Printer Friendly

On editing medical fragments from the Cairo Geniza.

Medical Prescriptions in the Cambridge Genizah Collections: Practical Medicine and Pharmacology in Medieval Egypt (Leiden: Brill, 2012) is part of the rich scholarly production of Efraim Lev (often in cooperation with Zohar Amar) in the field of Jewish-Islamic medicine, especially pharmacological literature. Lev has penned many pioneering articles and monographs in this field, for which he deserves our esteem and gratitude. When his publications are based on the interpretation of ancient and medieval medical terminology, however, they unfortunately suffer from the author's having neither a deep-grounded knowledge of both the classical and medieval medical traditions nor the proper philological training in the relevant languages, viz., classical Hebrew and Arabic. As a result these publications cannot be consulted as reliable witnesses to the reading or meaning of the terms therein, but must be checked against the original. I had to conclude thus in a review of an earlier work composed by Lev and Amar, Practical Materia Medica of the Medieval Eastern Mediterranean According to the Cairo Genizah (Leiden: Brill, 2008), (1) of which this volume under discussion is a companion. For the current monograph, which consists of a transcription, translation, and interpretation of thirty prescriptions from the Cairo Geniza, in addition to a detailed theoretical introduction and evaluation, Lev collaborated with Leigh Chipman, a promising young scholar and specialist in medieval Jewish-Islamic pharmacology. As a result of their collaboration Medical Prescriptions is certainly an improvement over Practical Materia Medica in that it suffers from far fewer textual errors. This is especially true when one considers the fact that the prescriptions analyzed in this volume are composed in a wide variety of scripts, present many scribal mistakes and lacunae, and are at times very hard to read. Yet the number of erroneous transcriptions and translations--featuring in virtually every single text unit (prescription or recipe)--is still high and in need of revision. When we are dealing with prescriptions or pharmacological recipes, precise transcription, translation, and interpretation are of vital importance.

In what follows I offer a detailed analysis of the terminology of every prescription, insofar as this was possible on the basis of the photographs of the fragments presented in the book. I will not treat the extensive theoretical part of the book (pp. 1-20, 137-54), which gives the general impression of being well informed. Following the list of corrections to the prescriptions I will point out errata in the glossary.

As a general note I would like to mention that it is recommendable to add the Latin nomenclature to English plant names; and as for secondary literature, the following standard works should be consulted and referred to:

Manfred Ullmann, Worterbuch zu den griechisch-arabischen Ubersetzungen des 9. Jahrhunderts (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002); idem, Worterbuch zu den griechisch-arabischen Ubersetzungen: Supplement, vol. 1 (Wiesbaden 2006); idem, Worterbuch zu den griechisch-arabischen Ubersetzungen: Supplement, vol. 2. (Wiesbaden 2007); Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesellschaft, Worterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1957-; 1970--). For the explanation of the specific Arabic terminology of compound drugs, Irene Fellmann, Das Aqrabadin al-Qalanisi: Quellenkritische und begriffsanalytische Untersuchung zur arabisch-pharmazeutischen Literatur (Beirut: Orient-Institut der DMG, 1986), is a useful source of information.

For the abbreviations used below, see the list of references at the end of this article.

PRESCRIPTION 1 (RECTO, PP. 24-25)

In 11. 5-6, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("sweet basil [that] strengthens buds of cloves") should be corrected to read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("fara[n]jamushk, i.e., buds of cloves").

The identity of fara[n]jamushk is uncertain; according to Maimonides (M, 47), it is the same as habaq qaranfuli (clove basil, Ocimum gratissimum); in Maimonides's Medical Aphorisms, 21.75 (forthcoming ed. and tr. Gerrit Bos [Provo, Utah: Brigham Young Univ. Press]), it is the same as al-rayhan al-qaranfulT (large species of clove basil; cf. M, 48). According to Dietrich (DT, 3.48), fara[n]jamushk is perhaps Ocimum minimum. See also Schmucker, no. 529 (pp. 316-17); for a detailed account, see Garbers, no. 27 (pp. 196-98).

In 1. 6, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should be corrected to read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] since the gimel has a diacriti cal point.

In 1. 7, note that the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is followed by another term that cannot be read, but has not been indicated.

Thus, the translation of 11. 5-6, reading "and aloeswood, and citron leaves and seeds of sweet basil [that] strengthens buds of cloves," should be corrected to "and aloeswood, and citron leaves and seeds of fara[n]jamushk, i.e., buds of cloves."

PRESCRIPTION 1 (VERSO, PP. 26-27)

In 1. 10, the reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should be emended to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and the translation "cloth of silver, one dirham; cloth of gold" should be corrected to read "silver filings (dust), one dirham; gold filings (dust)."

Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], i.e., means "filings or dust" [from a metal]; cf. D, 1: 67, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

In 1. 11, the reading [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for "lapis lazuli" should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

PRESCRIPTION 2 (PP. 30-31)

In 11. 2-3, the translated text of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], now rendered "Berberry seeds, tamarisk, and pistachio shells," should be corrected to "Berberry seeds, fruit of the tamarisk, and outer shells of pistachio."

The term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is not translated, should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (i.e., ("fruit"). For the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], cf. M, 200, s.v. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: "It is the fruit of the tamarisk" ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]).

In 11. 4-5, the translation "boil it all in one hundred dirhams of hot water" should read "boil it all in one hundred dirhams of water."

In 1. 6, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (there is no diacritical point above the gimeiy, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which has not been translated but is transcribed as tabashir, should be translated as "bamboo chalk"; cf. Prescription 1 (verso, 1. 4).

PRESCRIPTION 3 (PP. 34-35)

In 1. 1, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], while the compound remedy [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hiera picra) should be explained to the reader as a compound remedy with as main component aloe, hence the qualification "picra"; cf. FAQ, 216 for its composition. (2)

In 1. 5, the prescription to take this remedy "at daybreak" ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) should be corrected to take it "while abstaining from food." For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], cf. L, 652: "The practising abstinence [especially the abstaining from things injurious in the case of sickness]; the abstaining, or desisting from eating." In a medical context the term features, for instance, in Maimonides, Medical Aphorisms, 8.8 (ed. and tr. Gerrit Bos [Provo, Utah: Brigham Young Univ. Press, 2007], p. 44), where it stands for Greek [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], "abstinence from food" (cf. LSJ, 256).

In 11. 8-9, the diet prescribed does not consist of "chicken asbidajl (spinach?)," but of "chicken isbid(a)baj ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])," which is a compound dish with meat (here, chicken). For isbid(a)baj (read, isfidbaj); cf. VL, 1.92, s.v. ispidba: "cibi genus ex carne, cepis, butyro, oleo, apio et coriandro paratum" [a dish prepared with meat, onions, butter, oil, parsley, and coriander]; NA, chap. 59, and glossary, p. 608: "white stew praised as a balanced dish fit for all." The name is composed of isfid "white" and ba(j) "broth" (pp. 282-84). For an extensive account, see Maimonides, On Hemorrhoids (tr. Gerrit Bos and Michael R. McVaugh [Provo Utah: Brigham Young Univ. Press, 2012]), chap. 3.1 (p. 12) and especially n. 90 (pp. 185-86).

Accordingly, the correct reading isbid(a)baj should not be emended and read asbidaj as suggested in Lev and Chipman, p. 36.

PRESCRIPTION 4 (P. 38)

In 1. 1, the emendation of the first term, i.e., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("boxthorn"), is mistaken; the correct reading is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), i.e., "galingale." The term's fourth letter is not ayin but a ligature of nun and gimel.

In 1. 5, the suggested reading [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is mistaken since the last letter is not qof, but a final nun, preceded by the lower part of the gimel. Thus, one might supplement the missing letters as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and the translation "pound in honey" should be corrected to "knead with honey."

PRESCRIPTION 5 (PP. 40-41)

In 1. 2, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("God") is missing in the text itself. Hence the edition should read [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]],

In 11. 4, 9, and 13, the term 03 featuring in the edition should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], that is, an abbreviation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("half"); cf. textual note on p. 42: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--half.

In 1. 5, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("Cretan dodder") should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (diacritical point above the tav), i.e., Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

In 1. 6, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("lavender") should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with diacritical point above the dalet, i.e., Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

In 11. 7, 8, and 15, the abbreviation [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (i.e., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). Accordingly, the explanation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as an abbreviation of Arabic ratl on p. 42 (textual notes) is erroneous.

This is a review article of Medical Prescriptions in the Cambridge Genizah Collections: Practical Medicine and Pharmacology in Medieval Egypt. Edited by Efraim Lev and Leigh Chipman. Etudes sur le judaisme medieval, vol. 55. Leiden: Brill, 2012. Pp. viii + 187. $220, 158 [euro].

Note that for ratl the text has [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. The translation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] in 11. 7 and 8 as "dirham" is correct. However, the measure of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] in 1. 15 is mistakenly translated as "10 ratls," instead of the correct "6 dirhams." Hence, the remark on p. 42 that in writing a dose of 10 ratls the author made a mistake is itself a mistake.

In 1. 15, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 17, the translation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] as "with rose sherbet, or rose oil" should be corrected to "with rose sherbet, rose water, or rose oil."

In 1. 20, the Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("for the Karamiyya") should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]

PRESCRIPTION 6 (PP. 44-45)

In 11. 4 and 8, the Arabic term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("to sift") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 7, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("centaury") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and centaury").

In 11. 7-8, the translation "asarum, centaury, and balsam wood, of each one mithqal" should be corrected to "asarum, centaury, and balsam wood, of each two mithqals," as the text has [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

On p. 47, the standard transcription of Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is not iyarij, but iyaraj; cf. UM, 296: "iyarag; Plur. iyaragat (aus griechisch iepa, durch pers. Vermittlung): 'Heiligmittel'"; see also UMS, 483-84; FAQ, 214-17.

PRESCRIPTION 7 (PP. 48-49)

In 1. 2, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("gum") featuring twice should be read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], since the gimel has a dash above it.

In 1. 3, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be translated as "starch [extracted] from the white core ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]) [of the fruit or plant]," instead of "white starch."

In 1. 11, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("chewing") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], since the sade has a diacritical point.

PRESCRIPTION 8 (PP. 52-53)

In 1. 1, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] featuring as part of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] (hiera picra) should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("sifted") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]

In 1. 2, Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("silk") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("iron"); note that the scribe clearly distinguishes between the letters dal and ra'.

In 1. 8, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("what needs to be ground") should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 9, the translation "Swallow alternately? after the night" should be corrected to "Swallow with julep after the night," since the fragment does not read (suggested as "alternately") but [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("with julep").

In 1. 10, the editors could not identify the terms [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. The translation "and stir with hot water" should now be corrected to "and stir with hot water, fennel, and sugar." For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], used as a synonym for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("fennel") in Egypt, see M, 351, s.v. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. "it is that which the Egyptians call as-samar." See also the adjoining discussion of the term by Max Meyerhof, in ibid.

In 1. 12, the term that could not be read but has not been indicated as such in the translation is possibly [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] "marking nut" (Semecarpus anacardium). The translation "and five dirhams of rose water" should possibly be corrected to "and five dirhams of rose water and marking nut (Semecarpus anacardium)."

In 1. 13, Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("basil") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 11. 14-15, the rendering (sic) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] suffers from several mistakes. The term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("boiled") does not feature at the beginning but at the end; the faulty [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("chicken"), and (sic) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("young chickens"). Thus the correct text reading is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], and the translation "boiled in water [to] the consistency and for ulcers" should be corrected to "hens and young chickens boiled."

In 1. 16, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("without anything bad or good") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("without any bread").

The diet of the patient consists of the meat of boiled hens and chickens without bread.

PRESCRIPTION 9 (PP. 56-57)

The text is at times very hard to read, especially from the photo at hand.

In 1. 4, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], which is emended to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] and translated as "one handful?," should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("one daniq") (= 0.52-0.74 g). Note that the term has been written similarly in Prescription 10, 1. 3, where the editors transcribe it as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

Likewise, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("two handfuls") featuring in the same line should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("two daniqs").

Line 5 of the text (...) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is a faulty reading and should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Thus, the translation "Knead in celery-water, form into pills the size of chickpeas and swallow ..." should be corrected to "Knead in celery-water, form into pills the size of chickpeas and steep in vinegar, heat(?) this and leave it for a while in water in which has been dissolved...."

