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Organic Chemistry in Portugal from 1900 to 1970: A Contribution to the History of Science.

1. INTRODUCTION

In Portugal there are some studies about organic chemistry. However, these studies are particularly related with the technical aspects of organic chemistry and not with its history. There are some exceptions, such as those made by the group Working Party (WP), Science and Technology in the European Periphery (STEP), History of Chemistry of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS).

And so, this article aims to make a contribution to the history of chemistry through the study of several scholars who taught organic chemistry in Portuguese institutions, between 1900 and 1970. The word <<institution>> [1] comes from the Latin meaning <<creation, foundation>>, which means that the main role of an institution is to introduce innovation in the teaching of knowledge, so that scientific research might progress in the right way. In Portugal, the main scientific institutions are located in Lisbon, Coimbra and Oporto.

In Portugal, the development of organic chemistry was due, particularly, to the effort of the Professor Andrade Gouveia (1905-2002), who after receiving his PhD from Liverpool, he brought major innovations to Portuguese Institutions, particularly in the promotion of links between universities and industry. In fact, after Professor Andrade Gouveia received his PhD, many more connections were forged between universities and industry in Portugal, such as, Cires ((resins industry, CUF ((fertilizer industry), Petrogal (oil industry), Borealis (plastics industry), and so on.

Moreover, at the first conference in Portugal about <<The History and the Development of the Science in Portugal>>, Professor Andrade Gouveia enjoyed the collaboration of A. G. Debus (University of Chicago) and W. R. Shea (McGill University), which contributed to the internationalization of the history of chemistry in Portugal. Later, there were two more conferences called <<IUHPS>> (International Union of History and Philosophy of Science), and <<ICSU>> (International Council of Scientific Unions) about the scientific revolutions in the chemistry field, particularly in the area of the history of science.

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS

In this work, we did a deep bibliographical research about scholars and institutions in Portugal which have contributed to the development of organic chemistry, between 1900 and 1970. In addition to the Portuguese National Library, we consulted the main historical archives and libraries of the various centres of higher education in Portugal, located at Lisbon, Coimbra and Oporto, where there is the teaching and research in organic chemistry. In Portugal, the main archives and libraries are the archive of Torre do Tombo, archive and library of Technical Higher Institute, archive and library of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, archive and library of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Lisbon, library of the Portuguese Chemical Society, library of the Academy of Sciences, archive and library of the Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of Coimbra, archive and library of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Coimbra, archive and library of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Oporto, archive and library of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Oporto, archive and library of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Oporto.

We did also some personal contacts with scholars who taught organic chemistry in Portuguese institutions (all of them disciples of others deceased scholars) who have given us some personal information on how the classes in organic chemistry occurred) (lecture and laboratory) in the first half of the 20th century. The name of them are: Professor Bernardo Herold of Technical Higher Institute, Professor Amelia Pilar of Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Professor Jose Pedro Sousa Dias of Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Lisbon, Professor Artur Silva of Portuguese Chemical Society, Professor Jose Simoes Redinha of Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, Professor Antonio Amorim Costa of Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of Coimbra, Professor Joao Rui Pita of Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Coimbra, Professor Rodrigo Guedes de Carvalho of Faculty of Engineering of the University of Oporto, Professor Carlos Correa of Faculty of Sciences of the University of Oporto, Professor Madalena Maria Pinto of Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Oporto.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this section, we will present the results of our investigation about the historical contributions made by several scholars in Portuguese institutions, from 1900 to 1970, to the development of organic chemistry, describing and discussing the most relevant facts of our research.

In Lisbon, the course of chemical engineering (whose roots are in the industrial course of commerce of Lisbon) was one of the 5 courses of engineering created in the Technical Higher Institute, in 1911. The course of chemical engineering of this institution has a discipline called <<organic chemistry>> which was taught, from 1911 to 1970, by the Professor Charles Lepierre (1867-1945) (who taught from 1911 to 1922), Professor Arnaldo Peres de Carvalho (1904-1989) (who taught from 1935 to 1947), Professor Pierre Laurent (1909-?) (who taught from 1952 to 1961) and Professor Bernardo Herold (1933-alive) (who taught from 1962 to 1970). In this discipline, particular attention has been given to the study of "hydrocarbons", through the use of several technical books, such as, <<General Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic and Analysis of Elements>> [2] (written by Charles Lepierre), <<Methodes et Reactions de l'Analise Organique>> [3] (translated into Portuguese by Pierre Laurent) and <<Organic Chemistry>> [4] (translated into Portuguese by Bernardo Herold). All these scholars were austere man, who have written important papers in organic chemistry area, as well as, possessing a dynamic energy which contributed to the improvement of the prestige of this institution. In the fifties, the organic chemistry laboratory of Technical Higher Institute (Figure 1) [5] was renovated by Professor Pierre Laurent. Until now, the laboratory was a small space where Pierre Laurent showed only a few practical experiments, in which students did not participate. However, in the second half of the 20th century, in addition to lecture, the course of chemical engineering required laboratory in order to prepare the future engineers in a more complete way. To do so, Professor Pierre Laurent asked for the collaboration of several international institutions, such as, the Liege University (particularly, through the knowledge of Pierre Tarte on macrocyclic acetates) and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation's financial support (which contributed to the renovation of the "new" organic chemistry laboratory). This laboratory was equipped with the support of some Portuguese institutions, such as Dyrup, Ciba, the Portuguese Society of Liquid Air, among others. In 1953, this laboratory could hold up to 48 students and so, it allowed not only the discovery of new vocations in the field of organic chemistry but also consolidate the knowledge of future chemical engineers. However, both Professor Arnaldo Peres de Carvalho and Pierre Laurent were removed from this institution for political reasons. In fact, their political ideology opposed that of the Portuguese Government, which meant that they had no time to "make their own school" (with their own pupils) in this institution.

The Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon was created in 1911, with a strong vocation for research and teaching in the field of <<chemistry>> which was performed by Professor Aquiles Machado (1862-1942) (who taught from 1900 to 1921), Professor Antonio Pereira Forjaz (1893-1972) (who taught from 1922 to 1941) and Professor Paul Jacobsohn (1904-1991) (who taught from 1942 to 1970). In this institution, particular attention has been given to the study of "stereochemistry" which is reflected by the use of certain technical books, such as, compendio's <<Elements of Mineral Chemistry and Organic Chemistry>> [6] (written by Aquiles Machado), <<Introduction to Organic Chemistry>> [7] (written by Antonio Forjaz) and <<Summary of Organic Chemistry lessons>> [8] (written by Paul Jacobsohn). Professor Antonio Pereira Forjaz became Director of the Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon, and during his tenure, and with the support of a group of remarkable lecturers (such as, Professor Antenor Borges de Almeida), this institution enjoyed a dynamic period. In addition to lecture, Professor Antonio Pereira Forjaz was continually involved in organic chemistry research and produced high-quality papers that saw international recognition. Lectures are complemented by laboratory which were also an important part of the "Preparatorios" (Preparatory studies) for the Medicine, Engineering and Pharmaceutical courses, in the first half of the 20th century. However, during the first half of the 20th century, the laboratory experiences (Figure 2) [9] were mainly descriptive in which students were only spectators of the teacher's experiments and where knowledge was transmitted in a non-organized way. Most positively, the work done by the Professor Aquiles Machado, which was continued by Professor Antonio Pereira Forjaz, led to the construction of an organic chemistry laboratory which was, in the middle of 20th century, a benchmark in the experimental study of chemistry.

In fact, in the second half of the 20th century, the chemical laboratory of this institution was one of the biggest laboratories in Europe, with an area of 860 [m.sup.2], including an "Anfiteatro de Chimica" (Amphitheatre of chemistry) which could hold up to 200 students. This organic chemistry laboratory was constituted by an "office", with two large rooms equipped with instruments and devices belonging to the various chemical subjects. These two rooms allowed the students of the course of physical-chemistry to do practical work in organic chemistry. One of these rooms was for risk-free practical work, while the other was for more dangerous experiments. The work done by professor Paul Jacobsohn in the field of biochemistry was continued by Professor Amelia Pilar Rauter (1950-alive). She is the founder and coordinator of the Portuguese Carbohydrate Chemistry Group (CCG) of the Portuguese Society of Chemistry. She wrote the book <<Carbohydrate Chemistry--Chemical and Biological Approaches>> [10] which is a "benchmark" in the field of Portuguese biochemistry.

Since 1921, the Pharmaceutical School of Lisbon has a discipline called <<organic pharmaceutical chemistry>> which was taught, from 1911 to 1970, by Professor Raul Lupi Nogueira (1874-1945) (who taught from 1900 to 1913), Professor Alberto Ralha (1921-2010) (who taught from 1944 to 1957) and Professor Licio Godinho (1935-alive) (who taught from 1958 to 1970). In fact, on this course of pharmacy, particular attention has been given to the study of "organic compounds with a therapeutic action" which are reflected by the use of several technical books, such as, <<The insulin under the chemical-pharmaceutical point of view>> [11] (written by Raul Nogueira), <<Lessons for the discipline of organic pharmaceutical chemistry>> [12] (written by Licio Godinho) and <<The basic principles of organic chemistry>> [13] (translated into Portuguese by Alberto Ralha). Lectures are complemented by laboratory experiences. In the first half of the 20th century, the course of pharmacy was taught at Medical School of Lisbon, and so the pharmaceutical teaching went into decline (especially laboratory experience) because the pharmaceutical students need a different preparation from that of physicists. In 1950's, this situation, changed through the work of Professor Alberto Ralha who contributed to the construction of a "new" Faculty of Pharmacy of Lisbon (Figure 3)[14] located on "Quinta da Torrinha", with two laboratories of organic pharmaceutical chemistry. Professor Alberto Ralha was trained in some European laboratories, such as Zurich and Basel, which gave him new skills for the construction of a proper laboratory in organic pharmaceutical chemistry in this institution.

Portuguese Chemical Society is a scientific society which is responsible for the publication of the magazine intituled <<Magazine of Pure and Applied Chemistry>> [15]. The first director of this magazine was the renowned Professor Antonio Ferreira da Silva. The constant improvement of pedagogical conditions, together with proper communication with students and university staff, have made this magazine a "benchmark" for all Portuguese chemistry. The goals have been always the same: high quality papers that combine simple and technical language, which have allowed both students and scholars to enjoy themselves in the "world of chemistry".

The Academy of Sciences of Lisbon is a Portuguese Institution whose main goal is to support the development of research in Portugal, both in humanities and sciences. In relation to sciences, this institution has a section called "chemistry" that is led by the best teachers, in Portugal, in this field of knowledge. One example is Professor Romulo de Carvalho for his major contribution (scientific and pedagogic) to the history of science, namely his work called <<The relationship between Portugal and Russia in the 18th century>> [16]. In addition to having taught in physics and chemistry [17], Professor Romulo de Carvalho also wrote poetry [18] and produced superb poems, such as, <<Philosophical Stone>> which relates chemistry and philosophy (called "alchemy").

On the other hand, since the reform of Portuguese higher education, in 1911, <<chemistry>> has been one of the main disciplines taught in the course of physical-chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Coimbra. This course has a discipline called <<organic chemistry>>, which was taught from 1911 to 1970 by Professor Alvaro Jose da Silva Basto (1873-1924) (who taught from 1900 to 1924), Professor Antonio Jorge Andrade Gouveia (who taught from 1934 to 1964) and Professor Albuquerque Rocha Goncalves (1939-alive) (who taught from 1964 to 1970). In this discipline, particular attention has been given to the <<mechanisms of organic compounds>>, which are reflected by the use of several technical books, such as <<Introduction to the study of Organic Chemistry>> [19] (written by Alvaro Basto) , <<Organic Chemistry>> [20] (written by Andrade Gouveia) and <<Contribution to the synthesis of chiral allenic esters>> [21] (written by Albuquerque Goncalves). Professor Antonio Andrade Gouveia endeavoured to make the University of Coimbra one of the best European schools, in terms of chemical research, with adequate and fully equipped laboratories. Organic chemistry laboratories of the Faculty of Sciences of Coimbra] were the only ones that existed in Portugal, before 1911. In the first half of the 20th century, this laboratory had an area of 12,400 [m.sup.2], with three large rooms for experiments. One of these three rooms was for organic chemical experiments (with very simple and basic laboratory devices), while the other two were for chemical analysis. In the second half of the 20th century, there was a renovation of laboratorial materials, as a response to the new challenges of this time. Indeed, Portuguese organic chemistry has made great strides, where the University of Coimbra has played a pioneering role in the organic chemistry field, particularly due the efforts and dedication of Professor Andrade Gouveia.

Still in Coimbra, the Pharmaceutical School of Coimbra has conferred first degrees and PhDs in pharmacy, even before the 20th century. It is worth to mention that the University of Coimbra was the "cradle" of the pharmaceutical teaching in Portugal. This course of pharmacy has a discipline called <<organic pharmaceutical chemistry>>, which was taught from 1911 to 1970 by the Professor Alvaro Jose da Silva Basto (who taught from 1900 to 1924), Professor Guilherme de Barros e Cunha (1898-1984) (who taught from 1932 to 1947), Professor Andre Campos Neves (1926-alive) (who taught from 1959 to 1970). In this course of pharmacy, particular attention has been given to the study of "steroids", which are organic compounds used for therapeutic purposes. They are reflected by the use of certain technical books, such as, <<The pharmaceutical education at the University of Coimbra>> [22], (written by Guilherme Cunha), <<Organic Chemistry>> [23] (translated into Portuguese by Andre Neves) which describe the pharmaceutical application of several organic substances. In this institution, the lectures are also complemented by laboratory experience taught in the laboratory of the Pharmaceutical School of Coimbra (Figure 4) [24]. This laboratory was built in the building S. Boaventura due the personal contacts made by Professor Alvaro Jose da Silva Basto with Town Hall of Coimbra. In fact, this laboratory was pioneer in laboratory experience, in Portugal. In the first half of the 20th century, this laboratory could hold up to 30 students and had one large room equipped with instruments belonging to the various subjects of practical chemistry. For example, one of the chemical examination was related with the determination of fusion point and the preparation of some organic pharmaceutical compounds. In the first half of the 20th century, organic chemistry laboratory of the Pharmaceutical School was shared with the laboratory of Faculty of Sciences, both in Coimbra. In the second half of the 20th century, Professor Andre Campos Neves improved the laboratory experience of this course through the writing of some technical manuals on pharmacy which contributed to a better preparation of pharmaceutical students in this institution.

Finally, in 1911, the University of Oporto was created in Portugal. This University contains the Faculty of Sciences, the Faculty of Engineering and the Faculty of Pharmacy.

The course of chemistry of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Oporto has a great prestige due, in particular, to the work done by the Professor Antonio Ferreira da Silva (1853-1923) (who taught in this institution from 1900 to 1923), whose papers are a "benchmark" for chemistry, in national and international level. The name of other teachers who have taught <<chemistry>> in this institution were Professor Jose Pereira Salgado (1867-1946) (who taught from 1919 to 1943) and Professor Alberto Carlos Brito (1902-?) (who taught from 1948 to 1970). In this institution particular attention has been given to the study of "classic groups" of organic chemistry, such as, hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, and so on, which are reflected in the use of certain technical books, such as <<Elements of analytical and organic chemistry>> [25] (written by Antonio Silva), <<Chemistry at the Academy Polytechnic of Oporto>> [26] (written by Jose Salgado), and <<Lessons in Organic Chemistry>> [27] (written by Alberto Brito).

The chemistry of the Academy Polytechnic of Oporto, which existed until 1911, was the forerunner of the current course of chemistry of the Faculty of Sciences of Oporto. In the beginning of the 20th century, the course of chemistry of this institution had a poor laboratory (Figure 5) [28] with little equipment and small rooms. Most positively, some renovations were performed by Professor Antonio Ferreira da Silva who made it better equipped and more spacious, allowing seating for 50 students.

For this reason, the laboratory received his name. After the death of Professor Antonio Ferreira da Silva, Professor Jose Salgado carried on his efforts, which led to an improvement of organic chemistry laboratories. For example, some furniture and laboratory equipment were offered by Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. In 1964, with the separation of the courses of physics and chemistry, a larger library containing more technical books of organic chemistry and a more spacious amphitheatre which could hold up to 50 students, was made.

In the beginning of the 20th century, the course of chemical engineering of the University of Oporto was taught both in Faculty of Sciences (the first 3 years) and in Faculty of Engineering (the last 3 years) of the University of Oporto. From 1926 onwards, the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Oporto has begun to teach the full 6 years of the course of chemical engineering. This course has a discipline called <<organic chemistry>>, which was taught from 1911 to 1970 by Professor Antonio Ferreira da Silva, Professor Jose Pereira Salgado, and Professor Henrique Serrano (1897-1967) (who taught from 1948 to 1968). In this course particular attention has been given to the study of organic compounds with an industrial purpose (such as, milk, wine, oils, fuel and others organic products), which are reflected by the technical books used in the classes, namely, <<Unit Processes in Organic Synthesis>> [29] (translated into Portuguese by Henrique Serrano). Lectures are also complemented by laboratory (Figure 6) [30] of this institution located on "Rua do Braga".--Professor Jose Pereira Salgado published numerous papers not only related with his area of expertise (chemistry) but also associated to pedagogy and education. For this reason, the laboratory received his name.

Moreover, scholars of the course of chemical engineering of this institution have promoted the link between the University and some chemical industries and so, in 1958, a Center for organic chemistry research was created in this institution which has attracted several researchers (portugueses and foreigners) experts in the study of the chemical processes of agar-agar extraction and phenolic compounds.

The course of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Oporto has a discipline called <<organic pharmaceutical chemistry>> which was taught from 1911 to 1970 by Professor Alberto Pereira Pinto de Aguiar (1868-1948) (who taught from 1900 to 1917), Professor Americo Pires de Lima (1886-1966) (who taught from 1922 to 1940), Professor Abel da Silva Pereira (1907-?) (who taught from 1940 to 1950) and Professor Joaquim Antonio Polonia (1925-alive) (who taught from 1951 to 1970). This course has given particular attention to the study of organic compounds with a therapeutic purpose, which are reflected in the use of several technical books, such as <<Reactions of the Tanret reagent>> [31] (written by Alberto Aguiar), <<The role of vitamins in Vasco Gama's journey>> [32] (written by Americo Lima), <<Alkaloids>> [33] (written by Abel Pereira), <<Amidofebrin>> [34] (written by Joaquim Polonia). Lectures are complemented by laboratory (Figure 7) [35] of this institution located on "Rua da Carvalhosa". This laboratory boasted extensive laboratorial facilities, with a large library, which allowed laboratory experience for about 60 students. From 1940 to 1960, Professor Abel Silva Pereira was the responsible for the reorganizing and re-equipping of this laboratory with the financial contribution of Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.

4. CONCLUSION

In the first half of the 20th century, it is true that the development of organic chemistry in Portugal lagged behind, in international terms. More positively, in the second half of the 20th century, the engineer Pinto Leite and the Portuguese Minister Veiga Simao have begun to change this situation. Through the financial support to various renowned Portuguese institutions, the development of organic chemistry was held successfully. These institutions are Technical Higher Institute, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Lisbon, Portuguese Chemical Society, Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the University of Coimbra, Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Coimbra, Faculty of Engineering of the University of Oporto, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Oporto, Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Oporto.

It was also very important the hugely work of many scholars in Portugal (called "main figures") who through their hard effort and selfless dedication have contributed to the increase prestige in teaching and investigation of Portuguese organic chemistry. These scholars were Professor Charles Lepierre, Professor Arnaldo Peres de Carvalho, Professor Pierre Laurent, Professor Bernardo Herold (who taught at Technical Higher Institute), Professor Achiles Machado, Professor Antonio Pereira Forjaz (who was helped by Professor Antenor Borges de Almeida), Professor Kurt Paul Jacobsohn and Professor Amelia Rauter (who taught at the Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon), Professor Raul Nogueira Lupi, Professor Alberto Ralha, Professor Licio Godinho (who taught at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Lisbon), Professor Romulo de Carvalho (who worked at the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon), Professor Alvaro Jose da Silva Basto, Professor Antonio Andrade Gouveia, Professor Albuquerque Rocha Goncalves (who taught at the Faculty of Sciences of Coimbra), Professor Antonio Ferreira da Silva and Professor Jose Pereira Salgado (who taught both at the Faculty of Sciences of Oporto and the Faculty of Engineering of Porto), Professor Henrique Jose Serrano (who taught at the Faculty of Engineering of Porto), Professor Alberto Carlos Brito (who taught at the Faculty of Sciences of Porto), Professor Alberto Pereira Pinto de Aguiar, Professor Americo Pires de Lima, Professor Abel da Silva Pereira, Professor Joaquim Antonio Polonia (who taught at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Porto). In addition to their work as scholars, they also did excellent pedagogical work.

5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Paulo Martins acknowledges both the suggestions of Professor Antonio Manuel Nunes dos Santos and funding from the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal.

6. REFERENCES AND NOTES

[1] Procter, P. Longman Dictionary of contemporary English, 1978, page 613.

[2] Le Pierre, C. General Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic and Analysis of Elements, Libanio Silva, 1922.

[3] Peses, M.; Poirier, P. Methodes et Reactions de l'Analise Organique, Paris:Masson, 1954.

[4] Cram, D.; Hammond, G. Organic Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, 1959.

[5] Laurent, P. "Le nouveau laboratoire de chimie organique de l'Institut Superieur Technique", Technic Magazine, 1955.

[6] Machado, A. Elements of Mineral Chemistry and Organic Chemistry, Libanio Silva, 1901.

[7] Jacobsohn, P. K.; Forjaz, A. Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon, 1944.

[8] Jacobsohn, P. K. Summary of Organic Chemistry lessons, Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon, 1964.

[9] Anonymous. Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon: past, present and future. Museum of the Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon, 1987.

[10] Rauter, A. Carbohydrate Chemistry--Chemical and Biological Approaches, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2012. [CrossRef]

[11] Nogueira, R. The insulin under the chemical-pharmaceutical point of view. First Pharmaceutical Congress, Lisbon, 927.

[12] Ribeiro, J. A. A. Lessons for the discipline of organic pharmaceutical chemistry, Lisbon, 1965.

[13] Roberts, J. D.; Caserio, M. C. The basic principles of organic chemistry, Enc. New York, 1965.

[14] Dias, L. S. The teaching of pharmacy in Portugal, Pharmaceutical School of Lisbon, 1984.

[15] da Silva, A. F. Magazine of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Lisbon, 1905.

[16] de Carvalho, R. The relationship between Portugal and Russia in the 18th century, Lisbon, 1979.

[17] de Carvalho, R. Rules of Notation and Chemistry Nomenclature, Institute of High Culture, 1950.

[18] dos Santos, A. M. N.; Antonio Gedeao, 51+3 poems and others writings. Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon, 1922.

[19] Basto, A. S. Introduction to the study of Organic Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 1908.

[20] Gouveia, A. Organic Chemistry, Lisbon, 1967.

[21] Melo, T. M. V. D. P.; Cardoso, A. L.; Goncalves, A. M. R.; Storr, R. C.; Pessoa, J. C.; Paixao, J. A.; Beja, A. M.; Silva, M. R. Tetrahedron Lett. 2003, 44, 6409. [CrossRef]

[22] Cunha, G. The pharmaceutical education at the University of Coimbra, University of Coimbra, 1937.

[23] Finair, I. L. Organic Chemistry, Longman, 1954.

[24] Eusebio, A. M.; Ermelinda, M.; Leitao, M.; Redinha, J. History of the Lab in the University of Coimbra, Portuguese Chemical Society, 2004.

[25] da Silva, A. F. Elements of analytical and organic chemistry, 2a edition, Oporto, 1900.

[26] Salgado, J. Chemistry at the Academy Polytechnic of Oporto, University of Oporto, 1937.

[27] Brito, C. Lessons in Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences of Oporto, undated.

[28] Cabral, J. Faculty of Sciences of the University of Oporto-The first 75 years, Faculty of Sciences of Oporto, 2000. PMCid: PMC2094738

[29] Groggins, P. H. Unit Processes in Organic Synthesis, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1958.

[30] de Carvalho, R. G. History of the teaching of Chemical Engineering at the University of Oporto, Faculty of Engineering of Oporto, 1998.

[31] de Aguiar, A. P. Reactions of the Tanret reagent, Lisbon, 1924.

[32] de Lima, A. P. The role of vitamins in Vasco Gama's journey, Lisbon, 1942.

[33] Pereira, A. S. Alkaloids, Faculty of Pharmacy in Oporto, volume IX, 1949.

[34] Polonia, J. A. Amidofebrin, Faculty of Pharmacy in Oporto, 1953.

[35] Alves, A. History of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Oporto, Faculty of Pharmacy of Oporto, 1988.

Paulo Nuno Martins *

Interuniversity Center for History of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus of Caparica, Building VII, Floor 2, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.

* Corresponding author. E-mail: paulonuno2003@iol.pt

Article history: Received: 07 October 2017; revised: 12 November 2017; accepted: 14 November 2017. Available online: 26 December 2017. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i5.1086

Caption: Figure 1. The organic chemistry laboratory of Technical Higher Institute, in the fifties.

Caption: Figure 2. The organic chemistry laboratory of Faculty of Sciences of Lisbon, in the fifties.

Caption: Figure 3. The organic chemistry laboratory of Faculty of Pharmacy of Lisbon, in the fifties.

Caption: Figure 4. The organic chemistry laboratory of Faculty of Coimbra, in the first half of the 20th century.

Caption: Figure 5. The organic chemistry laboratory of Faculty of Sciences of Oporto, in the first half of the 20th century.

Caption: Figure 6. The Faculty of Engineering of Oporto, where are located the chemical laboratories, in the first half of the 20th century.

Caption: Figure 7. The plan of organic chemistry laboratory of Faculty of Pharmacy of Oporto, in the first half of the 20th century.
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Title Annotation:History of Chemistry
Author:Martins, Paulo Nuno
Publication:Orbital: The Electronic Journal of Chemistry
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Geographic Code:4EUPR
Date:Oct 1, 2017
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