The animals are among thousands rescued since 780 million litres of oil began gushing from the Macondo well about 80km southeast of the Mississippi River Delta, and among dozens still at Gulf Coast rescue centres five months after the well was capped.
Since the Deepwater Horizon rig exploded on April 20, rescue officials say 2,079 birds, 456 sea turtles, a few terrapins and two dolphins have been plucked from the oil.
Another 2,263 birds, 18 turtles and four dolphins have been found dead with oil on them. All the corpses are being dissected to establish whether it was the crude oil from the BP well that killed them.
Meanwhile, caring for the surviving animals can be time-consuming and costly, an ongoing legacy of the massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and identifying whether BP is at fault is also a complex matter for those working at the centres.
Oil spills can have devastating effects on wildlife. About 20,000 penguins were rescued and washed after the tanker MV Treasure sank in 2000 off the coast of South Africa. In 1989, more than 1,600 birds were rescued after the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska, according to the International Bird Rescue Research Centre.
At the Audubon Aquatics Centre in New Orleans, staff are rehabilitating a young dolphin that had oil all over his head and body when he was found stranded on September 2 at Fourchon Beach on the Louisiana coast southwest of the city.
But the dolphin apparently had not swallowed or breathed in any oil, said Audubon Nature Institute spokeswoman Meghan Calhoun.
Beneath the oil, tooth scratches covered his body. Another dolphin - likely his mother - had attacked him, Calhoun said.
The animal was about two years old, the age at which dolphin pups will leave their mothers and go it alone.
"His debilitation appears to have been caused by his mother, possibly being a little forceful in convincing him that he needed to move on," Calhoun said.
The dolphin's muscles had seized up in pain, so tightly that he could not swim. He needed both physical therapy and muscle therapy.
"We had to show him how to move his tail in an up-and-down fashion instead of side to side" (like a shark), Calhoun said.
Both the adolescent dolphin and an adult male dolphin, who was stranded on June 19 at Rutherford Beach, had to be held up in the water 24 hours a day until they could swim on their own - and then, for a while, as they rested or slept.
The adult dolphin did not have a drop of oil on him, but was ill and parasite-ridden, Calhoun said.
But since he was rescued during the spill, he had to be considered as a possible victim.
Meanwhile, about 50 sea turtles are still in captivity. Most had some sort of medical problems beyond those caused by the oil.
The Aquatics Centre has 30 of them, including 16 green, 11 Kemp's ridley, one hawksbill and one loggerhead.
Some came in wounded, while others had broken bones, Calhoun said. Only one, a Kemp's ridley turtle, had wounds that clearly showed how it had been hurt - in this case, shark bites, she said.
Oiled turtles are scrubbed clean with dish soap and other cleaners, and then tested for any health problems and fed at centres. But with winter having arrived, none of the animals will be released until the weather warms up.
Michele Kelley, the director of the Louisiana Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Programme, which works with Audubon, said the cost of rehabilitating turtles and dolphins at the Aquatics Centre has already reached about $500,000. BP has said it will cover the entire cost but so far has reimbursed only about $100,000, Calhoun said.
BP spokeswoman Hejdi Feick said the company has spent about $35.5 million so far on the rescue and rehab of wildlife since the spill began.
Meanwhile, 16 sea turtles are at the Institute of Marine Mammal Studies in Gulfport, Mississippi, and four are at facilities in Panama City and Orlando, Florida, said Michael Ziccardi, a veterinarian and oiled wildlife expert at the University of California-Davis, and also the head of the BP spill's sea turtle and marine mammal response.
Five birds are also still in rehabilitation - two brown pelicans, a reddish egret, and the laughing gull and tern.
The pelicans, sent to a Florida rehabilitation centre in large flight cages, are well enough to be released, according to Rhonda Murgatroyd, hired by BP PLC to supervise all animal rescues.
She said the reddish egret is being cared for at the Louisiana Purchase Zoo in Monroe while the two young birds are at Wings of Hope in Livingston County, New York.
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