In 1. 7, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], which has been translated correctly as "three dirhams," is faulty. It should read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

Terms for the different procedures in the preparation of recipes in Arabic medical books usually feature in the third person imperfect passive. Accordingly, in 1. 10 the terms [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("boil"), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("leave") and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("strain") should read respectively [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 11, the term following [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("almond oil") that could not be identified is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("macerate"), and the final unidentified term in the same line is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("God willing"). Thus, the correct translation is "... almond oil, macerate, and strain over one uqiyya white sugar, and use. Beneficial, God willing."

In 1. 12, the last words that could not be read are [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] [...] ("food [diet] [...]: isfidbaj"). Similar diet prescriptions feature in Prescriptions 10, 1. 9 and 11, 1. 7. For the compound dish called isfidbaj, see supra, Prescription 3, 11. 8-9. This is the dietary advice that is lacking, according to the editors (p. 58).

PRESCRIPTION 10 (PP. 60-61)

In 1. 1, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("with His blessing") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("with God's blessing").

In 1. 4, Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("swallow") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

The attendant translation "swallow with half a draught [of water?] at daybreak with advanced diet" should be corrected to "swallow in half a draught [of water?] while abstaining from food previously." For Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("while abstaining from food"), see supra, Prescription 3, 1. 5.

In 11. 4-5, the rendering ... [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is mistaken and should read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and in the morning drink water in which has been cooked").

The correct translation of these lines is therefore "Swallow with half a draught [of water?] while abstaining from food previously, and in the morning drink water in which has been cooked cleaned chebulic myrobalan and cleaned yellow myrobalan, of each four dirhams."

In 1. 7, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("strained") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. The last unidentified terms in the same line are [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("God willing").

In 1. 9, the rendering of ("For lunch: spinach one part, lamb or chicken") is mistaken. It should read of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("For diet: isbid(a)baj with meat of lamb or chicken"). For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], see supra, Prescriptions 9, 1. 12 and 11, 1. 7, and for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] i.e., the compound dish called isbid(a)baj, see supra, Prescriptions 3, 11. 8-9 and 9, 1. 12. For the reading [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] instead of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] compare 1. 3, where the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is written in exactly the same handwriting.

Accordingly, the prescribed diet does not consist of "spinach one part, lamb or chicken" (cf. the discussion on p. 62), but of isbid(a)baj with meat of lamb or chicken.

In 1. 11, the reading of Arabic ("in all the winter winds and in summer heat") is mistaken. The correct reading is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("in all the days of the winter and summer. Its composition is").

The correct translation of 1. 11 is "and balance in all the days of the winter and summer. Its composition is: take hiera, three dirhams, lavender."

In 1. 12, the reading [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and it should be drunk") is mistaken. The correct reading is ("and anise").

The correct translation of 1. 12 is "and agaric and chebulic and yellow myrobalans, both cleaned, of each one dirham, and anise."

In 1. 13, the reading [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be in accordance with the translation "It should be ground"; Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("nights") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("days") (cf. 1. 11); and Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("in each month") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], with the same meaning.

PRESCRIPTION 11 (PP. 64-65)

In 1. 1, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("God") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 2. the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] featuring as part of (hiera picra) should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] see supra, Prescription 8,1. 1; also, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("turpeth") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1.4, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and remove from it") should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and swallow [drink] with it").

In 11. 4 and 5, the translation "ten? 'coins' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]) of purging cassia" should be corrected to "ten scales of purging cassia." The term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is found in Maimonides, On the Regimen of Health, ch. 3, [section] 3, [section] 7 (ed. Gerrit Bos, forthcoming); see also Ibn al-Baytar, al-Jami li-mufradat al-adwiya wa-l-aghdhiya, 4 parts in 2 vols. (Beirut 1992), 1: 357 (s.v. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]): [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("Son utilite contre les tumeurs internes de la gorge est incontestable. Pour cela on prend les disques dans la bouche ...," Ibn al-Baytar, Traite' des simples, tr. Lucien Leclerc, 3 vols. [Paris 1877-83, repr. n.d.], 2: 66).

In 1. 7, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("for diet") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; see supra, Prescription 10, 1. 9.

PRESCRIPTION 12 (PP. 68-69)

An examination of this prescription proved to be impossible due to the poor quality of the manuscript fragment printed in the book.

PRESCRIPTION 13 (PP. 72-73)

In 1. 8, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("vinegar") should be corrected to the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("dodder"), which is found earlier in 1. 4.

In 11. 7-8, the translation "Macerate the roots, endive seeds and leek seeds" should be corrected to "Macerate the roots, endive seeds and dodder seeds." Note that all these ingredients are already given in 11. 2-4.

In 1. 11, the last term of the prescription, following [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] and describing how to use the medicine, has been omitted by the editors. Add ("and swallow [it, i.e., the medicinal powder]").

PRESCRIPTION 14 (PP. 76-77)

In 1. 3, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 4, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

PRESCRIPTION 15 (PP. 78-79)

In 1. 2, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("thorns") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("carpels").

Accordingly, the translation "rose buds, cleaned of thorns" should be corrected to "rose buds, cleaned of carpels." Cf. Prescription 16, 11. 7-8: "fresh rose, without carpels."

In 1. 4, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 5, there are numerous erroneous renderings: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] the reading [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("When [the mixture] reaches full ripeness") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. This same correction applies to the textual note on p. 80; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("three dirhams") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] (see supra, Prescription 9, 1. 7); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("rhubarb") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]

In 1. 7, the emendation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("lemon") is superfluous, as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is a current variant of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] featuring in medical literature; cf. WKAS 2.4: 2071; Arabic secondary forms lamunun, limu, laimu, limun.

PRESCRIPTION 16 (PP. 82-83)

In 1. 3, the translation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] as "cleaned" should be corrected to "crushed."

In 1. 5, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; note the diacritical point above the gimel.

In 1. 6, the term dirhams in "of each 20 dirhams" does not feature in the text; thus, it should be indicated as an emendation, to read "of each 20 [dirhams]."

In 1. 8, the questioned term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], as the zayin is clearly followed by another unidentified letter; cf. the textual note on p. 84.

In 1. 11, "'coins' of purging cassia" should be corrected to "scales of purging cassia"; see supra, Prescription 11, trans. 11. 4, 5.

In 1. 13, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. The last letter is not a final nun but a waw with a diacritical point (shuruk), see also Prescription 15, text 1. 7; also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 13, the phrase [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("while abstaining from food") has not been translated. The correct translation is "... lemon syrup, and use in the morning while abstaining from food"; cf. Prescription 3, trans. 1. 5.

PRESCRIPTION 17 (PP. 86-87)

In 1. 4, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is an emendation by the editors. Therefore it should be corrected to read [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]]. Likewise, the translation should be corrected to read "[of]"; in the same line, Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 6, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("use") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and take"). Note that the waw is written similarly in the next line as part of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and almond syrup") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and sugar and almonds").

Accordingly, the correct translation of 1. 6 is "syrup, and take [this]. Diet: young meat with lemon and sugar and almonds."

PRESCRIPTION 18 (PP. 90-9l)

In 1. 1, the Arabic term that could not be identified but has been translated as "God" is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Thus, the line reads [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("with the blessing and help of God").

In 1. 3, the translation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] as "cleaned of stalks" should be corrected to "cleaned of pits."

In 1. 4, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("seed") preceding [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] has been omitted by the editors, while the unidentified term before [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is the copula (wa-). The correct Arabic text reads therefore

The correct translation of the above text is "of each thirty fruits; endive seed and licorice root."

In 1. 6, the verbs [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be read as passives: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]

Likewise in 1. 7, is erroneously the active form.

In 1. 8, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("lemon") should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; cf. supra, Prescription 15, 1. 7.

In 1. 9, ... [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("lukewarm, God willing").

The correct translation of this line is "and take from it over rose syrup with basil and use [it] lukewarm, God willing."

In 1. 10, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("spinach") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] (the compound dish called "isfidbaj"; see supra, Prescriptions 3, 11. 8-9; 9,1. 12; 10, 1. 9).

Thus, the translation "Diet: spinach" should be corrected to "Food (diet): isfid[b]aj."

PRESCRIPTION 20 (PP. 96-97)

In 1. 3, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

PRESCRIPTION 21 (PP. 98-99)

In 1. 1, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("three dirhams") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] see supra, Prescriptions 9, 1. 7 and 15, 1. 5.

In 1. 3, the questioned term, transcribed as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] and translated as if it were [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], i.e., laurel, should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], i.e., lettuce. Thus, instead of "laurel berries," the translation should read "lettuce seeds."

In 11. 3-4, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("in oil ...") is mistaken. The correct reading is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("fresh waterlily").

Accordingly, the section "of each one mithqal in oil peeled ..., five flowers," should be corrected to "of each one mithqal, fresh waterlily, five flowers."

In 1. 4, the verbs [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be read as passives: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

PRESCRIPTION 22 (PP. 100-101)

In 1. 2, the faulty [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] left untranslated should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("of each"). The correct text is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], and its translation "Peeled lentils [...] of each three dirhams."

In 1. 3, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] which is translated as "yellow and black myrobalan," is erroneous. The correct reading is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] i.e., "black Indian myrobalan."

In 1. 5, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], which has been crossed out and left untranslated, should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("julep"), and the next term, i.e., which is also not translated, should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. The correct translation is "dodder, five dirhams; [...] five dirhams; julep, one dirham; Armenian stone and lapis lazuli."

In 1. 7, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("bull thistle") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 8, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Accordingly, the translation "beleric and yellow [myrobalan ...]" should be corrected to "beleric and emblic [myrobalan ...]."

PRESCRIPTION 23 (PP. 104-5)

In 1. 5, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

PRESCRIPTION 24 (PP. 108-9)

In 1. 1, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("lesser") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]

In 1. 11, part of what is missing following [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("knead with some ...").

In 1. 12, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and sniff it up") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and fumigate with it"), which is more fitting as a remedy for hemorrhoids (cf. 1. 1).

PRESCRIPTION 25 (PP. 112-13)

In 1. 2, the unidentified term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] (KHMAHA) should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], which is a corruption frequently found in Arabic medical literature of Persian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], "soft iron"; cf. VL, 1305, s.v. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], "ferrum mollius." See also WA, 1: 734; KM, 1: 529-32; D: 655, s.v. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 6, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("red onion?") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], i.e., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("copper scales"); cf. KM, 1: 350-56, s.v. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], esp. p. 351.

For the application of copper scales against eye diseases, see M, 385 (commentary Rosner): "The scales of copper were used in medicine in detergent collyria against leukomas and corneal specks."

In 1. 8, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("another") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], i.e., abar, "lead"; cf. KM, 1: 201-4. The term refers to an eye salve called shiyaf al-abar after the main component, lead. A recipe can be found in al-Majusi, Ibn Jazla, Kuhin al-'Attar, and the ophthalmology composed by 'Ali Ibn Bakhtishu; cf. KM, 1: 204.

In 1. 9, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] does not mean "crushed," but is Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], an abbreviation of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] "burned or calcinated copper"; cf. D, 569; KM, 1: 594-98.

In 1. 21, the term (!)[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and opium") should be read as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

PRESCRIPTION 26 (PP. 116-17)

In 1. 7, the text [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

Its translation, therefore, is not "sugar-candy; also melt" but "gum-ammoniacum; and also jujube."

PRESCRIPTION 27 (PP. 120-21)

In 1. 6, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In 11. 6-7, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("place [patient] in bed") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("put it on a cloth").

In 1. 8, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("then cook with vinegar") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("put vinegar on it").

Accordingly, the correct translation of 11. 6-9 is "until it [the salve] thickens. Put it on a cloth and plaster it to the place and if it is morning, put vinegar on it and thin wild cucumber."

PRESCRIPTION 28 (PP. 124-25, RIGHT COLUMN)

In 1. 1, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("good") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("good").

In 1. 7, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("pound each one in a mortar") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("pound each one on its own").

The regular term for "mortar" in Arabic medical literature is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] (cf. Prescription 24, 1. 5). The editors' reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] is probably a mistake for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] which, according to D, 1: 189, can inter alia refer to a "wooden mortar."

In 1. 9, should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 12, Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and among that which strengthens the stomach") has been translated mistakenly as "and to strengthen the teeth."

In 1. 14, the untranslated term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] i.e., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("mint"); the term ... ("and aloeswood? ...") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("and raw aloeswood").

Accordingly, 11. 14-15 should read "dry mint and wild marjoram and raw aloeswood of each one dirham."

PRESCRIPTION 28 (PP. 126-27, LEFT COLUMN)

In 1. 6, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("[with] a moderate flame?") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], and translated as "wheat meal [flour]."

In 1. 7, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("bake henna close to burning[?]") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] and translated as "bake until nearly burned."

In 1. 8, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("deer pill") should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("tamarisk kernels").

The correct translation of 11. 6-9 is "aloeswood, one dirham, wheat meal [flour| kneaded in wine vinegar. Bake until nearly burned; three, betel palm; three, tamarisk kernels; three, whole licorice root...."

PRESCRIPTION 29 (PP. 130-31)

In 1. 2, the copula [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] in [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should not be emended as it is found in the MS fragment.

In 1. 3, the unidentified term is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("pomegranate"), and the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

The correct translation of I. 3 is "licorice, mallow twigs, maiden hair, garden cress seeds, Egyptian dodder, pomegranate, of...."

In 1. 4, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("three dirhams") should be rendered as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; cf. supra Prescriptions 9,1. 7; 15,1. 5; 21,1. 1; also, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

In 1. 6, the terms [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] have not been transcribed. The text should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]....

The correct translation of 11. 5-6 is "fennel, ten kernels; strain over ten dirhams of the scales of purging cassia" (cf. supra, Prescription 11, trans. 11. 4, 5).

In 1. 7, the unidentified terms after [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("hot water") are possibly [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("marking nut and leek").

PRESCRIPTION 30 (PP. 134-35)

In 1. 1, the MS fragment does not read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("for freckles") but [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("for itch").

GLOSSARY (PP. 163-77)

The glossary on pp. 163-77 should be revised according to the corrections above. In addition, other erroneous readings and mistakes in spelling and vocalization should be corrected. Some of these are:

p. 164. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] means "coral" and not "fine." Entry means "fine" and not "coral."

p. 165, Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. The correct term for "mortar" is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]; however, the correct reading is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

p. 166, Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. This term should be replaced with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("cloth"),

p. 167. For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. impf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] read, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

p. 168. For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] tarfa, read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] tamarisk, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] to melt. This term is a faulty reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] thorn. The correct meaning of the term is "stone, kernel." The plural [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] attested in Prescription 15, 1. 2 is a faulty reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] hiera piera. The term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] meaning "piera" should be corrected to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] and added as a sub-entry to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] coin, read "scale."

p. 169. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ulcer. The term features in the combination [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("pellitory-of-Spain") and therefore should be listed as a sub-entry to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. The given plural [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] (sic) is a mistaken reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] cherry. Mentioned next to it is pastilles, as if both are from the same root; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] should be mentioned separately under sing. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] For nettle, read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] chebulic myrobalan, read "chebulic [myrobalan]." This term should also feature as a sub-entry to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("myrobalan"), which has not been listed in the glossary. For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] handful? is a faulty reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

p. 170. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] Muqasiri sandalwood. The term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] only appears in the volume in combination with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Thus, it should be listed as a sub-entry to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Entry to snuff. This term is a faulty reading of ("to fumigate"). Entry to be appropriate. This term is a faulty reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] ("to drink"). Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] to make. The term means "to advise," as it has been translated in Prescription 28, 1. 2.

p. 171. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] Isfahani kohl. The adjective [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] only appears in the volume in combination with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]. Thus, it should be listed as a sub-entry to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], which has not been given an entry in the glossary. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] cloth. The terms [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] in Prescription 1 are not related to Ar.. hurd "cloth" but to barada "to file," and therefore mean "filings."

p. 172. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] diet. The correct meaning of this term is "abstinence," cf. supra, Prescription 3,1. 5.

p. 173. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] boxthorn. This term is a faulty reading of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], i.e., "galingale." Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] crushing. The actual meaning of the term is "burned or calcinated copper."

p. 174. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] sakk. The correct vocalization is "sukk," cf. D, 666; Garbers, 329-31. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] tarfa. Read "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]"; cf. Prescription 2,1. 3.

p. 175. Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] mouthful. This Judeo-Arabic term corresponds to Arab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] and should not be arranged under the ghayn ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]) but under jim ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII]). Entry [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] coin. As is the case for Arabic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], the correct translation is "scale."

p. 176. For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] Plur. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] thorn, read "carpel." For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] chebulic myrobalan, read "chebulic [myrobalan]." This term should also be listed as a sub-entry to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] which has been omitted. Entry (?)[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII] consecutive?. The correct term is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII], which should be entered under [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII].

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

D = R. P. A. Dozy. Supplement aux dictionnaires arabes. 2 vols. Leiden-Paris 1927.

DT = Dioscurides Triumphans: Ein anonymer arabischer Kommentar (Ende 12. Jahrh. n. Chr.) zur Materia medica. Ed. and tr. Albert Dietrich. Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gottingen, Phil.-Hist. Klasse, 3. Folge, Nr. 172-73. 2 vols. Gottingen 1988.

FAQ = I. Fellmann. Das Aqrabadin al-Qalanisi: Quellenkritische und begriffsanalytische Untersuchung zur arabisch-pharmazeutischen Literatur. Beirut 1986.

Garbers = K. Garbers, ed. Kitab Kimiya' al-'itr wat-tas'idat. Buch uber die Chemie des Parfums und die Destillationen von Ya'qub b. Ishaq al-Kindi: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der arabischen Parfumchemie und Drogenkunde aus dem 9. Jahrh. P.C. Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. 30. Leipzig 1948.

KM = F. Kas. Die Mineralien in der arabischen Pharmakognosie: Eine Konkordanz zur mineralischen Materia medica der klassischen arabischen Heilmittelkunde nebst uberlieferungsgeschichtlichen Studien. Veroffentlichungen der Orientalischen Kommission, vol. 54. 2 vols. Wiesbaden 2010.

L = E. W. Lane. An Arabic-English Lexicon. 1 vol in 8. London 1863-1879.

LSJ = H. G. Liddell and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. rev. by H. S. Jones. Oxford 1925- 40. Cited after 1968 repr., with Supplement.

M = Maimonides. Sarh asma' al-'uqqar: Un glossaire de matiere medicale compose par Maimonide. Ed. and tr. Max Meyerhof. Cairo 1940; repr. Frankfurt am Main 1996 (Islamic Medicine, vol. 63, ed. Fuat Sezgin); Engl. tr. Fred Rosner, Moses Maimonides' Glossary of Drug Names, Haifa 1995.

NA = N. Nasrallah. Annals of the Caliphs' Kitchens: Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's Tenth-Century Baghdadi Cookbook. Islamic History and Civilization, vol. 70. Leiden 2007.

Schmucker = W. Schmucker. Die pflanzliche und mineralische Materia Medica im Firdaus al-hikma des 'Ali ibn Sahl Rabban Tabari. Bonn 1969.

UM = M. Ullmann. Die Medizin im Islam. Handbuch der Orientalistik I, VI, 1. Leiden 1970.

UWS = M. Ullmann. Worterbuch zu den griechisch-arabischen Ubersetzungen des 9. Jahrhunderts: Supplement. Vol. 1. Wiesbaden 2006.

VL = I. A. Vullers. Lexicon Persico-Latinum Etymologicum. 2 vols. Bonn 1855-1864, repr. Graz 1962.

WA = E. Wiedemann. Aufsatze zur arabischen Wissenschaftsgeschichte. 2 vols. Hildesheim 1970.

WKAS = Worterbuch der klassischen arabischen Sprache. Wiesbaden, 1957-; 1970-.

GERRIT BOS

UNIVERSITY OF COLOGNE
COPYRIGHT 2014 American Oriental Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Bos, Gerrit
Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Article Type:Critical essay
Geographic Code:7EGYP
Date:Oct 1, 2014
Words:7325
Previous Article:The Kautilyan market tax.
Next Article:Ibn Mattawayh, al-Tadhkira fi ahkam al-jawahir wa-l-a'rad.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters