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On Common Law (Book 1, Chapter 13).

Up to this point, in the first section of the Dicaeologicae, I have discussed agreements;1 in the next section, I will discuss law. (See above 1.4.)

1. What Law Is--In my opinion, law is this: (a) Something that, after coming into being because of an action, (b) in a human (c) affair (d) or because of some individual, (e) for the necessity, benefit,f and direction of this life is established. (g)

2. Its Different Titles--For this reason, law publicly or privately is usefully called (h) an establishment for the good of humanity; (i) a precept concerning an agreement between individuals; (j) a regulation of just and unjust things; a regulation of the just and unjust; a governor, a leader of the good; an oral agreement of the state; (k) a norm for behavior and a way of life; (l) the distinguisher of the just and unjust; (m) a bill of works, that is, things that must be done; (n) a statute; judgment; bill;o and the rule of justice. (p)

(a.) It does have other various definitions among which are the following: Digest, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 11, 12. Digest, 1.6, De His Qui Sui vel Alieni Iuris sunt, 2. Jura, De Reg. Jur., 1. Digest, 1.7, De Adoptionibus et Emancipationibus et Aliis Modi Quibus Potestas Solvitur, 23. The Institutes, 1.15, De Legitima Patronorum Tutela, 3. The Institutes, 2.2, De Rebus Incorporalibus. Digest, 38.16, De Suis et Legitimis Heredibus, 4. Digest, 50.16, De Verborum Significatione, 25. The Institutes, 4.16, De Poena Temere Litigantium, 3. Cujac, De Just. et Iure, 1. Donelli, 1.0.3.

(b.) Digest, 9.2., Ad Legem Aquiliam, 52.2. Digest, 48.8, Ad Legem Corneliam de Siccariis et Veneficis, 1.3. Digest, 43.24, Quod Vi aut Clam, 3. Digest, 27.6, Quod Falso Tutore Auctore Gestum Esse Dicatur, 9.1. Digest, 44.7, De Obligationibus et Actionibus, 52. Digest, De Adulter, 11.12. Digest, 4.5, De Capite Minutis, 10, 11. Digest, 1.5, De Statu Hominum, 16. Digest, 26.2, De Testamentaria Tutela, 30. Digest, 17.2, Pro Socio, 52. Digest, 5.1, De Iudiciis: Ubi Quisque Agere Vel Conveniri Debeat, 79.1. Ex. 18:15, 16ff.; 1 Cor. 6:2-6; Deut. 17-Num. 8.

(c.) The Institutes, 1.3, De Iure Personarum, 5. Digest, 1.5, De Statu Hominum, 2. Digest, 41.3, De Usurpationibus et Usucapionibus, 28. Gen. 1:26, 28; Ps. 3.

(d.) The Institutes, 1.2, De Iure Naturali, Gentium et Civili, 12.

(e.) Digest, 1.5, De Statu Hominum, 1. Digest, 44.7, De Obligationibus et Actionibus, 3.

(f.) 1 Cor. 6:3, 4; 7:30, 31, 39. The Institutes, 3.27, De Obligationibus quasi ex contractu, 1. The Institutes, 3.26, De Mandato, 10. The Institutes, 1.2, De Iure Naturali, Gentium et Civili, 2.

(g.) Ex. 18:20ff.; Prov. 6:23.

(h.) Digest, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 1.4. Digest, 1.2, De Origine Iuris et Omnium Magistratuum et Successione Prudentium, 2.1. Digest, 1.4, De Constitutionibus Principum, 2. Digest, 1.3, De Legibus Senatusque Consultis et Longa Consuetudine, 25. Ben Sirah 4:4ff.; Mic. 6:8; 1 Tim. 2:1-4; 1 Cor. 12:7ff.; Col. 1:10; Deut. 12:10.

(i.) Digest, 1.5, De Statu Hominum, 2. The Institutes, 1.2, De Iure Naturali, Gentium et Civili, 12. Digest, 41.3, De Usurpationibus et Usucapionibus, 28.

(j.) Ex. 18:16, 22, 26; 22:9; Deut. 17:8, 9ff.; 1 Thess. 4:6; Acts 19:38.

(k.) Digest, 1.3, De Legibus Senatusque Consultis et Longa Consuetudine, 12. Ex. 18:16.

(l.) Deut. 18:20ff.; Prov. 6:23.

(m.) The Institutes, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 1. D, d.t. 10. Heb. 5:14; Phil. 1:9, 10; 1 Cor. 12:9; 1 John 4:1.

(n.) Rom. 3:27; Matt. 23:23; 11:42.

(o.) Deut. 17:9ff.; Prov. 6:23; Ex. 18, 16, 20; 2 Chron. 19:8-11; Ps. 119.

(p.) Rom. 9:31; 6:19; Matt. 6:33; Titus 2:12; James 1:20.

3. The Establishment and Types of Law--In the definition of law that I have provided, I have included its establishment and different forms. This is in agreement with Hilliger, 1.2 and 2.1 and Donelli, Enucleat, De Speciebus Juris, 18. 1.2.

4. The Reason for Law--Law is established when because of the nature and quality of an individual agreement, in accordance with right reason (2) (Digest, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 9, where right reason is called conformity with nature) (3) in accordance with human welfare (4) and necessity (Digest, 7.1 De Usu Fructu et Quemadmodum quis utatur fruatur, 2, where welfare is called benefit, (5) and The Institutes, 1.2, De Iure Naturali, Gentium, et Civili) something is conceived and implemented (The Institutes, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 1.2. D.d.t.).

5. Law Arising from an Action--Therefore, it is said about law that an individual judgment must proceed from an action, (q) and I, as I peruse this topic in Justinian's Digest, respond in accordance with the things that were said there. (r) Also, I examined the kind of law that arises from an action; (s) the intention behind the action;t the case in which the law is settled; (u) and the situation from which it is established, (v) that is, what the action or agreement was when the circumstances and parties are well known. (w) Thus, an action that is accompanied by no law is naked (6) or bare. (7)/(x) Today, legal experts call this law the essential point of litigation. (8) As for which law is limited, (y) what is applicable and what is subjected (z) and what law is not under the authority of judges, (aa) the Digest usually answers these questions for those who are interested. (bb)

(q.) Digest, 2.15, De Transactionibus, 15.1, creditor. Digest, 20.4, Qui Potior in Pignore vel hypothecae datae obligari non possunt, 4. 2 Sam. 12:1, 2ff.; 1 Kings 3:16, 17; 20:29-41; Num. 15:32ff.; Josh. 7:20-21ff.; Ex. 18:16-18; Num. 16; 27:2-4; Matt. 26:61ff.; 21:33-35, 40, 41; Est. 1:13, 14ff.; Acts 5:1, 2ff.; 1 Kings 20:39-42.

(r.) Digest, 28.6, De Vulgari et Pupillari Substitutione, 49. Digest, 28.5, De Heredibus Instituendis, 69. Ant. Fab., Jurisprudence, 1.7.

(s.) Digest, 33.2, De Usu et de usu fructu et reditu et habitatione et operas per legatum vel fideicommissum datis, 28. Digest, 26.2, De Testamentaria Tutela, 30. Digest, 20.5, De Distractione pignorum et hypothecarum, 7.2. Digest, [?], De Legat, 114. Digest, 40.2, De Manumissis Vindicta, 15. Digest, 20.4, Qui Potior in Pignore vel hypothecae datae obligari non possunt, 8. Digest, 35.2, Ad Legem Falcidiam, 80. De Rebus Creditis Si Certum Petetur et De Condictione, 41. Digest, 28.1, Qui Testamenta Facere Possunt et Quemadmodum Testamenta Fiant, 19. Digest, 38.6, De Mortis Causa Donationibus et Capionibus, 31. Digest, 2.8, Qui Satisdare Cogantur vel Iurato Promittant vel Suae Promissioni Committantur, 7.

(t.) Digest, 44.3, De Diversis Temporalibus Praescriptionibus et De Accessionibus Possessionum, 5.1. Digest, 28.5, De Heredibus Instituendis, 35.

(u.) Digest, 9.2, Ad Legem Aquiliam, 52.7.

(v.) Digest, 48.8, Ad Legem Corneliam de Siccariis et Veneficis, 1.3.

(w.) Digest, 48.19, De Poenis, 16. Digest, 44.3, De Diversis Temporalibus X Praescriptionibus et De Accessionibus Possessionum, 3.2. Digest, 22.5, De Testibus, 3.2. Digest, 46.8, Ratam Rem Haberi et De Ratihabitione, 12.2. Digest, 9.2, Ad Legem Aquiliam, 51.2.

(x.) Digest, 46.3, De Solutionibus et Liberationibus, 48.6. Digest, 41.1, De Adquirendo Rerum Dominio, 9.5. Digest, 45.1, De Verborum Obligationibus, 52.1.

(y.) Digest, 22.6, De Iuris et Facti Ignorantia, 2. Digest, 1.3, De Legibus Senatusque Consultis et Longa Consuetudine, 9, 10ff.

(z.) Digest, 22.6, De Iuris et Facti Ignorantia, 9.3. Digest, 1.2, De Origine Iuris et Omnium Magistratuum et Successione Prudentium, 2.43. Digest, 37.1, De Bonorum Possessionibus, 10.

(aa.) Digest, 50.1, Ad Municipalem et De Incolis, 1. Digest, 48.16, Ad Senatus Consultum Turpillianum et De Abolitionibus Criminum, 1. Deut. 17:7-10ff.

(bb.) Digest, 5.1, De Iudiciis: Ubi Quisque Agere vel Conveniri Debeat, 79. Digest, 1.5, De Statu Hominum, 16. See below chapter 15. On Common Law 10

Among the Jews, legal scholars and the lawgiver himself discuss law in the following places: Ex. 18:15ff.; Deut. 1:16, 17; 17:2-5ff.; 2 Chron. 19. See chapter 15 for a discussion about this text.

6. When Law Is Established--The establishment of law is twofold--natural or common law and civil or individual law (The Institutes, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 1.2)--just as the welfare and necessity of human life that law protects is twofold: common to all or appropriate to individual places and people.

7. The Nature of Natural Law--A law is natural and common if common right reason produces it for the common necessity and welfare of human social life in general. Therefore, it is called natural law.

8. The Nature of Civil Law--A law is civil or individual if individual right reason introduces and establishes it because of the necessity and welfare of the social life of some specific place. Therefore, it is called individual law or the civil law of some place.

9. A Common Error--The types of law are incorrectly defined by common people as common law, natural law, the law of nations, and civil law. In fact, they are not types, that is, effects of law, but they are the efficient causes.9 According to Justinian, all law that has been compiled comes from these precepts of natural and right reason (The Institutes, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, in the same volume 1.2).

10. Necessity and the Common Good as Reasons for the Establishment of Law--These come from the reasoning of the welfare and necessity of human life (The Institutes, 1.2, De Iure Naturali, Gentium et Civili, 2), where he writes, "nations establish certain human laws for themselves by exigent interest and human necessity" (Institutes, 1.2.1), "each people establishes Law for themselves" (Institutes 1.2.11), "each state establishes its own laws for itself" (Institutes, 1.2.4-6, 9; Digest, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure; Digest, 1.4, De Constitutionibus Principum, 64; Digest, 1.3, De Legibus Senatusque Consultis et Longa Consuetudine, 5, 16; Digest, 1.4, De Constitutionibus Principum, 2). Because of these efficient causes of nature, a community, or some specific place, law is called natural law, the law of nations, or civil law, that is, law common to all people (10) or the law of an individual population (11) (Digest, 1.1,

De Iustitia et Iure, 6, 9, 11. Institutes, 1.2, De Iure Naturali, Gentium, et Civili, 1,2,3. Digest, 41.1, De Adquirendo Rerum Dominio, 1. Digest, 50.16, De Verborum Significatione, 195. Digest, 4.4, De Minoribus Viginti Quinque Annis, 16; de in integr. Rest. Minor, ult C. Institutes, 1.10, De Nuptiis, 7. Institutes, 2.11, De Militari Testamento, 1. Digest, 27.7, De Fideiussoribus et Nominatoribus et Heredibus Tutorum et Curatorum, 51. [section] pen. de fideiuss. l. ult. C. de in integr. restit. min. [section 3. [section] fin. Instit. quib. non est permiss. test. cond. Also, Cujac. lib. 15. obs. c. 33). They also call it natural justice (12) or civil justice (13) (1. 1. [section] 1. si quis test. lib. esse iuss. 1.45. [section qui cum ad L. Aquil. [section] retinenda. inst. de interdict. [section] ult. de superficieb. L. 39 de negot. gest 1.1. de contrar. tut. act. 1.31. deposit. See Connan. lib. 1. com. c. 3. c. 4). It is also called natural law (14) or legal law (15) ([section] 14. sed cum ea. Inst. de hared. qua ab intestate. [section] 7. Inst. de usu and habitat. L. 77. de reg. iur. tit. Inst. de legit. agnat. tutel. tit. de legit. hared. L. 6. de pact).

11. Common Law--Therefore, common law is that which has been inscribed on human hearts by nature or by God from birth and that by which human beings are moved to do or avoid actions, whatever is sufficient for preserving the common good of human society, convicts wrongdoers of evil, or excuses the innocent (Rom. 1:19-21, 32; 2:15-17; 1 Cor. 5:1-3, 11:14).

12. The Knowledge of and Tendency Toward Natural Law in Human Beings--Thus, there is a knowledge and natural inclination for this law in the human heart. Because of it, a person knows what is just and is urged by the hidden impulse of nature to do what is just and to not do what is unjust (Rom. 2:15, 16; 7:15-18, 22, 23).

13. Different Terms for Natural Law--This law is designated with different names. Sometimes it is called natural law (16) (tit. Inst. de iure natur. gent. et civ). Other times, it is called the law of nature (17) ([section] 1. Instit. de iure. nat. gent. 1. penult. de iustit. and iure. [section] singulorum. [section] res vendita. Institut. de rer. divis. 1.16. [section] naturales. de fideiuss. 1.10. de oblig. and actio. 1.95. [section] natura. de solus. 1.126. [section] Chrysogonus. de verb. obligat. 1.16. [section] 4. de minor. 1.22. locat). It is also called natural reason (18) ([section] 1. Instit. de iur. natur. gent. 1.9. 1.1. [section] 3. 1.6. 1.11. de iust. and iur. 11. de adquir. rer. dom. 1.1. de minor. 1.7. [section] 1. de integr. restit. [section] 12. fera. Instit. de rer. divis. 11. 1.2. 1.14. 1.15. 1.16. de legib. 1 Cor. 11:13, 14; Rom. 2:16), the silent law, (19) the law that nature provides to the human race ([section] 11. singulorum. [section] 41. vendita. Instit. de rer. divis. 1.1. de adquir. rer. dom. ius gentium. d. [section] 11. 1.9. de iust. and iur. Donell. lib. 1. comm. c. 6.), the rule or law of God (20) (Rom. 1:32; 2; 7:22, 25), or the immutable law (21) (Rom. 2:16, Esa. 49:15; Matt. 14:4; 7:9, [section] pen ubi Dd. Instit. de iur. nat. gent. et civili).

14. Where the Foundations of Law Lie--Moreover, God teaches and inscribes on human hearts general principles of fairness and justice and unfairness and injustice; he binds, urges, and incites all people to do or avoid these things; and he accuses those who fail in these things through their internal consciences and excuses those who do them (Rom. 2:15, 16; 7:15-18, 22, 23). Therefore, he urges people toward good and calls them back from evil. If someone follows his leading to good, that person is excused. Whoever does not, he accuses.

15. Duties Arising from Natural Law--The principles that I mentioned above, concern the two primary duties human beings have. The one involves our own selves; the other involves others.

With respect to our own selves, there are three main impulses: (1) self-defense, (2) self-preservation, and (3) self-propagation.

For discussions concerning self-defense, especially our defense against violence and injury, see Digest, 9.2, Ad Legem Aquilam, 4, 5; C. Unde Vi, 1; Digest, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 1; Zoanett, De Defens. Triplici, part 1. As to the self-preservation and the protection of each individual's own property, see Eph. 5:29; Col. 2; Ben Sirah 14:4-10; 23:21; 30:26.

Self-propagation includes both the union of men and women (Digest, 1.1, De Iustitia et Iure, 1.3; The Institutes, 1.2, De Iure Naturali, Gentium, et Civili, 1.2) and the proper rearing of the children born to us (Digest, 25.3, De Agnoscendis et alendis liberis vel parentibus vel patronis vel liberties).

A duty shown to another looks to God or our neighbor.

It looks to God who teaches and inscribes this law especially as much as he teaches us and urges us to the knowledge and worship of him (Rom. 1:19-21; Zanchi De Lege Natura, 1.10), where he looks especially at the first tablet of the Decalogue (Matt. 22:36-40; Luke 10:27).

It looks to our neighbor as much as it teaches and excites us to the duties of protecting our neighbors and avoiding injury to them, an idea found in the second table of the Decalogue. See the Matthew and Luke passages above. Third, it teaches us that whatever you wish to be done to you, you should also do to another and the opposite (Matt. 7:2, 12; Luke 12:14; Lev. 19:18; Rom. 2:13, 21, 22; 1 John 2:11; tit. quod quisque juris in al. arg. Isa. 58:7; 1 John 3:15; 4:20, 21). This means to live righteously; to not hurt another, and to give to each person what is owed (The Institutes, de iust, et iure, 10, 1; Rom. 12:9, 17; 13:7, 8; 1 Tim. 2:2; Matt. 22:17, 21; Ex. 22:22-24; Mark 12:16, 17; 1 Thess. 4:12; 5:22).

16. The Degrees and Limits of Natural Knowledge and Tendencies--Moreover, although those principles of nature are one and the same to all nations, still they differ in the level (22) and means (23) of their inscribing and urging. In fact, these principles are inscribed on the hearts of all not equally; in some, they are inscribed more eloquently, abundantly, and effectively, while in others not eloquently but sparingly because of God's will for inscribing and teaching. Therefore, it is the case that although these principles have been written on everyone's heart, nevertheless the conclusions that are drawn from them are not equally held. Instead, some people understand how to infer more conclusions from them; others how to infer less. In addition, natural reason (24) often digresses both with respect to the understanding of the ideas of these shared principles (25) present in the mind since it does not understand them lucidly and clearly enough in each and every thing and with respect to the manipulation of the individual ideas, to the conclusions drawn from the common principles, and to the application to individual affairs when reason's ability and will is weak, since it differs and often disagrees with its own self (Rom. 7:15-23; 1 Cor. 2:10, 11ff.; Jer. 17; John 3; and Gen. 8).

(17.) The Degrees and Limits of Natural Knowledge and Tendencies--The means and level of the urging and exciting to do these things that is taught by those principles also varies. In fact, many people very carelessly disdain those things that are known from natural law (Rom. 7:22, 23, 25ff.; Pss. 10:4; 36:2; Rom. 1:24, 28; 1 Tim. 4:2). Others are more effectively instigated to observe them as they concentrate upon the study of these principles. Clearly, in the hearts of the elect, this law of nature is always more eloquent and effective, just as God promised in Jeremiah 31.

(18.) The Distinctions Others Have Made Between Natural Law and the Law of Nations--This common law (26) others divide into natural law and law of nations (Ulpian in 1.1 de adquir. rer. dom. 1.1. [section] 3. 4.1.6 de Iust et Iure. [section] 3. Instit. D.t. and tit. Instit. De iure nature.gent and civil). It is a little better in other places (Cujac. In 1.1. [section] Huius. De just. and jure. and lib. 15. obs. c. 33). Others, in fact, call each by its correct title, natural (that is, per [section] 11. singulorum and seq. a [section] 41. vendita. Instit. de rer.divis. 1.31. deposit. Donell. lib. 1. com. c. 6. Eguin. Baro. Instit. De iure nature. Gent. et civil. and Apostolus ad Rom. 1, 2 and 1 Cor. 11:14 and 5:1, 2). Natural law applies to human beings alone and that which is named law of nations often is called natural law by Justinian's Digest (that is, 1.1 [section] ult. 1. seq. 1.9. de iust et iur. L. naturals 10. de obligat and action. 1.65. [section] natura de solute. 1.31. 1.1. de adquir. Rer. Dom. 1.84. [section] 1. de reg. iur. [section] 11 and seqq. [section] 20, [section] 29, [section] 40, [section] 41. Instit. De. Rer.divis. Anton. Faber iurisprud. Tit. 2. illat. 4 and princ. 2 and 4). What they call natural law is described as what simple intellectual reason without proof (27) teaches human beings as much as human beings and animals are rational (vide 1. pen. [section] 1. de in ineg.res.1.1.de iust. and iur. [section] Inst de iur. Nat. gent. et civilis. Rom. 2:14, 15; 1 Cor. 5:1, 2; 11:14. Siracid.c.17.7and seqq. Ezech. 5:7) in order to live holy and blameless lives (vide 1 Tim. c. 22; Rom. 2; 1 Cor. 11:14; 5:1, 2; Tit. 2:12; Tob. 4). For this reason, it is called by some rational law (28) (Wesenb. In com. Inst. Tit. de iur. Nat. gent. et civili and in com. D. eod. Connan. lib. 1. com. c. 4. Vacon. AVacun. lib. 1. declar c. 15. num. 3. vide Donell. Lib. T.com c.6.7 and Hotom. In [section] 4. Instit. D.t. Goveran. Varior. c. 20) or innate law (i.e., d.1.1 de iust. et iure. [section]1. Instit. De iur. Nat. gent. et civ. 1 Cor. 11:14; 5:1, 2; Rom. 2). Although this very law does not arise exclusively for itself but is only a thought, (29) the knowledge of it, or rather the ability to understand this law, arises from nature. Thus, it is also called natural law (1. 1ex24. de stat. hom. 1.1. [section] ult. de. furt. 1. probum. de verb. fig. [section] quos. autem. Inst. de bon. possess. 1.34. [section] 1.de contrah. empt. Cicer. lib 1. offic.) or it could be called natural justice (1.1. [section] 1 si is qui test. liber. ess. iuss. 1.1. de minor. d. [section] 11. [section] 39. thesauros. [section] 40. per traditionem, Inst. de. rer. divis. 1.31. depos.) because brute animals sometimes imitate this law and are said to have some appearances of it (tit. Inst. De iure nat. gent. et civili. 1.1. de iust. et iure. Vide Connan. lib. 1 com. c. 6. Baron. In tit. Instit. De iur. Nature. Gent. Cujac in 1.1. [section] huius de iust. et iure).

19. The Law of Nations--The law of nations in their opinion is whatever through demonstration, calm reasoning, or a discourse of the mind, a human being, who cultivates animal instinct, political society and the human good, enacts ([section] 1. ibi quod naturalis ratio. Inst. De iure. Nat. gent. et civili. L.9. de iust. and iur). So that in this common human life we may live good, happy, and pleasant lives (1.9. [section] 21 .pen. de iust. and iur. [section] 2 inst. De iur. Nat. gent. et civili. 1.25.1.13 de legib. 1 Cor. c. 6:3,4). It is in this spirit that the apostle commands us to be beneficial to other people (1 Thess. 4:11, 12; Rom. 12:8; Eph. 6:6; Eccl. 9:10).

It teaches us to live well and have pleasant lives because it establishes what is beneficial (30) and necessary (31) for human life (1.1. de cont. empt. 1.1. de exerx. act. [section] 2. Inst. de iur. nat. gent et civili. 1.51. [section] 2. ubi Gothofr. ad L. Aquil. 1.5. de obl. and act. 1.17. [section] 2. de instit. act. 1.21. com. divid. 1.1. [section] 1. de his qui effuder. [section] 10. item Inst, de mandate, 1, 1 de begit. ges), and because it is adapted to human society ([section] 2. Instit. de iure. nat. gent. See Don. lib. 1. com. c. 7 Pinell. in rub. c. de rescind. Vend. Par. 1. nu. 11 and ff.). Here, the reflection of law seen in animals is not visible (Arg. d. 1.9. [section] 2 and d. [section] 2. 1.25. 1.13. de legib. 1 Cor. 6:3, 4).

20. Its Different Titles for the Law of Nations--This law of nations Justinian sometimes calls natural law, sometimes benefit (32) ([section] 10 ubi Cujac. Inst. De. Mand 1.70 ad Treb. 1.95 [section] 7 de sol. 1.1 [section] 1.2 de his qui deiecer effsud. 1.8. [section] 10 de minor 1.32. [section] 2. de adq. poss. 1.11. de prasc. verb. 1.44. [section] Eum qui de usucap 1.1. de in integ. rest. L. 1. [section] magistrum de exerc. Act. 1.1. naut. Caup. stab. 1.8. depos.), something received for the sake of utility ([section] 1 inst. De oblig. qua quas. es. cont. 1.5. de oblig. and act. 1.1. de neg. gest.), better justice33 (1.41 de iur. Dot. 1.82 de solute. 1.31 depos.), good justice (I. pen. De. Iust. and iur. 1.66. de condict. Indeb. 1.6. [section] 2. de iur. dot. 1.32. de reb. cred.), pure law of nations (d. 1.31), contranatural or natural reason (1.4. de stat. hom [section] 1 Inst. De iure person. 1.4. de iust. et iure. 1.1 de adq. rer. dom. [section] singulorum 11 Inst. De rer divis), or even law established out of fairness through convincing logic (1.3. 1.1. 1.7 [section] 6 1.9 [section] 3 de adquir. rer. dom [section] 25 [section] 39 [section] 40 per traditionem. Instit. De rer. Divis). Wesenbaum calls it the law of calm reasoning. (34)

21. Examples--From this law, wars are conducted, the treatment of captives and the punishment of criminals are decided, most contracts are disputed, the distinctions of personal property, and judicial decisions are rendered, kingdoms and cities are established, and magistracies are enacted (1.5. de iust. etiure). In short, similar necessities and benefits are established for the continuation and conservation of human society (Vide Donell. lib. 1. com. cap. 7. Connan lib. 1. con. c. 1 and 2).

Thus, the large section in the Digest under the title, On Justice and Law and in the Institutes, On the Natural Law, the Law of Nations, and Civil Law.

(1) Negotium.

(2) Recta ratio.

(3) Naturalis ratio.

(4) Utilitas.

(5) Usus.

(6) Nudum.

(7) Merum.

(8) Meritum causae.

(9) Causae efficientes.

(10) Commune.

(11) Civile.

(12) Aequitas Naturalis.

(13) Aequitas Civilis.

(14) Ius Naturale.

(15) Ius Legitimum.

(16) Ius Naturale.

(17) Lex Naturalis seu naturae.

(18) Ratio Naturalis.

(19) Lex Tacita.

(20) Lex Dei seu Ius Dei.

(21) Ius Immutabile.

(22) Gradus.

(23) Modus.

(24) Ratio Naturalis.

(25) Axiomatica.

(26) Ius Commune.

(27) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

(28) Ius Rationis.

(29) TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

(30) Utilia.

(31) Necessaria.

(32) Utilitas.

(33) Aequius Melius.

(34) Ius Ratiocinationis.
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Title Annotation:Selections from the Dicaeologicae
Author:Althusius, Johannes
Publication:Journal of Markets & Morality
Article Type:Excerpt
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2006
Words:4533
Previous Article:Preface.
Next Article:On the Individual, Principal Law (Book 1, Chapter 14).
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