On this day.
| 1066: William the Conqueror landed in Pevensey, Sussex.
| 1399: The first British monarch to abdicate, Richard II, was replaced by Bolingbroke to whom he had surrendered without a fight. Bolingbroke ascended as Henry IV.
| 1758: Horatio Nelson, hero of Trafalgar and Britain's greatest sailor, was born at Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk.
| 1829: London's first official police force was mobilised and its men nicknamed "Bobbies" or "Peelers" after Sir Robert Peel, the Home Secretary who founded it.
| 1899: Sir Billy Butlin, pictured, holiday camp pioneer, was born.
| 1938: The Munich Pact, an agreement between Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy, was signed, under which the Sudetenland was surrendered to Nazi Germany.
| 1941: A Nazi death squad murdered 30,000 Russian Jews in Kiev.
| 1983: A Chorus Line broke the record as the longest-running Broadway show with its 3,389th performance since July 25, 1975.
| ON THIS DAY LAST YEAR: Henry Bolton was elected leader of Ukip. He was removed at an extraordinary general meeting the following February after the model he was dating, Jo Marney, allegedly sent racist messages about Meghan Markle.
| BIRTHDAYS: Jerry Lee Lewis, singer, 83; Ian McShane, actor, 76; Lech Walesa, former Polish president, 75; Patricia Hodge, actress, 72; Sebastian Coe, chairman of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, former MP and athlete, 62; Mark Nicholas, broadcaster and former cricketer, 61; Brett Anderson, singer, 51; Luke and Matt Goss, singers (Bros), 50; Emily Lloyd, actress, 48; Mackenzie Crook, actor, 47.