Printer Friendly

Optimal conditions for antimicrobial activity production from two microalgae chlorella marina and Navicula F. Delicatula.

Microalgae play a key role in the productivity of oceans. Marine organisms produce pharmacologically important diverse group of natural products (Ravikumar S. et al., 2010 and Krishnakumar et al., 2011) that include algae, which produce novel and unexplored sources of potentially useful bioactive compounds that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents (Iwamoto et al., 2001). Biologically active compounds from natural resources have always been of great interest to scientists working on different diseases (Hemraj Upmanyu et al., 2012 and Abdel-Raouf and Ibraheem 2008). Algae have been used in traditional medicine for a long time and also some algae have bacteriostatic, bactericidal, antifungal, antiviral and antitumor activity (Justo et al., 2001). Microalgae are rich source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites. So it has been studied as potential bioactive compounds of interests in the pharmaceutical industry (Rangaiah et al., 2010 and Ely et al., 2004). Antibiotic resistance in bacteria and fungi isone of the major emerging health care related problems in the world; it became a greater problem of giving treatment against resistant pathogenic bacteria (Sieradzki, et al., 1999 and Abdel-Raouf et al., 2015a, b). One approach to antibiotic resistance is the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds for clinical application (Desboiset al., 2008 and 2009). Algal organisms are rich source of structurally novel and biologically active secondary and primary metabolites which may be potential bioactive compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical industry (Ely et al., 2004 and Tuneyet al., 2006). A wide range of in vitro antifungal activities have also been reported from extracts of green algae, diatoms and dinoflagellatesfEly et al., 2004) and from Nostoc sp. (Kim, 2008). Extracts from 10 cyanobacteria proved to be active against multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (Rao et al., 2007). Najdenski et al. 2013 stated that ethanolic extract of Scenedesmus obliqus, Chlorella sp. and Nostoc sp. has antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. In the same manner Sanmukh et al. (2014) explored bioactive compounds of a group of microalgae with emphasizing on the Chlorella sp. which showed antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus sp. Beenaand Krishnika (2011) tested antibacterial activity of Scenedesmus sp. isolated from a natural pond against three pathogenic bacteria with different solvents, the aqueous and methanol extracts gave better results. Sanmukh et al. (2014) explored microalgae for their bioactive compounds and affirmed promising applications encompassing antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities; also he stated that the application of bioactive compounds derived from algae will prove beneficial and much more effective as compared with traditional treatment methods. Antimicrobial activity depends on both algal species and the solvents used for their extraction (Prakash et al., 2011, Radhika et al., 2012 and Ibraheem et al., 2014). The antimicrobial activity of algae extracts is generally assayed using various organic solvents which always provide a higher efficiency in extracting compounds for antimicrobial activity (Cordeiro et al., 2006 and Tuney et al, 2006). Analytical methods play important roles in the discovery, development and manufacture of bioactive molecules (Mariswamy et al., 2011). Temperature of incubation (Issa, 1999; Ame et al., 2003), pH of the culture medium (Patterson and Boils, 1995), phasphate concentration (Banker and Carmeli, 1998 and light intensity (Griffiths and Saker, 2003) are the important factor influencing antimicrobial agent production. The aim of the present study was to study the antimicrobial activity of two microalgae green algae (chlorella marina) and diatom (Navicula f. delicatula) by different solvent extracts against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and the effects of PH, Temperature and light intensity on the production of antimicrobial activity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Isolation and purification of algal isolates

The algal strains (Chlorella marina and Navicula f. delicatula) were isolated from two different locations, namely, El-Agamy (west of Alexandria) and Baltim (East of Alexandria) in the Mediterranean coast of Egypt Figure 2.

Samples were grown in F/2 medium (Guillard and Ryther 1962, Guillard 1975). The algal strains were harvested at their exponential phase of growth which is 12the day for chlorella marina and 14the for Navicula f. delicatula at aerated condition. Harvesting took place by centrifugation at 4000 rpm for 15 min. The isolated strains were identified according to (Tomas C. et al., 1996, Prescott 1968, Cronberg G. et al., 2006).

Test Organisms

1. Two gram positive: (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococus Luteus).

2. Three gram negative: (Serratiam arcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, andE.Coli).

3. The unicellular fungus (Candida albicans).

These test organisms were deposited as culture collection at Microbiology Lab., National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries Alexandria.

Preparation of the Algal Extracts

The two microalgae were grown in F/2 medium at aerated conditions. We make harvest for growth at stationary face, the culture centrifuged and the pellets were dried in hot air oven (60[degrees]C) till constant weight and used for extraction of antimicrobial agents. 0.5 g of each dried biomass of the two microalgae was extracted in 10 ml each of chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and aqueous. All of the extracts were preserved at -4[degrees] C (Gonzalez Del Val et al., 2001).

Antimicrobial activity test

Screening for antibiotic activity of the tested algal extracts was carried out by the agar diffusion assay according to European Pharmacopoeia (1997). One loop full of each test organism was suspended in 3 ml 0.85% sterile NaCl solution, separately. Nutrient agar (Difeco, UK) was inoculated with this suspension of the respectiveorganism and poured into a sterile Petri dish. According to preliminary test for the most effective dose, 10 1/4 l of dimethyl sulfo-oxide (DMSO) Contained 5 mg of each extract was placed on sterilized paper disc (6 mm diameter). The loaded discs were placed apart from each other on theinoculated agar plate aseptically. Sterilized discs that loaded with DMSO only served as negative control and antibiotic discs (Erythromycin and Ampicillin) served as positive control. A prediffusion for 3h was carried out at 10[degrees]C (Bansemir et al, 2006). Inhibition zones were measured after 24h incubation period at 37[degrees]C for bacteria and at 30[degrees]C after 48h for the fungus species. After incubation, the diameter of the inhibition zone was measured with calipers and the results were recorded in mm (Attaie et al., 1987).

Effect of pH, temperature and light intensity on the production of antimicrobial activity

The F/2 medium (100 ml) was prepared in 250 ml of Erlenmeyer flask. The different growth parameter including pH(5,6,7,8,9,10) ,temperature (20, 25, 30, 35, 40[degrees]C) and light intensity (1000, 2000, 3000 Lux) were optimized independently. Then 10 ml of actively growing log phase inoculum was transferred to the culture flask aseptically and reserved under the fluorescent light for 20 days at aerated condition.

Statistical analysis

The data were statistically analyzed by applying one-way ANOVA.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Antimicrobial activities

The antimicrobial activity was evaluated as the diameters of the inhibition zones formed as a result of disc assay method in case of bacteria and fungi. Table 1 showed that the ethanol extracts for chlorella marina showed more activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens 10.0mm diameter of inhibition zone). On the other hand; the water, chloroform and aceton extract was not active against all tested microorganisms. The aceton extract for Nevicula F. delicatula represented more activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococus Luteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. On the other hand; the water, chloroform, and ethanol extract was not active against all tested microorganisms. In the light of the experimental results concerning the antimicrobial activity of the test microorganisms against standard antibiotics showed that when the effects of extracts obtained from marine microalgae were compared with standard antibiotics used in this study, it was found that the effect of standard antibiotics was more than that of extract of chlorella marina and Nevicula f. delicatula. These results go in harmony with those obtained by Ozdemir et al. (2004) and Tuney et al. (2006). With the study of Prakash et al. (2011) on the antimicrobial potential of Oscillatoria sancta and Lyngbya birgei against S. aureus. Scenedesmus exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus in methanol and acetone extracts in accordance with Guedes et al. (2011). In addition Ostensvik et al., 1998 who observed that aqueous extracts of Microcystis aeruginosa inhibited B. subtilis, and Rao et al. (2007).

Effect of pH, temperature and light intensity on the production of antimicrobial activity

One optimum PH (8.0) was recorded for antimicrobial agent production from two microalgal genera (Fig.3). No antimicrobial activity could be detected at PH values below 5.0 or above 10.0.The highest growth of chlorella marina was reached at pH 8 and the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (12mm). While in Navicula f. delicatula the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (13mm). It has been well documented by the earlier researcher (Richmond A. 2000, Renaud SM. et al., 1991, Renaud SM. et al., 1995, and Borowizka MA. et al., 1990).

The pH of themedium is very important for growth of microorganisms, for the character of their metabolism and hence for the biosynthesis of antimicrobial products as secondary metabolites. Scytonema ocellatum was found to exhibit maximal scytophycin productivity at pH 8.0-8.5 (Patterson and Boils, 1995).

Temperature is an environmental factor which indirectly affects growth of microalgae and antimicrobial activity (Huang et al., 2008). The results recorded in (Fig. 4) revealed that the highest growth of chlorella marina was reached at temperature 25[degrees]C and the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (12 mm) after 12th days of incubation. While in Nevicula F. delicatula the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (13mm) at temperature 20 after 14th days of incubation. Ame et al. (2003) found that production of higher amounts of the bioactive toxin, microcystin by cyanobacteria was favored at temperature more than 23[degrees]C, although maximum cylindrosperopsinproduction was attained by the cyanobacterium Cylindros permopsis raciborskii at 20[degrees]C (Griffiths and Saker, 2003). Lehtimaki et al. (1997) found that low temperatures (7, 10, 16 C) gave low measurements for nodularin production by cyanobacteria, while the highest production was attained at high temperatures.

The relationship between temperature and growth of microalgae is linear (Takemura et al., 1985). Temperature determines the activity and reaction rates of intracellular enzyme, which will have an influence on algal photosynthesis, respiration intensity, affect the growth of indicated that the light intensities affected the values of the growth and the diameter of inhibition zone Fig. (5), the highest growth of chlorella marina was reached at 3000 lux and the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (11 mm). While in Nevicula F delicatula the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (12mm) at 1000 Lux. On other hand, it was found that the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (7.0 mm) at 3000 Lux for Nevicula F. delicatula but for chlorella marine the diameter of inhibition zone recorded (8.0 mm) at 1000 Lux.

When the light intensity above a certain value, continue increasing in light intensity level will decrease the microalgae growth rate actually, this is called photo inhibition phenomenon. microalgae and to limit its distribution (Tan et al., 2009).

Light is an essential key for growth of microalgae. Microalgae uses light to process the photosynthetic, but the light energy cannot be stored by microalgae, so the light should be supplied sustainably. The microalgae cannot use all the supplied light because microalgae cannot absorb all the photons, and too much light will cause light inhibition for the surface layer of microalgae. Through the photosynthetic process, for autotrophic microalgae to convert carbon dioxide in the air into organic compounds, visible light is the main source of energy (Carvalho et al., 2011) since the chlorophylls, phycobilins and carotenoids in microalgae can be absorbed in the visible light range. At stationary phase, the data

CONCLUSION

The ethanol extract for chlorella marina showed more activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Serratiam arcescens 10 mm diameter of inhibition zone with pH 8.0 in 3 5psu of salinity at 25[degrees]C and light intensity 3000 lux during 12th day of incubation at aerated condition in F/2 medium On the other hand the aceton extract for Nevicula F. delicatula more activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococus Luteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. with pH 8.0 in 35psu of salinity at 20C and light intensity 1000 lux during 14th day of incubation at aerated condition in F/2 medium.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My sincere thanks are also extended to all the staff members of Phycological Lab., Botany Department, Faculty of Science, and University of Beni-Suef Egypt. Thanks are also extended to all members of marine Biotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries -Alexandria.

REFERENCES

(1.) Abdel-Raouf. N. Al-Enazi, N.M., Al-Homaidan. AA. Ibraheem. IBM. Al Othman, MR. and Hatamleh, AA. Antibacterial b-amyrin isolated from Laurencia microcladia. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2015; 8: 32-37.

(2.) Abdel-Raouf. N. Al-Enazi, N.M., Ibraheem. IBM. Antibiotic activity of two Anabaena species against four fish pathogenic Aeromonas speies. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2008; 7(15): 2644-2648.

(3.) Abdel-Raouf. N. Al-Enazi, N.M., Ibraheem. IBM. And Al-Harbie, RM. 2015. Antibacterial and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of the brown alga Hormophysa cuneiformis from Ad Dammam Seashore. JAPP Pharm sci, 5(8): 114-125.

(4.) Ame, M.V., Diaz, M., Wunderline, D.A., Occurance of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in San Roque Reservoir (Cordoba, Argentina): a field and chemometric study. Inc. Environ. Toxicol, 2003; 18; 192-198.

(5.) Attaie, R. J., K.M. Whalen, and Shahani M.A. Arner. Inhibition of growth of S. aureus during production of acidophilus yogurt. J. Food Protec., 1987; 50: 224- 228.

(6.) Banker, R., Carmeli, S., Tenuecyclamides A-D, cyclic hexapeptides from the cyanobacterium Nostoc spongiaeforme var tenue. J. Nat. Prod, 1998; 61, 1248-1251.

(7.) Bansemir, A., Blume, M., Schroder, S.U., Lindequist, U. Screening of cultivated seaweeds for antibacterial activity against fish pathogenic bacteria. Aquaculture, 252: 79-4.

(8.) Beena B. Nair and Krishnika A. Antibacterial activity of freshwater microalga (Sc enedesmus sp.) against three bacterial strains. J. Bio sci. Res., 2011; 2(4):160-165.

(9.) Borowitzka MA, Borowitzka LJ, Kessly D. Effect of salinity increase on carotenoids accumulation in the green alga Dunaliella salina. Journal of AppliedPhycology; 1990; 2: 111-119.

(10.) Carvalho, P. A., Silva, O. S., Baptista, M. Jo., Malcata, F. X. Light Requirements in Microalgal Photobioreactors: An Overview of Biophotonic Aspects. ApplMicrobiolBiotechnol; 2011; 89: p. 1275-1288.

(11.) Cordeiro RA, Gomes VM, Carvalho AFU and Melo VMM. Effect of Proteins from the Red Seaweed Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux on the Growth of Human Pathogen Yeasts. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 2006; 49(6): 915-921.

(12.) Desbois A, Spragg A M., Smith VJ. A fatty acid from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum .Is antibacterial against diverse bacteria including multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Marine Biotechnology, 2009; 11: 45-52.

(13.) Desbois AP, Lebl T, Yan L and Smith VJ. Isolation and structural characterisation of two antibacterial free fatty acids from the marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2008; 81:755-764.

(14.) Egorov, N.S., Antibiotics a Scientific Approach. Mir Publishers, Moscow, p. 151. Eugene, L.D., Carol, A.J., 1988a. Synergy between fosfomycin and arenaeycin. J. Antibiot. 1985; XLI 7, 982-983.

(15.) Ely R, Supriya T, and Naik CG. Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2004; 309(1): 121-127.

(16.) European Pharmacopoeia. Mikrobiologische Wertbestimmung von Antibiotika, Diffusions method. Deutscher-Apotheker-Verlag, Stuttgart, 6th Ed., 1997; section 2.7.2.

(17.) Griffiths, D.J., Saker, M.L., The Palm island mystery disease 20 years on: a review of research on cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin. Inc. Environ. Toxicol, 2003; 18: 78-93.

(18.) Guedes A C, Catarina R, Barbosa H M, Amaro C I, and Pereira F X M. Microalgal and cyanobacterial cell extracts for use as natural antibacterial additives against food pathogens. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2011; 46(4): 862-870.

(19.) Guillard, R. R. L., and Ryther, J. H. Studies of marine planktonic diatoms. I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacea Cleve. Can. J. Microbiol., 1962; 8: 229-39.

(20.) Guillard, R. R. L. Culture of phytoplankton for feeding marine invertebrates. In: Smith, W. L., and Chanley, M. H., eds. Culture of Marine Invertebrate Animals. Plenum Press, New York, 1975; pp. 26-60.

(21.) Hemraj Upmanyu N, Gupta A, Jindal A, Jalhan S. Pharmacological activities of Stephania glabra, Woodfordia fruticosa and Cissempelos pareira --A review. International J of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2012; 4(3): 16-23.

(22.) Huang, Y., Chen, M., Liu, D., et al. Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Light Formation and Disappearance and Water Temperature on the of Blue--green Algae Bloom. Journal of Northwest Science - Technology University of Agriculture and F orest (Nature Science Edition), 2008; 36(9) p. 93-100.

(23.) Ibraheem. IBM. Abdel-Raouf. N. Abdel-hameed. M.S., and El-yamany, K. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle and MarsaAlam Seashore (Red Sea). Egypt. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2014; 11: 338332-8340.

(24.) Issa, A.A., Antibiotic production by the cyanobacteria Oscillatoria angustissima and Calothrix parietina. Environ. Toxicol. Pharm, 1999; 8: 33-37.

(25.) Iwamoto C, YamadaT, Ito Y, Minoura K, Numata A. Cytotoxic cytochalasans from a Penicillium species separated from a marine alga. Tetrahedron. 2001; 57: 2904-2997.

(26.) Justo GZ, Silva MR, Queiroz MLS. Effects of green algae Chlorella vulgaris on the response of the host hematopoietic system to intraperitoneal Ehrlich ascites tumour transplantation in mice. Immunopharm Immunotoxico, 2001; 123:199-131.

(27.) Khairnar K, and Swaminathan S. Bioactive compounds derived from microalgae showing antimicrobial activities. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 2014; 5(3): 224.

(28.) Kim J, Kim JD. Inhibitory effect of algal extracts on mycelial growth of the tomatowilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Mycobiology, 2008; 36(4): 242-248.

(29.) Krishnakumar S, Premkumar J, Alexis Rajan R, Ravikumar S, Optimization of potential antibiotic production by salt-tolerant actinomycetes Streptomyces sp.-MSU29 isolated from marine sponge. International J on Applied Bioengineering, 2011; 5(2):12-17.

(30.) Lehtimaki, J., Moisander, P., Sivonen, K., Kononen, K., Growth, nitrogen fixation and nodularin production by two Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1997; 63(5): 1647-1654.

(31.) Mariswamy Y, Gnaraj WE, Johnson M. Chromatographic finger print analysis of steroids in Aerva lanata L by HPTLC technique. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2011; 1(6): 428-433.

(32.) Najdenski H M, Gigova Liliana G, Iliev Ivan I, Pilarski Plamen S, Lukavsky Jaromir, Tsvetkova Iva V, Ninova Mariana S and Kussovski Vesselin K. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of selected microalgae and Cyanobacteria. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2013; 48: 1533-1540.

(33.) Ostensvik O, Skulberg OM, Underdal B, Hormazabal V. Antibacterial properties of extracts from selected planktonic fresh water cyanobacteria--a comparative study of bacterial bioassays. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 1998; 84: 1117-1124.

(34.) Ozdemir, G., N. Karabay, M. Dolay and B. Pazarbasim. Antibacterial activity of volatile extracts of Spirulina platensis. Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(9): 754- 757.

(35.) Patterson, G.M.L., Boils, C.M., Regulating of scytophycin accumulation in cultures of Scytonema ocellatum II. Nutrient requirement. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 1995; 43: 692-700.

(36.) Prakash JW, Johnson M and Solomon J. Antimicrobial activity of certain fresh water microalgae from Thamirabarani Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2011; 1 (2):170-173.

(37.) Radhika D, Veerabahu C, and Priya R. Antibacterial activity of some selected seaweeds from the Gulf of Mannar Coast, South India. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2012; 5(4): 8990.

(38.) Rangaiah SG, Lakshmi P, Manjula E. Antimicrobial activity of sea weeds Gracillaria, Padina and Sargassum sp. on clinical and phytopathogens. Int J Chem Anal Sci., 2010; 1:114-117.

(39.) Ravikumar S, Krishnakumar S, Jacob Inbaneson S, Gnanadesigan M Antagonistic activity of marine actinomycetes from Arabian Sea coast. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2010; 2(6):273-280.

(40.) Renaud SM, Parry DL, Luong-Van T, Kuo C, Padovan A, Sammy N. Effect of light intensity on proximate biochemical and fatty acid composition of Isochrysis sp. and Nannochloropsis oculata for use in tropical aquaculture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 1991; 3:43-53.

(41.) Renaud SM, Zhou HC, Parry DL, Thinh LV, Woo KC, Effect of temperature on the growth, total lipid content and fatty acid composition of recently isolated tropical microalgae Isochrysis sp., Nitzschia closterium, Nitzschia paleacea, and commercial species Isochrysis sp. (clone T.ISO). Journal of Applied Phycology, 1995; 7: 595-602.

(42.) Richmond A. Microalgal biotechnology at the turn of the millennium: a personal view. Journal of Applied Phycology. 2000; 12(3-5):441-51.

(43.) Sieradzki K, Robert RB, Haber SW, Tomasz A. The development of vanomycin resistance in patient with methicillin resistant S. aureus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1999; 340: 517-523.

(44.) Takemura, N., Iwkume, T., Rusuno, M. Photosynthesis and Primary Production of Microcystis agruginosa in Lake Kasumigaura. Journal of Plankton Research; 1985; 7(3) p. 303-312.

(45.) Tan, X., Kong, F., Yu, Y., et al. Effects of Enhanced Temperature on Algae Recruitment and Phytoplankton Community Succession. China Environmental Science; 2009; 29(6): p. 578-582.

(46.) Tuney, I., B. Cadirci, D. Uml and A. Sukatar. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts of marine algae from the coast of Urla (izmir, Turkey). Turk. J. Biol. 2006; 30: 171-175-251.

R. Elkomy [1] *, I.B.M. Ibraheem [2], M. Shreadah [1], R. Mohammed [3]

[1] Biotechnology Laboratory-National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries-Alexandria, Egypt.

[2] Botany and microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

[3] Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

(Received: 09 October 2015; accepted: 03 November 2015)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: reem_elkomy2001@yahoo.com

Caption: Fig. 1. Locations for isolated microalgae I-Navicula f. delicatula (El Agamy and II-Chlorella marina (Baltim)

Caption: Fig. 2. Effect of different pH on antimicrobial activity production of chlorella marina & Navicula f. delicatula.

Caption: Fig. 3. Effect of different temperature on antimicrobial activity production of chlorella marina& Navicula f. delicatula

Caption: Fig. 4. Effect of different light intensity on antimicrobial activity production of Chlorella marina& Navicula f. delicatula
Table 1. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the investigated
chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water extracts of two
microalgal genera using the agar plate by diffusion assay method.

Standard antibiotics                Diameter of inhibition zone(mm)

                                        Gram (+V)

                                    S.aureus   M.luteus

Erythromycin 20[micro]g/disc        10.5       14
Ampicillin 10[micro]g/disc          11.5       15
Microalgal sp.   Solvent extracts
chlorella        chloroform         --         --
marina           acetone            --         --
                 ethanol            10
                 methanol           7          --
                 water              --         --
Navicula f.      chloroform         --         --
delicatula       acetone            10         9
                 ethanol            --         --
                 methanol           7          7
                 water              --         --

Standard antibiotics                Diameter of inhibition zone(mm)

                                      bacteriaGram (-V) bacteria

                                    P.aerug   E.coli   S.marcescens

Erythromycin 20[micro]g/disc        10.5      11.0     15.5
Ampicillin 10[micro]g/disc          10.5      11.5     11
Microalgal sp.   Solvent extracts
chlorella        chloroform         --        --       --
marina           acetone            --        --       --
                 ethanol            9                  10
                 methanol           --        --       5
                 water              --        --       --
Navicula f.      chloroform         --        --       --
delicatula       acetone            10        --       11
                 ethanol            --        --       --
                 methanol           8         --       8
                 water              --        --       --

Standard antibiotics                Diameter of inhibition zone(mm)

                                    Fungal sp.
                                    C.albicans

Erythromycin 20[micro]g/disc        --
Ampicillin 10[micro]g/disc          --
Microalgal sp.   Solvent extracts
chlorella        chloroform         --
marina           acetone            --
                 ethanol
                 methanol           6
                 water              --
Navicula f.      chloroform         --
delicatula       acetone            8
                 ethanol            --
                 methanol           5
                 water              --

-- = No inhibitory effect; width 1 to 8 mm = week activity; width 8 to
mm = moderate activ es; width > 10 mm = strong activity.
COPYRIGHT 2015 Oriental Scientific Publishing Company
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Elkomy, R.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.; Shreadah, M.; Mohammed, R.
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:3831
Previous Article:The change of ostracods and biosilicon from Lake Lugu sediment record and the cause analysis in last hundred years.
Next Article:Production of bacillus subtilis DALX2 asparaginase: optimization and immobilization.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters