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Operational culture in the U.S army: the fires CoE CFL strategy sets the standard for the rest of TRADOC.

Article adapted from Fires, January-February 2011

Introduction

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Globalization, Internet networking, and instant access to worldwide news media have proliferated the merging or partnering of ideological groups that oppose the U.S. and/or U.S. policies. These groups operate in pan-regional and multi-regional battle spaces comprised of numerous cultures, both friendly and hostile. It appears likely that during the next decade the operational environment (OE) of our troops will be characterized by persistent and unpredictable conflicts in battle spaces teeming with multiple foreign cultures. The Army must be prepared to effectively operate along with our multinational and host nation partners against sophisticated and adaptive adversaries in order to achieve U.S. objectives. This dictates that Soldiers of every rank must become 'culturally astute' about the areas where they operate.

Our junior leaders face adversaries who employ multiple and dynamic combinations of conventional, irregular, terrorist, and criminal capabilities as they engage our Soldiers or attack our strategic interests. These hybrid threats can be expected to use a full spectrum of options, including every political, economic, informational, and military measure at their disposal. Combating these threats will necessitate creative solutions, and such solutions will require military forces that are adaptive enough to function in a variety of situations and against a myriad of threats with a diverse set of national, allied and indigenous partners. It will require leaders who can anticipate change, create opportunities and achieve results.

The Army's Leader Development Strategy prescribes the future security environment will require leaders "who understand the context of the factors influencing the military situation, act within that understanding, continually assess and adapt those actions based on the interactions and circumstances of the enemy and environment, consolidate tactical and operational opportunities into strategic aims, and be able to effectively transition from one form of operations to another." As field artillerymen and air defense artillerymen support full spectrum operations, challenges in how we conduct fire support operations will require agility and innovation as new adaptive threats that employ a mix of new and old strategies and technologies emerge.

To prosecute the fight and accomplish the assigned mission, the U.S. Army Field Artillery and Air Defense Artillery will need leaders who are adaptive, competent, and capable of operating with confidence in these ambiguous and complex environments. These leaders must be able to operate in decentralized organizations; be able to network with their joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational (JIIM) partners; and be able to develop plans and operations that win the support of the population while defeating the enemy. They must have an understanding of how other people think and act, as well as an appreciation of cross-cultural diversity and beliefs. This cultural sensitivity is just as important within a Soldier's organization and with other sister services and allies, as it is in engaging indigenous people and threats who exist within the contested OE. In order to meet these operational and environmental demands, we must enrich our leader training and education by leveraging and adapting training methodologies to replicate complexity and hybrid threats in the institutional classroom, at home station and while deployed.

Assessing the field artillery (FA) and air defense artillery (ADA) communities' requirements, we must develop leaders who have the core competencies to visualize, articulate and build partnerships and alliances; to effectively lead organizations; and be able to adapt to unanticipated, changing and uncertain situations.

The Army Culture and Foreign Language Strategy

To meet these operational and cultural challenges, the Army's goal as defined in the Army Culture and Foreign Language Strategy (ACFLS), 1 December 2009, is to develop and maintain expeditionary forces that are led by Soldiers who are ready to deploy and operate effectively anywhere in the world across the full spectrum of conflict. This will require leaders who have sufficient cross-cultural, regional and foreign language competencies to enable the successful execution of military operations, not only an understanding of the culture and language in a particular area, but an understanding of the implications these considerations have on how operations are conducted. To achieve this goal, leaders and Soldiers must increase their cultural knowledge through operational experience, self-development, or as a learning opportunity during their professional military education (PME). Within the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), this will require schools and centers to develop, integrate and deliver cross-cultural education within their respective programs of instruction (POI).

Cross-cultural Competence

This is a set of knowledge, skills and attributes that enables Soldiers to adapt effectively in any environment. It can develop over time through experience, but can be accelerated by principled learning methods. Cross-cultural competence (3C) enables negotiation and persuasion; mediation and conflict resolution; leadership and influence; cultural evaluation, synthesis, and predictive analysis during staff planning; and other abilities that pertain to a specific geographic area.

Additional 3C characteristics include awareness of culture and of one's own cultural context, general cross-cultural schema and culture-analytic models, and an increasingly complex understanding of the impact of culture on military planning and operations (knowledge). Critical aspects of 3C are interpersonal and communication skills, flexibility in seeing different cultural frames and perspectives, and the ability to regulate one's own reactions (skills). Necessary ingredients of 3C are non-ethnocentric attitudes, motivation to learn about culture and to update one's knowledge base as new information is encountered and the ability to empathize (attributes).

Regional Competence

Another major component of the culture development program is regional competence. This concept is defined as a set of knowledge, skills, and attributes related to a particular country, region, organization, or social group, which enables effective adaptation to that specific culture. Additional characteristics include awareness of the historical, political, cultural (including linguistic and religious), sociological (including demographic), economic, and geographic dimensions of a foreign country, global region, or other specific culture.

Acquiring regional competence enables negotiation and persuasion; mediation and conflict resolution; leadership and influence; cultural evaluation, synthesis, and predictive analysis during staff planning; and many other abilities that pertain to a specific area of operations.

It's also the ability to adopt perspectives common to that culture; ability to regulate one's own behavior, communication, and emotional expression to match cultural norms where appropriate. It includes positive attitudes toward the population and motivation to learn about the culture, to include how they make decisions.

A combination of both competencies acquired during the cycle of training, education and experience would help overcome the 'culture shock,' and give Soldiers the ability to adjust to an indigenous culture as quickly as possible to get the mission done.

Governance

The TRADOC Deputy Chief of Staff, G2 serves as the executive agent for the CG, TRADOC as culture and foreign language lead for the Army. The commander, Combined Arms Center, TRADOC is the lead for implementation of culture and foreign language career development within all TRADOC organizations. The Army Culture and Foreign Language Management Office is delegated ACFLS implementation management authority from the TRADOC DCS, G2. FRAGO 18 (weekly) to OPORD 09-008, TRADOC Campaign Plan 10-11 outlines specific tasks to TRADOC commanders, staff and subordinate organizations on implementing the ACFLS. TRADOC centers and schools, in their roles as proponents, will be integrally involved in defining common education and training required to generate the necessary culture and foreign language capability for the Army. Proponents will also determine the culture and foreign language capabilities required in operating force units for which they are the proponent.

The ACFLS goal is to establish a baseline of culture and foreign language capabilities for all leaders and Soldiers to support the accomplishment of unit missions. The strategy's end state is to build and sustain an Army with the right blend of capabilities to facilitate full spectrum operations. The resulting force will have the ability to effectively conduct operations with and among other cultures.

U.S. Army FA and ADA Schools (USAFAS and USAADAS)

The FCoE Culture and Foreign Language Program's (CFLP) desired outcome is to provide the Army with technically and tactically proficient and expeditionary-minded FA and ADA leaders who can operate in a JIIM environment across the full spectrum of operations and with a level of competence necessary to perform assigned tasks in a specific geographic area.

For FA and ADA Soldiers and leaders, it is desired they possess a sufficient level of cross-cultural and regional competence to effectively accomplish duties at their assigned level, and to have the cognitive, interpersonal and cultural skills necessary to make sound judgments in these complex environments. For target mensuration and collateral damage estimation, it is important that all artillerymen and air defense artillerymen understand the effects that culture, people and civilian factors have on the targeting process.

The FCoE CFLP will leverage the capabilities at its disposal to establish the initial foundational training and education for field artillerymen and air defense artillerymen to be able to competently and confidently lead Soldiers. This includes the introduction and development of a basic awareness in culture and languages.

Constraints, Limitations, and Risk

Time available and specific course length for students attending FA and ADA initial military training (IMT) and follow-on leader development PME courses are the principal constraints the faculty must contend with in order to meet the ACFLS desired outcome. Learning objectives will be achieved through modification of existing POIs, incorporating tasks into collective training events (capstone exercises) and through professional reading, critical writing requirements, and after duty language training and civilian education opportunities.

Resources and funding for additional instructors, role players, and lesson materials are limited. We must leverage existing cultural training, language, civilian academic partnerships and virtual gaming solutions to support USAFAS and USAADAS ACFLS learning objectives. Inclusion of ACFLS learning objectives into course curricula should complement and not put at risk common core and artillery technical training objectives.

Training Approach

In order to build and sustain an Army with the right blend of culture and foreign language capabilities to facilitate full spectrum operations, we must leverage existing PME programs, organizational and functional training, and continuous life-long learning through a combination of training, education, and experiential opportunities to attain a level of awareness, understanding, and expertise. As we determine how to best implement the ACFLS, we will use the current leader development strategy that serves as a base for our existing instruction within the school and in the growth of our leaders.

Cross-cultural training and education should build on the foundation of an individual's existing leader attributes which in turn reinforces the core leader competencies of leading others, developing oneself and achieving results:
 Character. A leader of character internalizes the Army Values, lives
 by our Professional Military Ethic, reflects the Warrior Ethos and
 displays empathy towards Soldiers, families, and those people affected
 by the unit's actions. Competence places an individual in the position
 to lead; character makes him or her an effective leader.

 Presence. A leader of presence has credibility, exudes confidence and
 builds trust. Presence is conveyed through actions, appearance,
 demeanor, and words.

 Intellect. A leader of intellect has the conceptual capability to
 understand complex situations, determine what needs to be done and
 interact with others to get it done. Leaders must have the ability
 to reason, to think critically and creatively, to anticipate
 consequences, and to solve problems.


At the USAFAS and USAADAS, the development of cultural awareness and/or understanding will be the principal objective; and introduction to a foreign language (basic phrases and elemental proficiency) is a supporting effort. In order to achieve a higher level of cultural understanding/ expertise or language proficiency, individuals would need to leverage other PME, civilian education and self-development programs.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Cultural awareness: Minimal level of regional competence necessary to perform assigned tasks in a specific geographic area; able to describe key culture terms, factors and concepts. Basic understanding of how foreign culture might affect the planning and conduct of operations is desirable.

Cultural understanding: Well developed 3C in a specific region. A leader must be able to anticipate the implications of culture and apply relevant terms, factors, concepts, and regional information to tasks and missions. Familiarity of a specific region's economic, religious, legal, governmental, political and infrastructural features is necessary, and awareness of regional sensitivities regarding gender, race, ethnicity, local observances and local perception of the U.S. and its allies is paramount.

Cultural expertise: Advanced 3C level in a specific geographic area. This generally entails some degree of proficiency in a language; skills that enable effective cross-cultural persuasion, negotiation, conflict resolution, influence, or leader-ship; and an understanding of the most salient historic and present-day regional structural and cultural factors of a specific geographic area.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Execution of Training

In order to achieve this goal, the FCoE CFLP will incorporate the following learning objectives and associated tasks in its IMT and follow-on leader development PME courses. This information provides USAFAS USAADAS and NCO Academy with a plan for the conduct of culture and foreign language training and education. The following implementation plan is consistent with current Department of the Army and TRADOC leader development and cultural awareness initiatives to incorporate culture and foreign language into institutional training and education at the schools and CoEs.

Learning Objective 1 (Character). Demonstrate interaction and cross-cultural communications skills in order to effectively engage and understand people and their environment.

(Demonstrate a level of cultural awareness that includes a positive openness to other people, an under-standing of prevailing values, beliefs, behaviors and customs, and a desire to learn more about cultures and language. This includes an introduction to a language that supports current military operations with the intent to promote additional study through self-development at the institution, at home-station or at an academic university.)

Task 1: Understand one's self; internalize the Army Values, our professional military ethic and Warrior Ethos.

Task 2: Assess cultural perspectives and values different from one's own; compare differences and sensitivities in order to modify one's behavior, practices and language; and operate in a multi-cultural environment.

Task 3: Apply cross-cultural communication skills.

Learning Objective 2 (Presence). Demonstrate communication, influence and negotiation skills essential for leaders to effectively operate in a JIIM environment.

(Leverage the knowledge gained by challenging students to employ skills to deal with ambiguous and complex situations, to regulate one's own behavior, and to use interpersonal abilities to deal with people from one's own or other cultures. This includes an understanding and ability to engage other joint and allied military personnel, and host country indigenous leaders with a moderate level of confidence.)

Task 1: Develop communication skills that enable effective cross-cultural persuasion, negotiation, conflict resolution or influence.

Task 2: Apply communications skills during cross-cultural negotiations.

Task 3: Develop confidence in learning and applying language skills.

Learning Objective 3 (Intellect). Demonstrate a familiarization in a geographic region of current operational significance.

(Leverage critical thinking and cognitive skills through organizing information that supports cultural self-awareness. Depending on level of leader development PME, expand 3C skills by gaining an awareness or understanding of a geographic area that highlights the implications of a region's economic, religious, legal, governmental, political and infrastructural features, and of sensitivities regarding gender, race, ethnicity, local observances and local perception of the US and its allies. Apply relevant planning considerations, terms, factors, concepts and geographic information to mission planning and in the conduct of operations. This includes leveraging other TRADOC and Department of Defense schools, partnerships with universities and academia, gaming technology and opportunities that stress students' ability to concisely and persuasively speak and write, to engage in discussions, and employ cognitive reasoning and thinking skills.)

Task 1: Apply culturally relevant terms, factors, concepts and regional information in the development of mission plans and orders.

Task 2: Assess and describe the effect that culture has on military operations specific to countries or regions of operational significance to the U.S.

USAFAS and USAADAS instructors will use a variety of learning-enabled training, education and self-development techniques to teach students attending IMT and PME courses at Fort Sill. Cultural instruction may be programmed, integrated into other training objectives, or as reinforcement through the use of self-paced learning tools or as research for presentations and writing requirements.

* Facilitated instruction. Classroom instruction will rely on instructor-led discussions and facilitated problem-centered exercises to assist the student in understanding basic cultural awareness and then challenging him/her through use of relevant scenarios they may encounter in their unit and/or during a deployment. Facilitated learning will focus on initiative, critical thinking and accountability for their actions. Small group instructors will receive cultural training assistance from the FCoE Cultural Advisor to enable them to better present information, lead discussions, and facilitate the problem-centered exercises. The instruction will leverage blending learning resources and augmented by professional reading requirements, self-paced technology-delivered instruction and research outside the classroom.

* Web-enabled instruction, simulations and gaming. The U.S. Army Intelligence Center of Excellence (USAICoE), Marine Corps University, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC), and Near East and South Asia Center for Strategic Studies at the National Defense University all have a variety of online instructional material that is available for instructor use. USAFAS and USAADAS currently are using the Army 360 Cultural Trainer as well as VBS2 Tactical Dari, Pashto (Afghanistan) and Iraqi Arabic simulation and gaming tools to augment instruction. As other culture and foreign language avatar and interactive simulation programs become available, we will evaluate and leverage those educational tools to augment classroom instruction and self-development opportunities.

Role-playing and key leader engagement scenarios. Instructors will leverage the knowledge gained by challenging students to employ their interpersonal skills as part of in class role playing practical exercises and formal key leader engagement opportunities. The key leader engagement scenario will require an individual(s) to use an interpreter to engage other coalition military/police members and host country indigenous leaders in order to address a particular problem. This engagement will use mock-up facilities and capstone field exercises to reinforce the learning objectives and provide each student with feedback through an after-action review. Both role playing exercises and the key leader engagements will result in constructive feedback to the individual.

* Academic lectures and seminar panels. We currently have partnerships with several local universities, most notably with Cameron University, Oklahoma University, and Oklahoma State University. These universities support USAFAS instruction by providing lectures and seminars for our students on topics that address geopolitical and cultural trends affecting the Middle East, Northeast Asia, and other areas of operational significance to the Army to include specific discussions on Afghanistan, Iraq, and Korea. The target audience for the lectures and seminars are the noncommissioned officers (ALC/SLC), warrant officers (WOBC and WOAC), and commissioned officers (BOLC and CCC). The lecture-series is scheduled as part of commandant's time and is conducted in sixty to ninety minute sessions once every six to eight weeks. We also have ongoing partnerships with DLI, TRADOC Culture Center (USAICoE), among other institutions and centers.

* Leveraging the International Student Division and FCoE liaison officers. All BOLC-B and CCC students receive country and cultural briefs from their fellow international students and assigned FCoE liaison officers during the resident course. Additionally, monthly "Know Your World" program assists students in better understanding the culture and geopolitical significance of the country from where their classmate comes from and further expands the student's awareness of other cultures.

* Analytical writing requirement. To address the need to develop critical thinking and improve written communication capabilities in our leaders, a three-to-five page analytical paper (double-spaced, 12-pitch, Times New Roman) will be required from ALC, SLC, WOBC, WOAC, BOLC-B and CCC students that addresses a cultural or geopolitical topic of military operational significance to the U.S. The papers will be graded by USAFAS, USAADAS, and NCOA faculty members and feedback will be provided to the student. The FCoE is currently working with our university partners to contract and/or hire a person to support our written communications requirements.

* Professional reading program. A critical component of our leadership development and cultural awareness efforts includes a professional reading program (professional reading list is located on the FKN-accessed CFLP web-site). All BOLC-B and CCC students are encouraged to read one of three books based on their follow-on assignments: "The History of the Modern Middle East," by William L. Cleveland and Martin Bunton; "Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia," by Ahmed Rashid; or "China, Japan, Korea: Culture and Customs," by Ju Brown and John Brown.

* Foreign language. The goal of the FCoE CFLP is to introduce foreign language to students attending PME instruction and to give them the opportunity to achieve an elemental language proficiency of Level 0+, 1 (memorized proficiency, elementary proficiency) in a language of military operational significance. This includes opportunities to learn Afghan Dari, Pashto, Iraqi Arabic, Korean, and Russian prior to reporting to their unit assignments. All PME students are issued and provided basic instruction on the use of "Rosetta Stone" or multi-platform tactical language software programs in tactical Iraqi, Dari, and Pashto. In addition, those students who are interested in receiving additional language instruction will be provided the opportunity to receive training on Afghan Dari, Pashto, Iraqi Arabic, Korean, and Russian as part of a twelve week, 24 to 36 hour program. This opportunity is voluntary and instruction is provided through internal school assets and assistance from the DLIFLC during off-duty language sessions coordinated by the FCoE CFL Advisor. DLIFLC also provides a website to facilitate the language training and sustainment proficiency which can be found at http://www.dliflc.edu.

Additional Resources

A CFL Resource Center is established in the Morris Swett Technical Library within Snow Hall. Students are provided access to computers, cultural resources and professional reading material to facilitate research, learning and language proficiency.

The CFLP website is located on the Fires Knowledge Network. The website contains cultural awareness and foreign language resources, DLI Foreign Language Center resources, information on past lectures, foreign languages guides and other significant links. The website is available with an AKO login on FKN at https://www.us.army.mil/suite/doc/21617522.

Course Implementation

Following is the roll-up of CFL POI hours (programmed). (USAFAS is taken as an example to gradually promulgate to the USAADAS):
Course Course Culture and Foreign
 Length Language Focus

Captains Career Course (CCC) 24 weeks 36 hours

Basic Officer 20 weeks 10 hours
Leader Course B (BOLC-B)

Warrant Officer 10 weeks 15 hours
Advanced Course (WOAC)

Warrant Officer 33 weeks 22 hours
Basic Course (WOBC)

Senior Leader's Course/Advanced 4-8 weeks 2.5 hours
Leader's Course (SLC/ALC)
13B/D/F/M/P/R/T

Advance Individual Training (AIT) 1 hour
13B/D/F/M/P/R/T

Figure 3. U.S. Army Field Artillery School CFL Hours


FA CCC. USAFAS' desired outcome is for FA captains to demonstrate an understanding of culture, how to leverage that knowledge in a JIIM environment and with a level of competence necessary to serve as staff officers and leaders within a complex environment.

FA BOLC. USAFAS' desired outcome is for FA lieutenants to demonstrate a basic awareness of culture, how to leverage that knowledge in a JIIM environment and with a level of competence necessary to serve as company fire support officers and leaders within a complex environment.

FA WOAC. USAFAS' desired outcome is for senior W131A warrant officers to demonstrate a basic understanding of foreign culture, and how to lever-age that knowledge as a Corps/Theater targeting officer.

FA WOBC. USAFAS's desired outcome is for junior W131A warrant officers to demonstrate a basic awareness of culture, how to leverage that knowledge as a BCT/division targeting officer.

NCOA. USAFAS' and NCOA's desired outcome for senior NCOs attending the SLC is to demonstrate a basic understanding of foreign culture and how to leverage that knowledge as a platoon sergeant and/or first sergeant. The desired outcome for mid-grade NCOs attending the ALC is to demonstrate a basic understanding of culture and how to leverage that knowledge as a senior section sergeant and/or platoon sergeant. The instruction is offered through a blended learning approach which includes programmed instruction, seminars, educational tools and independent study.

AIT. USAFAS' desired outcome is for13-series Soldiers in AIT is to internalize the Army Values and Warrior Ethos, live by our professional military ethic and display empathy towards others.

For More Information

The point of contact for the FCoE CFLP and its implementation is Dr. Mahir J. Ibrahimov. He can be reached at mahir.ibrahimov@us.army.mil or (580) 442-6666, at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
Learning Objective 1 Learning Objective Learning Objective 3
Character 2 Presence Intellect

 Field Artillery Captains Career Course: 70 hours

Assess cultural Develop Apply culturally relevant
perspectives and communication terms, factors, concepts
values skills that

different from one's enable effective and regional information
own; compare cross-cultural in the development of

differences and persuasion, mission plans and orders
sensitivities in negotiation,
order to conflict

modify one's resolution or * Insurgency overview and
behavior, practices influence theory (4 hours) (I)
and

language, and operate * Oklahoma * Pattern and social
in a multi-cultural University media network analysis and
 training practical

environment (8 hours)(P) exercise (8 hours) (I)

* Cross-cultural * Cross-cultural * Counterinsurgency
skills building (4 negotiations (4 intelligence preparation
hours) (P) hours) (P) of the

* Cultural influence Apply battlefield and planning
and military communications (6 hours) (I)
operations skills during

(5 hours) (P) cross-cultural Assess and describe the
 negotiations effect that culture has
 on

* International * Role-playing military operations
Student Division exercises (2 hours) specific to countries or
briefs (P) regions

"Know Your World" (2 * Key leader of operational
hours) (P) engagement significance to the United
 exercise States

Apply cross-cultural (1 hour) (P) * Strength, weakness,
communication skills opportunities and threat
 analysis

* Army 360 Cultural Develop confidence country brief (6 hours)
Trainer in learning and (P)

(2 hours - self applying language * Writing requirement:
paced) (R) skills Analytical paper of 3-5
 pages

 * Introduction to a (Approximately 10 hours of
 language through research) (R)

 Rosetta Stone * Analytical paper
 software (4 hours presentation/discussion
 minimum -

 self paced) (R) (2 hours per section) (P)

 * Additional * FCoE CFLP lecture series
 language training (2 hours) (P)
 (optional)

 (PD) * Professional reading
 program (One book from

 recommended reading list -
 optional) (PD)

 Basic Officer Leader Course B: 53 hours

Assess cultural Develop Apply culturally relevant
perspectives and communication terms, factors, concepts
values skills that enable

different from one's effective and regional information
own; compare cross-cultural in the development of
 persuasion,

differences and negotiation, mission plans and orders
sensitivities in conflict resolution
order to or influence

modify one's * Operate in a * Information Operations
behavior, practices multi-cultural instruction (11 hours)
and environment (I)

language, and operate (2 hours) (P) * Company Intelligence
in a multi-cultural Support Team training

environment Apply (8 hours) (I)
 communications
 skills during

* Operate in a cross-cultural Assess and describe the
multi-cultural negotiations effect that culture has
environment on

(2 hours) (P) * Key leader military operations
 engagement during specific to countries or
 BOLC B fire regions

* International support/maneuver of operational
Student Division lanes (8 hour) (R) significance to the United
briefs States

"Know Your World" (2 Develop confidence * Writing requirement:
hours) (P) in learning and Analytical paper of 3-5
 pages

Apply cross-cultural applying language (Approximately 10 hours of
communication skills skills research) (R)

* Army 360 Cultural * Introduction to a * Analytical paper
Trainer language through presentation/discussion
 Rosetta

(2 hours - self Stone software (4 (2 hours per section) (P)
paced) (R) hours minimum -

 self paced) (R) * FCoE CFLP lecture series
 (2 hours) (P)

 * Additional * Professional reading
 language training program (One book from
 (optional) (PD)

 recommended reading list -
 optional) (PD)

 Field Artillery Warrant Officer Advance Course: 37 hours

Assess cultural Develop Apply culturally relevant
perspectives and communication terms, factors, concepts
values skills that enable

different from one's effective and regional information
own; compare cross-cultural in the development of
 persuasion,

differences and negotiation, mission plans and orders
sensitivities in conflict resolution
order to or influence

modify one's * Cross-cultural * Intelligence preparation
behavior, practices factors and of the battlefield and
and considerations indirect

language, and operate during negotiations Fires threat intelligence
in a multi-cultural (2 hours) (P) (8 hours) (I)

environment Apply * Counterinsurgency
 communications seminar (2 hours) (I)
 skills during

* Cultural awareness cross-cultural Assess and describe the
(3 hours) (P) negotiations effect that culture has
 on

* Cross-cultural * Role-playing military operations
factors and exercises (1 hour) specific to countries or
considerations (P) regions

(2 hours) (P) of operational
 significance to the United
 States

* Cultural influence * Writing requirement:
and military Analytical paper of 3-5
operations pages

(4 hours) (P) (Approximately 10 hours of
 research) (R)

Apply cross-cultural * Analytical paper
communication skills presentation/discussion

* Army 360 Cultural (2 hours per section) (P)
Trainer

(2 hours - self * FCoE CFLP lecture series
paced) (R) (1 hour) (P)

 * Professional reading
 program (One book from

 recommended reading list -
 optional) (PD)

 Field Artillery Warrant Officer Basic Course: 70 hours

Assess cultural Develop Apply culturally relevant
perspectives and communication terms, factors, concepts
values skills that enable

different from one's effective and regional information
own; compare cross-cultural in the development of
 persuasion,

differences and negotiation, mission plans and orders
sensitivities in conflict resolution
order to or influence

modify one's * Cross-cultural * Intelligence preparation
behavior, practices factors and of the battlefield and
and considerations indirect

language, and operate during negotiations Fires threat intelligence
in a multi-cultural (3 hours) (P) (8 hours) (I)

environment Develop confidence * Pattern analysis and
 in learning and simulation exercise (16
 hours) (I)

* Cultural awareness applying language * Counterinsurgency
(3 hours) (P) skills seminar (8 hours) (I)

* Cross-cultural * Introduction to a Assess and describe the
factors and language through effect that culture has
considerations Rosetta on

(4 hours) (P) Stone software (4 military operations
 hours minimum - specific to countries or
 regions

* Cultural influence self paced) (R) of operational
and military significance to the United
operations States

(8 hours)(P) * Additional * Writing requirement:
 language training Analytical paper of 3-5
 (optional) (PD) pages

Apply cross-cultural (Approximately 10 hours of
communication skills research) (R)

* Army 360 Cultural * Analytical paper
Trainer (2 hours - presentation/discussion

self paced) (R) (2 hours per section) (P)

 * FCoE CFLP lecture series
 (2 hours) (P)

 * Professional reading
 program (One book from

 recommended reading list -
 optional) (PD)

 13B, 13D, 13F, 13M, 13P, 13R, 13T Senior Leader's
 Course and Advanced Leader's Course: 22.5 hours

Assess cultural Develop Assess and describe the
perspectives and communication effect that culture
values skills that enable

different from one's effective has on military operations
own; compare cross-cultural specific to
 persuasion,

differences and negotiation, countries or regions of
sensitivities in conflict resolution operational
order to or influence

modify one's * Demonstration on significance to the United
behavior, practices use of tactical States
and language

language, and operate software (Two * Writing requirement:
in a multi-cultural phrases weekly) Analytical paper of 3-5
 (P) pages

environment (Approximately 10 hours of
 research) (R)

* Cross-cultural * FCoE CFLP lecture series
factors and (1 hour) (P)
considerations

(1.5 hours) (P)

Apply cross-cultural
communication skills

* Army 360 Cultural
Trainer (10 hours -

self paced) (R)

 13B, 13D, 13F, 13M, 13P, 13R, 13T Advanced
 Individual Training: 6.5 hours

Understand one's
self; internalize
the

Army Values, our
professional
military

ethic and Warrior
Ethos

* Army Core Values (1
hour) (P)

* U.S. Army Field
Artillery history
and

museum tour (3 hours)
(R)

* Command team
in-brief (1 hour)
(I)

* Initial, mid-course
and final
counselling

(1.5 hours) (I)

Legend: (P) programmed, (R/I) reinforced/integrated, (PD) professional
development

Figure 4. Cultural Learning Objectives (continued)


by Mahir Ibrahimov, PhD

Mahir J. Ibrahimov is the Cultural and Foreign Language Advisor at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He completed his PhD at the Academy of Social Sciences in Moscow in 1991 and has attended several post graduate programs at Johns Hopkins University and other U.S. institutions. He also served in the Soviet Army and witnessed the break-up of the Soviet Union. As a former high-ranking diplomat he helped open the first embassy of Azerbaijan in Washington, D.C. While working for the U.S. Department of State, he instructed U.S. diplomats in languages and cultures. He also provided vital assistance as a multi-lingual cultural adviser to U.S. forces during Operation Iraqi Freedom II and became the subject of a Department of Defense newsreel, "Jack of All Languages." Dr. Ibrahimov specializes in the cultural issues of the former Soviet Republics, south-central Asia, and the Middle East. He is the author of "Invitation to Rain: a Story of the Road Taken toward Freedom," and numerous other publications.
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Author:Ibrahimov, Mahir
Publication:Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin
Article Type:Company overview
Date:Jan 1, 2011
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