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Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with three common spices of Bangladesh: onion, garlic and ginger.

INTRODUCTION

Diabetes is a disease rapidly reaching endemic proportions throughout the world, possibly because of changes in the lifestyle and food habits of people. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicines, which medicines merely treat the symptoms. Under these circumstances, natural products including spices can play a role in ameliorating the disease and its symptoms (Khan and Safdar, 2003).

Onion, garlic and ginger are three of the most common spices used in culinary dishes of Bangladesh. Onion is considered the bulb of Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae), garlic is considered the clove of Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) and ginger is considered the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). These plant parts are used as spices and are known, respectively, in Bangladesh as peyaj, roshun and ada. Anecdotal reports exist in Bangladesh that these plant parts have medicinal values and can lower blood sugar in diabetic patients following consumption of the plant parts.

We had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys followed by screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plants for their potential antidiabetic, antinociceptive and cytotoxic activities (Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Anwar et al, 2010; Jahan et al, 2010; Rahman et al., 2010; Rahmatullah et al, 2010a-h; Shoha et al., 2010; Ali et al, 2011; Barman et al, 2011; Hossan et al, 2011; Jahan et al, 2011; Rahman et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sutradhar et al., 2011; Ahmed et al., 2012; Arefin et al., 2012; Haque et al., 2012; Sathi et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012a-d; Haque et al., 2013). As part of this screening process, the objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperglycemic potential of onion, garlic and ginger methanolic extracts through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in glucose-loaded mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Bulbs of Allium cepa (onion) were collected from a local market in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during June 2013. The bulbs were taxonomically identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka (Accession Number 38,358). The sliced and air-dried bulbs of Allium cepa (without skin) were grounded into a fine powder and 100g of the powder was extracted with 500 ml methanol for 48 hours. The extract was evaporated to dryness at 40oC. The final weight of the extract was 32.49g.

Cloves of Allium sativum (garlic) were collected from a local market in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during June 2013. The cloves were taxonomically identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka (Accession Number 38,573). The sliced and air-dried cloves of Allium sativum (without skin) were grounded into a fine powder and 100g of the powder was extracted with 500 ml methanol for 48 hours. The extract was evaporated to dryness at 40oC. The final weight of the extract was 3.43g.

Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) were collected from a local market in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during June 2013. The rhizomes were taxonomically identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka (Accession Number 38,724). The sliced and air-dried rhizomes (without skin) of Zingiber officinale were grounded into a fine powder and 100g of the powder was extracted with 500 ml methanol for 48 hours. The extract was evaporated to dryness at 40oC. The final weight of the extract was 6.56g.

Chemicals:

Glibenclamide and glucose were obtained from Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Bangladesh.

Animals:

In the present study, Swiss albino mice (male), which weighed between 15-20g were used. The animals were obtained from International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B). All animals were kept under ambient temperature with 12h light followed by a 12h dark cycle. The animals were acclimatized for three days prior to actual experiments. The study was conducted following approval by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of the University of Development Alternative, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Antihyperglycemic activity:

Glucose tolerance property of methanol extract of Allium cepa bulbs, Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizome was determined as per the procedure previously described by Joy and Kuttan (1999) with minor modifications. In brief, fasted mice were grouped into fourteen groups of five mice each. The various groups received different treatments like Group 1 received vehicle (1% Tween 80 in water, 10 ml/kg body weight) and served as control, group 2 received standard drug (glibenclamide, 10 mg/kg body weight). Groups 3-6 received methanol extract of Allium cepa bulbs at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Groups 7-10 received methanol extract of Allium sativum cloves at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Groups 11-14 received methanol extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Each mouse was weighed and doses adjusted accordingly prior to administration of vehicle, standard drug and test samples. All substances were orally administered. Following a period of one hour, all mice were orally administered 2 g glucose/kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected 120 minutes after the glucose administration through puncturing heart. Blood glucose levels were measured by glucose oxidase method (Venkatesh et al., 2004).

The percent lowering of blood glucose level was calculated as follows.

Percent lowering of blood glucose level = (1 - [W.sub.e]/[W.sub.c]) X 100,

where [W.sub.e] and [W.sub.c] represents the blood glucose concentration in glibenclamide or extract administered mice (Groups 2-14) and control mice (Group 1), respectively.

Statistical analysis:

Experimental values are expressed as mean [+ or -] SEM. Independent Sample t-test was carried out for statistical comparison. Statistical significance was considered to be indicated by a p value < 0.05 in all cases.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

It was observed that the methanolic extract of all three spices dose-dependently and significantly lowered blood glucose in mice. The methanolic extract of onion, when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced blood sugar levels by, respectively, 20.4, 34.4, 40.8 and 57.5%. The methanolic extract of garlic at the afore-mentioned four doses, reduced blood glucose levels, respectively, by 19.7, 29.4, 37.1 and 54.8%. The methanolic extract of ginger, at the same four doses, respectively, lowered blood glucose levels by 18.4, 33.4, 39.1 and 50.8% as compared to control animals. In comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 53.8%. The results indicate significant blood glucose lowering effect by the extracts, with the onion bulb extract giving the best effects, which was greater than that of glibenclamide. The results are shown in Table 1.

Extract of onion, garlic, or ginger, or isolated phytochemical components from the three plant parts have previously been shown to exert beneficial effects in diabetic conditions. Antihyperglycemic effect of allyl propyl disulphide isolated from onion has previously been shown in glucose tolerance tests in alloxan diabetic rabbits (Augusti et al., 1974). In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, supplementation of onion in diet reportedly lead to lowering of blood glucose levels (Bang et al., 2009). Ingestion of crude onion has been shown to reduce blood glucose levels in human Type I and Type II diabetic patients (Taj Eldin et al., 2010). The antiobesity effect of onion extract has been noted in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (Yoshinari et al., 2012). Quercetin, a component of Allium cepa bulb, has been reported to decrease apoptosis of hepatocytes in STZ-diabetic rats (Bakhshaeshi et al., 2012).

In alloxan diabetic rabbits, administration of garlic extract has been shown to lead to hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia (Sher et al., 2012). Garlic extract has been found to attenuate oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in fructose-fed male rats (Senthiulkumar et al., 2013). Administration of garlic extract led to decreases in serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride in STZ-induced diabetic rats (Masjedi et al., 2013). Methanolic extract of garlic has been reported to lower postprandial blood glucose in alloxan diabetic rats (Moradabadi et al., 2013). S-allylcysteine, a component of garlic has been shown to STZ-induced alterations in blood glucose, liver cytochrome P450 2E1, plasma antioxidant system and adipocytes hormones in STZ-diabetic rats (Saravanan and Ponmurugan, 2013).

Aqueous extract of ginger has been demonstrated to produce antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced and insulin-resistant diabetic male rats (Iranloye et al., 2011). Gingerols of Zingiber officinale has been shown to enhance glucose uptake by increasing cell surface GLUT4 in cultured L6 myotubes, which can be beneficial in diabetes (Li et al., 2012). Ginger supplementation has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetic patients (Mahluji et al., 2013). The protective effect of free and bound polyphenols extracts from ginger has been seen on hepatic antioxidants and some carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in STZ-diabetic rats (Kazeem et al., 2013). Ginger has been found to reduce fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol in Type 2 diabetic patients (Arablou et al., 2014). Daily consumption of 3 one-gram capsules of ginger powder for 8 weeks was seen to be useful for patients with type 2 diabetes due to FBS (fasting blood sugar) and HbA1c reduction and improvement of insulin resistance indices such as QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check) index (Mozaffari-Khosravi et al., 2014). Neuroprotective effect of ginger has also been shown in STZ-diabetic rats (El-Akabawy and El-Kholi, 2014).

It is thus quite evident that antidiabetic properties exist in onion, garlic and ginger. These are readily available spices and affordable and as such, they can serve as dietary supplements for diabetic patients towards amelioration of high blood sugar and other diabetes-induced complications.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 2 April 2014

Received in revised form 13 May 2014

Accepted 28 May 2014

Available online 27 June 2014

REFERENCES

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Erina Islam Erin, Helal Uddin Sumon, Jahan Islam, Md. Azizur Rahman, Wasifa Ferdous Disharee, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor and Dean, Faculty of Life Sciences University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi, Dhaka1205 Bangladesh

Tel: +88-01715032621 Fax: +88-02-815739 E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Effect of the various extracts on blood glucose level in
hyperglycemic mice following 120 minutes of glucose loading.

Treatment                               Dose
                                 (mg/kg body weight)

Control (Group 1)                       10 ml
Glibenclamide (Group 2)                 10 mg
Allium cepa (Group 3)                   50 mg
Allium cepa (Group 4)                  100 mg
Allium cepa (Group 5)                  200 mg
Allium cepa (Group 6)                  400 mg
Allium sativum (Group 7)                50 mg
Allium sativum (Group 8)               100 mg
Allium sativum (Group 9)               200 mg
Allium sativum (Group 10)              400 mg
Zingiber officinale (Group 11)          50 mg
Zingiber officinale (Group 12)         100 mg
Zingiber officinale (Group 13)         200 mg
Zingiber officinale (Group 14)         400 mg

Treatment                        Blood glucose level   % lowering of
                                      (mmol/l)         blood glucose
                                                           level

Control (Group 1)                5.98 [+ or -] 0.20         --
Glibenclamide (Group 2)          2.76 [+ or -] 0.25       53.8 *
Allium cepa (Group 3)            4.76 [+ or -] 0.21       20.4 *
Allium cepa (Group 4)            3.92 [+ or -] 0.12       34.4 *
Allium cepa (Group 5)            3.54 [+ or -] 0.20       40.8 *
Allium cepa (Group 6)            2.54 [+ or -] 0.23       57.5 *
Allium sativum (Group 7)         4.80 [+ or -] 0.18       19.7 *
Allium sativum (Group 8)         4.22 [+ or -] 0.49       29.4 *
Allium sativum (Group 9)         3.76 [+ or -] 0.22       37.1 *
Allium sativum (Group 10)        2.70 [+ or -] 0.34       54.8 *
Zingiber officinale (Group 11)   4.88 [+ or -] 0.26       18.4 *
Zingiber officinale (Group 12)   3.98 [+ or -] 0.31       33.4 *
Zingiber officinale (Group 13)   3.64 [+ or -] 0.09       39.1 *
Zingiber officinale (Group 14)   2.94 [+ or -] 0.34       50.8 *

All administrations were made orally. Values represented as mean
[+ or -] SEM, (n=5); * P < 0.05; significant compared to
hyperglycemic control animals.
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Author:Erin, Erina Islam; Sumon, Helal Uddin; Islam, Jahan; Rahman, Azizur; Disharee, Wasifa Ferdous; Rahma
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jul 1, 2014
Words:4240
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