John Risbell                                              63     12
97. John Van Gelder                                           48     13
99. Pieter Janse meot                                         51
100. Ambroos Waron                                            f1
    Adrian Lamberts                                            5
    Abraham Lamberts mol                                      45
101. Wolpher Webber                                           18
102. Roel of Janse butcher                                   262     18
     John Carseboorn                                          29      5
104. Hyman Alberts at Esopus                                 189     18
     Tryntie Copers mothers                                    9     13
105. Pieter Meesen
106. Volkert Dirkson                                        2184     17
107. Joseph Bunoe de Muskite                                 63.     14
     Daniell Tourneur                                         7.
108. Reymer Williams 914 lb Flower
111. Henry Vandewater                                        46.
     Jan Aertsen                                              7.
112. Gisbert Crom 18-Skiple Wheate &                         80.
113. John Grixson                                            37.
     Fredrick ye Coper                                      199.     11
115. John Schoster                                           21.
     Bruyn Hagen at ye Esopus                               873.
116. Lewis Janse                                             81.
117. Mr Evert Pieters                                         2.     10
119. Bos butcher                                             26.     10
     Thomas taylor hatter                                    32.      5
     Albert bos                                              47.
121. Benjamin provoost at Esopus                            337.      8
     Henry Ten Eyck at ditto                                496.     12
126. John Paris                                             393.

                               [FOLIO 15]

No 14 AO 1680 & 1681

1. David Provoost                                           f59.     16
2. Abraham Frankfort                                        585.      6
3. Thomas Codrington                                        239.      1
4. William Pinhome                                          247.      2
5. Assur my Cosen                                           352.  16 1/2
6. Simon my Cosen 1 barrl flower &                          129.
   Jacob Moleyn                                              72.
7. Alexander Stilther                                       100.      8
   Simon de Carman                                           61.     15
8. William in Capt. dyres garden                              3.     10
10. Jacob Israel                                            f49.     10
    Lucas Andries                                           103.     20
    Allard Anthony                                           91.
    Pieter Lourens                                          146.     15
    Taylor at fransyntie (Franspitt)                         37.
11. Thomas Clerke                                           129.     18
    William Churcher                                        155.      5
12. John Robinson                                           119.     18
13. Guilliam de honeur                                        5.      1
    Stephen Van Cortlandt                                   217.
14. Dirk Everts                                             194.     14
    Pieter Johnse Slott                                      71.      7
16. Mr Lagrange                                             220.      5
17. Martin Meyer Smith                                      276.
18. William Darvall                                          59.
19. Marten Cregier bever 8 &                                124.     10
    Susanna Bording                                           8.
    Henry ten brock                                           4.     10
20. Dirk Volkers
    Hans Goderns                                            240.
21. Walter Webly                                            265.     17
    Johannis Vanbrugh                                        35.      6
22. William Beekman                                         356.
24. Jan Adriaanse about                                    2400.
25. Charles Housman                                         665.     19
27. Capt William Dyre                                        99.
29. Hans Kierstede                                          220.    12.
    Richard heymore                                          33.
30. Lourens Vander Spiegel 5667 lb
      flower &                                               68.
34. Coenraet ten Eyk Junior                                 288.     15
35. Mr. Cox                                                   6.

                               [FOLIO 16]

No. 14 1680 & 1681
35. Mrs. Sharpe                                            f553.     18
36. Elliott ye Coper                                          7.
37. Mathias Nicolls                                         760.     18
    Peter De Lanoy                                           22.
38. Christyntie Laurens (Laurient)                          198.      9
39. Pieter Hanse at Delaware                                291.      5
40. Elizabeth Gibbs                                         103.     12
41. Thomas Janse at ye redd hooke                            16.
42. John de pipemaker                                       121.      8
43. Nicolas Bayard                                           68.     10
    Pieter Alrighs 500 lb. tobacco
44. Tierk Claase at
    Esopus 549 lb.flower &                                  128.
    Mathew Teller                                           107.
45. Francyntie Andries                                      152.
46. Nicolas Anthony                                         228.
48. Cornet (Colonel) Morris                                  28.
    Madelene Derway at Flishing                             118.
    Abraham Kermer                                           13.
49. Severam Lawrence                                          1.
    Bastien Ellis                                            31.
50. William ye Quake                                        268.
    John Genus/207 pd 1000 foot plank
51. Pieter Janse Wit                                         19.
52. James Graham                                            415.
53. Jan Joosten                                              26.
    William Merrett                                         947.
55. Theunis Janse Coevers                                    72.
    Jacobus ye turner                                        20.      9
56. Dirk Vander Clyff                                         1.     16
57. William Macons mate                                       8.     10
58. Barent Coerten                                            4.
    Volkert Hendrix                                         152.
59. Josea Hallett                                            46.      9
    John Dame                                                33.
    John Cornelis of John Poppe                             310.     18
61. John Tudor                                             f158.     14
    Florus Williams                                          59.     10
    John Hendrix at Harlem                                   56.     10
    Theunis de Carman                                         4.     10
    Claas Roelofs                                            21.
61&
72. Samuel beakman                                          164.

                               [FOLIO 17]

                      No 14 AO 1680: 1681

62. Capt John Manning 1678:17:
    upon this fl. 2000 for 4 years
    rent to receive of blakwell
63. David Abendana                                         f131.     10
65. Nathaniel Person & Jonase pyn
66. Jochem Wessels wampum
    flower 2666 lb.,                                         36.
    bevers 24 3/4 fl.                                       616.
    Indian Come 20 Skiple
    Lybe Thysen                                              45.     12
67. Robert Story                                             45.      9
68. Carsten Lehrsen                                          86.     19
    Barent Janse at Altena                                   24.
    Jan Verkerke                                             94.      5
69. Dirk Vok1kers                                          2170.      2
70. Kip                                                     100.
    Bay Croesvelt                                            17.
71. Jacob Pieters                                           372.      6
    David hynse                                              33.     12
    Timon francen                                            21.     12
72. John Wessels                                            310.      1
73. John Rider                                              687.      1
74. Jacob Dirkson                                           365.     10
75. Robert Blakwell                                        3039.     14
76. James Mathys                                           1109.      9
    Adam Brower                                            1817.     18
    Josua Servateyn                                          24.
    Valyntyn van der Wilde                                 2631.      4

[FOLIO 18]

Several accounts Concerning Cornelis Spyker as by Ledger & Journall
nott Compleated
a booke of ye Concernings of Sarnual blagge with severall accounts not
Stated
a booke of accounts Concerning ye Estate of Anna Litsco with some accts
& peapers
Several Peapers belonging to Captn. John Manning
a booke of Envoices of goods sent for Barbados &c
Sundry bookes for buttchers account of small value
The Gouvernours Grant and patent
for ye Slaughter House in Compy
with Gerrett Johnse Roos
                                              18 [pounds       0      0
                                              sterling]:
More omitted
one Negro boy                                        20:       0      0
one buffe coate, one portepe wth 13
[or] 14 ounces Silver, one Scarfe,
one black Bever hatt, one Jackett
with Cam c(I]oth Slives, one black
belt with frange in ye hands of
Simon Valentyn.
* ye belt & hatt onlly valued at               0 [pounds     15.      0
                                              sterling]:
* one gray and black hatt                             0:     12.      0
* 5000 brix                                           4:     10.      0
a parcell of old bookes                               0:     10.      0
two andyrons, 3 pewter bason, 1
funnell, 1 porringer 3 pottlets, 1
pr tables, one Spin wheel one
warming parm and severall trifels
in ye house and necessarys for a
butcher                                               2:       0      0
one Gunn                                              0:       0      0
to transport from folio                             507:       2      0

                                             553 [pounds     15:      0
                                              sterling]:

Valued by us in persuance of orders of Court dated ye 9th of May & 19th
Septemr last ye estate
of Assher Levy decased presented to us by ye widdow according to
inventory and appraised to yeSume of five hundred fifty three pound
fifteen Shillings Current money in New Yorke as witness our hands anno
1682/3 February ye
9th (debts excepted)
N. Bayard John Lawrence
Thos. Codrington Cornelis Steenwyck
[All but Bayard are crossed out.]

[FOLIO 19]

BALLANCE OF CREDITORS
fo. 38 No. 10 John Coely [Cooley]                   f52:      14
fo. 2 No. 13 Egbert Wouters                           5:
24. Laurens Wessels                                  18:       5
22. John Johnse Longedyk                             67:       6
39. Thimon Van Bursum                                 4:      15
60 Jacobus Colgert                                   17:
61 Nicolas Stuyvesand                                22:
101 John Joosten                                     21:      19
103 Evert Wessels Cooper                             43:
105 Theodorus Polheyrn                                3:      12
116 Lucas Andries
    Richard Patishall                          9 [pounds
                                          sterling]:19:5
fo. 8 No. 14 Thomas Comink                          f54:
fo. 19 Ahasuerus Silver Smith                        10:
23 Gerret Johnse Roos                                67:       8
26 John Lowrence                                     36:      16
21 Samuell Wilson                                     8:      13
33 Guinlam Verplank                                  45:
38 Nicholas Stuyvesant                               11:
49 Egbert Fockens;                                   27:       4
57 Francis Richardson                               107:
   Thomas Lowrence                                   19:      16
59 Charles Fontaine                                 212:      13
64 Joris Stevens                                    127:
Anna Litsco about ye house by
computations besides vendu mony                    3600:

[FOLIO 20]

Citty of New York S.S.The Court of Record of the City aforsd holden att
ye Citty Hall within ye
Citty on Tuesday the 9th day of May 1682 (1683) before Mr. William
Beekeman Depty Mayor etc.
This Inventory of the Estate of Asser Levy Deceased being presented in
Court by Maria Levy his Widdow & Administratrix who declared upon oath
ytThe same was a true and perfect Inventory of all the Singular ye
goods Chattles & Creditts of the Deceased that she knows off or is come
to her hands the same was allowed of & ordered to be Recorded w(hic)h &
is accordingly Done.
John West Cl.

[FOLIO 21]

New Yorke 1685/6 primo January Goods desposed of by Miriam Levy
Administratrix of Asser Levy deceased for ye maintenance of her selfe
and paying Creditors viz out ye Inventory
eighteen Skiples of wheat                 2 [pounds          14:     --
                                         sterling]:
Six Pound Cotton Wigg                                        12:      0
one barrell flower                               2:          10:      0
one hatt                                         0:          10:      0
one sword hiked with Silver                      0:           6:      0
one box with wampum of Anna Litsco               0:          15:      0
one black velvet Jackett                         2:           0:      0
one blak grosgraine briches & Coat
one gray ditto and Coat on dark                  6:           0:      0
two Linnen Briches                                            5:      0
one drest Leather Skinn 1 pr
Stockins                                                     12:
four Cours Hatts                                             16:
twelf new & 9 halve worn shirts                               6:
Six Linnen Drawers                                           15:
two paire old silke stockins                                  7:
one paire Silver buttons & knife                             12:
twinty five ducatons                             9:           7:      6
one ditto with a ring                            0:           7:      6
fourteen Rix Dolers                              4:           7:      6
one gilted pids [pies]                           0:           6:      0
Seaven 1/2 Crowns                                1:           1:      0
four heavy beavers                               2:           8:      0
Silver wrought 10 lb. wt                        48:           --
Silver to a band to a sword                      1:    [missing]
1 Silver hatt band, one do.bell                  1:    [missing]
1 Silver watch 20s 2 pr do
buckles 8s                                       1:           8:     --
13 Gold rings 10:7.6 Salt 50
Sk(ipl)e                                        12:          17:      6
2 barrells tarr 24s                              1:           4:     --
Timber to build a house                         12:           --     --
Sundry pieces of Gold                           13:          10:      0
3 Hatts & a belt                                 1:           7:      0
5000 Brix                                        4:          10:      0
                                        140 [pounds           4:
                                          sterling]                 [-]
[FOLIO 22]

All the household goods and furniture Contained in this inventory
(Except Such as are disposed for the maintanance of ye Widdow, as
appears by ye annexed Liste, I doe ingadge to make good and that they
Shall abide the determination of this Court of Chancery, or be
accountable for them or their value, to Mr. Nicholas Bayard and John
De Lavall. In N: Yorke the 27th of January 1685/6


[FIGURES 1-2 OMITTED]

Glossary of Terms *

Bevers--possibly a coin, but more probably a beaver pelt

Casjack--probably cassock, a loose fitting gown worn by men and women

Close stool--a chamber pot disguised as a chair; the "secret seller" probably the pot underneath

Cornelia tree cup--probably a silver cup decorated in the form of a cornelian cherry or flowering dogwood tree

Ducatons; ducatoon--a silver coin of crown size first struck in 1598 during the Spanish occupation of the Netherlands and copied elsewhere

Ell--the old Dutch or Flemish ell was about 27 inches; the present el or ell is a meter.

Flaske Seller case--Flask cellar case, used for holding bottles.

Flesshes--possibly a flesher, a primitive instrument for cleaning the flesh side of skin, usually made of bond or stone; or, more likely, a butcher's knife, a two handled, convex, blunt edged knife, for the same purpose

Gros grane; grosgrain of a large grain or cord--applied to silk fabric having heavy transverse cords; silk or ribbon of this description

Pantofles--pantofile, a slipper especially for lounging

Rix dallar--Rix dollar, any of the Dutch, German, or Scandinavian silver coins, probably the Dutch ryksdaaler

Skipple--three-fourths of a bushel

Stuff briches--stuff breeches, probably worsted breeches

Threnser--trencher, a knife or alternately a board or wooden plate or platter on which to carve or serve food

Santeen--probably satin

Say--a coarse woolen mantle; a fine twilled fabric resembling serge, either all wool or mixed with silk; also silk; from the three ell measurement, it would seem to be a bolt of silk.

Turkey work--upholstered furniture. Such work is rare before 1645 and generally dates from about 1660. It was not until the late seventeenth century, generally after 1685, that elaborate weaving of silks and velvets, i.e., "turkey work," generally replaced the fine split cane meshing that had been the filling of back and seat panels on chairs. Between 1660 and 1685, chairs were probably made of walnut; Herbert Cescinsky and Ernest R. Grubble, Early English Furniture and Woodwork, 2 vols. (London: 1922), II, 212-214.

The reference to "old Leather chairs" would date these items to about 1650, when the Cromwellian oak chair usually had a "seat and back made by straining the thick hide over the framings, without any attempt at padding." Ibid., II, 191, with figures 246 and 247 as examples.

The mentioned "painted shugar box" was probably an English copy of the most prized Chinese or Japanese lacquered wooden or metal work. The finest English lacquer work dates from 1670 to about 1700. Ibid., II, 364.

* Definitions are from Webster's New International Dictionary, 1948 edition.

(1.) Levi v. Vanderwilde, March 24, 1684/5, Documents 40A and D, Miscellaneous Papers, American Jewish Historical Society Library, cited hereafter as AJHSL; Leo Hershkowitz, "Asser Levy's Signature," American Jewish History 79 (1990): 500-503.

(2.) Jonathan Pearson, ed., Early Records of the City and County of Albany and Colony of Rensselaerswyck, 4 vols. (Albany, 1916), III, 517-18; Gemeente Archief, Amsterdam, Notarial Archief, 3252/239. Cited hereafter as Not. Arch. A useful unpublished biography, used with the kind permission of Dr. Arthur Konop, formerly Director of the James Kelly Institute of St. Francis College, is that by Howard B. Muchnikoff, "Assur Levy: Jewish Merchant of New Netherlands (1654-1862)," written in 1968.

(3.) Levi v. Vanderwilde.

(4.) New York State Library, Albany, Will Liber 2, 72, 147-52; and Will Liber 19B, 47-65, 90-95 (April 24, 1682 and February 6, 1683). Original inventories are at AJHSL, with the exception of the February 9, 1683 inventory at the library of Congregation Shearith Israel, New York City. Another inventory may have existed, drawn by John Robinson and Paulus Richards, but no such document has yet been found; see Levi v. Vanderwilde. Malcolm Stern "Asser Levy: New Look at Our Jewish Founding Father," American Jewish Archives 26 (1974): 66, 72-75, refers to February 1, 1682 as the date of Levy's death, but this is not supported by any evidence. See also Malcolm Stern, "Asser Levy, New Jersey Revolutionary and His Colonial Namesakes," New Jersey History (Fall-Winter 1980): 254.

(5.) Berthold Fernow, The Records of New Amsterdam, 7 vols. (New York, 1905), I, 242, 249, cited hereafter as Records; Arnold Wiznitzer, The Records of the Earliest Jewish Community in the New World (New York, 1965), 48-52; Arnold Wiznitzer, "The Exodus from Brazil and Arrival in New Amsterdam of the Jewish Pilgrim Fathers," Proceedings of the American Jewish Historical Society 44 (1954): 80-97; Samuel Oppenheim, The Early History of the Jews in New York, 1654-1664 (New York, 1909), 3, 44, 45, 71. Oppenheim was certain the ship was named the St. Charles (at 41), while Wiznitzer argues as cogently for the St. Catherine; Wiznitzer, "Exodus from Brazil," 88. The accounts by Oppenheim and Wiznitzer also differ on details of the Brazilian exodus, with both presenting acceptable theories.

(6.) Records, I, 240.

(7.) The following list of early Jews has been compiled by the author from various sources, including Fernow's seven-volume Records; Not. Arch.; Earl A. Grollman, "Dictionary of American Jewish Biography in the Seventeenth Century," American Jewish Archives 3 (1950): 3-10; and Joseph R. Rosenbloom, A Biographical Dictionary of Early American Jews (Lexington, 1960), passim. Solomon Pieterson and Jacob Barsimon were in New Amsterdam by August 1654; Asser Levy, Riche Nunes, Judith de Mereda, Abraham Israel, David Israel, Moses Ambrosius, and perhaps Jacob Lucena came before, during, or soon after September 1654; Jacob Cohen Henriques, Salvador D'Andrada, Abraham De Lucena, Joseph De Costa, Benjamin Cardozo, Isaac Israel, and David De Ferera in or before 1655; Elias Silva and Moses De Silva in 1656; Moses De Lucena and Isaac Mesa in 1657; Manuel Rioz Lucena in 1658-1659; and Joseph Frances and Mevrouw De Lucena in 1660. Most were on the Brazil congregational lists, as was Benjamin Bueno De Mesquita, who was in New Amsterdam in 1661, and David Abendana, who was in New York in 1680.

Manuel Ruiz Lucena seems to have been in New Amsterdam in 1658; Not. Arch., 2998/241. Jacob Lucena was in New Amsterdam in 1654, and possibly even earlier in 1654; see Max J. Kohler, "Phases of Jewish Life in New York Before 1800," Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 3 (1895): 77. Wiznitzer, "Exodus from Brazil," 92-93, suggests that Abraham (or Abram) Israel was Abraham Israel Dias or De Piza, and that David Israel may have been David Israel Faro, both on the Brazilian congregation lists. "Abraham Israel de Piza, a Jew" and a son not identified by name appeared in court as witnesses on July 17, 1664 (Records, V, 96). Wiznitzer also suggests that Asser Levy could have been the son of bodek (examiner of kosher meat) Benjamin Levy. A David Israel purchased "negerslaven" in July 1641, together with Abraham Querido De Jonge from the Dutch West India Company while in Brazil. In Amsterdam in January 1658, Israel was about to depart for Barbados; Not. Arch., 2859/1. For a different view of the post-Brazilian exodus, see Eger and Frieda Wolff, "The Problem of the First Jewish Settlers in New Amsterdam, 1654," Studia Rosenthaliana 15 (1981): 169-77.

(8.) Simon W. Rosendale, "An Early Ownership of Real Estate in Albany, New York by a Jewish Trader," Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 3 (1895): 61-71; Early Records, III, 517-18, IV, 71. Leon Huhner in "Asser Levy, A Noted Jewish Burgher of New Amsterdam," Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 8 (1900): 9-23, argues for a Jamaica origin via Cuba.

(9.) Not. Arch., 1133/114, 2443/761; Hershkowitz, "Levy's Signature."

(10.) For burgher rights, see Records, VII, 154. Simon Valentine obtained a burgher right in New York on January 16, 1682; David T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York (New York, 1858), 594.

(11.) Not. Arch., 3121/619, 3252/239, 2315/77, 1092/120; Will Liber 14A, 69.

(12.) Will Liber 14A, 69.

(13.) Not. Arch., 3121/619.

(14.) Levi v. Vanderwilde. This case is summarized by Rosendale, "An Early Ownership," which, although it omits some interesting detail, contains a good summary of the original records. The Hebrew signature is missing from extant manuscripts, but is reported by Rosendale. See also New York County Clerk's Office, New York City, Mayor's Court Papers, I, 24 (March 25, 1685).

(15.) Records, VII, 258-59.

(16.) On January 8, 1678, Levy petitioned the Common Council for permission to build a slaughterhouse and to have liberty to "kill and hang" meat. He also wanted to take in Garrit Jansen Roos as a partner. This request was granted. By October 8, 1678, Levy reported that the house had been built. This served as a site for public butchering until March 12, 1696. It was then converted, at least in part, to a gunpowder warehouse; Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776, 8 vols. (New York, 1905), I, 67-68, 150. Thomas Devoe, The Market Book (New York, 1862), 55. Roos (or Rose or Rouse) was elected constable on October 13, 1685; Minutes of the Common Council, I, 170. He is also mentioned as a carpenter in 1654-1655; Records, I, 228, 373, II, 141, 201, III, 64, 70. He was made a sworn butcher on November 3, 1656; ibid., II, 222. His permit was renewed on October 31, 1665, along with Asser Levy's; ibid, V, 312. Just how and where Levy and Roos met will probably never be known.

(17.) Maud Dillard, An Album of New Netherland, (New York, 1963), 86.

(18.) David T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York (New York, 1865), 691, 701; cited hereafter as Manual. See also, Muchnikoff, "Assur Levy," 72-73.

(19.) Isaac N. P. Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island, 6 vols. (New York, 1915-1922), II, 310.

(20.) Ibid.; Manual, 701.

(21.) Stokes, Iconography, II, 311; Records, 1, 221-22.

(22.) Huhner, "Asser Levy," 13.

(23.) Records, V, 31, 371.

(24.) Stokes, Iconography, II, 326; W. Harrison Bayles, Old Taverns of New York (New York, 1915), 22-23; Records, III, 258. Levy was quite close to the Litscho family. When Litscho's wife, Annetie Claes Croesens, died, Levy and Thomas Lambert, carpenter of Bedford, Long Island, were appointed administrators of the estate on May 16, 1679 by Governor Edmund Andros; Will Liber I, 380-81.

(25.) Devoe, Market Book, 45, 55, 242.

(26.) Minutes of the Common Council, I, 146.

(27.) Most seventeenth- and early-eighteenth-century New York inventories are in the State Archives, Albany. For a listing of them, see National Genealogical Society Quarterly 54 (1966): 246-59. The undated inventory of the John Winder estate, taken about 1678, is almost as long as Asser Levy's. Interestingly, at the time of Winder's death, "Ashur Levi" owed Winder f2.0.3; Will Liber I, 296. Levy was also a creditor of John Shackerly, and on December 1, 1679, he requested, along with other creditors, that Cornelis Steenwyck be appointed administrator of the estate; Will Liber I, 419. Miriam Levy owed merchant Jacob DeLange 400 florins at the time of his death in 1685. Since this does not appear in the Levy inventory, it is assumed his wife incurred the debt; Will Liber 19B, 176. DeLange's inventory is an incredible listing of all sorts of objects; ibid., 268. The inventory was taken on July 29, 1696; ibid., 220.

JUDAH SAMUEL (1702)

This little known figure was born in Fulda, Germany, lived in Brest Litovsk, and was married in Amsterdam in 1693 to Rachel Hendricks, born in 1660. (1) Though not mentioned in city records and not recorded as a freeman, he surely was in New York by the turn of the century. His inventory, taken by Moses Levy, is his legacy to history. He was a merchant, dealing not only in textiles, "5 yds. Bengal, 2 pcs. Calicoas," but also in rum, specifically "77 1/2 Galls Rum." Samuel also had a "Stilled Kettle" for use in a distillery, for alcohol, like textiles, was a major item in colonial trade. His wife might have died just before her husband, as her clothes were still in his home: "a woman gowne and petty coat," an apron, and a handkerchief. Household furniture, a tankard, saltcellar, frying pan, a feather bed, and bedstead with curtains are personal witnesses to the contents of a rather small household. The two gold rings are probably wedding rings. This is the second extant inventory of the Jewish inhabitants of New York during the colonial period, but it is the first to mention a Hebrew Bible and five prayer books. Judah Samuel may have read and understood Hebrew, and perhaps he took part in the services held in John Harpending's house on Mill Street (now South William Street), the rented site of the first known place of Jewish worship in New York City. (2)

It is possible that husband and wife would have been about forty-two and were victims of small pox, which, as Governor Edward Cornbury noted in a letter on May 18th, 1702, "is very much here," and which in ten weeks "swept away" up to 500 people. The population of New York was about 4,500. This, therefore, was truly an epidemic. There is no record of Samuel's burial. It is also possible that Levy Samuel, merchant made freeman of the city on October 4, 1743, was a relative, who in 1737 contributed to building a wall around the cemetery and in 1740 seemingly gave 5 [pounds sterling] for construction of a Jesibah (synagogue school). (3)
1702--An Inventory of Judah Samuel Decd. of his goods
A Feather Bed with two Piloviers
A Quilt and A Rugg
13 Pewter dishes And 16 plates
Halfe Gall, pott, a quart ditto And One Tankard
One Salt Seller, a porringer, 3: Paddles Brass
One Small Brass Kettle, a frying pan, 2 brass Candlesticks
A Stilled Kettle with all furniture, a brass morter
5 Hats, 3 women hoods, 3: Night Rails half pound Thread
A women Stayes, 5-yds. Bengal, 2 pcs Calicoas
A woman Gowne and petty coat, a coat And breeches
A wascoat, 2 paire silver button and a Ring ditto
3 paire Stockings, a dressing basket, a pair of Shears
A Table, 12 Straw Chairs, a Iron Pott, a kettle ditto
A Gunn, a small Brass Kettle, one Looking Glass
One Hebrew Bible, 5 prayer books, 16 furr Caps
7 Muffs, 8 Skins, 42 women Muffs, 5 hebrew books
4 Sheets, 3 old wastcoats, 6 Shirts, 2 Table Cloths
2 Children Caps, one Apron, 4 Pilowiers, One handkerchief
A bed stead with Curtins


77 1/2 Galls. Rum, A Silver Spoon Received in Cash from the said Decd., 25:8-9d [pounds sterling] And Two Gold Rings value in all about 150 [pounds sterling] [signed] Moses Levy

The above inventory is all the goods & Chattles which at present is come to the above named Moses Levy's hands of the Estate of Judah Samuel decd. Jurat Coram me (Sworn before me) John Bridges Surrogate (4) Xber 2d, 1702 [December 2, 1702] [On reverse] 2d Decem 2, 1702 Moses Levi his Inventory of ye Estate of Judah Samuel decd.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

(1.) Dave Verdooner and Harmen Snel, Jewish Marriage in Amsterdam, 2 vols. (S'Gravenhage, 1990), I, 59 ; Jacob R. Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 3 vols. (Detroit, 1970), II, 1076.

(2.) Leo Hershkowitz, "The Mill Street Synagogue Reconsidered," American Jewish Historical Society Quarterly 53 (1964): 404-10; Isaac N. P. Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island, 6 vols. (New York, 1915-1922), III, 433.

(3.) Edmund B. O'Callaghan, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, 15 vols. (Albany, 1856-1887), IV, 972. For freemanship, see New York Historical Society's Collections, Burghers and Freemen (New York, 1886), 148; Lyons Collection, in Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 21 (1913): 38, 42; David De Sola Pool, Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682-1831 (New York, 1952), 29. A Levy Samuel petitioned to be naturalized in 1739, but the relationship, if any, to the decedent is unknown; Journal of the Votes and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the Colony of New-York Began the 9th Day of April, 1691; and Ended the 27th Day of September, 1743 (New York, 1764), 776.

(4.) Bridges, an attorney, was a member of Governor Edward Hyde Cornbury's (1661-1723) council, arriving in New York along with the Governor in 1702. In this inventory, he acted as Cornbury's surrogate; Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776, 8 vols. (New York, 1905), II, 197, 204. For intestate estates and reliance upon a governor's delegates to issue necessary warrants, see Laws of New York From 1691-1751 (New York, 1752), 474. Moses Levy (d. 1728) was a noted merchant and related to Asser Levy. See Leo Hershkowitz, ed., Wills of Early New York Jews (1704-1799) (New York, 1967), 36-43.

JOSEPH TORES NUNES

(OCTOBER 8, 1705)

Like so many early Jews in colonial America, little is known about this merchant. It is possible he was related to Riche Nunes, one of the 1654 travelers to the city, and that he was related to Joseph Nunes who, together with several others, petitioned in 1728 for a new burial ground for the city's Jewish inhabitants. There are a number of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Amsterdam Nuneses and Toreses, including Jacob Nunes, married in 1664 to Abigael Monsanto, and Joseph Tores, married in 1679 to Sara Nabarro, but their connection to Joseph Tores Nunes, if any, has not been established. (1)

Nunes drew up a will on September 22, 1704, ten days before his death on October 2, which was probated on November 10, 1704. He is identified on his tombstone in Shearith Israel's cemetery at Chatham Square in New York City as the "Honored Rabbi Joseph Tores Nunes," who at his death at the age of thirty was a "blissful unmarried man." He appears to have been in New York in 1700, representing his brother Abraham Nunes of London in an attempt to collect debts. He was sued in September of that year, and in 1703 he was assessed a small sum on his real estate holdings in the city. (2)

During his few short years in the city, Nunes carried on an active business. In May 1701, he imported eighty-four pieces of calico from Jamaica on board the sloop John. The identifying mark on the package was A.N., surely a reference to his brother, Abraham. Also in May 1701, he imported aboard the brigantine "Lawrell" [Laurel], again from Jamaica, fifty-five gallons of rum. In July of that year, he brought in nineteen pieces of "crape" aboard the sloop Hope from Jamaica. In June 1702, on the sloop John, he shipped "Sundry" goods in one barrel. In October 1702, he imported a parcel of dry goods from London, and in January 1703, again from London, an assortment of unspecified merchandise on the Blossom. In May 1703, he imported more dry goods on the ship Supply, and in June 1703, still more dry goods on the brigantine Anne. Unspecified cargo was imported from London in August and early September 1704 on three different vessels.

The last date is the final time Nunes appears on shipping lists. (3) It would appear that many of the goods in his inventory were part of these recent imports. Nunes seemingly died quite suddenly, possibly the result of small pox (see the introduction to the preceding inventory of Samuel Judah). His will seems made in haste. In it, mention is made of a brother, Samuel Nunes, who received his entire estate, but there is no reference to his other brother, Abraham. Nunes's inventory is heavily weighted with an assortment of fabrics and some interesting references, such as forty-two dozen "Jews Harps." Used extensively in trade with the Native American population, they were known as "twangers." Clothing listed is that of a "blissful" bachelor, such as a cloth coat, a pair of plush breeches, and a morning gown. The last part of the inventory seems related to his personal property and would fit in a rather small room in a small house. One bed and one tankard are perhaps testimony to a brief and lonely stay in New York.
Inventory and Apprisemt of ye Estate of Joseph Nunes taken at ye desire
of Mr. Paul Droillet, & Mr. Lewis Gomes his Executors in New York this
[?] day of [?]
7 pcs brown Oznabrigs qty
  [quantity] 315 Ells at                       21 [pounds
  16s pr ell                                    sterling]    0        0
10 pcs Dowlas                       50s pcs            25    0        0
15 pcs blue Oznabrigs, qty
  398:2 yds at                   13 s pr yd            19   18        6
4 pcs double Garlix 3
  [pounds sterling] pr pcs                             12
1 pc ditto: 3/4                                         3
1 pcs ditto: Fine                                       3   10
5 pcs. cambray 40s. pr pcs                             10
11 pcs. Musleen 26 yds pcs 4
  [pounds sterling] pr pcs               44
8 1/2 pcs with a Remainder        4 [pounds            36    2       6
                                  sterling]
                                  5s pr pcs
17 pcs printed Calico yd.
  10s pcs                                               8   10
3 Kendal Cottons                 10s pr pcs             4   10
14 pcs lead colored Calico          30s pcs            30   12
30 pcs blue ditto                  10s. pcs            15
21 pcs sad Colored ditto           15s. pcs            15   15
4 pcs East Indian Silk 50 pcs            10
24 Small Remainders of white
  Calico                                  2             8
3 doz. Pr. Threed Stockins
  for Children                         @18s             2   14
11 doz. Playing Cards            3s:6ps pcs             1   18       6
                                    pr. doz
11 Gr(oss). Pewter Buttons         2:6d pcs             1    7
2 Packets of Rings                                      5    8
a small box of Ear Rings                                6
a Bagg of Small Bits                                    1   10
1 Otter Skin                                            5    6
1 old Muff & peruke                                     1    9
a Bundle of Womens apparel                              1   10
an old Coat & small parcel of
  cocoa                                                      3
44 pcs of printed Calico         at 20s pcs.           44
7 pieces stript Musleen 15 yds    4 [pounds            29   15
                                 sterling]:
                                      5 pcs
5 pcs plain ditto                                       4   20
3 pcs. ditto Thin 13 yes                                3    9
9 pcs Romals                        35s pcs            15    5
2 pcs printed Calico's light
  Coloured                                              2
34 yds Persian Silk                4s pr yd             4   16
7 pcs Kentings                     18s pcs.             6    6
2 pcs Cambrick                     40s pcs.             4
4 pcs & 1/2 East India Silk         50s pcs            11    5
14 pcs pauncnes East India Silk     20s pcs            14
2 pcs ditto 7 yd Each broad        25s pcs.             2   10
13 yds 1/2 Striped Silk              5s yrd             3    7       6
3 pcs. double Paunches              40s pcs             6
                                              451 [pounds   10       9
                                                sterling]

                                              451 [pounds
Brought over                                    sterling]   10       9
1 pc white & green Hawkins                                  18
3 pcs fine Garlix                 3 [pounds            10   10
                                 sterling]:
                                    10s pcs
12 pcs printed calico               24s pcs            14    8
30 pcs ditto                         10s do            15
4 pcss broad Garlix               3 [pounds            12
                                 sterling]/
                                        pcs
2 pcs ditto 3/4                         50s             5
5 m Nails at 6s per m
  [thousand]                                            1   10
42 doz Jews Harps               12s per doz             2    2
1 lb & 7/8 fine Threed             @12s per             1    3
                                        lb.
1/2 lb & a reaminder of
  whited brown threed                                   3
2 1/2 pcs broad Ribon blue &
  green                                                 1   16
4 pcs narrow ditto                  10s pcs             2
2 pcs feritting                                             10
8 Gr[oss] Pewter buttons             5s Gr.             2
6 Gr[oss] Small ditto                2s Gr.                 15
3 Tobacco Boxes                                              1
6 doz. Sissers                      3s doz.                 18
1 lb Cinnamon or thereabouts                                15
5 Hatts                                                 4   10
25 lbs of Silk                   30s pr lb.            37   20
17 pcs broad Coloured Calico     36s pr lb.            31   12
18 dito Narrow                         10s.             9
6 dito Brown                            15s             4   10
17 Remainders of Rotten Calico                              17
2 yds Estemain                                              13       6
1 pcs Candle Cotton                                     1   10
13 doz knives                       3:6s ps             2    5       6
                                       doz.
2 doz penknives                      9s doz                 18
7 prs Rotten Gloves                                     0    0
4 Barll Sugar abt 6:wt = Nette   35s p. wt.            10   10
29 Bars of Iron abt. 6:7:3            @ 28s            10   17
                                    per wt.
1 Gun, Sword & Cane                                     3
In Cash beside two bad Dollars                         15   13        5
1 Gold Ring wt 3c.                                          18
2 Watch                                                 6
6 Silver Spoons & 2 Forks                               6
14 Shirts                            8s pcs             5   12
1 Cloth Coat                                                18
1 pr. Plush Breetches & 1 pr
  Tickens ditto                                         1   14
3 Wastcoats but one of them
  not made up                                           1    5
5 Pr old Threed Stockins                                     1   10 1/2
1 pr old Wosted Stockins                                     1        6
4 Small Remainders of Calico                                 1        6
3 Pillow Cases                                               9
12 Neckcloths                      3:6d per             2    2
                                        pcs
                                              680 [pounds   10      1/2
                                                sterling]

                                              680 [pounds
Brought over                                    sterling]    10     1/2
2 pr. old foot socks                                                  9
1 Checkered & 1 Calico Napkin                                 4
1 Morning Gown & 1 pr.
  S[leves]?                                                  18       6
4 oz. Silver Thread               10s pr oz             2
6 doz Small white threed
  buttons                                                     3
6 small Equinoctial Dials                                     2       3
2 Pewter Dishes                                               6
13 plates                                                    16       6
3 Porringers                                                  2       3
1 Tankard & Salt Celler                                       2       3
A Bed Bedstead & Curtains                               2     2
3 Gimblets & a Marking Iron                                   3       6
1 pr old money Scales                                         6       9
1 Spanish Bible                                               3
1 small Delph Plate                                               4 1/2
1 pr Small Andirons                                           4       6
1 Spit old Bellows & Warming
  pan                                                        11
4 Iron Pots & Pot Chain                                      16       6
1 Gridiron & 2 old Candlesticks                               4       6
1 Kettle                                                     12
1 Skellet with a Cover                                        2       6
1 Small Handsaw                                               1   1 1/2
3 doz. & 1/2 Glass Bottles                                   10       6
2 Drinking Glasses                                            1
1 Small old Shovel                                                    9
a small Case with 10 Bottles                                 10
2 Tables one being for a
  Scretoire                                                   6
2 Frying pans & 1/2 lb. of Lead                               6      11

2 pr. of Sheets                  at 16s pcs.            1    12
11 Napkins                           20 pcs             1     2
2 Old Trunks & a Cabinet                                     16       6
                                              695 [pounds    18  11 1/2
                                                sterling]
Jeremiah Tothill)
                ) sworn assessors
 Will. Anderson)
New York, Octr. 8th 1705 (4)
Paul Droilett and Lewis Gomes Exec. Of Joseph Nunes dec'd were sworn to
the above written Inventory.

Coram me [Signed] Cornbury

Inventory & Apprisement of ye Estate of Joseph Nunes dec'd 1705


(1.) Dave Verdooner and Harmen Snel, Jewish Marriage in Amsterdam, 2 vols. (S'Gravenhage, 1990), I, 43, 45.

(2.) Leo Hershkowitz, ed., Wills of Early New York Jews (1704-1799) (New York, 1967), 1, 2; David De Sola Pool, Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682-1831 (New York, 1952), 188-89.

(3.) Julius M. Bloch, Leo Hershkowitz, et al., eds., An Account of Her Majesty's Revenue for the Province of New York, 1701-1709 (Ridgewood, 1966) 9, 10, 21, 67, 76, 82, 93, 104, 132, 134, 135; Pool, Portraits, 190.

(4.) Jeremiah Tothill served, among other positions, as an Assistant Alderman, William Anderson was City Treasurer, and Paul Droillet was an Assistant Alderman; Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776, 8 vols. (New York, 1905), II, 176, 240, 308. Luis Gomez (d. 1740), one of New York's most important merchants, had a long and varied career; see Hershkowitz, Wills, 62-63.

ISAAC RODRIQUEZ MARQUES (1708)

This merchant drew his will in New York City on October 17, 1706 in preparation for a voyage to Jamaica, and his inventory was appraised on January 19, 1707/8. Marques seemingly never completed his Jamaica trip and probably died in New York shortly before the appraisal, but there is no specific record of death or burial. (1) Although custom records for this period do not mention any Jamaica voyage made by him, they do indicate his considerable involvement earlier in that island's trade. For the period of October 25, 1704 to March 25, 1705, several imports were recorded, one on February 26, 1705 aboard the William, and two on the Rachel on March 13 and March 17, 1705. Marques was an important part of a considerable Jewish involvement in the Jamaica trade. From February through March 1705 there are sixteen entries of imports from that island, seven of which involved three Jewish merchants, Isaac Marques, Abraham De Lucena, and Mordecai Gomez. In total, there are twenty-one entries, including those of Jacob De Porto, who imported from Rhode Island. (2)

In 1693, an Isaac Rodriquez, born in 1670, married Rachel Bernal in Amsterdam. The records indicate that Isaac came from Bordeaux. (3) It is presumed that this reference is to Isaac Rodriquez Marques. He became a resident of New York as early as 1695, when he was made denizen, basically a citizen, of the province. He lived on Queen Street (now Pearl Street), purchasing property there in 1705. In 1695, he paid tax on real estate valued at 20 [pounds sterling]; nine months later it was worth 100 [pounds sterling]. Along with many other New Yorkers in the following year, he signed an oath in support of William III. Interestingly, in June 1723, along with co-religionists Joseph Simson, Abraham Isaacs, David Elias, Jacob Hays, and Solomon Myers Cohen, Isaac Raphael Marques, possibly a relative (but little is known of him), petitioned the New York Assembly to be naturalized (non-Jews did too, including printer John Peter Zenger). Their petition received Governor William Burnet's approval on July 6, 1723. (4)

In 1697 and 1701, Marques was accused of altering weigh-house books, although a nolle posequie was entered on both occasions. (5) He was quite litigious. In Marques v. Solomon Jesuron (1703), he won a civil suit. In Marques v. (Moses) Levi (1701), he appears to have lost an assault case. (6) In Marques v. Nunes (1701), the defendant pleaded non assumpsit. In 1706, he was indicted in the Supreme Court for "taking away the hatt of John Burrow." He confessed to the charge and was fined fifteen shillings and fees. (Nothing further can be found about this curious incident.) (7) Samson Menas of London accused Marques of delivering a short-weighted consignment of beads aboard the ship Providence. The beads were to have weighed 50 lbs., 8 oz., but came to only 33 lbs., 9 oz. Whether the complaint was satisfied is not known. (8) Finally, there were several unsubstantiated complaints of fraud against him, which the Attorney General refused to prosecute. (9)

Marques's wife moved to Barbados after his death and married Moses Peixotto. She sold her share of the Queen Street house in 1719 for 150 [pounds sterling]. Other business activities included his purchase of the ship Dolphin, which he sold to Abraham DeLucena, his brother, Jacob of New York, and two London merchants in 1701. This ship had been used in a voyage from New York to Guinea to Barbados, where three slaves were taken aboard before returning to New York in 1700. (10)

His short inventory contains a few household goods and four slaves, one of whom was an Indian, a not uncommon source of labor. It also lists accounts of his various trade connections, largely with the West Indies. Those indebted to him included William Bradford, New York's first printer. Robert Lurting, one of the appraisers, was an important official and a mayor of the city. There are no specifically Jewish religious items listed in his inventory.
City of New York

An inventory of all and Singular the goods chattels and credits of
Isaac Rodriques Marques late of the city of New York merchant deceased
taken and part thereof appraised on January the 19th day, 1707 [1708].
Exhibited by Rachell the Widow relict and Executrix of the said decd
the eighth day of April anno. 1708
As followith vizt
One negro man called Peter                         45 [pounds    0    0
                                                    sterling]
One indian man called Philip                               30    0    0
One negro woman called Hannah                              20
One negro maid called Sarah                                35
Eight hhds, one tierce
  tobacco wt                    33 lb at     20 per lb.    33
Two copper Stills and worms                                30
Two remnants flowrd silk at     22 1/2 yds   5s             5    12   6
One pss, Cinnamon cloath        20 per yd.   14s           14
Two ps Canvas at                56 yds       2s             5    12
One remnant of colourd
  Silk at                       21 yd        3s             3     3
Two bed ticks                                               3    10
Two buccaneer guns                                          3
One iron plate                                              1
One small beam scales & 5 lb. of weights                    8
One chest of drawers table and stands                      10
One half doz. kane chairs & one elbow chair                 9    15
One Scritore                                                3
One small ovall table                                             9
One feather bed bolster, two pillows, three
blankets, one quilt, one pair sheets &
pillowboars, curtains & bedsted                            10
One large ovall table                                       1    10
One small box drawers & dressing box                             13   6
One large looking glass                                     3

                                                  275 [pounds     5
                                                    sterling]
Appraised as mentioned above by order from his Execel[ence] of Dembr
the 30th, 1707 in all amounting to two hundred seventy five pounds five
shills.

    [signed]                      Robt. Lurting
                Will Anderson
               Abrm. Delucena
Cash in gold and silver part whereof is sent
  to Barbados & the remainder in possession       624 [pounds
  of the Executrix amounts to                       sterling]    17   4
                                                                     1/2
Dwelling house in Queens Street in New
  York computed to be                                     600
Wrought plate sent to Barbados at 8s
  per oz. qt. 250 oz.                                     100
Suggar unsold one lb wt.                                    3
Shipt on board the brigentine Elias James Manny Mast.
  For Jamaica and consigned to Senr. Aaron Lamego
  There 8/2 barrells flour qt. 14 [?]-26 bbls Nett at
  18s 6d per bbl as per invoyce                            13     3   3
Shipt on board the M[?] Jamaica & consigned to
  Sen. Aaron Lamego there whole costs &
  charges of the flower                                    13     7   6
Shipt on severall vessels a severall times for Jamaica
  and consigned to ditto there to pay one hundred
  thirty seven barrels and six firkins butter with
  charges amount to                                       321    19   1
Shipt and consigned to ditto three 24/2 barrels & six
  firkins butter amounting with charges
  as per invoyce                                           52    15   6
Shipt on a voyager to Corraco & consigned
  to Senr. Solomon Levy Maduro three barrels
  brisket with charges as per invoyce                       8     6   9
                                                                     3/4
Shipt for Nevis & consigned to Senr. Issac
  Pinero 20 barrels which with costs and
  charges as per invoyce is                                35         9

                                                 2047 [pounds    15   3
                                                    sterling]
New York Anno Domini 1708
An account or inventory of the Credits of Isaac Rodriques Marques descd
which has come to the knowledge of Rachell his widow Relict and
Executrix this eighth day of April Anno Domini 1708
Due from Mr. Charles Gandy & Company of
  Jamaica on a bill of Exchange of 83 [pounds
  sterling] 5s current money there in New
  York money                                       99 [pounds
Due from Senr. Lamego of Jamaica my                 sterling]    18
  account Current on amount of Sales
  of the Sloop Isaac value there in 600
  [pounds sterling] in New York money                      20
Due from Sundry persons in Jamaica in all
  is in New York money                                     60
Due from Capt. Trimmingham of Bermuda
  on account                                               50
Due from Mr. William Bradford on bond
  of 110 [pounds sterling] payable the
  11th March 1703/4                                        40
Due from Mr. Elias Boudinot on bond
  payable the 29th March 1706 with
  interest and other charges                              134    10
Due from Mr. William Berkley on bond
  payable Feb. 25, 1707                                    75
Due from Mr. Benjamin Aske on bond
  55 [pounds sterling]
  payable April 22, 1707                                   20     3   9
Due from Mr. Van Bengen of Albany
  on account                                               15     2
Due from Tongrelou on accot of prizes                      70
Due from Mr. David Lyell on account of
  Sundreys Sold him as the vendue                           7     1   2
Due from Mr. Robt. Lurting on ditto account                15    11   1
                                                                    1/2
From ditto for a Cable wt 3:3:2 lb at 38s
  3d in                                                     7     4   1
                                                                     1/2
Due from Mr. Joseph Hardenbrook as pr.
  bill rendered him on account as vendue                   43
Due from Mr. Joseph Isaacs as per bill                      1     6  11
Due from Mr. Aaron Lamego of Jamaica
  merchant for five drys? Vizt
  To balance his account current sent to me
  by the Sloop Isaac Capt. James Manney                    85     3   8
1706/7 March 20 to Cash receved from
  Curracoa of Mrs. Solomon Levy Meduro
  on her husband's acc pr 163 pcs. of eight
  & 2 realls as pr advise is                               40    16   3
To ditto in another account for not produce
  of 11 boxes of Candles                                   18    15   9
To difference of money at 20 percent of
  144 15 [pounds sterling] 8 s is                          29

    Credits amount to                            1532 [pounds    12   9
                                                    sterling]
Brought over from the other side                         2047    15   3
                                                                     1/4

                                                 3580 [pounds     8  1/4
                                                    sterling]

A list of debts due from the Estate of said desd Isaac Rodriques
Marques as at present this eighth day of April 1708 they are known to
the said Executrix
Due to Robt. Lurting on Sundry accounts            20 [pounds
                                                    sterling]
Due to Senr. Phineas Gomez of London
  mercht on account                                        40
Due to Diego Lewis Gonsales to balance
  his account rendered in                                   4     7   8
Due to my mother in law Mrs. Rachel
  Marques her legacy                                       50
Due another legacy to her mother in law
  to buy a negro woman                                     45
Due to Joseph Hondrens(?) of London                        10

    [signed] Rahel Marques                        169 [pounds     7   8
                                                    sterling]

Extum sunt humoi inventar Octavo die monis aprilis Anno Domeni miltimo
septingestemo octavo pr Davidem Jamison Pesomi & Executrix for vero
[missing] inventrie er probostoere Ianen decollend[?]

Then appeared before me Edward Viscount Cornbury & Rachel Marques &
made oath that the above is a true & perfect Inventory of all Goods
and Chattels & Credits of Isaac Rodriques Marques desd wt came to her
knowledge or possession or to the knowledge & possession of any other
for her account.

[signed] Cornbury

[cover] Inventory Isaac Rodriques Marques Exhibited by Rachell his
widow & Executrix this day of April 1708.


(1.) Leo Hershkowitz, ed., Wills of Early New York Jews (1704-1799) (New York, 1967), 8-10.

(2.) Julius M. Bloch, Leo Hershkowitz, et al., eds., An Account of Her Majesty's Revenue for the Province of New York, 1701-1709 (Ridgewood, 1966), 130. For other Marques entries, see 8, 9, 10, 15, and passim.

(3.) Dave Verdooner and Harmen Snel, Jewish Marriage in Amsterdam, 2 vols. (S'Gravenhage, 1990), I, 58.

(4.) David De Sola Pool, Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682-1831 (New York, 1952), 460-61; New York Historical Society's Collections, New York Tax Lists 1695-1699 (New York, 1912), I, 25, 84; Journal oft he Legislative Council of the Colony of New-York Began the 9th Day of April, 1691 and Ended the 27th Day of September 1743 (Albany, 1861), 501, 502, 506; Journal of the Votes and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the Colony of New-York Began the 9th Day of April, 1691; and Ended the 27th Day of September, 1743 (New York, 1764), 491, 492, 493,495, and 542 for Abraham Rodriques Rivera. On November 7, 1737, Isaac Raphael Rodriques, possibly related to the decedent, petitioned the Assembly to be included in the pending naturalization bill. This was passed by December. Abraham Myers Cohen was also on the list; ibid., 722, 729. Perhaps Cohen was the son of Emanuel Myers Cohen; Joseph R. Rosenbloom, A Biographical Dictionary of Early American Jews (Lexington, 1960), 21. Among Jews who signed this petition were Joseph Bueno, Moses Levy (in Hebrew), Jacob Solomons, David Valentine, and Wolf, perhaps the son of Isaac. Wallace Gandy, The Association Oath Rolls of the British Plantations, A.D. 1696 (London, 1922), 37, 41, 47.

(5.) Paul H. Hamlin and Charles Baker, eds., Supreme Court of Judicature of the Province of New York, 1691-1704, 3 vols. (New York, 1959), I, 173, II, 57, 342.

(6.) Ibid., II, 45, 50, 63, 66, 67, 155, 157, 164, 171.

(7.) New York County Clerk's Office, New York City, Minute Book of the New York Supreme Court of Judicature 1704-09, 108; Hamlin and Baker, Supreme Court, II, 43, 51. See also Julius Goebel and T. Raymond Naughton, Law Enforcement in Colonial New York (New York, 1944), 341, 368.

(8.) New York City Register's Office, Conveyance Liber 23, 187-89; Conveyance Liber 28, 492-98.

(9.) Douglas Greenberg, Crime and Law Enforcement in the Colony of New York, 1691- 1776 (Ithaca, 1974), 112, 113.

(10.) Conveyance Liber 23, 291-93; Pool, Portraits, 460-61.

ESTHER (HESTER) BROWN (PARDO) (1) (1708)

Little is known of the decedent, aside from a reference in a shipping record for March 22, 1708, when she imported twenty-five gallons of rum from St. Thomas aboard the sloop Flying Horse, James Manny, master, and paid a duty of 8s., 4d. (2) She was the wife of Saul Pardo (Brown) who died in 1702, reportedly the first known hazan in New York. He is in the tax lists for 1695-1697, South Ward, with house and estate valued at 150 [pounds sterling], and thus a member of the middle class.

The couple who resided in the South Ward had six children, four of whom were alive in 1708; two, Joseph and Sarah, had died previously in 1690. Saul Brown was a merchant, dealing, as did most, in general merchandise. After her husband's death, Esther (Hester) continued his business, as is evident from the contents of her inventory. It was a step not unusual for colonial women. She was sued as executrix of her husband's estate in 1704. (3)

In her will dated May 20, 1708, witnessed by Joseph Bueno, Abraham De Lucena, Nathan Simson, and Mordecai Gomez, all of them Jewish merchants and recently-arrived New Yorkers, she named her daughter, Abigail Brown, as executrix. The estate was divided equally among her four children, Josiah, Abigail, Sarah and Simha. Josiah (or Josias) Brown was born in New York on September 22, 1694; the dates of birth of the other children are not known, but it can be assumed Esther Brown was about forty or forty-five at the time of her death. Since the rum mentioned above was imported in March 1708 and she died two months later, her death may have been sudden. (4)
Inventory and Appraizement of what was found belonging
to the Widdow Ester Brown late of this City taken at
the request of her Executrix and Daughter,
Abigail Brown in New York this 1st day of July 1708.

6 Callicoe Curtains w[i]th Valens              1 [pounds     10s
                                               sterling]
2 Brdd Carpetts                                        1       4       9
9 diaper Napkins                                              10   1 1/2
6 Damask Do                                                   10
4 Pillowbers                                                   4
1 Silk Mantell                                                 9
1 Ovall Table                                                 15
7 Leather Chairs                                       2       2
1 Ordinary Cubbard                                             6
1 Japan dressing box and ould glass casse                     12
4 half barr[e]ls of flower abt.
  6 [hundred] wt. 13 per cask                          4       4
2 barr[e]ls of pease qt 15 bushels                     3      10
1 ps. corse broadcloth qt 13 yds at 9s/                5      17
24 yds. of half Thiks at 3s/                           3      12       9
59 yds. of Druggetts at 3s/                            8      18       6
18 yds. Wollen damask at 3s/                           2      14
1 yds. of culard Calamancoe at 4s/6d.                          7      10
7 yds. of blew rusells at 5s/                          1      15
20 1/2 yds. of black do at 4s/                         4       1
22 yds. of Silk Crape at 2s/3                          2       9       6
5 yds. of single Crape
4 yds. of Second mo[u]rning do at 2s/6                        11       3
12 yds. Eitemain at 2s/                                1       4
5 yds. of red & green Stript                                  11
  Shift [chiffon?]
2 1/4 yds. of stript flannel at 3s/                            6       9
2 yds. of Corse worsted Camblett, moth
  eaten at 3s/                                                 7       6
15 yds. Yallow Canvass at 18s/                         1       3       3
3 pr. of roling worsted Stockings at 9s/               1       7

Carr'd Over                                   51 [pounds     14s      6d
                                               sterling]

Brought Over                                  51 [pounds     14s      6d
                                               sterling]

4 pr. of Short Stockings at 6/                         1       4
4 pr. of course woman's Stockings at 4s/                      16
3/1 of yd. of blew & calard Thread                             3
5 pr. of ordinary Sheep Skin gloves                            5
19 ps. of Ribon qt 225 yds                             8       8       9
1 Quire of Writing paper                                       1       6
1 parcell Tinnware                                     3               6
15 lbs. All spice                                [pounds      16  10 1/2
                                               sterling]
A parcell old fashon thread buttons                           3s
2 lbs. of Whale bone                                           3
20 Gallons fine Anniseed water                         5
15 Gallons do made here                                2      12       6
9 Gallons of Orrange Water at 4s/                      1      16
2 Gallons Angelicos water                                      8
5 Gallons of Rum at 3s/                                       15

                                              77 [pounds      7s  7 1/2d
                                               sterling]

         [signed] Lancaster Symes           App[raisers]
         Wm Chambers

New York July 14th, 1708 Abigail Brown Ex[ecutor] of Esther Brown
Exhibited the above written Inventory for a true Inventory of the
Estate of the said Esther Brown as far as it had come to her
hands or possession or to the hands or possession of any of
the other person or persons for her

[signed] Jurat Coram me (Sworn before me)
         Cornbury (5)

[On cover] Inventory of Esther Browns Estate
           Recorded 1708


[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

(1.) Brown may have been a translation of the Spanish word pardo meaning grey, but now brown. See David De Sola Pool, Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682-1831 (New York, 1952), 443; Paula E. Hyman and Deborah Dash Moore, eds., Jewish Women in America, 2 vols. (New York, 1997), 1, 267.

(2.) Julius M. Bloch, Leo Hershkowitz, et al., eds., An Account of Her Majesty's Revenue for the Province of New York, 1701-1709 (Ridgewood, 1966), 253.

(3.) Pool, Portraits, 443-48. For other references to Saul Brown, see Jacob R. Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 3 vols. (Detroit, 1970), 1, 285, 307, and passim; New York Historical Society's Collections, New York Tax Lists 1695-1699 (New York, 1912), II, 29, 146, 183.

(4.) Leo Hershkowitz, ed., Wills of Early New York Jews (1704-1799) (New York, 1967), 11-12. Colonials used the Julian calendar with March 25 as New Year's Day, March then being the first month of the year. Consequently, dates like March 1707/8 indicate it was March of the following year, 1708, not 1707.

(5.) Capt. Lancaster Symes was a merchant and Assessor in the Dock Ward, New York City; Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776, 8 vols. (New York, 1905), II, 201. William Chambers was Surveyor or Gauger of the Excise; Bloch and Hershkowitz, Account of Her Majesty's Revenue, 116, 119, and passim. Governor Edward Hyde Cornbury (1661-1723) arrived in New York in 1702 and after a difficult term was recalled in 1708; see Dictionary of American Biography.

JOSEPH BUENO DE MESQUITA (1708-1710)

This is a remarkable inventory, one that, like the career of this productive individual, deserves careful study. Joseph Bueno's origins are not certain. He seems to have been born in St. Jean de Luz in 1611, a town on the French-Spanish border, or at least to have resided there before coming to New York in or about 1680. He is listed in Asser Levy's inventory as a debtor. He may have been a relative of the Jacob Bueno De Mesquita who was born in 1615 and appointed parnas (president) of Amsterdam's Portuguese Synagogue in 1660. Joseph Bueno married Rachel (Dovale) Bueno in 1641 in Amsterdam and appears in its synagogue records, as do Abraham Curiel Bueno and Moses Alveras Bueno. His mother was Sara Bueno of Amsterdam. (1) His relationship with Benjamin Bueno De Mesquita who died and was buried in New York in 1683 is not known.

In 1682, Joseph Bueno purchased or leased a small plot of ground from William and Margery Merrit which was to be used as a "Jew Burying Place". The property, some 52' by 50', perhaps became part of the larger Shearith Israel cemetery on Walter Jonas Judah Street that is still in existence. (2)

Like most of his compatriots, Bueno was a merchant--and very successful at his vocation. On February 8, 1683, along with Asher Michells and Abraham De Sosa Mendes, he was given freeman rights and thereby licensed to trade in New York City. (3) In 1685, a bill of lading was made out for goods shipped by Thomas Wenham, Joseph Bueno & Co. onboard the Susanna of London, Thomas Hill, master, bound for Suriname. Bueno furnished powder and supplies to fusiliers at Albany during King William's War (1689-1697). In May 1694, he was a one-third owner of the brigantine Rebecca, which had been chased back into New York by a French privateer. Bueno sought permission to allow the vessel to complete the voyage to St. Thomas. This seems to have been granted. (4)

Bueno conducted an extensive trade in all manner of goods. In March 1701, he imported a cargo of fabric from London aboard the ship Helena. Aboard the sloop Mary, which he probably owned, he imported sugar and rum from Barbados on April 24, 1701. In 1702, three vessels, the Elizabeth, the Bonita, and the Hopefor, brought in cargoes of dry goods, rum, and 150 paper fans. Bueno had cargo on the Anne and the Rachell in 1703, while the Mary, the Blackthorne, the William and Thomas, and the New York were used to import goods in 1704. In the following year, an especially busy one, on three different occasions the sloop Mary, the sloop Anne, the Mary and Sarah, and the Jacob brought cargoes to or from New York. On June 8, 1705, the Mary, sailing for London, carried (among other cargo) the skins of eighty-six fox, fifteen [wild?] cats, fifteen raccoon, nine mink, and 1064 pounds of elk. He also sent two tons of logwood and four wolf hides.

The extent of Bueno's trade has never fully been traced, but it was enough to make him one of the wealthiest men in New York. (5) Extant tax records are testimony to his success. In 1695, he was taxed on property valued at 20 [pounds sterling]. By 1698, he resided in the West Ward and had an estate assessed at 220 [pounds sterling]. He also had property in the Bowery Division of the city, valued at 40 [pounds sterling]. He was listed in the South Ward in 1695, 1696, and 1697, with his taxable estate valued almost constantly around 150 [pounds sterling], although in one instance it rose to 250 [pounds sterling]. In comparison, only the very wealthy had estates of such value, including John Rodman (1698) 350 [pounds sterling], Nicolas Stuyvesant (1698) 260 [pounds sterling], Samuel Bayard (1698) 250 [pounds sterling], and Nicolas Bayard (1698) 650 [pounds sterling]. An average would be about 40 [pounds sterling]. No other Jewish merchant at the time did as well as Bueno. (6) However, existing records do not provide documentation for Bueno's real property holdings. Seemingly, no deeds are extant.

His economic position also brought political power, but some problems, too. In September 1704, Bueno's sloop Mary, Hugh Conrad, master, entered New York from Rhode Island. In an angry letter written by Governor Edward Cornbury to the Lords of Trade in London, the governor recounted an unusual story. Conrad had sailed to New York citing a need for repairs. He unloaded a cargo of cocoa intended for London, but instead of placing the merchandise in the New York Customs House, he had, with the agreement of Thomas Byerley, Receiver General, Chief Customs Agent and Port Collector, sent the cocoa to the warehouse of "one Joseph Bueno, a Jew, a particular friend of his [Byerley] and the merchant finding that cocoa bore but a low price in England, would never have troubled himself to ship it off, had not Mr. [Peter] Fauconnier (a commissioner in the Customs Office) inquired into that matter and obliged the Jew to ship it off, which was done, and the sloop is sailed for Virginia in hopes to get a convoy; but the intention of the Jew appears pretty plain by his offering Mr. Fauconnier fifty pounds to pass it by, but he rejected it with contempt .... "This incident reveals something of Bueno's close relationship with at least some government officials, in this case Thomas Byerley, although it is also possible the story was a fabrication. Cornbury, a known gambler whose debts landed him for a time in prison, wanted to have one of his friends, Fauconnier, replace the accused customs official. (7) Bueno was not tried for bribery. His concern with trade was also apparent on February 19, 1705, when, along with many non-Jewish merchants as well as three coreligionists, Abraham De Lucena, Isaac Marques, and Samuel Levy, he signed a petition to Governor Cornbury asking for passage of an act meant to regulate "Foreign Coin". This was directed primarily against Boston and its use of cheap, debased money. (8)

Bueno seemingly died at the age ninety-seven, sometime between October 20, 1708, when his will was drawn, and November 1, 1708, when it was probated. Luis Gomez, Abraham De Lucena, and the decedent's wife, Rachell (Dovale) Bueno, were named as executors. He bequeathed 600 [pounds sterling] to his wife, together with all his "household stuff and furniture," as well as jewels, his sloop Mary, and all his slaves. His brother, Abraham, his mother-in-law, Rachell Dovale, brother-in-law, Saul Dovale, and his godchild, Asher Campanell, were all given sums of money. Abraham was also given his "Five Books of Moses." The "Poor of the Jewish nation of New York" were given twenty pounds. Money was given to the children of Esther Gabay, his deceased sister who was the wife of Isaac Gabay. (9)

His inventory is an important record of an early eighteenth-century merchant, containing an account of the furnishings of a well-to-do home and an extensive business. Bueno traded heavily in fabrics but also had a wide assortment of other goods, including twenty-five bags of cocoa worth 185 [pounds sterling]. Five slaves, two small boys included, were valued at 135 [pounds sterling]. The bulk of the estate was sold on March 28, 1709 to a large number of fellow merchants, including De Lucena, Luis Gomez, Moses Michell, Rachell Marques, Joseph Isaacs, and Moses Levy, although the latter returned some cocoa as damaged. It would appear that Bueno wore spectacles, in view of their purchase by Gomez. Of particular Jewish interest is the mention of an old Hebrew Bible purchased by Gomez, and the Five Books of Moses and silver ornaments acquired by Isaac Pinheiro for 25/6 [pounds sterling]. These had been given to his brother Abraham Bueno, but, for whatever reason, they went to Pinheiro instead. It is possible that Abraham, then at Nevis in the West Indies, had been informed of the gift and declined it or perhaps was not told of it. The former premise seems more correct. At Pinheiro's death in 1710, the Torah was valued at 150 [pounds sterling]; but what ultimately became of it is not known. It is not mentioned in Pinheiro's will, but it is listed in his inventory.
Inventory and appraisment of Several Goods and Chatels of the Estate
of Joseph Bueno, decd. Taken at New York the 12 day of Novr., 1708.

1 Sloop [Mary] wt Boom Mast Bolstprit Ma[I]N Saile Fore Sail Jib &
Flying Jib old Square Sail standing & running Riggen two anchors, 2 half
Cables, 2 Iron pots, a marlin Spike hamers Crow & two Gunes with their
Carriages 150 [pounds sterling]

1 Table Clock                                          6
1 Larg Looking Glass                                   5
1 Larg oval Table of Oak                               1       4
24 Turky work Chaires, two of them
being broke & armd cane Chair                         11      14
[line missing]
25 China Teacups and Saucers                                [mi-
                                                          ssing]
3 Dishes and 6 plats of Dulware                               13       6
  [Delftware]
4 Glases with Babies                                          15
1 Glase Case with some Glases & 3 Delfware
  Flower Pots                                          1      10
1 Leather Trunk two Glase Botles & three
  Glases                                                      15       9
1 Larg Cupboard                                        2      10
2 Pr Iron Balls 38-1/4 oz. at 8/and the
  Five Books of Moses wt Ye ornmnts                   25       6
4 Calico Window Curtains                                      12
1 Small Bedsted oval Table & 1 pr. of new
  Shoos                                                       18
1 Silver hilted Sword                                  4
1 Pr. Irons and one pr. Tongs                                 13       6
1 Scritore and weather Glass                           4
3 be[missing] and oval Table                           1    [14]
1 Silver Cup 19-1/8 oz. at 8/                          7      13
1 Branch brass Candlestick                             1      10
9 Matted Chaires                                              11       3
1 Pr. Small Iron Dogs & old fire Shovell                      13       6
1 Feather bed Bolster & 2 pillows wt
  Calico Curtains cotton Coverlet                     10
  & Bedsted
11 old Leather Chairs                                  3       6
1 Brass Warming pann Chafendish & Lamp                 1       2
10 Pewter Disshes & 4 plats & 4 pozing                 7      18       3
1 Sea Chest & Painted shuger Box                       1      12
1 Smal Table & Looking Glass                                  15
2 Large and one small Brass kettle                    10
1 Smal Master & Parsell Belmetle                       1
2 Brass Candlesticks & 1 hand Do                       1       7
1 Tin Dreaping pan & two pastry panns,
  patty panns                                                  7       6
1 Iron potty & Pot Chain and
  pothanger with a Trivet                              1               3
1 Andiron cleaving knife & Chafing Dish               10       6
1 Washing Tub & two Pales                                     11
  Iron Bown [bound]
1 Negro man called Tom                                30
1 Negro Woman called Lucretia wt two
  Small boys                                          60
1 Negro Girll called Lola                             45
5 Hhds Spanish Tabaco [20 lbs.?]                      15
25 Baggs of Cocoa wt. 37 lb.                         185
   [a bag at 4.3?]
1 Pack of Beavers 73 wt at 4.3d
Brought over                                          15      10       3
1 Bag Aniseed wt 112 at                                2      10
1 Clock                                               10
15 pcs. Blew Ozenbrig, 20 yds Each in all
   330 yds at 15d                                     18      15
5 Ps. Kenting                                          6
2 Ps. Double Shinties, 50 yds in all                   8      15
80 Yds white Ozenbrigs                                 6       1
5 Pieces of ordin Garlin 125 yd at 3/6                21      17       6
1 Ps of Damaske                                        3
10 Pieces Romals & 3 handkerchiefs                    15
[missing]
[missing]
13 Yd Bengal                                               [mi-
                                                          ssing]
15 Yd Painted Calico in 3 ps.                              [mi-
                                                          ssing]
Some Chin[t]s for petticoat [damnified]                1       6
12 Pieces Striped Satin 28 yes.                       12      12
2 Ramnets of Ribon abt 15 yds                          1      10
5-3/4 yds. Striped Calico                                     12       9
1 Leather couch                                        2
A parcel of Bone Curtain rings                                13
A parcel of Trumpry Tinware                                    6
2 Brass Scales & Beams wt 6 in[ch] wts.                1      10
1 pr. Mony Scales wt weights                                  13
5 Plums Red & White                                    1
A parcell of old Fashing [fashioned]
    Butnes [buttons]                                  12
14 yds stript Bengals                                  2       2
1 Leather Trunk                                             [mi-
                                                          ssing]
20 old [Indian?] pans?]                                     [mi-
                                                          ssing]
1 Larg Beam with Scales & 6 half hundred
    weights                                            3      10

                                             769 [pounds      13       6
[signed]    Lancaster Symes                   sterling]

Sales of Sundry goods, Wares & Merchandizes at Public Vendue held
at the house where Joseph Bueno Lived in by order of Mr. Lewis Gomes
& Abraham De Lucena, Executors of the Estate of said Joseph Bueno,
sold on condition to pay ready money, New York, March 28, 1709.

2 Gos horne Curtain rings Jno. Crook 2/d
18 pr Stokins, C Beeckman 9d
2 pieces Blew Linon 19-3/4, 23 is 43 yds
  Wid Grunindike 14-1/2 yd
2 ps Do 25, 22 is 47 yds Hadrion Hogland
2 ps Blew Ozewnbrig 26 yds Wid.
  Grunindike 23ds
1 ps Do 27 1/2                            Had. Hogland       21 1/2
1 ps Do 27 1/2                            John Finch         22 1/2
1 ps Do 21 3/4                            C. Beekman         23 1/2yds
1 ps Do 21 3/4                            Had. Hogland       22 1/2 yds
2 ps Narrow Blew Linon 25 1/2, 24 1/2 is
  50 yds, Van Hinborg                     15 1/2 yds         3
2 ps Do 19, 23 1/4 is 42 1/2
  John Finch                                                 15 yd
2 ps Do 21 yd, 25 is 46 yd A.
  Hogland                                                    16yd
1 ps Brown Cambrigs 102 ell
  Vattinborg                                                 19 yd
1 ps Do 61                                Anth. Veyrank      21yd
1 ps Do 83 ell                            Do                 20yd
1 ps Do 87 ell                            Wid. Dekey         19 3/4yd
2 ps Kenting                              A. Hogland         30/1 d
1 ps Damaske                              Do Gomes [Luis]    3
1 ps Bengali 10 yd                        Richd Burk
3 1/2 yd Stuf                             G. Van Hinborg     3/1
15 1/2 India cheks                        R. Burk            3/4
6 yd Cheridary                            Jno Maklaining     2pc.
1 ps Romales                              Lewis Gomes
1 ps Do                                   G. Van Hinborg
2 ps Do                                   Lewis Gomes        30/
1 3/4 ps Garlix                           Gabriel Shell
1 ps Do                                   Lewis Gomes
1 ps Do                                   A. Bekman
1 ps Do                                   A. Hogland
1 ps Do                                   Jn Finch
6 Feather Tipetts                         R. Burk            2/9
12 Do                                     Jn Finch           2/11
12 Do                                     Do                 2/2d
9 Hat Fathers                             A. Hogland
1 pr. Cheks (25 3/4 yds)                  Do                 4/9d
1 p Do 26                                 Do                 3/9
5 3/4 Chinch                              G. Vanhinborg      6/7
5 1/2 Do                                  Do                 6/5d
5 1/2 Do                                  Lewis Gomes        6
2 Hatt Feathers                           Ab. De Lucena/8    18d
1 Do                                      Lewis Gomes
4 ps white Ozenbrig                       A. Hogland 22d
  22/19/11/18-3/4
4 p Striped Ribon                         R. Benson          20d
11 1/2 yd Cullered Do                     Do                 10d
1 doz. Glass Botles                       Jn. Walter         3d
1 Brass Smoothing Iron                    Jacob Bratt
1 Iron Do                                 Ab. Ketletas
1 Do                                      Van Vanzante
1 Pestle & Mortar                         Anth. Vryanke
1 Runell candlestick                      Jacob Bratt
  1 chest toster
1 Chafen dish                             Jos. Robeson
1 Culinder                                Ed. Burling
1 Salt Seler                              Jn. De Peyster
10 pale Panns                             Lewis Gomes
1 pr Tongs & Shovell                      D. Benson
1 Puding pann &                           P. Brested
  2 graters
1 Driping pann                            Mr. Boyce
1 Skimer                                  An. Yong
1 Candle Box &                            R. Benson
  1 Funnell
1 Driping pann                            Jacob Bratt
1 Iron Kettle 18 1/2 lbs.                 Van Vanzante
1 Pr. Money & scales &
  weights                                 R. Benson
7 pewter plats                            Van Vanzante
1 Brass Scales & 6 lb.
  Of Brass Wts.                           Jn. Hardenbrook
1 pr Andirons                             Jacob Bratt
A Ramell of                               Jn. Hardenbrook
  Bowlting Cloath
1 pr. Andirons                            Jn. Reade
1 Looking Glass                           Mr. Boyce
                                          Carried over

Brought over from the other side
1 Couch                                   Lewis Gomes
1 Glass Case                              Moses Michell
1 pye pann                                Wid. Grunindike
1 Table                                   Moses Michell
1 Stone Jugge                             Gabriell Spring
4 Pewter Plates                           Anth. Vyvanke      20d
2 Pewter Dishes wt. 19                    Moses Michell      21
2 Dos wt. 20                              Wid. Grunindike    at 21
2 Dos 15 1/2                              Wm. Vanzante       22
5 old Dittos 15 1/2                       Moses Michell      15d
1 pr. Tongs                               Edward Burling
1 kitle 21 1/2                            Wm. Vanzante       22 1/2d
1 Larg Do                                 Jacob Bratt        for
1 aq. Capers                              Robt. Lurting
1 Spitt                                   Wm. Vanzante
3 Glases                                  Do
18 Sickles                                R. Benson          2 1/2p
1 Candlestick                             Wm. Vanzante
1 pr. Doggs                               Lewis Gomes
1 Standing Candlestick                    Do
1 Stew Pann                               Ab. De Lucena
1 pint pott                               Robt. Lurting
1 Brush                                   Robt. Benson
1 pr. Tongs                               Lewis Gomes
1 pr Do                                   Wm. Davis
1 pr. Shoos                               Lewis Gomes
1 Earthen Wooman                          R. Benson
  Dog
1 Mug & 1 Ball                            Wm. Brace
1 Sylabob Glas                            Robt. Lurting
1 pr. Cruets                              Do
1 Botle                                   Justus Buss
1 Cruet                                   Do
1 Botle                                   Tho. Stenberg
1 Cup & 2 Sausers                         Do
3 Earthen Platts                          Justus Buss        13d
2 Dos                                     Dirik Benson       15d
2 Dishes                                  Do                 at 4d
1 Do                                      Do
1 Do                                      Do
3 Earthen Jars                            Justus Buss
A parsell of Bulem                        P. Rose
  & 2 pots
3 Glasses                                 Wid Grunindike
3 Screens                                 Jancke Low
7 China Cups                              Daniell Jandine    2/1
12 Cups & Sausers                         Lewis Gomes
4 pr. Glasses                             Wid. Grunindike
5 Images in Glasses                       Lewis Gomes Junr   3/1
1 pr. Andirons                            P. Rose
1 Silver Hildet [Handled]
  Sword                                   Lewis Gomes
1 Pluch side Sadle                        D. Jandine
  & Bridle
1 Brass Beson 1/4 lb.                     Mrs. Bashan        19d
4 Calico Curtains                         D. Jandine
  & Valines                                                  1
8 Curtines & Valling                      Jn. Reade
1 Indian Paticoat                         Lewis Gomes
1 Do                                      Robert Lurting
1 Do                                      Moses Michell
1 Do                                      Lewis Gomes
1 Feather Bed boulstere
  & Bedstead                              Robert Lurting
1 Scretore                                Cornelius Low
1 Suit Curtaines                          Jn. De Pyster
10 Chaires                                Justus Busse
Ketle 10 wt                               Robt. Benson       2/4
1 India Peakcoat                          Lewis Gomes

Brought over
1 old Sadie                               Janike Low
1 old Gunn                                Tho. Van
                                          Steenberg
1 Do                                      Ab. Beekman
1 Do                                      G. Van Horn
1 Do                                      Ab. Beekman
1 Do                                      Doctor Moon
1 Iron Pott 41 lb.                        D. Benson          6 lb.
1 Chest                                   Tho. Steenberg
1 Cask Tabaco
  2-0-18 wt                               Do                 35 [?]
3 Glas Cups                               Cor. Low
A parsell of silk                         R. Benson
1 pr. Broken Andirons                     Lewis Gomes
1 Iron Pich Pott                          Anth Veyvanke
1 Pott Hanger                             R. Benson
1 Do                                      Wm. Vanzante
1 Do                                      John Mah Caning
1 Earthen Pott                            Helena Dekey
2 old Hammers                             R. Lurting
50 lb. Powder                             R. Do              23 lb.
14 tamells & Graters                      Lewis Gomes        3d Doz.
1 Chocolate Stone                         Justus Buss
8 Mated Chares                            Frenses Benson     8d
1 Table                                   H. Wandle
A parsell of Lace &
  fringes                                 R. Benson
1 Tin Box                                 H. Wandle
A Parsell of Iron[?]                      Lewis Gomes
A Parsell of old Iron                     Do
1 Table                                   Tho. Steenberg

6 Turky Chares                            Coll. Ab. De       11/6
                                          Peyster
6 Dittos                                  Do                 11/3
6 Dittos                                  Ab. Wandle         9/6
1 Looking Glass                           Lewis Gomes
1 Bedstead                                Wm. Vanzante
1 Couch                                   Ab. Wandle
2 Gunnes & Carreges                       Do
1 old Patarero                            Lewis Gomes
1 pr. Tryangles                           Do
1 Chocolate Stone
  & Router                                Giles Shelly
23-3-15 old Ropes                         Lewis Gomes        5/hund
A parsell of old Blocks                   Robert Benson
1 Iron Plate                              L. Gomes
1 pr. Silk 14 yds.                        Robt. Lurting      3/9d 4d.
Weather Glass                             Col. Ab. De
                                          Peyster
1 old Ensigne & Jak                       D. Benson
6 Turky Chares                            Lewis Gomes        11/3 p.
1 Cann Chare                              Do
A Parsell of Logwood                      Tho. Stenberg
40 lb. Tobaco                             Do                 For
1 Cubbard                                 Lewis Gomes
1 Warmin Pann                             Rachell Marqus
1 Barrel Anseed 1-0-6                     Joseph I[s]aacs    9d lb.
4 hhds/Tobaco
  3-0-19
  3-1-21
  3-0-14 Tare on Each Cask 89 lb
  2-3-27
  12-2-25
  3-0-20 Tare
  9-2-5 Net
  Anth. Rudgers. 35/h ld

                                          Carried over
Brought over
  at a sail at Mr. Mackaning Jany
  ye 16-170s

No. 1 1 Bag cocoa 1-2-21 wt
  Ab. De Lucena 5 lbs. [missing]
No. 2 1 Do 1-3-9                          Do                 4 lb. 16
No. 3 1 Do 1-2-3                          Sold to Moses
  returned                                Levy but was
22 Bags Do 18-2-27                        Ab. De Lucena      5 lb.
10 Bagg Do 15-3-6                         Do                 3 lb. 19
1 Pack Beavers 74 lb.                     John Crugers       3/6
1 Barrel Anise seed 1-O-19
                                          Benj. Fonuel       9 3/4
1 Bag dammaged Cocoa returned by Moses Levy after
  sold 1-1-11                             Justus Buss        @12/1d
The following Goods accompted by the Exec[u]tors

1 pr. Mony scales                         Ab. De Lucena
Severall Handishes &
  Chafen dish                             Do
1 Iron Trivett                            Do
1 Picture                                 Do
1 Smal old Carabine                       Do
1 pr. Spectacles & Cases Lewis Gomes
1 old hebrew Bible                        Do
1 Iron Chaendish                          Do
14 yds striped silk that was sold Twise &
  Returned as being very much spoted & stained
                                          Do @4/6 yd
The five Books of Moses with the Silver Bell & other
  Utensells Belonging to the alter was sold by the
  executors to Isaac Pinheyro
1 Negro Mann Tom                          Jn. De Peyster
1 Black [?]                               David Jameson
1 Do sold for 13 [pounds sterling]:15     Mr. Regner
  Bal about 3 15                          (Regnier)
No. 1 Bag Cocoa that was                  Mr. Levey 29
  formerly sold to                        lb. [?]
1 Silver Cup 19 1/8 oz.                   Lewis Gomes 8/

Sold to Mrs. Rachell Bueno
The Sloop Mary Jno. Waldron M[ast]er
    as by Aprazt
  By Do for one Negro Woman called
  Lucretia with two Smal Boys
  By Do for one Negro Girle named Lola

2 Gos horne Curtain rings Jno. Crook 2/d     [pounds       15
                                           sterling]
18 pr Stokins, C Beeckman 9d                               13
2 pieces Blew Linon 19-3/4, 23 is 43 yds
  Wid Grunindike 14-1/2 yd                          2      11  11-1/2
2 ps Do 25, 22 is 47 yds Hadrion Hogland            2      15   9 3/4
2 ps Blew Ozewnbrig 26 yds Wid.
  Grunindike 23ds                                   2       8        7
1 ps Do 27 1/2                                      2       9        3
1 ps Do 27 1/2                                      2      11        7
1 ps Do 21 3/4                                      1      19       10
1 ps Do 21 3/4                                      2   9 7/9
2 ps Narrow Blew Linon 25 1/2, 24 1/2 is
  50 yds, Van Hinborg                               4       7
2 ps Do 19, 23 1/4 is 42 1/2
  John Finch                                        2      13    8 1/4
2 ps Do 21 yd, 25 is 46 yd A.
  Hogland                                           3       2
x ps Brown Cambrigs 102 ell
  Vattinborg                                        8       1        6
1 ps Do 61                                          5      17        3
1 ps Do 83 ell                                      6      18        4
1 ps Do 87 ell                                      7       3        2
2 ps Kenting                                        3                2
1 ps Damaske
1 ps Bengali 10 yd                                  3       1        6
3 1/2 yd Stuf                                              10        6
15 1/2 India cheks                                  2      11        6
6 yd Cheridary                                             13        6
1 ps Romales                                        1      12
1 ps Do                                             1      12
2 ps Do                                             3
1 3/4 ps Garlix                                     3      11
1 ps Do                                             3      11
1 ps Do                                             3      11        3
1 ps Do                                             3      11
1 ps Do                                             3      11        3
6 Feather Tipetts                                          16        6
12 Do                                               1      15
12 Do                                               1       6
9 Hat Fathers                                               4        6
1 pr. Cheks (25 3/4 yds)                            6       2    3 3/4
1 p Do 26                                           4      17        6
5 3/4 Chinch                                        1      17   10 2/3
5 1/2 Do                                            1      15    3 1/3
5 1/2 Do                                            1      10
2 Hatt Feathers                                             3
1 Do                                                1       6
4 ps white Ozenbrig                                 7       0        1
  22/19/11/18-3/4
4 p Striped Ribon                                           6        8
11 1/2 yd Cullered Do                                       9        7
1 doz. Glass Botles                                         3        3
1 Brass Smoothing Iron                              7       8
1 Iron Do                                           9
1 Do                                                        9        4
1 Pestle & Mortar                                          11        3
1 Runell candlestick                                        5        9
  1 chest toster
1 Chafen dish                                               5
1 Culinder                                                  2        3
1 Salt Seler                                                1        7
10 pale Panns                                               4
1 pr Tongs & Shovell                                        3        9
1 Puding pann &                                             2
  2 graters
1 Driping pann                                              3        9
1 Skimer                                                    1        6
1 Candle Box &                                              2        6
  1 Funnell
1 Driping pann                                              1        7
1 Iron Kettle 18 1/2 lbs.                                   4        7
1 Pr. Money & scales &
  weights                                                  12        6
7 pewter plats                                             10        6
1 Brass Scales & 6 lb.                              1
  Of Brass Wts.
1 pr Andirons                                               4        6
A Ramell of                                                 9        3
  Bowlting Cloath
1 pr. Andirons                                              3
1 Looking Glass                                            12        6
                                                           10
                                          133 [pounds      12        5
                                            sterling]

Brought over from the other side          133 [pounds      12        5
                                            sterling]
1 Couch                                     2 [pounds       3
                                            sterling]
1 Glass Case                                                3
1 pye pann                                                  2
1 Table                                                    17        9
1 Stone Jugge                                               5        3
4 Pewter Plates                                             6        3
2 Pewter Dishes wt. 19                              1      18
2 Dos wt. 20                                        2
2 Dos 15 1/2                                                6        9
5 old Dittos 15 1/2                                        19    4 1/2
1 pr. Tongs                                                 2        2
1 kitle 21 1/2                                      1      19    4 1/2
1 Larg Do                                           2       8
1 aq. Capers                                        4       4        2
1 Spitt                                                     6        9
3 Glases                                                    1        3
18 Sickles                                                  3        9
1 Candlestick                                              15        4
1 pr. Doggs                                                 9        3
1 Standing Candlestick                              1      10
1 Stew Pann                                                15
1 pint pott                                                 1
1 Brush                                                     1        7
1 pr. Tongs                                                 1        7
1 pr Do                                                     3
1 pr. Shoos                                                 2        9
1 Earthen Wooman
  Dog                                                       1        6
1 Mug & 1 Ball                                              2    4 1/2
1 Sylabob Glas                                              2        3
1 pr. Cruets                                                1       10
1 Botle                                                     2        3
1 Cruet                                                    10
1 Botle                                                             10
1 Cup & 2 Sausers                                           1        4
3 Earthen Platts                                            3        3
2 Dos                                                       2        6
2 Dishes                                                    4        8
1 Do                                                        3
1 Do                                                        3        9
3 Earthen Jars                                              9        6
A parsell of Bulem
  & 2 pots                                          1      18        6
3 Glasses                                                   2        3
3 Screens                                                   3        1
7 China Cups                                               14        7
12 Cups & Sausers                                   1       4
4 pr. Glasses                                               9
5 Images in Glasses                                        15        5
1 pr. Andirons                                      1       3
1 Silver Hildet [Handled]
  Sword                                             2      15
1 Pluch side Sadie
  & Bridle                                          2       5
1 Brass Beson 1/4 lb.                                      13
4 Calico Curtains
  & Valines                                         7
8 Curtines & Valling                                1      18
1 Indian Paticoat                                          10        1
1 Do                                                       10        1
1 Do                                                        9        7
1 Do                                                        9        7
1 Feather Bed boulstere
  & Bedstead                                        6      11
1 Scretore                                          2      15        9
1 Suit Curtaines                                    2      15
10 Chaires                                          3       4
Ketle 10 wt                                         1       3
1 India Peakcoat                                           11

                                          189 [pounds       3    1 1/4
                                            sterling]

Brought over                              189 [pounds       3    1 1/4
                                            sterling]
1 old Sadie                                                 3        6
1 old Gunn                                                 11        3
1 Do                                                       13        3
1 Do                                                        6        9
1 Do                                                        5
1 Do                                                       11        3
1 Iron Pott 41 lb.                                  1       6
1 Chest                                                     5
1 Cask Tabaco
  2-0-18 wt                                         3      15        7
3 Glas Cups                                                11
A parsell of silk                                           3        4
1 pr. Broken Andirons                                       5
1 Iron Pich Port                                            7
1 Pott Hanger                                               3        9
1 Do                                                        6
1 Do                                                        4        6
1 Earthen Pott                                                      10
2 old Hammers                                                        9
50 lb. Powder                                       4      15
14 tamells & Graters                                        6       15
1 Chocolate Stone                                          11
8 Mated Chares                                              5        4
1 Table                                                    10        9
A parsell of Lace &
  fringes                                                  10        3
1 Tin Box                                                   1       11
A Parsell of Iron[?]                                       18        6
A Parsell of old Iron                                      10        3
1 Table                                             1       2

6 Turky Chares                                      3       9
6 Dittos                                            2      17
6 Dittos                                    2 [pounds      17
                                            sterling]
1 Looking Glass                                     8
1 Bedstead                                                 17        3
1 Couch                                                     3        2
2 Gunnes & Carreges                                 2       8
1 old Patarero                                              3
1 pr. Tryangles                                            10        6
1 Chocolate Stone
  & Router                                                  9        6
23-3-15 old Ropes                                   6       4        6
A parsell of old Blocks                                     7
1 Iron Plate                                                6        3
1 pr. Silk 14 yds.                                  6      16        6
Weather Glass                                               7        6
1 old Ensigne & Jak                                                  9
6 Turky Chares                                      3      17        6
1 Cann Chare                                               11        3
A Parsell of Logwood                                2      12
40 lb. Tobaco                                              13
1 Cubbard                                                  10
1 Warmin Pann                                               9
1 Barrel Anseed l-0-6                               4       8        6
4 hhds/Tobaco
  3-0-19
  3-1-21
  3-0-14 Tare on Each Cask 89 lb
  2-3-27
  12-2-25
  3-0-20 Tare
  9-2-5 Net
  Anth. Rudgers. 35/h ld                   16 [pounds      14
                                            sterling]

                                          273 [pounds       2    5 1/4
Brought over                                sterling]
  at a sail at Mr. Mackaning Jany         273 [pounds       2    5 1/4
  ye 16-170s                                sterling]
No. 1 1 Bag cocoa 1-2-21 wt
  Ab. De Lucena 5 lbs. [missing]            8 [pounds       8        9
                                            sterling]
No. 2 1 Do 1-3-9                                    8      15        8
No. 3 1 Do 1-2-3
  returned
22 Bags Do 18-2-27                                 93      14        2
10 Bagg Do 15-3-6                                  62       8        6
1 Pack Beavers 74 lb.                              12      19
1 Barrel Anise seed 1-0-19
                                                    2      10       10
1 Bag dammaged Cocoa returned by Moses Levy after
  sold 1-1-11                                              16
The following Goods accompted by the Exec[u]tors

1 pr. Mony scales                                           7
Severall Handishes &
  Chafen dish                                              10
1 Iron Trivett                                              4        6
1 Picture                                                   6
1 Smal old Carabine                                         9
1 pr. Spectacles & Cases Lewis Gomes                        7        3
1 old hebrew Bible                                          3
1 Iron Chaendish                                            3
14 yds striped silk that was sold Twise &
  Returned as being very much spoted & stained
                                                            3        9
The five Books of Moses with the Silver Bell & other
  Utensells Belonging to the alter was sold by the
  executors to Isaac Pinheyro                      25       6
1 Negro Mann Tom                                   22       1
1 Black [?]                                        17      16
1 Do sold for 13 [pounds sterling]:15 Bal
  about 3 15                                       10
No. 1 Bag Cocoa that was
  formerly sold to                                          6
1 Silver Cup 19 1/8 oz.                             7      13

                                          550 [pounds      15       12
                                            sterling]
Sold to Mrs. Rachell Bueno
The Sloop Mary Jno. Waldron M[ast]er      150 [pounds
    as by Aprazt                            sterling]
  By Do for one Negro Woman called
  Lucretia with two Smal Boys              60 [pounds
                                            sterling]
  By Do for one Negro Girle named Lola     45 [pounds
                                            sterling]
                                          255 [pounds
                                            sterling]

                                          805 [pounds      15       12
                                            sterling]

Lewis Gomes & Abraham De Lucena, Two of the Executors of ye Testament &
Last Will of Joseph Bueno decd, doe Exhibitt this Inventory of Goods
and Chatel rights and Creditts of the said decd Before his Excy. Coil
Robt. Hunter Esq. Cap. Generall & Governeur in Chief of New York, etc.
for a true Inventory upon Oaths this 19th of February 1710/11.
In manner following and as above

  [signed]   Luis Gomez
                 Abraham De Lucena
                 New York ye 19th February 1710

Lewis Gomez and Abraham De Lucena, two of the executors of ye Last
Will & Testament of Joseph Bueno Dec'd Exhibited of above written
Inventory for a true and perfect Inventory of ye Estate of said Joseph
Bueno decd. Soe farr as has proved to their or either of their hands or
possession or of hands or possessions of any other person or persons
in Trust them or either of them

                                          Coram
  [signed]                                Ro Hunter

A List of Severall Debts Outstanding Belonging to the Estate of
Joseph Bueno Decd. Viz.

Tho. Robert Ball                       33 [pounds             6
                                        sterling]
Wm. Nichols                                     3            16       3
[Lt.] Govt. [Richard] Ingoldsby                 7             4       9
Isaac De Grost                                  6            16
Zacharies Anyovyn                              18             9       7
Gabriel Thompson                               10             1       9
Andrew Brested Cooper                          19            11
Coll. Petter Schuyler                          21            18      10
John Hutchins                                  29            13   7 1/2
Mary Smith                                      6            16       6
John Wandler                                    6            10
Lender Lewis                                   15             8       8
David Vycett                                    6            12
John Finch                                                    3       4
Every Vyvank                                    1            13       7

Nicholas Eberts                                 1            19   4 1/2
Abraham Kip                                     1             7       3
Ab. Wandler                                     3            18   4 1/2
Augustus Jay                                   13            13   7 1/2
Otto Van Tuyle                                  1             4
Garadus Bekman [Beekman]                        6             5   5 1/4
Ariens Fedrike Bloom                            1             5       7
Smith or Benj. Philips                          8            13       3
Ouziell Van Swilen [Swieten]                   18             7   7 1/2
Johanes Van Corteld. [Van Cortlandt]           10             8   4 1/2
Mr. Davis                                       5            17       6
Ralph Ransford                                  4             4       4
Henry Lyon                                      2
John Harison                                    1            15
Eliza Jourdan                                   3
[line missing]
Sarah Smith                                     9             3       2
Hester Van Durse                                7            11  10 1/2
Andrew Law                                     16            17
Daniell Doncome                                 2             3       3
John Crook, secy.                               4             1      10
Elishe Parker                                   8            15  7 3/4
Petter Fauconier                                             18
Wm. Carter                                      3
Ab. Goveriner                                   1            18       9
Edward Burling                                                1  8 1/4
Mr. Blanchards                                  6
Samuel Burges                                   4             2   7 1/2
Hugh Coward                                    24             2       9
Peter Stryker                                   2            16
Tho. Byardly                                   21            11   1 1/2
Benj. Bell                                      1             7
[missing]
Burger Mynderson                                6            15
James Harden                                    2            18
Beverly Lathem                                  6             3
Judge Wm. Penhorne                              6             4       9
Wm. Glineross [Glencross]                       6             9       8
John Gurny                                      1            16
Capt. Robt. Walters                            33            15

                                      453 [pounds            10   8 1/2
                                        sterling]
Brought over                          455 [pounds            10   8 1/2
                                        sterling]
Thomas Sanders                                  2            18       6

Adolph De Grove                                 2            18   1 1/2
Joseph Isaacs 2-8-3                             2             8       3
John Rigton                                     2             9       5
Wm. Provost                                     5            12   7 1/2
Wm. Sell                                        3            10
Petter Adolph                                   2            15
Jacobus Byard                                   4            15   1 1/2
Wm. Peartree                                    1            17
Evert Van de Watter                             3            12   3 1/2
Gevithry Corteland [Gertryd
  Van Cortlandt]                                2             6
Petter de Milt                                  1             7       6
Roger Britt                                     2            18       4
Christion Vinvos                               16             5   2 1/2
Elena Dekey                                     5            12
Delea Grunidike [Groendicke]                    4             1       3
Grubert Van Hinborg
  [Gysbert Vaninburgh]                          6            10

                                      528 [pounds            18      10
                                        sterling]

George Emett                                   12
                                      540 [pounds            18      10
                                        sterling]

Benj. Granada of Surinam to said
  said estate to                      160 [pounds             5
  Bal. of his Acct. as per              sterling]
To a cargo Sent in the
  Pations [Patience?]                 150 [pounds   244 [pounds
  Capt. Vark to Surinam cost            sterling]     sterling]
To Cash paid Isaac Gabay for
  his father's Maintenance                      7            16
To a Negro man Cooper                          50
To his Bills for 500 ps. of 8                 150

All soe Sundry Other Debts which are outstanding this fifteen or
twenty years agoe and said persons soposed most of them to be deaths
and the Rest Unknown.

  [signed]                         Luis Gomes
                                   Abraham De Lucena

An accompt of Administration of Lewis Gomes & Ab. De Lucena Exects.
of the Last Will & Testament of Joseph Bueno Decd. Exhibited before
his Excl. Coll. Robert Hunter Esq. Capt. Generall & Governour in Chief
of New York. For a True and Perfect acct. upon oaths this 19th of
Febry, 1710. The said Executors charge Themselves With &
By the Produce made by the Vendue as per Capt. Lurtings acct Vendue

                                              805 [pounds   15   1 1/4
                                                sterling]

May 17      By Cash recd of Ab. De
            Lucena on Johanes Vandle                   10   19

June 6      By Cash of Do on Thomas
            Willcoks acct.                              6

July 27     By Lewis Gomes Particular
            Charge to Gisbert Van Hinborg               3

Nov. 20     By Cash from Ab. De Lucena
            on Mr. Van Dams Acct.                       1

Nov. 30     By Cash from Ditto on Capt.
            Tongerlows acct.                           12   12       5

            By Cash from Ditto on Derek
            Adolph                                      1    1

                                              840 [pounds    8    1/2
                                                sterling]

            By Ballce due to the said
            Executors                                  72    5       4
                                              912 [pounds   13
                                                sterling]
            By Cash paid Capt. [missing]
              1708

              By Do Mordechay Gomes
              [accounts]

Nov. 23     By Jn. Waldrons noat pd.
Do.         By Cash pd John Waldron
Do          By John Waldrons noat
24          By Do paid John Van

Do          By Cash paid by Jacobus
            By Ditto for the Letter
            By Ditto to Abraham G.
            To Wm. Pady of Surinam
            By Ditto to Wm. Shenpes
            [Sharpas]

Do 30       By Ditto paid John King
1708-9      By Ditto to Adrion Hogland
Xber 15
Jany 27     By Ditto to Elias Petro
Do          By Ditto to Benj. Tonell
Feb. 22     By Ditto to John Out
Do 28       By Ditto Wm. Anderson
March 5     By Ditto to Isaac Gabay
1709
April 6     By Ditto to Dock Mr. For
Do          By Ditto to Barrent Rend
Do          By Ditto to David Jame
            [Jamison]
Do 13       By ditto to Petter Brested
Do 27       By Ditto paid Coll. Abraham
Do 28       By Ditto paid Capt. Symes for
May 10      By Ditto to Ab. De Lucena for
Do 18       By Ditto to Do for charges w
Do 26       By Ditto to John Spratt as
June 7      By Ditto paid Wm. Emmett for
            By Ditto to Docter Sommer
22          By Ditto to Ab. De Lucena
            By Ditto to Do for the Car
Do          By Ditto to Coll. Ab. De
            Peyster
Do          By Ditto to Ab. De Lucena of
            London as per Judgment

July 27     By Ditto to Derek Benson
Aug. 1
Aug. 4
[missing]   of Benj. Fonell & Samuel Byard    752 [pounds
                                                sterling]
Do 6        By Do to Isaac Dyas of London
            as per Judgment                           147    9   1 1/2
Do 13       By Do to Augustus Grasset as
            per acct.                                       18   7 1/2
Nov 9       By Do to Mary Meritt as per her
            acct.                                           12       6
Nov 21      By Do to David Jameson Atturny              3    2       6
Do          By a Tombstonn from Boston with
            all charges                                10    4       8
23 1710     By Do to Wm. Bradford as per
            his receipt                                      5       4
Jan 10      By Do to Petter Rose as per
            acct.                                       1    4       7
11          By do to Nathan Marston                          8
23          By Do to Stephen De Lancy for
            Hackraws                                  195   19       6
Mar 10      Accompt as per Judgment
            By Do to Mr. George Atturny for
              a discharge Of Hackraws Bond              1   10
Do 16       By Do to Wm. Anderson per order
              of Coll.
1710        Ab. De Peyster for attachment
            of the Cocoa                                     9      15
July 21     By Do to Mr. Byardly as per
            acct.                                       1   10      10
Au 8        By Do to Mr. Herison for the
            Sool of Van Switen Estate                   1    4
            By Do to John Deneur
              [D'Honneur] as per his acct
              ye 16 June 1709                               11
            By Do to Mordechai Gomes for
              settling the Books and
              Browing all the acct.                    21    6       6
                                              912 [pounds   13       5
                                                sterling]

[signed]      Luis Gomez
              Abraham De Lucena

New York 19th February 1710

Lewis Gomes and Abraham De Lucena, two of the Executors of the Last Will
and Testament of Joseph Bueno decd. Exhibited the above written account
for the Just and true Act of their Administration of the Estate of the
said Joseph Bueno decd. Soe [ ] [ ] to their or either of their hand or
possessions or ye hands possessions of any other person or persons in
Trust for [ ] them or either of them.

Corum Ro: Hunter (10)


(1.) See Gemeente Archief, Amsterdam, Notarial Archief, 334, fol. 19, 20, 21, 151, 152, 155, Livro dos Eleicoems do K. K. de T. T. Finatas e Reparticoems; and Notarial Archief, 334, fol. 156, Register van namen van parnassim ... en andere functionarissem 1639-1744. These records in Portuguese and Hebrew have not been translated. See also W.C. Pieterse, Inventaris Van De Archieven Der Portugees Israelistische Gemeente Te Amsterdam 1614-1870 (Amsterdam, 1964), 80. The De Mesquita or Meskite in the inventory is an odd reference. It is an old term for mosque. Was this because of a Bueno-Arab relationship? Perhaps it refers to the Mosquito coast of Honduras and Nicaragua and a Bueno Caribbean connection. Was he related to Joseph Bueno of Barbados who was endenizened in England on October 2, 1662? See W. S. Samuel, "A List of Jewish Persons Endenizened and Naturalized 1609-1799," Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 22 (1970): 114. A certain answer is, as of now, unknown. In 1645, other Bueno marriages were recorded for Joseph Bueno and Simcha Vivas Bueno, and for Ruiz Gomes Fronteradno and Simcha Bueno; Dave Verdooner and Harmen Snel, Jewish Marriage in Amsterdam, 2 vols. (S'Gravenhage, 1990), 1, 34, 35, 57.

(2.) David De Sola Pool, Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682-1831 (New York, 1952), 10-11; Verdooner and Snel, Jewish Marriage, 1, 34. It is not clear just where the 1682 ground was located. The 1683 Benjamin Bueno stone in the present cemetery does not mark the place of burial; the stone was probably moved in the middle of the eighteenth century. The present Bet Haim (cemetery) is much smaller than the original. Pool, however, agrees only in part with this summary; Pool, Portraits, 23. St. James Place fronting the cemetery was renamed in honor of Walter Jonas Judah, a medical student who died during the yellow fever epidemic of 1798 while serving his fellow-citizens.

(3.) Paul H. Hamlin and Charles Baker, Supreme Court of Judicature of the Province of New York, 1691-1704, 3 vols. (New York, 1959), II, 43, 50, 52, III, 214; Edmund B. O'Callaghan, Calendar of Historical Manuscripts in the Office of the Secretary of State, Albany (New York, 1866), II, 154; David T. Valentine, Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York (New York, 1858), 594. On November 7, 1685, Bueno was given a bill for 10 [pounds sterling]. 4s. 4d. by George Lockhart, surgeon, drawn by Lockhart on George Anthill merchant. This was not paid, and Bueno bought suit for that sum plus 2 [pounds sterling] damages; County Clerk's Office, New York City, Bueno v. Lockbart.

(4.) O'Callaghan, Calendar, II, 240; Jacob R. Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 3 vols. (Detroit, 1970), II, 707. In 1700, Bueno witnessed an indenture of two Indians, a boy and a woman; see New York Historical Society's Collections, Burghers and Freemen (New York, 1886), 586-87.

(5.) Julius M. Bloch, Leo Hershkowitz, et al., eds., An Account of Her Majesty's Revenue for the Province of New York, 1701-1709 (Ridgewood, 1966), 3, 8, 34, 55, 76, 104, 113, 121, 123, 131, 132, 134, 167, 168.

(6.) See New York Historical Society's Collections, New York Tax Lists 1695-1699 (New York, 1912), 1, 27, 29, 49, 81; II, 213, 230, 284.

(7.) Edmund O'Callaghan, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, 15 vols. (Albany, 1856-1887), IV, 1144.

(8.) Ibid., 1133-35; Curtis P. Nettles, The Money Supply of the American Colonies Before 1720 (Madison, 1934), 174-75, passim.

(9.) Leo Hershkowitz, ed., Wills of Early New York Jews (1704-1799) (New York, 1967), 15-19.

(10.) Gov. Robert Hunter (d. 1734) was appointed in 1709 and had a good deal of popular support. He returned to England in 1719 and came back to New York in 1720; Dictionary of American Biography; and Hershkowitz, Wills, 21-26.

ISAAC PINHEIRO (1709/10)

Isaac Pinheiro led a much traveled life. Either born in or from Madrid, his parents Abraham and Rachel resided in Amsterdam, where they witnessed the marriage of their son Isaac to Esther Pinheiro in 1656. Isaac was born in 1636 and his bride in 1638. Together with his father, Isaac attended the wedding of his brother Daniel to Ribca (Rebecca) Pinheiro (probably a cousin) in 1684 in Amsterdam. He was seemingly endenizened in England on December 14, 1694. Daniel (if this was indeed his brother) was born in 1664, and apparently resided in Martinique. (1)

A successful merchant, Pinheiro pursued his career on the island of Nevis, where he was a plantation owner and distiller. His will, written in New York on November 12, 1708, was probated there and in Nevis on April 19, 1710. His widow "Ester," residing at Nevis, his "whole and sole Executrix," appointed her "trusty friends" Rip Van Dam, a noted merchant, and Luis Gomez to administer her New York affairs. (2)

Pinheiro died in New York on February 17, 1710, and was buried in Shearith Israel's cemetery. Curiously, however, his name does not appear in New York shipping records nor on the city's assessment lists, and it rarely appears in existing court records. (3) He is cited as being made a freeman on February 2, 1695, but this is not known from the extant official records. (4) His will and his inventory, which was taken February 22, 1710, provide most of the information known about him. The inventory, although an extensive one, contains an odd mixture of food items, such as "6 1/2 barrels Jews beef" and "a half barrel salt beef decay'd." It is interesting in its variety, including as it does a small box of powdered sugar, a few half-rotten apples, a peck of "pease," oil, mustard seed, and decayed anchovies. There are six pounds of chocolate, six geese, and sixteen fowl. Included in the list are bottles of rum and brandy, as well as nineteen books of "several sorts." Many of the items were seemingly for trade, as, for example, some of the food, eight muslin neckcloths, sixteen handkerchiefs, and twelve packets of cotton, but many of the items were for household use, including a featherbed bolster, four pillows, one blanket, and one rug. In the kitchen were a tin fish kettle and its cover, ten small pudding pans, a candle box, a pepper box, ten pewter dishes, and thirteen plates. The household also had one japanned (painted) and one billeted (molded) oval table with a calico tablecloth, a cupboard, a large and small trunk, an "ombrello" for rainy days, and, for teeth, a gold "pick tooth." Chairs are curiously absent. Although many slaves are listed in his will, only one "Negro man named Charlotte [sic]" appears in the inventory; the others were either sold or remained at Nevis with his family. The last item, added in a hand different from the one that wrote the original inventory, is the "books of Moses with bills and vestments." These had been bought by Pinheiro from the Joseph Bueno De Mesquita estate for 25 [pounds sterling]/6, and were now valued at 150 [pounds sterling]. (5)

Why Pinheiro left Nevis to come to New York, and why he seems, apart from dying in the city, to appear so infrequently in the surviving records, are not known. His wife maintained his general merchandise business at Nevis and New York. Professor Jacob Rader Marcus characterizes her as a "woman of valor," who brought "her food from afar." (6) To his father Abraham in Amsterdam, probably about ninety at the time of his son's death, Pinheiro left 30 [pounds sterling] annually. (7)
Inventory & appraizement of the Goods and Chattels of Mr. Isaac
Pinheiro deced, taken at New York ye 22d Feb, 1709/10, vizt.

1 Small box of powder sugar wt 19 lb.            [pounds   19
                                                sterling
1 box w[i]th a few Apples half Rotten and
  Some worms eaten Chestnuts                               02        6
1/2 Bar[ell] Cacoa wt 24 lbs.                              18
8 doz. narrow Bows old and & Rusty                     2   18
2 half barr[e]l fine Bisquit                           1   04
1 Ombrello, 3 Empty 1/2 barr[e]ls & 4
  Oyster Keggs New                                     1   01        6
1 Peck of pease & a Stone Jugg of abt. Two
  Gallons                                                  05        6
6 1/2 barr[e]ls Jews beef & half a
  barr[e]l Salt beef decay'd                           4   15
1 old H[ogs] H[ead] with 6 bush. of Bran,
  1 Trea with ab. 6 doz Corks                              06        6
10 Trea with a little Fat & some Chopmeat                  07        6
1 Tin fish Kettle with Cover, two small
  pudding pans, 4 sauce pans, two dreeping
  pans, 2 Lamps, 1 tunnel, 1 Candle box,
  pepper box, Candlestick & two Kettle and
  Grater                                               1   04    4 1/2
2 Pewter Dishes & 13 Plates                            1   10
3 Course earthen Dishes, 3 Bassins, 10
  plates, 2 porringers, one of y[he]m
  broke, 1 Mugg, 1 Mustard Pot, 10
  Chocolate Cups of wh[i]ch 3 are
  broken & 1 Cann                                          14
1 Copper Chocolate pot, 1 Grid Iron, 2
  frying pans, spit, 1 pot and a Chaffing
  Dish                                                 1   03
A pcs. of a Cheese, 1 sm. Tub with abt.
  20lb. Sugar                                              06    4 1/2
7 lb. Candles, & abt 1/2 barrel, dry fish,
  4/1 barr[e]l Salt Cod                                1   02        9
1 Kegg half full of decay'd Quinces, & abt
  8 lb butter in a Tub                                     06
2 Earthen pots w[i]th some Rice &
  Fried fat                                                04
1 Small Jarr w[i]th a little oyl for the
  Lamp, 4 Galley pots w[i]th Mustard &
  Coriander Seed, 2 Case bottles with
  decay'd Anchovies, A sm. Kegg with
  preserv'd Limes, a Small Pot of Marmalet                 10        6
8 Case knives, 3 forks & Sm. Penknife
  all old                                                  07   10 1/2
1 small hand brush, 8 Glasses, 4 of th[e]m
  broke in ye feet, two Crewets & two
  Salts                                                    08        6
3 Doz. & 10 bottles, some w[i]th Sower
  beer, 1 w[i]th Brandy, & 2 w[i]th Rum                    11
17 Pint Bottles, 5 having oil, & 1 Kayean
  butter                                                   08        9

                                              21 [pounds   04    7 1/2
                                               sterling]

Brought over                                  21 [pounds   04    7 1/2
                                               sterling]
4 Empty 1/2 Gall. Bottles & a plain
  Cupboard                                                 08        6
1 Box with some Roots & some Countrey
  Quils                                                    01        3
1/2 Firkin of Soap, a small Basket & Sm.
  square Table                                             05    4 1/2
1 Small Canister & about 1/2 lb. of Tea                    12
1 Japan'd & 1 Biletted Oval Table with
  Calico Table cloth                                   3   18
1 Pr. Money Scales & about 6 lb. of
  Chocolate                                                15        9
2 Hatts, one of them new & a Chints
  morning Gown                                         2   02
1 Small bag w[i]th some Nutmegs, a little
  pepper mace & Cinnamon                                   04        6
19 Books of sev[era]l sorts with an Ink
  Glass                                                1   19
5 Papers of Snuff, 8 qty. about 4 lbs.                     08
3 Earthen Juggs with some Prunes &
  Currants                                                 12
1 Box with four Perukes 2 of them very old             3   10
4 Killing Knives w[i]th a small Bundle of
  Twine                                                2         4 1/2
2 Old course Huckaback Table Cloths &
  Napkins & 3 Towels                                       14        6
2 Speckled Shirts new, 12 holl[en]d
  shirts, 6p. of Sliders, & 5 Pillow overs            10   02        6
8 Musleen Neckcloths & 16 Handkerchiefs                3   12
9 pair Stockings & 4 pr. Threed ditto                  2
2 Sm. Bags with about 4cw pepper, & a
  Remn[e]t of French Canvas                                06        6
1 Glister pipe & pcs. of Oyl Cloth                         01        6
1 Featherbed Bolster, 4 pillows, 1
  Blanket & 1 Rugg                                     6   10
3 Written books of Acco[un]t
12 Packets of Cotton ab 8 cw at
  4 [pounds sterling] per lb.                         32
1 Bagg of Feathers w[i]th a Bed Tick                   1   16
1 1/2 Bush[el] Buckwheat                                   03
A parcel smokd meat, some sawceridges
  [sausages] & 2 pcs raw beef                          2   12
1 Large & 1 Small Trunk & Leather
  Portmantle                                           1   13
1 Negro man named Charlotte                           35
6 Geese & 16 Fowls                                         19        6
1 1/2 Cords of Nutten wood for the Fire                    15
1 Large Red Trunck & 1 Samll dito                      1   10

                                             137 [pounds   16   10 1/2
                                                sterling

Brought Over                                 137 [pounds   04   10 1/2
                                                sterling
1 Snuff box, & Tortoise for a Top &
  bottom w[i]th short prosplchine Glass                    18
2 Blanck books for Journal & Ledger                    1
6 Coats, 6 Waskcoats, 6 p. Breetches &
  1 Flannel Wastcoat                                  21
4 pr. Walk Leather Gloves                                  10
2 Sheets with 6 yds. narrow Diaper                     1   13
1 Remn[e]nt of Holl[en]d of 6 yds.                     1   07
9 Tortoise Shell Combs, 1 Case w[i]th two
  Lancets                                              1   07
2 papers of Cinnamon, 9 qty. abt 2 lbs.                1   04
1 Glass Tobacco Stopper Tip[ped] with
  Silver                                                   01        6
5 Diamond Rings, 1 w[i]th a Red Stone &
  1 plain Gold Ring                                   44   04
1 Pearl necklace of 3 Strings                         10
1 Gold Chain & Locket with 1 Pick Tooth
  with l.5.l4 [pounds sterling]                        7   12        6
1 Knife with silver handle                                 02        6
1 Silver Punch Bowl, 1 Silvercup w[i]th
  cover, 3 porringers, 3 Castors, 26
  Spoons, 1 Quill, 6 Forks & 1 Lamp in 4
  pcs. wgt. 237 oz. about 7s 6d.                      88   17        6
1 Pistol, 1 Lewis d'ore, 1 1/2 Guinea & 1
  Arabian pc. of Gold                                  4
Paper money                                           21   11
239 1/4 oz. of Silver                                 95   14
26 1/2 Dollars                                         7   05        9
The books of Moses w[i]th bells &
  vestments, etc                                     150

                                             596 [pounds   04    7 1/2
                                               sterling]

[signed]    Will Anderson    App[raisor]s.
Wm Chambers

Lancaster Symes and John Cholwell Administrators of Isaac Pinheiro Decd.
exhibited the above Written Inventory for a true and perfect Inventory
of the Estate of the said Isaac Pinheiro so farr as has come to their
or either of their hands or possession or ye hands or possession any
other person or persons in Trust for them or either of them.

[signed] Ro. Hunter (8)


(1.) Dave Verdooner and Harmen Snel, Jewish Marriage in Amsterdam, 2 vols. (S'Gravenhage, 1990), I, 38, 53; W. S. Samuel," A List of Jewish Persons Endenizened and Naturalized 1609-1799," Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 22 (1970): 119.

(2.) Leo Hershkowitz, ed., Wills of Early New York Jews (1704-1799) (New York, 1967), 21-26.

(3.) David De Sola Pool, Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682-1831 (New York, 1952), 454; Jacob R. Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 3 vols. (Detroit, 1970), I, 99. Pinheiro appears in the 1706 records of the Supreme Court of Judicature; New York County Clerk's Office, New York City, Minute Book of the New York Supreme Court of Judicature, 1704-09, Pinheiro v. Peter Fauconnier, 63. The court papers in the case are missing.

(4.) Pool, Portraits, 454, indicates the date of freemanship, but it is not found in New York Historical Society's Collections, Burghers and Freemen (New York, 1886); nor does Pool provides a reference.

(5.) Hershkowitz, Wills, 15.

(6.) Marcus, Colonial American Jew, I, 99-100.

(7.) Abraham Pinheiro's advanced age is not the only evidence of longevity among the contemporary Jewish population; Abraham Burgos, a contemporary of Isaac Pinheiro's, died at 107, and Joseph Simson died at more than 100. Hershkowitz, Wills, 22; Pool, Portraits, 207, 282; Joseph R. Rosenbloom, A Biographical Dictionary of Early American Jews (Lexington, 1960), 14, 161.

(8.) John Cholwell was an auditor of accounts; Capt. Lancaster Symes, a merchant, served as Assessor of the Dock Ward, and was awarded a lease of docks and slips; William Anderson served, among other positions, as city treasurer and constable. Robert Hunter (1666-1734), an able and noted governor of New York was appointed in 1709 and retired from that office in 1720, citing ill health. New York, filled with contending factions and ambitions, was not the easiest colony to govern. Governor Danvers Osborn committed suicide after two days in office. Paul H. Hamlin and Charles Baker, eds., Supreme Court of Judicature of the Province of New York, 1691-1704, 3 vols. (New York, 1959), II, 138, 230; Minutes of the Common Council of the City of New York, 1675-1776, 8 vols. (New York, 1905), II, 56, 174, 249, III, 201; William Smith, The History of the Province of New York, 2 vols., ed. Michael Kammen (Cambridge, 1972), II, 131-33.
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Author:Hershkowitz, Leo
Publication:American Jewish History
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2002
Words:27059
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