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Official colours of Chinese regimes: a panchronic philological study with historical accounts of China.

1. Introduction

In Chinese civilisation, an official colour [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] is a lawful or conventional colour of the sovereign flag and/or formal dress. It is not necessarily identical to the national colour, because there are many nations in China. Protocols of the official colours were as important as protocols of the official ethnonyms, capitals and languages.

In Chinese history (the historical accounts of China are introduced in Section 3), when a new regime was established, the official ethnonym and colour were more often shifted than the other protocols. For example, the official spoken language variety of the Chinese sovereignty has been the same Beijing dialect of the Yan regional lect of the Chinese language since the Qing Empire (1644~1912); the capital of the Chinese sovereignty has been the same Beijing since the Yuan Empire (1276~1368) [excluding the periods of the early Ming Empire (1368~1421) and the reformed Republic of China (1928~1949), when the capital was Nanjing]. The picture of Chinese official colours is more complicated than the common notion "Red China". The present study will provide details of the Chinese official colours in a panchronic way.

The present study will also answer the following three major questions:

1) How was an official colour determined?

2) Was the official colour of the Xia Empire black or grue?

3) What reasons have made the red colour the official colour now?

On the first question, the classical common idea in China, after a Chinese scholar, who specialised in Sino-metaphysics (classical Chinese metaphysics), Zou Yan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (ca-305~ca.240BCE), has stated that the official colour should be determined by "the main property of 'the five elements [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (henceforth 'the fifth property') in Sino-metaphysics' (first quoted in -239-LL).

In Sino-metaphysics, everything should have a fifth property (Wood [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], Fire [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], Earth [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], Metal or Water [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]), so does every regime or country. Ideally, the official colours are associated to the fifth property of the regime or country. The fifth property of the five pure colours [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] are: black--Water; white--Metal; red--Fire; yellow--Earth; grue--Wood.

Nowadays, the fifth property is considered as superstition by many people. Some Chinese scholars have tried to explain the official colours only for natural reasons.

In 1994, a Chinese scholar, who specialised in Chinese history, He Guang Yue [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (1994) correlated all the presentations of the black official colour with the Xia Empire and the archaeological sites in eastern central China where black pottery was dominant. It was the first attempt to explain the official colour in the panchronic way.

In 2002, a Chinese scholar, who specialised in Chinese language and Sino-semasiology, Chen LiangYu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (2002) suggested that the official status of the yellow colour is determined by the dominance of agriculture in China.

Four years later, a Chinese scholar, who specialised in Chinese language and glyphs, Sun JianJun [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (2006) suggested that the official status of the yellow colour is also influenced by the once dominant Taoism in China (589~1276), while the official status of the red colour was caused by the ancient worship of fire and/or blood.

The explanations on the yellow official colour of the previous studies are reasonable. The present study will explain all the official colours in parallel.

The second question is well known within Chinese historical circles. Two options, 'black' and 'grue', have been claimed according to the different terms 6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac) (1) and 9751 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qing/thanh) in historical records. The present study will solve the historical problem with the linguistic theory of composite colour categories proposed by Kay and McDaniel (1978).

On the third question, the common idea in the West might mistake it for the recent history. The present study will conclude that the red colour has been predominant in China for many reasons throughout the history.

2. Review of previous studies

Originally, the official colours were scattered in many historiographies.

In 801 CE, a Chinese scholar and an imperial officer of the Tang Empire, who specialised in Chinese history, Du You [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] 735~812, released a book <<Tongdian [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'encyclopaedia']>> (801-TD). In this encyclopaedia, there is a chapter "official virtues and colours of Chinese regimes [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]". It can be read as the first systematic study of the topic in general. The studied materials were Chinese philological texts. The philological method was used. It has given results on 17 Chinese regimes. The results on 15 regimes are agreed in the present study.

According to <<Mingshilu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'actual recording of the Ming Empire']>> (1399-MSL), in 1370, the emperor ordered the Ministry of Etiquette [and Education] [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] to report the official colours in history. The report returned with the official colours of eight Chinese regimes. The studied materials were Chinese philological texts. The philological method was used. The results on six regimes are agreed in the present study.

In 2008, a Chinese scholar, who specialised in Chinese language and fine art, Peng De [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], released a Chinese monograph of a diachronic study on the Five Pure Colours of China (2008-ZH5S). In this book, there is a chapter on the official colours of Chinese regimes. It is the latest systematic study of the topic in general. The studied materials were Chinese philological texts. The philological method was used. It has given results on 21 Chinese regimes. The results on 10 regimes are agreed in the present study.

The results of the previous studies (together with the results of the present study) are given in a comparative table in Appendix 1.

3. Materials and methods

3.1 Materials

Relevant philological texts of 26 Chinese central regimes, 3 Chinese de facto central regimes, and 3 Chinese local sovereign regimes are targeted.

A Chinese regime [570B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (guo/quac)] is a country granted by Chinese sovereignty or independently established in the Chinese way and having an endonym which is originally Sinitic. A Chinese central regime [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (zhong-guo/trung-quac)] is a country with Chinese sovereignty. De jure Chinese sovereignty means a general recognition by contemporary people and succeeding Chinese central regimes. De facto Chinese sovereignty means a control of central China. A Chinese local sovereign regime is a Chinese local regime with its separate sovereignty. Such a regime has proclaimed its own emperor (not king). It was not easily allowed by the Chinese central regime. Every country without proclaiming its own emperor could be accepted as a nominally dependent regime [85E9 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (fan/phien)] of China.

The central regimes are counted as the following 26:

(1* (2)) PaoXi Empire (ca.60000~ca.3000BCE), its origin and its offspring

The PaoXi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (also written as FuXi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]) Empire is counted as the first central regime of China. "PaoXi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (pao-xi/bao-hi)]" is an ethnonym made of two lexemes with concrete etymologies that mean "kitchen [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #5901) and "domesticated animals [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #771) respectively, or 'kitchen of domesticated animals' altogether. PaoXi should be a reconstructed ethnonym after the property of the ruling population. Traditional Chinese ethnonyms are monomorphemic.

This empire might be founded by the first developed hunter-gatherer (Late Palaeolithic) people residing in China. Its sovereign monarchies might be nominated and elected from different clans. The capital depended on the elected sovereign monarchy. The capital of the founder monarchy is historically told as being in Chen [9673 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chen/tran), Sinitic etymology meaning 'settlement' > 'to set'] (present-day Huaiyang) in eastern central China, archaeologically undiscovered.

The major innovations in PaoXi were: the comestible use of domesticated animals [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'kitchen of domesticated animals' (in addition to kitchen of wild animals)], the marriage rules [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the dragon totem [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the eight diagrams [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (Sino-metaphysics) and the lithic nail for acupuncture [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (Sino-medicine) (241-DW), also the fishing net [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (0-YI: Xicixia [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]).

The PaoXi Empire lasted 57882 years (0-YIW: chapter Jilantu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]). It actually ruled some part of central China. In ca. 3000 BCE, it was supplanted by the ShenNong Empire. It is historically obscure, how the PaoXi people ended up.

At present, Chinese people are related to PaoXi by confirming the dragon totem [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. Korean people are related to PaoXi by confirming the dragon totem and having the eight diagrams on their sovereign flag.

The studied archaic texts about PaoXi include 0-YI, 0-LI, 0-YIW and 241-DW.

(2*) ShenNong Empire ca.3000~ca.2500, its origin and its offspring

The ShenNong [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire is counted as the second central regime of China. "ShenNong [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (shen-nong/than-nong)]" is an ethnonym made of two lexemes with concrete etymologies that mean "god [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #25) and "agriculture [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #1777) respectively, or 'the god of agriculture' altogether. ShenNong should be a reconstructed ethnonym after the property of the ruling population. Traditional Chinese ethnonyms are monomorphemic.

The nation of ShenNong was called ShenNongShi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Shennongish']. It might be the first agricultural (Neolithic) people residing in China. In ca. 3000 BCE, ShenNong gained the sovereignty from PaoXi. It was not recorded how ShenNong gained the sovereignty. PaoXi might decline and yield the territory by natural reasons. The sovereign monarchies of ShenNong might be nominated and elected from different clans. The capital depended on the elected sovereign monarchy.

The major innovations in ShenNong were: the comestible use of domesticated plants [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (agriculture) and the medical use of plants [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (Sino-medicine) (241-DW), also the ceramic axe [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (0-ZS) and the textile [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (-338-SJS: Huace [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]), also the daily market [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (0-YI: Xicixia [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]).

The ShenNong Empire lasted 540 years (0-YIW: Jilantu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]])/530 years (241-DW). It actually ruled some part of central China. In ca. 3000 BCE, it was defeated and supplanted by the XuanYuan Empire. It is not recorded what happened to the ShenNong people.

Based on accounts of histories and etymologies of relevant languages, Gao (2008) suggested that ShenNong people are Sino-Finnic [~ Uralic] [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. The key etymologies are: (1) 530B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (tao/dao/ET:sauE/FI:savi.e) 'pottery' in Sinitic; 'clay' in Finnic [~ Finno-Ugric]; (2) 8015 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (geng/canh/ET:kundA-/FI:kynta-) 'to plough' in Sinitic and Finnic [~ Cheremis kuncas 'to dig']; (3) 8CE3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (mai/mai/ET:muu-/FI:myy-) 'to sell' in Sinitic and Finnic [~ Uralic].

The common tale of 'the 5000-year-old history of China [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]' is counted from this empire. It implies that the previous regime was not Chinese. I think it is partly true. The PaoXi Empire should represent the hunter-gatherer people who arrived much earlier. The ShenNong Empire should represent the agricultural settlers who arrived much later. The replacement of PaoXi by ShenNong is a very important precondition for the later fusional foundation of the Yan-Huang Chinese nation. At present, many Chinese people consider themself offspring of the fusional Yan-Huang Chinese [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]].

The studied archaic texts about ShenNong include 0-YI, 0-LI, 0-ZS, 0-YIW, -338-SJS, -91-SJ, and 241-DW.

(3*) XuanYuan Empire (ca.2500~ca.2000BCE), its origin and its offspring

The XuanYuan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire is counted as the third central regime of China. "XuanYuan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xuan-yuan/thien-vien)]" is an ethnonym made of two lexemes that mean "a sort of vehicle [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #9464) and "axle [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #9508) respectively, or 'advanced vehicles' altogether. XuanYuan should be a reconstructed ethnonym after the property of the ruling population. Traditional Chinese ethnonyms are monomorphemic.

The nation of XuanYuan was called XuanYuanShi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Xuanyuanish']. It might be the first mobile (Chalcolithic) people residing in China. In ca. 2500 BCE, XuanYuan gained the sovereignty from ShenNong by force: "When the central power of the ShenNong Empire declined, thus it was unable to protect the people. The HuangDi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'yellow emperor'] of XuanYuan started forming armies. After three victories against the troops of ShenNong, the YanDi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'fire emperor'] of ShenNong surrendered. Later, allied forces led by XuanYuan defeated the troops of ChiYou [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology, /chi jai/ in White Hmong, a leader of the ancient Hmong people]. Finally, [after winning 52 battles against the other tribes (241-DW)], the peaceful order was restored, XuanYuan succeeded the sovereignty" (-91-SJ: Wudibenji [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]). The sovereign monarchies of XuanYuan were nominated and elected from different clans. The capital depended on the elected sovereign monarchy.

The major innovations in XuanYuan were: the wooden ships with oar [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the conveyable use of cattle and horses [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the bow and arrow [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the Chinese glyphs [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the house construction [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the coffin [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] and the cloud totem [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (241-DW).

The XuanYuan Empire lasted about 500 years (average of common sources). [Upon 0-YIW: Jilantu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], 2820 years can be counted. It is generally discredited. I think that it might include the years before XuanYuan gained sovereignty.] It actually ruled central China. In ca. 2000 BCE, it was supplanted by the Xia Empire. It is not recorded what happened to the XuanYuan people.

The reconstructed Sino-calendar is counted from this empire. [The current year (2012 CE) in Sino-calendar is 4710 (after the official reconstruction by the Chinese Alliance, which founded the Republic of China)/4649 (revised reconstruction).] It implies that the previous regimes were not Chinese. I think it is partly true. The ShenNong Empire should represent the mobile formers in the Far East. The XuanYuan Empire should represent the mobile herders in the Far East. The fusion of the two nations is the foundation of the Chinese nation. At present, many Chinese people consider themself offspring of the fusional Yan-Huang Chinese [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]].

Based on accounts of histories and etymologies of relevant languages, Chang (1988) suggested that XuanYuan people are Indo-European, Gao (2008) advanced it to Germanic. The key etymologies are: (1) 8ECA [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (che/xa/DA:kaerre/SV:karra/EN:car/NL:kar/DE:Karre/FR:char/ES/PT/IT:carro/LA:carrus) 'wheeled vehicle' in Sinitic and Germanic [~ Romanic]; (2) 99AC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (ma/ma/DA:maer/SV:marr/EN:mare/NL:merrie/DE:Mahre) 'horse' in Sinitic, 'female horse' in Germanic; (3) 821F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhou/chieu/DA:skib/SV:skepp/EN:ship/NL:schip/ DE:Schff) 'ship' in Sinitic and Germanic.

The studied archaic texts about XuanYuan include 0-YI, 0-SU, 0-LI, 0-YIW, -300-ZSJN, -91-SJ and 241-DW.

(4*) Xia Empire (ca.2000~ca.1600BCE), its origin and its offspring

The Xia [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Xia Dynasty (3)"] is counted as the fourth central regime of China. "Xia [590F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xia/ha)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "Chinese people [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #3354), its further abstract etymology should include another concrete etymology 5EC8 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sha/ha), "building [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #5939).

Xia was originally a fiefdom granted by the XuanYuan Empire. In ca. 2000 BCE, the Count of Xia [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] was nominated and elected as the Emperor Yu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. After his decease, his son supplanted the nominated heir apparent of Yu, and declared the Xia Empire. [From a juridical view, the Emperor Yu was the elected emperor of the Xuan Yuan Empire, and should not be counted as an actual emperor of the Xia Empire as most other historians did.] Since then, the emperors of China were mostly hereditarily succeeded. The capital of Xia allegedly changed place, although it is archaeologically not discovered (4).

The major innovation of Xia was the bronze caldron [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (241-DW) (unfortunately, it is archaeologically undiscovered).

The Xia Empire lasted 471 years (the discovered version [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of -300-ZSJN) /431 years (0-YIW: Jilantu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]])/432 years (241-DW). It actually ruled central China. In ca. 1600 BCE, it was defeated by the allied forces of feudal states led by of the Shang Fiefdom, and supplanted by the Shang Empire.

The surrendered ruling population of Xia was granted a fiefdom termed Qi/Ky 675E [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/ky). From my etymological point of view, the ethnonym of the granted fiefdom [675E [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/ky)] is an etymological equivalent of the ethnonym of the original empire [590F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xia/ha)], and a result of a political correctness. In 445BCE, the Qi/Ky Fiefdom was conquered and annexed by the Chu [695A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chu/so)] Kingdom. Its people were fused in the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation in the Qin Empire (221~207BCE) and the Han Empire (202BCE~220CE).

In 407 CE, a branch of Inner Xiongnu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] non-Sinitic etymology] people, who proclaimed being the descendants of Xia, established the Xia Kingdom in near north-west China. In 418, it proclaimed imperial sovereignty. The revived local Xia Empire lasted 8 years. It actually ruled near north-west China. In 426, its capital was conquered by the Taugas Wei [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire. Its last emperor was captured in 431. Its people were fused in Taugas-Chinese consolidation in the Taugas Wei Empire (399~550/557), the Taugas Zhou Empire (557~581) and the Sui Empire (581~618). Its territory was termed the Xia Province [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] by the Taugas Wei Empire. The toponym Xia was later abolished by the Tang Empire.

Despite the loss of the homogenous Xia nation, the ethnonym Xia has been reused as the official ethnonym by the Tangut Xia Empire (1038-1227) and some unorthodox regimes declared by rebellious or revolutionary forces. At present, it is included in a combined ethnonym HuaXia ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), which is a secondary term for the Han-Chinese nation.

The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (256~125BCE) (in Central Asia) was called DaXia [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Great Xia'] by the Chinese authorities until the Han Empire (-91-SJ, 92-HS, 445-HHS). It implies that the Chinese authorities might consider that the ethnonym "Greek" [first attested as [GAMMA][rho][alpha][iota][kappa][omicron][iota] in Meteorology of Aristotle] and the ethnonym 590F [590F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xia/ha)] sounded the same or even etymologically identical. Cf. The ancient Etymologically Read Form (ERF) [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of 590F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xia/ha) should be *yea (Guo 1986:9), *graas (Zheng Zhang 2003: 497) or *haga-L-S (the present study). I think that they are etymologically identical, thus ethnologically related. The etymological evidences of relevant languages should be studied.

The studied archaic texts about Xia include 0-YI, 0-SU, 0-LI, 0-YIW, -30[theta]-ZSJN, -91-SJ, 241-DW, 92-HS, 28-220-HJ, 445-HHS, 554-WS and 648-JS.

(5) Shang Empire (ca.1600~ca.1050BCE), its origin and its offspring

The Shang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Shang Dynasty"] is counted as the fifth central regime of China. It is the first, both historically and archaeologically, attested regime in China. "Shang [5546 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (shang/thuong)]" is the ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "know from outside [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #1449).

Shang was originally a fiefdom granted by the XuanYuan Empire. In ca. 1600 BCE, Shang took over the sovereignty from Xia by force. Its capital is historically told as changing among different places. Its last capital is archaeologically discovered in Anyang in eastern central China. Its official language was Shang pre-Chinese (Gao 2012).

The oracle bone inscriptions were written in the Shang Empire. The oldest Chinese archaeological texts dated from this era.

The Shang Empire lasted 496 years (the discovered version [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of -30[theta]-ZSJN, 0-YIW: Jilantu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] and -91-SJ: Yinbenji [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]])/471 years (the collected version [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of -30[theta]-ZSJN)/629 years (241-DW). It actually ruled central China. In ca. 1050 BCE, it was defeated by allied forces of feudal states led by the Zhou Fiefdom, and supplanted by the Zhou Empire.

The surrendered ruling population of Shang was granted a fiefdom termed Song [5B8B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (song/tong)]. From my etymological point of view, the ethnonym of the granted fiefdom [5B8B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (song/tong)] is an etymological equivalent of the ethnonym of the original empire [5546 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (shang/thurong)], and a result of a political correctness. The Song Fiefdom became a powerful Dukedom in the era of feudal and warring states. In 318 BCE, it was upgraded to a kingdom. In 286 BCE, it was conquered and annexed by the Qi [9F4A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/te)] Kingdom. Its people were fused in the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation in the Qin Empire (221~207BCE) and the Han Empire (202BCE~220CE).

Despite the loss of the homogenous Shang/Song nation, the ethnonym Song has been reused as the official ethnonym by the Song Empire (420~479), the Greater Song Empire (960~1276[1279]) and some unorthodox regimes declared by rebellious or revolutionary forces.

Based on the accounts of histories and the etymologies of relevant languages, Gao (2008) suggested that the endonym of Lapland "Sapmi", the endonym of Finland "Suomi", the endonym of Shang "5546 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (shang/thuong)" and the endonym of Song "5B8B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (song/tong)" are etymologically identical.

The studied archaic texts about Shang/Song include 0-YI, 0-SU, 0-LI, -300-ZSJN and -91-SJ.

(6) Zhou Empire (ca.1050~256BCE), its origin and its offspring

The Zhou [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Zhou Dynasty"] is counted as the sixth central regime in China. "Zhou [5468 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhou/chau)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "meticulous [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #876).

Zhou was originally a fiefdom granted by the Shang Empire. It was based in western central China (around present-day Xi'an). In ca. 1050 BCE, allied forces of feudal states led by Zhou defeated the imperial troops of Shang. Zhou gained the imperial throne (sovereignty) and established the new empire. The Zhou Empire built its capital, termed Hao [93AC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hao/hao), 'stove'], in western central China (archaeologically discovered in present-day Xi'an). Its official language was Zhou pre-Chinese (Gao 2012).

Books made of bamboo and wooden slips were produced in the Zhou Empire. The oldest Chinese transmitted philological texts dated from this era.

In 771 BCE, the emperor and the crown prince were killed in rebellions. In 770 BCE, another Zhou price, supported by two feudal states, Jin [6649 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/tan)] and Zheng [912D [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (zheng/trinh)], restored the imperial throne, but in LuoYi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Luo (sort of bird) town'] (present-day Luoyang) in eastern central China. The restored throne was acknowledged by the feudal states but lost actual control of the country to the feudal states. This period is commonly known as the era of feudal and warring states [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]].

The Zhou Empire lasted about 800 years/867 years (0-YIW: Jilantu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]). It actually ruled central China, but only nominally after 771 BCE. In 256 BCE, it was ended when the emperor surrendered to the Qin Kingdom, then died of depression, and no new emperor was named.

The surrendered ruling population of Zhou was not granted any fiefdom, because Qin tried to abolish feudalism. Zhou people were fused in the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation in the Qin Empire (221~207BCE) and the Han Empire (202BCE~220CE).

Despite the loss of the homogenous Zhou nation, the ethnonym Zhou has been reused as the official ethnonym by the Taugas Zhou Empire (557~581), the nominal Zhou Empire (690~705) within the Tang Empire, the Second Zhou Empire (951~960), and the rebellious local Zhou Empire (1678~1681) in far south-west China.

At present, the Burmese term for China, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][tejou?], might be etymologically identical to the ethnonym Zhou.

Based on etymologies of relevant languages, Gao (2008) suggested the endonym of Germany "Deutschland" and the endonym of Zhou "5468 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhou/chau)" are etymologically identical.

The studied archaic texts about Zhou include 0-YI, 0-SU, 0-LI, -30[theta]-ZSJN and -91-SJ.

(7) Qin Empire (221~207BCE), its origin and its offspring

The Qin [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Qin Dynasty"] is counted as the seventh central regime of China. "Qin [79E6 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qin/tan)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "a sort of grain [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #4429).

Qin was originally a fiefdom granted by the Zhou Empire in 770 BCE. It was based in near north-west China (the region between present-day Tianshui and Baoji). In 325 BCE, it proclaimed the Qin Kingdom. It had annexed some small states in near south-west China when it endured as one of the seven strongest kingdoms in the Zhou Empire. In 256 BCE, it had a military expedition towards the capital of Zhou, the emperor surrendered and then died of depression. No new emperor was named. The warring kingdoms became sovereign states.

In 251 BCE, the other major kingdoms allied against Qin, but the allied forces were defeated in 241 BCE. The Qin Kingdom defeated and annexed the Han [97D3] [97D3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (han/han)] Kingdom in 230 BCE, the Zhao [8D99 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhao/trieu)] Kingdom in 228 BCE, the Wei [9B4F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wei/nguy)] Kingdom in 225 BCE, the Chu [695A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chu/so)] Kingdom and the Yan [71D5 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (yan/yen)] Kingdom in 222 BCE, and the Qi [9F4A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/te)] Kingdom in 221 BCE.

In 221 BCE, after the unification, the King of Qin was named the Emperor of Qin. The Qin Empire had its capital XianYang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'all warm-side'] (built by the Qin Kingdom) in western central China (archaeologically discovered in present-day Xianyang). Its official language was Qin-Han-Jin Chinese (Gao 2012). The Qin Empire abolished feudalism straight away and launched the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation.

In 218 BCE, The Qin Empire defeated and annexed the independent Yue/Viet [8D8A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (yue/viet)] states (in south and south-east coastal China).

The Qin Empire lasted 15 years. It actually ruled (ordered by time of incorporation) near north-west, western central, near south-west, north-west central (Zhao), eastern central (Han and Wei), near north-east (Yan), east (Qi), south-east and south non-coastal (Chu), and south-east and south coastal (Yue/Viet) China, altogether 'China proper'. In 207 BCE, it was defeated by allied forces of revived feudal states led by the Chu Kingdom, and then supplanted by the Chu Empire. The surrendered ruling population of Qin might merge with the ruling population of the Han Empire (202BCE~220CE), which supplanted the Chu Empire and achieved the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation.

In 352 CE, a local warlord proclaimed the revived Qin Empire in the principle territory of the foregone Qin Kingdom. The revived Qin Empire (also attested as Jenasdan in Patmowt'yown Hayoc' (Armenian History) of Movses Xorenac'i (ca.410~ca.490) {of this exonym, the first morpheme (Jena) is etymologically identical to Qin [79E6 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qin/tan), cf. [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]--its ERF in Shanghai Wu Chinese], the second morpheme (sdan) means 'place of' in Persian}) lasted about 65 years under two dynasties (the Fit [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Dynasty until 386 and the Yao [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Dynasty after it). It once unified near north-west, central, east, near north-east, near south-west, far north-west China and Inner Mongolia proper (altogether, 'northern China' + near south-west China) but failed to conquer the Jin Empire (also attested as Sinae in the same Armenian History) (with de jure Chinese sovereignty) in southern China. In 417, it was defeated and dissolved by the Jin Empire. [The Jin Empire quit the territory because it was unable to control the territory against the other northern powers.] Its people were fused in the Taugas-Chinese consolidation in the Taugas Wei Empire (399~550/557), the Taugas Zhou Empire (557~581) and the Sui Empire (581~618).

At present, Qin is an unofficial toponym for the Shaanxi Province.

The Roman Empire (27BCE~395CE~476[west]/1453[east]) was called DaQin [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'great Qin'] by Chinese authorities until the Taugas Wei Empire (445-HHS, 554-WS). It implies that the Chinese authorities might consider that the ethnonym "Rome" and the ethnonym 79E6 [79E6 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qin/tan)] sounded the same or even etymologically identical. Cf. The ancient ERF of 79E6 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qin/tan) should be *dzin (Guo 1986:237), *zin (ZhengZhang 2003: 445), or *ziem > zien (the present study). Gao (2008) suggested that the ethnonym "Rome" and the ethnonym "Qin" are etymologically identical (cf. the Russian term Rim (PHM) 'Rome'; the Polish term Rzym [zim] 'Rome'), thus Romanic people and Qin people are ethnologically related.

The studied archaic texts about Qin include -239-LL, -91-SJ and 92-HS, 445-HHS, 554-WS and 648-JS.

(8) Chu Empire (207~202BCE), its origin and its offspring

The Chu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire is counted as the eighth central regime of China. "Chu [695A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chu/so)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that is a sort of tree [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (121-SW: #3831).

Chu was originally a fiefdom granted by the Zhou Empire before 1000 BCE. It was based in south central China (around present-day Nanyang). In 704 BCE, it proclaimed the Chu Kingdom. It had annexed many small states in south and south-east China when it endured as one of the seven strongest kingdoms in the Zhou Empire. In 222 BCE, it was defeated and annexed by the Qin Kingdom.

In 208 BCE, the throne of Chu Kingdom was restored to a grandson of the last King of Chu supported by a son of the last marshal of Chu. In 207 BCE, allied forces of the revived kingdoms led by Chu overturned the Qin Empire, the Chu Empire was established, when the King of Chu was named the Nominal Emperor [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. Soon, the nominal emperor was assassinated (by the Dominated King of West Chu, according to histories written by the Han Empire). No new emperor was named. The marshal of Chu, also the Dominated King of West Chu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] became the sovereign of the Chu Empire. (The Dominated King of West Chu might wish to release the kingdoms as sovereign states. If it were true, the Chu Empire no longer existed.) The Chu Empire had its capital in PengCheng [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'town of Peng'] (present-day Xuzhou) in eastern China. Its official language might be Chu pre-Chinese.

The Chu Empire lasted 5 years. It actually ruled eastern central, eastern and southern China, nominally the whole China proper. In 202 BCE, it was defeated by the Han [6F22] Kingdom, and then supplanted by the Han Empire.

The surrendered ruling population of Chu was granted a dependent Chu Kingdom, a Han prince was named as the King of Chu. The dependent Chu Kingdom lasted until 72 CE, when it was dissolved by the Han Empire. Its people were fused in the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation in the Han Empire (202BCE~220CE).

Despite the loss of the homogenous Chu nation, the ethnonym Chu has been reused as the official ethnonym by the usurped Chu Empire (404) within the Jin Empire (266~420), the second de facto independent Chu Kingdom (907~951) in south China and some unorthodox regimes declared by rebellious or revolutionary forces.

At present, Chu is an unofficial toponym for the region of the last Chu Kingdom, roughly equal to the Hunan Province and the Hubei Province.

The studied archaic texts about Chu include -91-SJ and 92-HS.

(9) Han Empire (202BCE~220[263]CE) and its aftereffects

The Han [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Han Dynasty"] is counted as the ninth central regime of China. "Han [6F22] [6F22 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (han/han)]" was a newly made ethnonym from a hydronym of the major river in western and southern central China [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (121-SW: #6971).

Han [6F22] was originally a kingdom granted by the Chu Empire in 207 BCE (not the Han [97D3] Kingdom of the Zhou Empire). It was based in HanZhong [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'middle of Han River'] (present-day Hanzhong) in western central China. Its king was not a traditional nobleman, but got major military exploits in the war against [the government of (5)] the Qin Empire. After a new war among the revived feudal powers, in 202 BCE, the Han [6F22] Kingdom gained sole control of the sovereignty and declared the new empire. The Han Empire built its capital, termed ChangAn [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'long peace'], near the former capital of Qin in western central China. Its official language was Qin-Han-Jin Chinese (Gao 2012). Its official belief was Confucianism since 134 BCE. It did not abolish but restricted feudalism.

By 110 BCE, the Han Empire defeated and annexed Qin-Yue-ruled Yue/Viet [8D8A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (yue/viet)] states (in south and south-east coastal China), which had become independent since the fall of the Qin Empire, thus affirmed Chinese sovereignty over the region (including northern Vietnam). {Later, in 970 CE, northern Vietnam was lost when the Da-Qu-Yue Empire (with Vietnamese sovereignty) declared independence (see the section of Song Empire).}

In 108 BCE, the Han Empire defeated and annexed the WeiMan/Wiman [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wei-man/ve-man), its ERF in Korean [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wiman), Sinitic anthroponym meaning 'guard, full'] ChaoXian/Joseon [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chao-xian/trieu-tien), its ERF in Korean [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (choson/joseon), Sinitic etymology meaning 'day fresh'] Kingdom (194~108BCE) ruled by an exiled army of the Yan Kingdom of the Han Empire originally lead by Weiman/Wiman, thus gained sovereignty over northern Korea. {Later, in 313 CE, northern Korea was lost to the Goguryeo [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] Kingdom (37BCE~668CE)}.

In 71 BCE, the Han Empire allied with the local Tocharian kingdoms in XiYu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xi-yu/tay-vuc), 'west region'] and defeated the Xiongnu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology, might be etymologically identical to Hun(s)] Confederation (ca.220BCE~48CE~216[south]/469[Huns]), thus gained sovereignty over far north-west China (West Region) for the first time. {Later, in 460 CE, West Region was lost to the Ruru [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] Khaganate (330~554).}

In 9 CE, the prime minister of Han gained the imperial throne of Han and renamed the regime Xin [65B0 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xin/tan), 'new']. He also renamed the capital ChangAn [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'usual peace']. In 23 CE, this usurped Xin Empire was dissolved by revived Han powers. After another war between two Han powers, ChangAn was ruined. In 26 CE, the revived Han Empire reset its capital to LuoYang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'warm-side of Luo River'] (present-day Luoyang) in eastern central China.

In 184 CE, the Han Empire was disrupted by a popular revolutionary force called the Yellow Turban Army [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. The revolution was followed by a civil war among Han warlords. In 190, Luoyang was ruined. The emperor was seized first to ChangAn in western central China, then to XuDu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Xu capital'] (present-day Xuchang) in eastern central China in 196. In 220, the imperial throne of Han was gained by the prime minister of Han. The regime was transformed to the Wei Empire. The ruling population remained the same.

In 221, a paternal relative of the last Emperor of Han, also the King of HanZhong [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] granted by the Han Empire, was named the new Emperor of Han. This locally persevered Han Empire did not acknowledge the Wei Empire. It actually ruled south-west China. In 263, It was defeated and dissolved by the Wei Empire. [This local Han Empire is not counted as a de jure central regime, because it did not control the original capital and was directly dissolved by the Wei Empire.]

Books made of paper were produced in the Han Empire, although books made of bamboo and wooden slips were still dominant in this era. The first standard dictionary of the Chinese language (121) was issued in the Han Empire.

The Han Empire lasted over 400 years. It ruled the whole China proper, northern Vietnam and northern Korea, and far north-west China. It achieved the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation.

Since the fall of the Han Empire, the ethnonym Han [6F22] has been reused as the official ethnonym by the revived Han Empire (308~319), the local Han Empire (338~347) in near south-west China, the Second Han Empire (947~951[979]), the local Han Empire (918~971) in south coastal China and some unorthodox regimes declared by rebellious or revolutionary forces.

At present, Han [6F22] is the official endonym for the Han-Chinese nation. In mainland China, it is also used in the official term of the Chinese language [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Han [6F22] lect'].

The studied archaic texts about the Han Empire include -91-SJ, 92-HS, 280-3GZ and 445-HHS.

(10) Wei Empire (220~266) and its aftereffects

The Wei [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Wei Dynasty"] is counted as the tenth central regime of China. "Wei [9B4F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wei/nguy)]" is an ethnonym from a lexeme 5DCD [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wei/nguy) that etymologically means "high [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (121-SW: #5816).

Wei was originally a fiefdom granted by the Zhou Empire before 1000 BCE. It was based in north-west central China. In 661 BCE, it was annexed by the Jin [6649 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/tan)] Dukedom. In 403 BCE, the Wei Fiefdom was restored. In 362 BCE, it moved its capital to DaLiang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'great beam'] (present-day Kaifeng) in eastern central China. In 344 BCE, it proclaimed the Wei Kingdom (also called the Liang [6881 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (liang/luong)] Kingdom). It endured as one of the seven strongest kingdoms in the Zhou Empire. In 225 BCE, it was defeated and annexed by the Qin Kingdom. In 207 BCE, the Chu Empire granted the Kingdom of West Wei. In 205 BCE, it was defeated and annexed by the Han [6F22] Kingdom. Wei people were fused in the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation in the Qin Empire (221~207BCE) and the Han Empire (202BCE~220CE).

In 213 CE, the prime minister of Han, whose fief was in the territory of the foregone Wei Kingdom, was titled the nominal Duke of Wei. He became the nominal King of Wei in 216, then died in 220. In the same year, his son, the new prime minister of Han, also the new nominal King of Wei, achieved a peaceful takeover, gained the imperial throne, and renamed the regime Wei. The capital was Luoyang [in Chinese glyphs, the Qin spelling [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was reused instead of the Han spelling [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. The official language was Qin-Han-Jin Chinese (Gao 2012).

The era of the Wei Empire is commonly called the "Three Kingdoms" [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'three regimes'], because there were three sovereign states in China from 229 to 263. The third one was the local Wu [5433 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wu/ngo)] Empire (229~280) in south-east and south China.

In 266, the imperial throne of the Wei Empire was gained by the prime minister of Wei. The regime was transformed to the Jin Empire. The ruling population remained identical.

Since the fall of the Wei Empire, the ethnonym Wei has been reused as the official ethnonym by the revived Wei Empire (350~352), the Taugas Wei Empire (399~550/557) and some unorthodox regimes declared by rebellious or revolutionary forces.

The studied archaic texts about the Wei Empire include 445-HHS, 280-3GZ and 648-JS.

(11~15) Jin Empire (266~420) and Southern Empires (420~589)

The Jin [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Jin Dynasty"] is counted as the eleventh central regime of China. "Jin [6649 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/tan)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "advance [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #4182).

Jin was originally a fiefdom granted by the Zhou Empire before 1000 BCE. It was based in north-west central China. In 678 BCE, it became the Jin Dukedom. It had annexed many small states in north-west central China, when it endured as the most powerful feudal state in Zhou Empire from 632 BCE to 532 BCE. In 403 BCE, it was divided into three states by its three ministers. The throne of Jin Dukedom remained until 349 BCE, when it was dissolved. Jin people were fused in the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation in the Qin Empire (221~207BCE) and the Han Empire (202BCE~220CE).

In 263 CE, the marshal of the Wei Empire, who came from the region of the foregone Jin Dukedom, became the prime minister of Wei and was titled the nominal Duke of Jin. He became the nominal King of Jin in 264, then died in 265. In 266, his son, the new prime minister of Han, also the new nominal King of Jin, achieved a peaceful takeover, gained the imperial throne, and renamed the regime Jin. The capital was Luoyang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. The official language was Qin-Han-Jin Chinese (Gao 2012).

In 280, the Jin Empire defeated and annexed the local Wu Empire.

In 311, the capital Luoyang and the emperor of Jin were seized by Inner Xiongnu (6) troops, who had proclaimed the revived Han Empire (308~319). In 316, the reset capital ChangAn and new Emperor of Jin were also seized by the revived Han Empire. The remaining powers of the Jin Empire, with a huge population, fled to southern China. The new capital was set in JianKang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'build health'] (present-day Nanjing) in 317. A member of the ruling house was named the new Emperor of Jin.

Since the evacuation of the Jin Empire, a chain of empires and a few de facto independent kingdoms came into existence in northern China. The Jin Empire did not acknowledge them, and was able to defeat and dissolve some of them. E.g. the revived Qin Empire (352~417) (see the section of the Qin Empire) and the local Han Empire (338~347) in near south-east China.

The Jin Empire held Chinese sovereignty for about 155 years. In this era, Buddhism became the primary faith in China. This is probably the reason why Buddhist neighbouring countries acquired the term "Jin" for China. It is now the widest used exonym for China. "Jin" is etymologically identical to the Lao term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (ciin), the Thai term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jeen), the Sanskrit term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (cina), the Persian term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (cin), the Arabic term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sin), the Latin term Sinae, the French term Chine, the English/German/Spanish/Portuguese term China, etc. (7)

In 420, the imperial throne of Jin was gained by a general of Jin, the regime was transformed to the Song [5B8B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (song/tong)] Empire. In the same way, a general of Song gained the imperial throne and transformed the regime to the Qi [9F4A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/te)] Empire in 478; a general of Qi gained the imperial throne and transformed the regime to the Liang [6881 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (liang/luong)] Empire in 502; a general of Liang gained the imperial throne transformed the regime to the Chen [9673 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chen/tran)] Empire in 557. The ruling population, capital, official language, and religious situation of these four regimes remained identical with Jin. These four regimes are called the Southern Empires (also commonly called "Southern Dynasties"), and counted the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th de jure central regimes of China.

In 589, the Chen Empire was defeated and annexed by the Sui [968B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sui/tuy)] Empire from northern China. The town of JianKang was ruined by Sui.

Later, the ethnonym Jin has been reused as the official ethnonym by the Second Jin Empire (936~947).

At present, Jin is an official toponym for the Shanxi Province. It is also an unofficial toponym for the territory of the original Jin Kingdom which is larger than the Shanxi Province. It is used in the name of the Jin regional lect [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of the Chinese language.

The studied archaic texts about Jin include 280-3GZ, 488-SS, 510-QS, 636-LS, 636-CS and 648-JS.

(16) Sui Empire (581~618) and its foundation (T1~3)

The Sui [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Sui Dynasty"] is counted as the 16th central regime of China. "Sui [968B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sui/tuy)]" was a newly made alternate form of the ethnonym [96A8 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sui/tuy)] with a concrete etymology that means "obey [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #1101).

The foundation of Sui goes back to (T1) the Taugas Wei Empire.

The Taugas Wei Empire was originally the XianBei [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology, might be etymologically identical to the ethnonym Sibir/Siberia] ruled Dai [4EE3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (dai/dai)] Kingdom (based in present-day Inner Mongolia) nominally granted by the Jin Empire. After the evacuation of the Jin Empire, a few regimes came into existence in northern China. Most of them were ruled by non-Han-Chinese nations. XianBei was one of the nations, likely Altaic. In 398, the Dai Kingdom moved its capital to PingCheng [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'plain town'] (present-day Datong), a Chinese town in north-west central China, and changed its ethnonym to Wei [9B4F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wei/nguy)], which is more prestigious in Chinese. In 399, the [Taugas] Wei Empire [commonly called "the Northern Wei Dynasty"] was declared. {"Taugas ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])" was its international name first attested in the historiography written by the Byzantine historiographer Theophylact Simocatta in ca. 630. Of this exonym, the first morpheme ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] */tay/ > /taw/) is etymologically identical to 5927 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da/dai), that means 'great' in Chinese; the second morpheme ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] /gas/) is etymologically identical to Wei [9B4F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wei/nguy), cf. gui-its ERF in Min Chinese]. The term "Taugas [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Great Wei']" could be an unofficial endonym of the Taugas Wei Empire.} In 439, it gained sole control of northern China (excluding far north-west China and the eastern part of near north-east China). In 440, the emperor officially converted to Taoism. In 444, the emperor ordered a ban on Buddhism. In 493, the empire moved its capital to Luoyang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the former capital of the Jin Empire, changed its national language to Chinese and banned its own language. It was the start of the Taugas-Chinese consolidation. The non-Han-Chinese populations were neutralised by Han-Chinese people in the Taugas Wei Empire.

From 534 to 550, there were simultaneously two emperors of the Wei Empire supported by the western camp of Wei in ChangAn, and the eastern camp of Wei in Ye [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a Sinitic place name] (present-day Linzhang), respectively. The site of de facto Chinese sovereignty Luoyang was controlled by the eastern camp.

In 550, the prime minister of the eastern camp of Wei achieved a peaceful takeover, gained the imperial throne and transformed the regime to (T2) the [Taugas] Qi [9F4A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/te)] Empire [commonly called "the Northern Qi Dynasty"]. Buddhism was favoured in Taugas Qi.

In 557, the prime minister of the western camp of Wei achieved a peaceful takeover, gained the imperial throne and transformed the regime to (T3) the [Taugas] Zhou [5468 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (zhou/chau)] Empire [commonly called "the Northern Zhou Dynasty"]. Regulations of the original Zhou Empire (ca.1050~256BCE) were restored. In 574, the Emperor of Zhou ordered a ban on both Taoism and Buddhism. Only Confucianism was allowed.

In 577, the Taugas Zhou Empire defeated and annexed the Taugas Qi Empire.

The Taugas Wei Empire, the Taugas Qi Empire and the Taugas Zhou Empire are called the Northern Empires (also commonly called "the Northern Dynasties"). They held de facto Chinese sovereignty and claimed the unique Chinese sovereignty in turn. They considered the imperial authorities in southern China as the faked empire of "islanders [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" {The Southern Empires held de jure Chinese sovereignty and defended the unique Chinese sovereignty in turn, they considered the imperial authorities in northern China as the faked empire of "braided robbers [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]/Wei robbers [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]".}

In 581, a general of Zhou, also the nominal Duke of Sui [96A8 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sui/tuy)] achieved a peaceful takeover, gained the imperial throne, and renamed the regime Sui [968B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (sui/tuy)]. A new capital town, termed DaXing [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'great rise'] (present-day Xi'an), was built near ChangAn. The official language was Sui-Tang-Song Chinese (Gao 2012). Both Taoism and Buddhism were allowed.

In 589, the Sui Empire defeated and annexed the Chen Empire in southern China, thus gained de jure Chinese sovereignty.

In 612, the Sui Empire lost the war in the name of recovering the territories of LiaoDong [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'east of Liao River'] (the eastern part of near north-east China, occupied by the Goguryeo Kingdom (37BCE~668CE) since 404) and northern Korea (occupied by Goguryeo since 313). It caused disorders in Sui. In 618, the imperial throne of Sui was gained by the prime minister of Sui. The regime was transformed to the Tang Empire. The ruling population remained the same.

The studied archaic texts about the Sui Empire and its foundation include 554-WS, 636-QS, 636-ZS, 636-SS and 945-TS.

(17~20) Tang Empire (618~907/936[958]) and Five Dynasties (907~960) (+N1)

The Tang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Tang Dynasty"] is counted as the 17th central regime of China. "Tang [5510 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (tang/durong)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "brag [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #877).

In 618, the prime minister of the Sui Empire, also the nominal Duke of Tang, achieved a peaceful takeover, gained the imperial throne and renamed the regime Tang. The capital was renamed ChangAn [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. The official language was Sui-Tang-Song Chinese (Gao 2012). The official religion was Taoism.

In 630, the Tang Empire defeated and annexed the Eastern Turkic [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] Khaganate (583~630), thus gained sovereignty over the territory of present-day [Outer] Mongolia for the first time. {Later, the territory was lost in 682, when the revived Turkic Khaganate (682~745) was founded.}

In 640, the Tang Empire defeated and annexed the Han-Chinese-ruled GaoChang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'high prosperous'] Kingdom (460~640) [it was first granted by the RuRu Khaganate (402~552), became independent when RuRu was supplanted by the Turkic Khaganate (552~583)] in far north-west China, thus gradually regaining sovereignty over far north-west China. {Later, by 808, the territory was seized by the Tibetan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] Empire (633~877).}

In 668, the Tang Empire together with its nominal dependency, the Silla [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] Kingdom (57BCE~935CE) (with Korean sovereignty), defeated and annexed the Goguryeo Kingdom (37BCE~668CE) (the succession of its sovereignty is claimed by both China and Korea). The LiaoDong territory was recovered by Tang, while northern Korea was later seized by the Silla Kingdom.

In 690 to 705, the Empress of Tang was the sovereign empress, renaming the regime the [nominal] Zhou [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire, resetting the capital in Luoyang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], termed ShenDu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'god capital'], and holding Buddhism as the official religion.

In 755, a local warlord in near north-east China rebelled. In 756, the rebellious force seized Luoyang and declared the [rebellious] Da-Yan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-yan/dai-yen), 'great Yan'] Empire. From 756 to 757, the capital of Tang, ChangAn, was once seized by Da-Yan. In 762, Tang troops recovered Luoyang. The rebellion was ended in 763. After the war against this rebellion, the Tang Empire declined, actual feudalism was restored in order to gain support from local warlords.

From 881 to 883, ChangAn was once seized by a popular revolutionary force, which proclaimed the [revolutionary] Da-Qi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-ql/dai-te), 'great Qi'] Empire.

In 904, the capital of Tang was reset to Luoyang.

In 907, a warlord of Tang, also the King of Liang [6881 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (liang/luong)], achieved a peaceful takeover, gained the imperial throne. The regime was transformed to the [usurped] Liang Empire. The capital was reset to KaiFeng [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'open feudal'] (present-day Kaifeng) in eastern central China.

The imperial throne of Liang was not acknowledged by many local powers. Outside central China but within China proper, Han-Chinese regional kings or warlords declared five local empires: (1) the [local] Shu [8700 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (shu/thuc)] Empire (907~925;934~965) in near south-west China; (2) the [local] Yan [71D5 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (yan/yen)] Empire (911~913) in near north-east China; (3) the [local] Han [6F22 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (han/han)] Empire (918~971) (at first called the Da-Yue [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-yue/dai-viet), 'great Yue'] Empire (917~918)) in south coastal China; (4) the [local] Wu [5433 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wu/ngo)] Empire (927~937) in near south-east China; (5) the [local] Min [95A9 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (min/man)] Empire (933~945) in south-east coastal China. In addition, a few de facto independent kingdoms came into existence.

Meanwhile, outside China proper, non-Han-Chinese powers founded their regimes. E.g. the Khitan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] Empire (916~1218) in far north-east China; the Da-Li [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-li/dai-ly), 'great jade-managing'] Kingdom (937~1253) in far south-west China.

The Jin [6649 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/tan)] Kingdom of the Tang Empire in north-west central China led a war against the usurped Liang Empire and other rebellious regimes in the name of the orthodox Tang Empire. It defeated and dissolved the local Yan Empire in 913. The King of Jin was named the new Emperor of Tang in 923. In the same year, it defeated and dissolved the usurped Liang Empire, and then restored the capital in Luoyang. In 924, it defeated and dissolved the local Shu Empire. However, the regional governor left by the Tang Empire proclaimed the revived Shu Empire in 934.

In 936, a warlord of Tang overturned the continued Tang Empire with military aid from the Khitan Empire, and established the [Second] Jin [6649 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/tan)] Empire. The capital was reset to Kaifeng. It is counted as the 18th central regime of China. Jin ceded the original part of the near north-east China [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (around present-day Beijing) including the population to Khitan. {The middle and eastern parts of near north-east China were seized by Khitan before the war.}

In 937, the prime minister of Wu gained the imperial throne of the local Wu Empire, and transformed the regime to the [local] Qi [9F4A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/te)] Empire. In 939, he was proclaimed a descendant of the ruling house of Tang, and named the new Emperor of Tang. This locally continued Tang Empire was not acknowledged by most people outside it. However, it indeed became a stronger regime. In 945, it defeated and annexed the local Min Empire. In 950, it gained nominal sovereignty over the de facto independent Chu Kingdom (907~951) in south China.

In 947, the Second Jin Empire was defeated and annexed by the Khitan Empire. Meanwhile, in north-west central China, a warlord of Jin declared the succession of Chinese sovereignty. In the summer, his troops took over the land when Khitan troops retreated from central China because of hot weather and popular resistance. He was claimed a descendant of the ruling house of the original Han Empire (202BCE~220CE). The [Second] Han [6F22 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (han/han)] Empire was established. The capital was confirmed in Kaifeng. It is counted as the 19th central regime of China.

Before retreating from central China, the Khitan Empire also claimed the succession of Chinese sovereignty. It declared a parallel official name in Chinese, (N1) the Liao [907C [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (liao/lieu), a newly made ethnonym from a hydronym of the major river in near north-east China. The hydronym etymologically means "far [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #1196)] Empire, or officially the Da-Liao [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-liao/dai-lieu), 'great Liao'] Empire. Because some other countries did not follow the Chinese name and might misunderstand that China (Jin) was totally supplanted by Khitan, "Khitan" became an exonym for China. It is etymologically identical to the Mongolian term XaTag (Khyatad), the Russian/Ukrainian/Bulgarian term KHTAH (Kitaj), the English term Cathay, etc. The Chinese sovereignty claim of Khitan achieved Chinese sovereignty over far north-east China for the first time.

In 951, a general of Han, claiming to be a descendant of the ruling house of the original Zhou Empire (ca.1050~256BCE), overturned the Second Han Empire by force, established the [Second] Zhou [5468 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (zhou/chau)] Empire. The capital was confirmed in Kaifeng. It is counted as the 20th central regime of China. Meanwhile, the Second Han Empire was locally preserved in north-west central China. A warlord, also the younger brother of the last Emperor of Han was named the new Emperor of Han.

In 958, the Second Zhou Empire defeated and reduced the local Tang Empire to its nominal dependency with a lord instead of an emperor or a king. The Tang Empire was then totally finished.

In 960, a general of Zhou carried out a coup, the Emperor of Zhou immediately surrendered. The general gained the imperial throne. The regime was transformed to the [Greater] Song [5B8B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (song/tong)] Empire. The ruling population remained the same.

The usurped Liang Empire, the continued Tang Empire, the Second Jin Empire, the Second Han Empire, and the Second Zhou Empire are historically called the Five Dynasties. The ruling populations of the Five Dynasties are the same. The official language was Sui-Tang-Song Chinese (Gao 2012).

The studied archaic texts about the Tang Empire and the Five Dynasties include 636-SS, 945-TS, 963-5DHY and 974-5DS.

(21) Greater Song Empire (960~1276[1279]) (+N2, N3)

The Greater Song [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Song Dynasty"] is counted as the 21st central regime of China. "Song [5B8B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (song/tong)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "home [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #4598). The attribute 'greater' was not officially added.

In 960, a general of the Second Zhou Empire achieved a coup, gained the imperial throne and renamed the regime Song. The capital was Kaifeng. The official language was Sui-Tang-Song Chinese (Gao 2012). The official religions were Taoism and Confucianism.

The Greater Song Empire defeated and annexed the local Shu Empire in near south-west China in 965, the local Han Empire in south coastal China in 971, the local Han Empire in north-west central China in 979. Thus China proper was reunified, although it was unable to regain the control outside China proper.

In 970, a local power declared the Da-Qu-Yue (Dai Co Viet) Empire [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-qu-yue/dai-ce-viet), 'great Qu Yue', both Qu and Yue are ethnonyms] in the far south (present-day Vietnam). The imperial troops sent by the Song Empire were defeated in 982. Vietnamese [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (yue-nan/viet-nam), 'south of Yue'] sovereignty was then settled. Song acknowledged Vietnam as its nominally dependent kingdom (8) much later in 1174.

In 1038, a Tangut [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] (Tibeto-Burman) power declared (N2) the [Tangut] Xia [590F [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (xia/ha)] Empire in near north-west China. Later, Tangut Xia started and won a war against Song. In 1044, Song acknowledged Tangut Xia as its nominally dependent kingdom.

Although the Greater Song Empire was not good at wars, it excelled in science and technology. E.g. the movable press printing was developed in the Song Empire. Paper books were easier to produce from then onwards. From 1008 to 1066, four official dictionaries of the Chinese language were issued, that formed a peak of Sino-linguistics.

In 1115, a Jurchen [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] (Manchu-Tungus) power founded (N3) the Jin/Kim [91D1 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/kim), a newly made ethnonym that means "gold [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (1008: #9185) in Sui-Tang-Song Chinese] Empire, or officially the Da-Jin/Kim [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-jin/dai-kim), 'great gold'] Empire in far north-east China that was a territory of the Khitan Liao Empire. In 1125, Jin/Kim expelled Khitan Liao from north-east China. Khitan Liao fled to far north-west China.

In 1126, the capital of the Greater Song Empire was seized by the Jin/Kim Empire, the Emperor of Song was captured. In 1127, some of the remaining Song ruling population fled to southern China, a younger brother of the last emperor was named the new emperor. The new capital was set in LinAn [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'near peace'] (present-day Hangzhou).

In 1130, the [puppet] Qi [9F4A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qi/te)] Empire was established in central China under the Jurchen protection. In 1137, it was incorporated to Jin/Kim.

In 1218, the fled Khitan Liao Empire was defeated and annexed by the Mongol Khanate when the last sovereign of Khitan Liao was executed after losing his last battle.

In 1227, the Tangut Xia Empire was defeated and annexed by the Mongol Khanate when the last Emperor of Xia surrendered to Yuan troops.

In 1233, the capital of Song was seized by the Mongol Khanate. In 1234, the last Emperor of Jin committed suicide after losing the last battle against Yuan troops.

In 1276, the capital of Song was seized by the Mongolian-ruled Yuan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire. In 1279, the last Emperor of Song died in the last battle against Yuan troops.

In 1355, a popular revolutionary force called the Red Turban Army [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] proclaimed the restoration of the Greater Song Empire. The revolution lasted 10 years, and was then reformed as the Ming Empire.

The studied archaic texts about the Greater Song Empire include 974-5DS, 1346-SS and 1370-YS.

(22) Yuan Empire (1271~1368[1402]) and its foundation

The Yuan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Yuan Dynasty"] or officially the Da-Yuan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire is counted as the 22nd central regime of China. "Da- [5927 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da/dai)]" is an attribute that means 'great'. "Yuan [5143 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (yuan/nguyen)]" was a newly made ethnonym from an etymon that means "the first [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #2).

During the war between Khitan Liao and Jin/Kim, in 1120, the first Mongol Khanate was founded. In 1148, after a war against the Jin/Kim troops, the Mongol Kingdom was granted a nominal dependency of the Jin/Kim Empire. In 1206, the Mongol Khanate declared total independence. This regime with less than one million people became powerful for uncertain reasons. It defeated and annexed, in turn, the Khitan Liao Empire in 1218, the Tangut Xia Empire in 1227, the Jin/Kim Empire in 1234, the Da-Li Kingdom in 1253.

In 1263, the Mongol Khanate moved its capital from Mongolia to a Chinese town KaiPing [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'open plain'] (present-day Zhenglanqi in Inner Mongolia), termed ShangDu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'upper capital'].

In 1264, the Mongol Khanate gained the sovereignty over Tibetan states. In return, Mongolian rulers converted to Tibetan Buddhism. Later, the Chinese sovereignty claim of the Mongol Khanate achieved Chinese sovereignty over Tibet for the first time.

In 1267, the Mongol Khanate moved its capital to ZhongDu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'central capital'] (termed DaDu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'great capital'] in 1272, present-day Beijing). In 1271, the khan of the Mongol Khanate changed his title to emperor in Chinese [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], and renamed the regime the Yuan Empire, in order to gain Chinese sovereignty. The new names effectively helped the regime to gain support from many Han-Chinese people. The official languages were Mongolian and Yuan Chinese. Yuan Chinese was based on the capital dialect brought from the KaiPing dialect of the Jin regional lect [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of the Chinese language.

In 1276, Yuan seized the capital of Song. In 1279, Yuan gained sole control of Chinese sovereignty when the last Song emperor died in the last battle against Yuan troops.

From 1351, the Yuan Empire was disrupted by a popular revolutionary force called the Red Turban Army [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. In 1386, the capital of Yuan was seized by the Ming Empire, which was founded by a branch of the Red Turban Army. The Emperor of Yuan with the ruling population retreated to Mongolia. In 1402, the retreated Yuan Empire was supplanted by the Tatar Empire of Mongolia.

The studied archaic texts about the Yuan Empire include 1364-SS, 1370-YS and 1399~1644-MSL.

(23) Ming Empire (1368~1644[1662])

The Ming [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Ming Dynasty"] or officially the Da-Ming [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire is counted as the 23rd central regime of China. "Da- [5927 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da/dai)]" is an attribute that means 'great'. "Ming [660E [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (ming/minh)]" was a newly made ethnonym from an etymon that means 'bright', and also the name of Manichaeism in China. Manichaeism played an important role in the Red Turban Army against the Yuan Empire.

In 1368, the Ming Empire was founded in YingTian [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'according to sky'] (present-day Nanjing) by a branch of the Red Turban Army. In the same year, it seized the capital of Yuan. In 1381, it defeated the Yuan troops in far south-west China, thus gained sole control of Chinese sovereignty (excluding Mongolia). The official language was Ming Mandarin Chinese. It was based on the YingTian (Nanjing) dialect of the Yang regional lect [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of the Chinese language. Despite the name of the regime, the Ming Empire quit Manichaeism but chose Confucianism as the primary belief.

In 1421, the capital of Ming was reset to ShunTian [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'go along with sky'] (present-day Beijing), termed BeiJing [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'north capital'], while YingTian was termed NanJing [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]m, 'south capital']. In 1423, the capital was reset to Nanjing, but Beijing remained as the imperial residence and the seat of the central government. In 1441, the capital was reset to Beijing.

The Ming Mandarin Chinese language was brought to Beijing, and fused with the Yuan Chinese language there.

In 1644, Beijing was seized by a popular revolutionary force from western China. The Emperor of Ming committed suicide. The regime fell into chaos. A member of the ruling house of Ming was named the new Emperor of Ming in Nanjing. In 1645, Nanjing was seized by the Qing Empire. In 1662, the last Emperor of Ming was executed by a Qing general.

The studied archaic texts about the Ming Empire include 1370-YS and 1399~1644-MSL.

(24) Qing Empire (1636~1912) and its foundation

The Qing [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire [commonly called "the Qing Dynasty"] or officially the Da-Qing [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] Empire (was written as "the Ta-Tsing Empire" by the West) is counted as the 24th central regime of China. "Da- [5927 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da/dai)]" is an attribute that means 'great'. "Qing [660E [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (ming/minh)]" was a newly made ethnonym from an etymon that means 'clear'.

In 1616, another branch of Jurchen (renamed Manchu in 1636) people founded the revived Jin/Kim [91D1 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jin/kim)] Khanate in Hetu-ala [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], non-Sinitic etymology] (present-day Xinbin). In 1621, this khanate seized major Han-Chinese towns in near north-east China, and moved its capital to LiaoYang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'warm-side of Liao River'] (present-day Liaoyang). In 1625, the capital was changed to ShenYang [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'warm-side of Shen River'] (Mukden, present-day Shenyang). In 1635, the Mongolian khan surrendered to the Manchu khan and yielded the imperial seal of the Yuan Empire. In 1636, the Manchu khan changed his title to emperor in Chinese [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] and renamed his country the Qing Empire, in order to gain Chinese sovereignty. The new names effectively helped the regime to gain support from many Han-Chinese people. The official languages were Manchu and Qing Mandarin Chinese. Qing Mandarin Chinese was based on the Shenyang dialect of the Yan regional lect [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] of the Chinese language.

In 1644, during the chaos of the Ming Empire, the Qing Empire seized Beijing and moved its capital there. Later, Qing troops also seized all the other Ming territories in China proper. In 1683, the last Ming troops in Taiwan surrendered to the Qing Empire.

The Qing Mandarin Chinese language was brought to Beijing, and fused with the Ming Mandarin Chinese language there.

In 1720, the Qing Empire expelled the troops of the Zunghar Khanate out of Tibet, thus gained sovereignty over Tibet. In 1757, the Qing Empire defeated and annexed the Zunghar Khanate, thus gained sovereignty over far north-west China (West Region). By then, the Qing Empire actually ruled the whole Chinese sovereignty (including Mongolia).

In 1842, after losing the First Opium War, the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'fragrant harbour island'] to the British Empire in perpetuity. In 1860, after losing the Second Opium War, the Qing Empire ceded Kowloon [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'nine dragons'] to the British Empire in perpetuity {later, in 1898, a territory around Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, termed New Territories [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], was leased to the British Empire for 99 years}, and Outer Manchuria (ca. 1,000,000 square kilometres) to the Russian Empire in perpetuity.

In 1864, the Qing Empire ceded Outer West Region (ca. 440,000 square kilometres) to the Russian Empire in perpetuity.

In 1885, after losing the Sino-French war, the Qing Empire ended its nominal sovereignty over Vietnam and Laos.

In 1887, the perpetual occupation of Macau (Aomen [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'gate of bay']) was yielded to the Portuguese Empire. {Portugal had used the region under Chinese supervision since 1557.}

In 1895, after losing the Sino-Japanese war, the Qing Empire ended its nominal sovereignty over Korea, and ceded Taiwan to Japan in perpetuity.

In 1912, the Qing Empire fell in the Chinese Revolution.

The studied archaic texts about the Qing Empire include 1399~1644-MSL and 1635~1912-QSL.

(25) Republic of China (1912~1949[~*])

The Republic of China (natively called "the civic regime of central Hua [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]") is counted as the 25th central regime of China. "Hua [83EF [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hua/hoa)]" is an ethnonym with a concrete etymology that means "flowery [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #3866). It is also the name of a mountain in western central China. It is a valid endonym of Han-Chinese people. This usage has been encouraged by the Republic of China. It is now much less popular in mainland China.

In January 1912, a Chinese power led by the Chinese Alliance [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (political party) founded the Republic of China (ROC) in Nanjing. In March 1912, its capital was moved to Beijing, after the abdication of the last Qing emperor. The last prime minister of Qing, who made Qing to surrender, was named the President of ROC. In August 1912, the Chinese Alliance was transformed to the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. After some political conflicts between KMT and the president, KMT was banned in November 1913.

In December 1915, the President of ROC was named the Emperor of China. Later, under oppositions from local powers, he abdicated in March 1916, and then died of depression in June 1916. China fell into chaos after this incident.

In June 1917, the last Emperor of Qing was restored for 12 days.

In November 1924, Mongolia declared independence from China.

In July 1925, a restored KMT power established a new central government of ROC in Guangzhou. It declared war against the central government of ROC in Beijing. In November 1926, the headquarters was moved to Wuhan. In April 1927, another KMT government of ROC was established in Nanjing. In September 1927, the KMT government in Wuhan was incorporated into the KMT government in Nanjing. In June 1928, the troops of the KMT government defeated the troops of the de jure central government, and seized Beijing. The head of state of the de jure ROC retreated to Shenyang but was assassinated by Japanese powers. In December 1928, the reaming power of the de jure central government in Shenyang surrendered to the KMT government. The surrender was signified by accepting the new flag of the KMT government. The KMT government was then internationally acknowledged as de jure ROC.

In August 1927, the Communist Party of China [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (CPC) led the first armed conflict against the KMT government of ROC in Nanchang in south-east China. In November 1937, the Soviet Republic of China [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] was founded in Ruijin in south-east China. It was defeated by ROC in October 1934. The remaining CPC power fled to near north-west China, and reformed the regime to the Soviet People's Republic of China (SPRC) [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in December 1935.

In September 1931, Shenyang was seized by the Imperial Japanese Army. ROC abandoned north-east China without defence. The [puppet] State of Manchuria [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] was established in 1932 in north-east China under the Japanese protection. It was transformed to the [puppet] Empire of Manchuria [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] in March 1934.

In December 1936, peace between ROC and SPRC was made, Chinese powers joined to protect China from Japanese troops. SPRC was as incorporated into ROC in September 1937.

In July 1937, Beijing was attacked and seized by Japanese troops. In return, in August 1937, ROC attacked the Japanese concession in Shanghai. In November 1937, ROC fatally lost the battle, the central government fled to the wartime capital Chongqing. In December 1937, Nanjing was seized by the Japanese troops. In March 1938, the puppet Republic of China was established in Nanjing under the Japanese protection.

After surrender of Japan in the Second World War in August 1945, ROC took over the puppet Republic of China, the puppet Empire of Manchuria, and Taiwan.

In April 1949, Nanjing was seized by the People's Liberation Army of CPC. Also the wartime capitals were lost in the same year. In December 1949, the central government of ROC with some ruling population fled to Taiwan.

The existence of the Republic of China after 1949 is not acknowledged by the People's Republic of China. The replacement of Chinese sovereignty has been supported by the United Nations since 1971.

(26) People's Republic of China (1949~)

The People's Republic of China (natively called "the people's common regime of central Hua [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]") is counted as the 26th central regime of China.

After winning the major campaigns of the Chinese Civil War, in October 1949, a Chinese power led by the Communist Party of China (CPC) founded the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Beijing.

In October 1971, the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 "recognized the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations and expelled the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek [the president of ROC] from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations."

In January 1979, the People's Republic of China and the United States of America established formal diplomatic relations, meanwhile PRC "ceased fires on the unliberated coastal islands" which are controlled by the authority in Taiwan.

In July 1997, the sovereignty over Hong Kong Island and Kowloon was transferred from the United Kingdom to PRC, while the region of New Territories was returned to PRC as a successor of the Qing Empire. The Hong Kong SAR (Special Administrative Region) was granted autonomy.

In December 1999, Macau was returned to PRC as a successor of the Qing Empire. The Macau SAR was granted autonomy.

3.2 Methods

Conventional philological methods are used in collecting and analysing data.

A researcher must first choose some relevant philological texts and chapters through his/her philological experience, then go through the content manually, understand the paragraphs through his/her language knowledge, pick out key paragraphs, analyse and present them in readable texts in the language of the research paper.

If the topic is linguistic, it is more important to distinguish layers and dates. If the topic is historical, correctness is more important. The present topic is historical rather than linguistic.

A result can be established, if the relevant historical records are definite and consistent. It would be better if some contemporary texts of that time by different authorities (enemy side or foreign country) confirmed the result in different ways. If the historical records regarding the topic are definite but not consistent, the different contents and sources should be analysed, then at least a result of a kind can be established. If the historical records regarding it are not definite, further evidences should be gathered and discussed. If there is neither historical record nor clue regarding the topic, no result can be established.

In the present study, results on the historical official colours are studied in the above mentioned way with references. Old texts are preferred. Results on contemporary official colours are simply given according to the facts that many others also know.

If there are previous studies on the same topic, their used materials should be extended if possible, their methods should be improved if applicable, their results should be compared if necessary. If previous results are identical to the current results, the previous results should be acknowledged. If all the results are the same, the current study cannot publish a new research paper but a review at most. If the current results are different from the previous results, it is necessary to contradict the previous results with relevant evidences, and ideally, also with some analysis on how the previous studies were mistaken.

Chinese years have been converted to international years using the reference book (Xu 1992 [2008]).

4. Results and discussion

(1*) PaoXi Empire (ca.60000~ca.3000BCE)

The archaic text 0-LIJMZ stated that NuWa [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] [Empress of PaoXi, the second sovereign monarch) had the white (1a) official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

On the historical issue: Although it is the only reference without further literary evidence, I think it is true. PaoXi people might be the first developed hunter-gatherer people with livestock resided in the Far East. Milk was the most important sustenance for these people, therefore the colour of milk, white (1a), was preferred by these people.

On white (1a): Although the colour term 767D [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (bai/bach) denotes the white colour in Mandarin, it does not necessarily denote the same in all varieties of the Chinese language. In this text, it is interpreted as white-yellow, because some other evidence (see the next sections until the XuanYuan Empire) support that there should be only three colour categories in this era: 1) macro-white, 2) macro-black, and 3) macro-red, while the yellow colour was not an independent category, but covered by all the three primitive colour categories. There is literary evidence on black-yellow and red-yellow, therefore white-yellow is also suggested for a better balance. Theoretically, there is another possibility, i.e. the white category was simple, while the yellow colour was only covered by the macro-black and macro-red categories. I think it is not very likely, because the colour of milk is more or less white-yellow.

The etymology of this colour term is also related to milk.

The etymon 767D [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (bai/bach)--(AP) [??]; (OP) [??]; (pp) [??]: its Archaeological Prototype (AP) was written in the oracle bone inscription dating to ca. 1300 BCE. Its Orthographical Prototype (OP) was given in 121-SW. Its Philological Prototype (PP (9)) was quoted in 121-SW. The AP form and OP form are fundamentally identical. On its concrete etymology, 121-SW stated it as 'A3 (ideogrammic compound) of "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]" [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]'; contemporary scholars have made different suggestions, such as 'A2 (ideogram) of rising sun', 'A1 (pictogram) of face', 'A1 of thumb', and 'A1 of candle with halo' (see a summary by 2002-GL: 7.217-225); I think it should be A3 of the action of milking: to milk from a breast, comparable to 121-SW but not any of the contemporary suggestions. On its abstract etymology, its ancient ERF should be *beak (Guo 1986:127), *braag (ZhengZhang 2003:268) or *baga-L 'white'~*mbaga-L 'milk' (the present study). Its etymological equivalents include: Danish bleg 'pale', maelk 'milk'; Swedish blek 'pale', mjolk 'milk'; Icelandic bleikur 'pale', mjolk 'milk'; Old Norse bleikr 'pale', mjolk 'milk'; Old English blac 'pale', meolc 'milk'; English bleach, milk; Old Low German blek 'pale', miluk 'milk'; Dutch bleek 'pale', melk 'milk'; Old High German bleh 'pale', miluh 'milk'; German bleich 'pale', Milch 'milk'; Gothic miluks 'milk' {liquid metathesis in Germanic 'pale': *baga-L > *blaga}; Estonian valge 'white'; Finnish valkea 'white'; Cheremis [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'bright, clear' {fricativisation in Finnic: b > v}; Latvian bals 'pale', balts 'white'; Lithuanian baltas 'white', melzti 'to milk' {coronal assimilation in Baltic: lk > lt/ lts}; Old Church Slavic [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (belu) 'white', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (mleko) 'milk'; Polish bialy 'white', mleko 'milk'; Russian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (belyj) 'white', MOROKO (moloko) 'milk'; Bulgarian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (bjal) 'white', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (mjako) 'milk' {consonant apocope in Slavic 'white': lg > l0; pleophony in East Slavic 'milk': *mbaga-L > *mbaloga}; Old Irish mlicht/blicht 'milk'; Irish bleacht 'milk yield'; Welsh blith 'milch' {liquid metathesis in Celtic: *baga-L > *blaga}; Latin mulge 'milk!'; Ancient Greek [alpha][mu][epsilon][lambda][gamma][omega] (amelgo) 'I milk'; Greek [alpha][rho][mu][epsilon][gamma][omega] (armego) 'I milk'; Tocharian A malke 'milk'; Tocharian B malkwer 'milk'. [The etymological links within Sinitic were first made by Sino-etymologists; the etymological links within Indo-European were first made by Western etymologists; the etymological link among Sinitic 767D, Finnic (valge/...) 'white' and Germanic (bleg/...) 'pale' was first made by Gao (2008:130); the extension to Germanic (malk/...) 'milk' is first made in the present study.]

In conclusion, the official colour of the PaoXi Empire was white-yellow.

(2*) ShenNong Empire (ca.3000~ca.2500)

The archaic text 0-LIJMZ stated that ShenNong had the red (1a) official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

Besides, the name of the emperor of ShenNong, 'Fire Emperor' [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], is an additional clue for the official colour. Fire can be both red and yellow.

On the historical issue: Although it is the only reference without further literary evidence, I think it is true. ShenNong people were likely the first agricultural people residing in the Far East. The sun and fire were most important for primitive agriculture, therefore the red1a colour of sun and fire, red-yellow, was preferred by these people.

On red (1a): Although the colour term 8D64 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chi/xich) denotes the red colour in Mandarin, it does not necessarily denote the same in all varieties of the Chinese language. If it denoted just red, it is weird, that the agricultural ShenNong people had preferred red, but not yellow that could represent autumn harvests. I have found that this colour term could denote both red and yellow in this era. According to Kay and McDaniel (1978), a composite colour category red-yellow is possible and has been attested in human languages.

In conclusion, the official colour of the ShenNong Empire was red-yellow.

(3*) XuanYuan Empire (ca.2500~ca.2000BCE)

The archaic text 0-LIJMZ stated that XuanYuan. had diachronically the black (1a) official colour, the white (1a) official colour and the red (1a) official colour in shift.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 0-SUZH stated the same nation as above.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

However, the archaic text -239-LL stated that the yellow official colour was used by the Yellow Emperor.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text -139-HN stated that the yellow official colour was used by the Emperor Shun.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 241-DW stated that same notion as above.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

On black (1a): There are two different notions on the official colour of the Yellow Emperor. The earlier texts stated "black (1a) [6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac)]", while the later texts stated "yellow [9EC3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (huang/hoang)]". Previously, one of the notions could be discredited. (Mostly, black was discredited because of the name of the Yellow Emperor.) I think both notions can be correct. The colour term black (1a) [6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac)] could denote both black and yellow at an earlier stage. According to Kay et al. (1991), the composite colour category, black-grue-yellow, is theoretically possible. Then, the colour term 6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac) should denote synchronically black, grue and yellow. Indeed, no colour term for grue (green/blue) has been attested in the oracle bone inscriptions, thus the same sense might be also covered by the colour term 6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac)

Additionally, I suggest that the etymon 6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac) for black and the etymon 9EC3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (huang/hoang) for yellow might have the same further etymology. They are phonologically similar, and graphically similar in the oracle bone inscriptions (OBI). Cf.

6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac) in OBI [??]; 9EC3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (huang/hoang) in OBI [??].

In fact, already Guo (1937:786) did not decipher them into two separate lexemes. However, it has been considered a mistake, since Yu (1979:227-230) separated them. I think the correlation of Guo can represent the confusion of the terms in that era. The yellow colour category and the separated colour term for yellow probably emerged during the Shang Empire (ca.1600~ca.1050BCE).

Consequently, the black (1a) colour should actually denote 'black including yellow and grue'. It can be read as the first literary attestation of the composite colour category black-grue-yellow.

The historical facts in the texts -139-HN and 241-DW are accurate. They only spoke about the last emperor of XuanYuan, the Emperor Shun, because the histories of the earlier emperors were not certain. [The stories in the first historiography of China (0-SU) start from the same time.]

Then there are two different notions on the official colour of the Emperor Shun. The earlier texts stated "red (1a) [8D64 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chi/xich)]", while the later texts stated "yellow [9EC3 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (huang/hoang)]". Previously, one of the notions was discredited. I think both notions can be correct. I already discussed that the etymon 8D64 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chi/xich) in the language of the cited texts from 0-LIJMZ could denote red-yellow (see the previous section).

It should be clarified that the yellow colour is included in both black (1a) (black-grue-yellow) [6506 I[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac)] and red (1a) (red-yellow) [8D64 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (chi/xich)] in the language of the cited texts from 0-LIJMZ and 0-SUZH. The boundary of them is uncertain. There are most likely just three colour terms in the language, the third one is white (1a) (white-yellow) [767D [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (bai/bach)].

In conclusion, the official colour of the XuanYuan Empire depended on the elected emperor. The official colours were the three primitive colours: black-grue-yellow, white-yellow and red-yellow (diachronically used in shift). [The previous study (801-TD) stated imprecisely 'black, white and red', because the theory of composite colour categories was not applied.]

Black-grue-yellow was the new official colour acquired by Chinese sovereignty in this era. XuanYang people might be the first mobile herders resided in the Far East. Water bodies were most important for primitive husbandry, therefore the colour of water bodies, black-grue-yellow, was preferred by these people.

(4) Xia Empire (ca.2000~ca.1600BCE)

The archaic text 0-LI stated that Xia had the black (1b) official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 0-SUDZ stated the same notion.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text -239-LL stated that Xia had the grue official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text -139-HN stated the same notion.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

On black (1b): There are two different notions on the official colour of the Xia Empire. The earlier texts stated "black (1b) [6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac)]", while the later texts stated "grue [9751 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (qing/thanh)]". Previously, one of the notions was discredited. I think both can be correct. The colour term black (1b) [6506 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hei/hac)] could denote both black and grue at an earlier stage. According to Kay and McDaniel (1978), a composite colour category black-grue is possible and has been attested in human languages.

In conclusion, the official colour of the Xia Empire was black-grue. [The previous studies (801-TD, 1370) stated imprecisely black and the previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated imprecisely grue, because the theory of composite colour categories was not applied.]

(5) Shang Empire (ca.2000~1050BCE)

The archaic text 0-LI stated that Shang had the white official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text -239-LL stated the same notion.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text -91-SJ cited some previous text which stated the same notion.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the national colour of the Shang Empire was white. [The three previous studies (801-TD, 1399-MSL, 2008-ZH5S) stated the same.]

(6) Zhou Empire (cs.1050~256BCE)

The archaic text 0-LI stated that Zhou had the red official colour, the sovereign flag was red, the army flag was white.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text -239-LL stated the same notion.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The red notion has been acknowledged by most people to date. A contemporary historian Hu (2005) contradicted the notion. He argued that the colour of sovereign flag of Zhou was red, but the colour of formal dress of Zhou was rather black than red. He claimed the official colour was not set in the Zhou Empire, the protocol of the official colour only started in the Qin Empire. I think there is a possibility: An official colour does not necessarily apply to both the sovereign flag and the formal dress, as in the Qin Empire. The termed official colours [Mfe] before Qin Empire could be only de facto, but still reflected the actual national colours of the ruling populations.

In conclusion, the official colour of the Zhou Empire was red. [The three previous studies (801-TD, 1399-MSL, 2008-ZH5S) stated the same.] The red official colour was represented by its sovereign flag, but its formal dress was mainly black, while its army flag was white.

(7) Qin Empire (221~207BCE)

The archaic text -239-LL stated that Qin had the black official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text -91-SL stated Qin had the black official colour, applied to all formal dresses and flags

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Qin Empire was black. [The three previous studies (801-TD, 1399-MSL, 2008-ZH5S) stated the same.]

(8) Chu Empire (207~202BCE)

There is no historical record regarding the official colour of the Chu Empire. According to historical facts and archaeological findings, contemporary scholars concluded that the official colour of the Chu regimes (including the Chu Empire) was red. (e.g. Zhang 1987:105) The result is accepted in the present study.

(9) Han Empire (202BCE~220[263]CE)

The archaic text -91-SJ stated that Han retained the same official colour as Qin [black].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 92-HS stated that Han changed the official colour to yellow in 104 BCE.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 92-HS stated that the usurped Xin Empire (9~23) within Han had the official yellow colour, its sovereign flag had both banner and fringes in yellow.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 28-220-HJ stated that the Han Empire reset protocols in 26 CE, the official colour of dresses was changed, to black, the official colour of flag was changed to red.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 445-HHS stated that the Han Empire had the red official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Han Empire was black in the earlier phase (202~104 BCE), yellow in the middle phase (104BCE~26CE), and red in the later phase (26~220 CE). [The previous study (801-TD) stated the same. The previous study (1399-MSL) stated imprecisely only red, probably because it was a brief report for one representative official colour for each previous regime. The previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated imprecisely only yellow and red, probably because of the absence of accurate references.] In the later phase, the red official colour was represented by its sovereign flag, but its formal dress was mainly black.

(10) Wei Empire (220~266)

The archaic text 488-SS stated that the Wei Empire had the yellow official colour applied to formal dress, its imperial flag had yellow banner and red fringes.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Wei Empire was yellow. [The three previous studies (801-TD, 1399-MSL, 2008-ZH5S) stated the same.]

(11~15) Jin Empire (266~420) and Southern Empires (420~589)

The archaic text 488-SS stated that the Jin Empire had the red officiai colour, the Song Empire retained the same.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text and also the previous study (801-TD) stated that the Qi Empire, the Liang Empire and the Chen Empire also retained the same.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Jin Empire and its subsequent Southern Empires was red. I would suggest a reason for the irregular retaining: The subsequent regimes of Jin in southern China had to defend their de jure Chinese sovereignty with the official colour of Jin. It is easier to preserve the colour than the land and population of central China. [The previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated incorrectly "the official colour of Jin was white; Song, black; Qi, green; Liang, red; Chen, yellow [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]", probably because it was misunderstood that the official colour ought to be associated with the official virtues and the fifth property of the regime, and the archaic texts were not fully understood.]

(16) Sui Empire (581~618) and its foundation (T1~3)

(T1) Taugas Wei Empire (399~550/557)

The archaic text 554-WS stated that the official colour of the Taugas Wei Empire was set to yellow in 399, but in 491 changed to black which was the actual custom of the ruling nation before declaring the empire.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text 51[theta]-QS stated that the flag of the Taugas Wei Empire was black.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Taugas Wei Empire was yellow in the earlier phase (399~491), and black in the later phase (491~550/557). [The previous study (801-TD) stated the same.] In addition, the national colour of the ruling nation of the empire was black.

(T2) Taugas Qi Empire (550~577)

The archaic text and also the previous study (801-TD) stated that the Taugas Qi Empire retained the same official colour as the Taugas Wei Empire.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Taugas Qi Empire was black.

(T3) Taugas Zhou Empire (557~581)

The archaic text 636-ZS stated that the Taugas Zhou Empire had the black (3) official colour.

On black (3): The colour term black (3) [70CF [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (wu/o), ancient ERF *qaa (ZhengZhang 2003:491)] is the third term for black in Mandarin. It is of Sino-Altaic origin (Gao 2012) [cf. Chuvash xypa (xura) 'black', Turkish kara 'black', Old Turkic qara 'black', etc]. The use of this term in the official text of the Taugas Zhou Empire implies that the Altaic-lead Taugas empires had used it as the primary term for black.

In conclusion, the official colour of the Taugas Zhou Empire was black. [The previous study (801-TD) stated the same.]

The official colour of the Northern Empires was mostly black. The contrast between the black Northern Empires and the red Southern Empires was also attested in the historiography written in ca. 630 by the Byzantine historiographer Theophylact Simocatta.

The History of Theophylact Simocatta, Book 7, Chapter 9 (cited from the translation by Yule 1915:30): "The territory of Taugas, of which we are speaking, is divided in two by a river, which in time past formed the boundary between two very great nations which were at war with one another. These nations were distinguished from one another by their dress, the one wearing clothes dyed black, the other red. In our own day, however, and whilst Maurice wielded the Roman sceptre, the nation of the black-coats crossed the river to attack the red-coats, and having got the victory over them they thus became supreme over the whole empire."

The ethnonym Taugas is etymologically identical to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (da-wei/dai-nguy) which means 'Great Wei' in Chinese. Apparently, the Sui Empire was still recognised as the Taugas Wei Empire by the West, when it defeated and annexed the Chen Empire in 589 CE, the eighth reigning year of the Emperor Maurice of the Eastern Roman Empire. The Southern Empires were actually the sequels of the Jin (Sinae) Empire, but misunderstood as the other half of Taugas. Nonetheless, the official colours of the two regimes and the date of the event were accurate.

(=16) Sui Empire (581~618)

The archaic text 636-SS stated that the Sui Empire had the red official colour.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Sui Empire was red. [The three previous studies (801-TD, 1399-MSL, 2008-ZH5S) stated the same.]

(17~20) Tang Empire (618~907/923[958]) and Five Dynasties (907~960)

The archaic text and also the previous study (801-TD) stated that the official colour of the Tang Empire was originally unset, later set to red in 690 during the nominal Zhou Empire, finally changed to reddish yellow in 750.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text and also the previous study (1399-MSL) stated that the Tang Empire had yellow official colour on dress, red official colour on flag.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Tang Empire was red in the earlier phase (618~750), but reddish yellow in the later phase (750~907/923[958]). [The previous study (1399-MSL) stated imprecisely only yellow, probably because it was a brief report for one representative official colour for each previous regime. After it, the previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated imprecisely the same.]

(N1) Khitan Liao Empire (916~1125/1218[west])

The Khitan Liao Empire was called "Qara Khita'i" [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'Great Khitan' or 'Black Khitan'] by nations in Central Asia. Apparently, the official colour of it was black. A contemporary Chinese historian Chen (1956) did a historical and philological study that confirmed the black official colour with more evidence. The result is accepted in the present study. [The previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated incorrectly that its official colour was white, probably because of missing accurate references.]

(21) Greater Song Empire (960~1276[1279])

The archaic text and also the previous study (1399-MSL) stated that the official colour of the Greater Song Empire was red.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Greater Song Empire was red. [The previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated the same.]

(N2) Tangut Xia Empire (1038~1227)

The full name of the Tangut Xia Empire in Tangut [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] means 'white high great Xia regime'. Apparently, its official colour was white. Two contemporary Chinese historians Wang and Peng (2009) did a historical and philological study that confirmed the white official colour. The result is accepted in the present study.

(N3) Jin/Kim Empire (1115~1234)

The archaic text (1194-BMHB) stated that the colour of national dress of the Jin/Kim Empire was white.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text (1214-DJDY) stated that the official colour of the Jin/Kim Empire was white.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The archaic text (1345-SJ) stated that the national colour of the ruling population of the Jin/Kim Empire was white.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Jin/Kim Empire was white. [The previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated the same.] White was also the national colour the ruling population of the Jin/Kim Empire.

(22) Yuan Empire (1271~1368[1402])

The Yuan Empire did not officially set any official colour. The national colour of the Mongolian people was the de facto official colour.

According to an epigraphy 1244-YL, the de facto official colour of Mongolian Empire was white.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The fact was also attested in the book Livres des merveilles du monde (The Travels of Marco Polo) first released in the 14th century.

The Travels of Marco Polo, Book 2, Chapter 15 (translated by Henry Yule 1920): "It is the custom that on this occasion the Kaan and all his subjects should be clothed entirely in white; so, that day, everybody is in white, men and women, great and small. And this is done in order that they may thrive all through the year, for they deem that white clothing is lucky."

In conclusion, the de facto official colour of the Yuan Empire was white.

(23) Ming Empire (1368~1644[1662])

The archaic text and also the previous study (1399-MSL) stated that the Ming Empire set the red official colour in 1370.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In conclusion, the official colour of the Ming Empire was red. [The previous study (2008-ZH5S) stated the same.]

(24) Qing Empire (1636~1912)

At first, the Qing Empire did not officially set any official colour. A reason could be that the administrative system of the eight banners was used. All Manchu families were placed into the eight banners: (1) the bordered yellow banner, (2) the plain yellow banner, (3) the plain white banner, (4) the plain red banner, (5) the bordered white banner, (6) the bordered red banner, (7) the plain blue banner, and (8) the bordered blue banner. The yellow colour was the imperial colour.

The sovereign flag affirmed in 1862 was a blue dragon on a yellow background. It made the yellow colour the de facto official colour applying to the sovereign flag.

In conclusion, the official colour of the Ming Empire was yellow.

(25) Republic of China (1912~1949[~*])

The Republic of China (ROC) did not officially set any official colour.

The old sovereign flag affirmed in 1912 carried five horizontal stripes of five colours (red, yellow, blue, white, and black) representing the five major nations of China (Han-Chinese, Manchu, Mongolian, Muslim, and Tibetan), respectively. It made the five colours together de facto official colours of ROC.

The new sovereign flag approved in 1928 carries the blue "sky" (canton), the white "sun" (graph in canton), and the red "earth" (background).

The blue colour and the white colour from the emblem of ROC and the flag of the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) (excluding the red colour from the sovereign flag) became de facto official colours of ROC.

During the first armed conflict from 1927 to 1937, the area controlled by the government of the Republic of China was called "the white zone [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" by the Chinese Communists.

In 1996, the authority in Taiwan was transformed to a democratic regime that is owned by all the citizens instead of a population, a dynasty or a political party. The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), which once won the elections and ruled the regime from 2000 to 2008, is represented by the green colour.

(26) People's Republic of China (1949~)

The People's Republic of China (PRC) did not officially set any official colour.

The red colour as a symbol of the communist revolution from the USSR was adopted by the Communist Party of China (CPC). In 1928, the army of CPC was named the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]].

Before gaining sovereignty, during the first armed conflict from 1927 to 1937, the Chinese Communists were called "the red robbers [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" by the KMT government of ROC.

The sovereign flag affirmed in 1949 carries the five yellow stars on red background. It has made the red colour the de facto official colour applying to the sovereign flag.

The red colour is the national colour of the Han-Chinese people (including those in Taiwan), represented by holiday decorations and traditional wedding dresses.

The official flag of Hong Kong SAR mainly carries the red colour.

The official flag of Macau SAR mainly carries the green colour as the left side of the sovereign flag of Portugal.

5. Overview

5.1. Outline of official colours

The general layout of the official colours of Chinese regimes are summarised in Table 1.

(1) The white colour has been the official colour in the PaoXi Empire (ca.60000~ca.3000 BCE, not included in the 5000-year-long Chinese history) (including some tones of yellow), some phases of the XuanYuan Empire (ca.2400~ca.2300 and ca.2150~ca.2050 BCE), the Shang Empire (ca.1600~ca.1050 BCE), and the Yuan Empire (1276~1368) [also the Tangut Xia Empire (1038~1227) and the Jin/Kim Empire (1115~1234) out of the de jure sovereign line].

The white colour dominated about 840 years out of the 5000-year-long Chinese history.

At present, most Old Asian nations, which are not traditionally agricultural, e.g. Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Mongolian, Qiang, Tibetan and Bai nations, have white as their national colour. This custom might be originally inherited from the PaoXi Empire. The original reason for the white colour preference should be that the white-yellow milk was the most important sustenance for these people.

Shaanbei [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'northern Shaanxi'] Han-Chinese people in near north-west China prefer the white colour, likely because of the influence of the Tangut Xia Empire (1038~1227).

(2) The red colour has been the official colour in the ShenNong Empire (ca.3000~ca.2500 BCE) (including some tones of yellow), some phases of the XuanYuan Empire (ca.2300~ca.2200 BCE and ca.2050~ca.2000 BCE) (including some tones of yellow), the Zhou Empire (ca.1050~256 BCE), the Chu Empire (206~202 BCE), the later phase of Han Empire (26~220), the Jin Empire and the subsequent Southern Empires (266~589), the Sui Empire (589~618), the earlier phase of the Tang Empire (618~750), the Greater Song Empire (960~1276), the Ming Empire (1368~1644), and the People's Republic of China (1949~).

The red colour dominated about 2800 years out of the 5000-year-long Chinese history. This predomination could be a reason and also a result of that the red colour is the national colour of the consolidated Han-Chinese nation.

At present, most Han-Chinese people (except Shaanbei and Hakka), and most New Asian nations, which are traditionally agricultural, e.g. most Hmong-Mien nations, have the red national colour. This custom might be originally inherited from the ShenNong Empire. The original reason for the red colour preference should be that the red-yellow sun and fire were most important for primitive agriculture, which produced the most important sustenance for these people.

(3) The black colour has been the official colour in some phases of the XuanYuan Empire (ca.2500~ca.2400 and ca.2200~ca.2150 BCE) (including grue and some tones of yellow), the Xia Empire (ca.2000~ca.1600 BCE) (including grue), the Qin Empire (221~207 BCE) and the earlier phase of the Han Empire (202~104 BCE) [also the later phase of the Taugas Wei Empire (491~557), the Taugas Zhou Empire (557~581), the Taugas Zhou Empire (557~581) and the Khitan Liao Empire (916~1218) out of the de jure sovereign line].

The black colour dominated about 660 years out of the 5000-year-long Chinese history.

The preference of the black colour might be originally inherited from the XuanYuan Empire. The original reason for the black colour preference should be that the black-grue-yellow water bodies were most important for primitive husbandry, which produced the most important sustenance for these people.

At present, Hakka [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'guest clan'] Han-Chinese people in southern China and most Lolo-Burmese nations in far south-west China, e.g. Jingpho (Kachin), Yi (Lolo), Naxi and Lahu nations, have the black national colour. However, there is no traceable connection between these populations and the historical Chinese regimes.

(4) The yellow colour has been the official colour in the middle phase of the Han Empire (104BCE~26CE), the Wei Empire (220~266), the later phase of the Tang Empire (750~907/936) and the Qing Empire (1644~1912) [also the earlier phase of the Taugas Wei Empire (399~491) out of the de jure sovereign line].

The yellow colour dominated about 630 years out of the 5000-year-long Chinese history.

The yellow (later, reddish yellow) colour has been the colour of imperial dress since the Sui Empire. The Tang Empire forbad the citizens wearing dresses in reddish yellow. Cf.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In order to avoid violations of the law, all tones of yellow were avoided by the citizens. It could be another reason why the yellow colour has not been the national colour of Han-Chinese nation.

The preference of the yellow colour might be originally inherited from the Han Empire. The original reason for the yellow colour preference should be the developed agriculture. [It confirms the previous study of Chen (2002).] In addition, the yellow colour had its peak time in the Tang Empire, when its national religion was Taoism, which prefers the yellow colour. [It confirms the previous study of Sun (2006).]

It is important to clarify that the black-grue-yellow colour of the Yellow Emperor should be the colour of the Yellow River. It has been already counted under the black colour preference after the water bodies. It is not related to the yellow colour preference after the developed agriculture.

5.2. Determination of official colours

(1) Colours and cardinal directions

In Chinese common knowledge, there is a notion of five pure colours [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. The five pure colours are likely the first five colours established in the dying technology in China. This notion is equivalent to the Western notion of the three primary colours, definitely not the linguistic notion of the basic colour terms.

The five pure colours were glossed as colours of five cardinal directions in the official dictionaries of Qin-Han-Jin Chinese (121-SW) and/or Sui-Tang-Song Chinese (1008-GY). Cf.

"Grue, the colour of the east [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #3171) (1008-GY: #7996)

"Red, the colour ofthe south [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #6551) (1008-GY: #23666)

"White, the colour of the west [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (121-SW: #4905) (1008-GY: #23244)

"Black, the colour of the north [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (1008-GY: #24342) [It was not glossed as the colour of the north but 'the smoked colour' in 121-SW.]

"Yellow, the colour of the centre [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]" (1008-GY: #7387) [It was not glossed as the colour of the centre but 'the colour of earth' in 121-SW.]

Proper interpretations of the directional colours are uncertain. I have a possible match here:

Grue, the colour of the east, where is the grue sea. [There is no sea in the west of China.]

Red, the colour of the south, where the red earth. [The earth in southern China is red.]

White, the colour of the west, where the perennially white snow-topped mountain is. [There is no perennially snow-topped mountain in the east of China.]

Black, the colour of the north, where the earth is black. [The earth in north-east China is black.]

Yellow, the colour of the centre, where the earth is yellow. [The earth in central China is yellow.]

The first four colours of directions are in common with Turkic ones (already pointed out by Chen 1989). The directional symbolism of colours should be initiated in China where the landscape suits it. It implies that either (1) the Turkic ancestors did not reside in central China while Turkic borrowed the system from the Chinese language; or (2) the Turkic ancestors resided in central China and Turkic became also a minor source of the Chinese language. The second solution is more reasonable.

Apparently, the official colours are not determined by the directions of the regimes. The common endonym of Chinese regimes was 'the central regime' [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], while the yellow colour was not predominately chosen as the official colour.

(2) Colours and fifth properties

In Sino-metaphysics, everything should have a fifth property. The fifth properties of the five pure colours are: grue--Wood (P), red--Fire (H), yellow--Earth (T), white--Metal (K), black--Water ([??]).

The fifth properties of many other things are not so simple. Unified views are hard to achieve. Nowadays, many people consider the fifth property of the Sino-metaphysics superstitious, thus think that the fifth properties are artificial and should no longer be discussed. Gao (2008) stated that the fifth property is not superstitious, it can be phonologically determined by the place of articulation of the consonants of the proto pronunciation of the target morpheme: labial--Wood (P), guttural--Fire (H), alveolar--Earth (T), dorsal-Metal (K), dental--Water ([??]). Perhaps the same method was used by the first Chinese philosophers on Sino-metaphysics, but they could not express the method in the phonological way. However, every morpheme may have two fifth properties upon the onset and coda consonants. If only one fifth property is needed, humanist determination is still needed. [The fifth property is relevant to the grammatical gender of nouns (e.g. M, F, N), non-native speakers will never understand them properly. Current Chinese people are neither native speakers of the ancient Chinese language varieties.] The historical Chinese regimes used to hold discussions among officials and then determined the fifth property of the regime. The Qin Empire, the Han Empire and the Wei Empire determined the fifth properties altogether with the official colours.

From the Jin Empire, the fifth properties and the official colours are not necessarily associated. E.g. the fifth property of the Jin Empire was metal, but the official colour was red.

At that time, an imperial officer of Jin, the Cavalry Standing Servant [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], Fu Xuan [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (217~278), argued: "When the new empire was peacefully transformed form the old empire, the official calendar and colour should not be changed; only when the new empire supplanted the old empire through a war, the official calendar and colour should be changed. [...]" It was approved by the emperor.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

Consequently, the official colour was reset to red according to the Han Empire, because the Wei Empire also was peacefully transformed from the Han Empire.

In summary, the official colours have been ever, but not always determined by the fifth properties of the regimes.

(3) Colours and three dominances

The theory of three dominances [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] was first established by one of the greatest Chinese philosophers, Dong ZhongShu [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (179~104BCE) (-104-CQFL: Sandaigaizhizhiwen [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), who led the Confucian school and accomplished gaining official status for Confucianism in the Han Empire. The theory was concluded upon Chinese history to date. It implied: The world (Far East) is dominated by three dominances, the black dominance [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], the white dominance [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]], and the red dominance [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. A new central regime must represent one of the three dominances, while previous regimes should represent two of them. The previous dominances should not be deracinated. The three together retain the peaceful order of the world.

I think that the three dominances originated from the three groups of people in the Far East: (1) the developed hunter-gatherers with livestock who preferred the white-yellow colour of milk, (2) the farmers who preferred the red-yellow colour of sun and fire, and (3) the herders who preferred the black-grue-yellow colour of water bodies. Therefore, the theory of the three dominances reflect the harmony of the three groups of people in China.

In conclusion, the official colours of the first regimes were naturally chosen.

(4) Summary

At first, the official colours might be naturally determined according to the substances of the people.

The developed hunter-gatherers with livestock arrived and founded the PaoXi Empire, thus favoured the white-yellow colour of milk. The farmers arrived and founded the ShenNong Empire, thus favoured the red-yellow colour of the sun and fire. The herders arrived and founded the XuanYuan Empire, thus favoured the black-grue-yellow colour of the water bodies. Later, it ever yielded the sovereignty to elected emperors from the clans that might represent the two previous empires.

The hunter-gatherers (Old Asian), the farmers (New Asian) and the herders (pre-Chinese) found three groups of people in the Far East.

Old Asian people, who resided away from the ShenNong Empire, e.g. Korean, preserved the white-yellow preference throughout the history.

New Asian people, who resided away from the XuanYuan Empire, e.g. Hmong, preserved the red-yellow preference throughout the history.

The Xia Empire of the black dominance might be direct offspring of XuanYuan. The Shang Empire of the white dominance might be direct offspring of PaoXi. The Zhou Empire of the red dominance might be direct offspring of ShenNong.

The Zhou Empire fell in 256 BCE. There were seven sovereign kingdoms for a time. In 221 BCE, Qin from the black dominance gained sole control of the sovereignty and established the Qin Empire. In 207 BCE, Chu from the red dominance supplanted Qin. In 202 BCE, Han from the black dominance supplanted Chu.

The Qin Empire launched the Qin-Han-Chinese consolidation. It was accomplished by the Han Empire. After the consolidation, the three groups of people were naturalised in China, the next official colours could be politically determined according to the fifth property in Sino-metaphysics.

In 104 BCE, the official colour of the Han Empire was changed to yellow while the fifth property was reset to Earth. In 26 CE, the official colour of the Han Empire was changed to red while the fifth property was reset to Fire. The resetting of the fifth property and official colour in the Han Empire could actually imply the internal conflicts among the three dominances during the consolidation. The red dominance of the farmers eventually prevailed.

In 220 CE, the Han Empire was peacefully transformed to the Wei Empire, the official colour was changed to yellow while the fifth property was reset to Earth.

In 266 CE, the Wei Empire was peacefully transformed to the Jin Empire, the official colour of the Jin Empire was changed back to red according to the Han Empire, although the fifth property was reset to Metal. From this time, the theory of retaining the same official colour after peaceful transformations prevailed. The red official colour was retained by the next peacefully transformed regimes the Song Empire, the Qi Empire, the Liang Empire and the Chen Empire.

The red colour dominated from 26 to 220 and again from 266 to 589, altogether for over 500 years. Therefore it could become the national colour of the consolidated Han-Chinese nation.

After the evacuation of the Jin Empire, a few regimes came into existence in central China. Many of them were ruled by non-Han-Chinese populations. Different official colours were used. The official colour of the Taugas Wei Empire, which unified northern China in 439, was yellow, but changed to black in 491. From the Taugas Wei Empire, the Taugas Qi Empire and the Taugas Zhou Empire were transformed, the same black official colour was retained.

The black-red contrast in North-South (Taugas-Sinae) China was internationally known.

The Taugas Wei Empire launched the Taugas-Chinese consolidation in 493. The non-Han-Chinese ruling populations of the North were naturalised by Han-Chinese people in the Taugas Wei Empire.

In 581, the Taugas Zhou Empire was peacefully transformed to the Sui Empire. Sui made a new formula. It did not retain the black official colour, but reset it to red, which is in common with the South. It should be counted as the last the step of the Taugas-Chinese consolidation. The last symbol of Taugas China, the black official colour was also abandoned.

In 589, the Sui Empire defeated and annexed the Chen Empire in southern China. It is now difficult to argue, how much the red official colour helped the Sui Empire in the war against the Chen Empire. Anyhow, it might be much easier to conquer a country, where the people view you as a similar nation. 'Red-dressed [South] [Sinae] China' was annexed by 'Black-dressed [North] [Taugas] China', but the culture of Red-dressed China was adopted by Black-dressed China.

In 618, the Sui Empire was peacefully transformed to the Tang Empire. In 750, the official colour was changed to yellow while the fifth property was reset to Earth. Although the yellow colour dominated the next 200 years, it was actually only the imperial colour, thus it had no chance to become a new national colour.

In 916, Khitan people, perhaps a nation from the black dominance and away from both the Han-Chinese and Taugas-Chinese consolidations, founded the Khitan Empire, and had the black official colour according to its actual custom.

In 960, the Greater Song Empire was founded, the red official colour was set, while the fifth property was set to Fire.

In 1038, Tangut people, perhaps a nation from the white dominance and away from both the Han-Chinese and Taugas-Chinese consolidations found the Tangut Xia Empire and set the white official colour according to its actual custom.

In 1276, the three dominances were unified by the Mongolian-ruled Yuan Empire from the white dominance. Chinese sovereignty was extended from one of the three dominances in shift to the three dominances at once.

In the recent centuries, there are additionally three reasons that have confirmed the dominate position of the red colour in China.

(1) The Greater Song Empire with the red official colour was supplanted by the Mongolian-ruled Yuan Empire with the white official colour in 1276. Thereafter the red colour became a symbol of Han-Chinese identity in contrast to the white colour as a symbol of Mongolian identity.

In 1351, a Han-Chinese revolutionary power established the Red Turban Army against the Yuan Empire. A branch of the Red Turban Army finally succeeded and established the Ming Empire in 1368.

(2) The Ming Empire with the red official colour was supplanted by the Manchu-ruled Qing Empire with the eight banners in 1644. The red colour became again a symbol of Han-Chinese identity.

In 1912, the Republic of China supplanted Qing and confirmed the red colour as the national colour of Han-Chinese, being on top of the flag with five horizontal stripes. Though, the flag was abandoned in 1928.

(3) The red colour as a symbol of the communist revolution from the USSR was adopted by CPC. In 1928, the armed forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) was named the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China. CPC won the sovereignty and established the People's Republic of China in 1949.

In sum, the official colour might be sometimes naturally determined according to the substance of the ruling population, sometimes politically determined according to the fifth property in Sino-metaphysics, or some national or revolutionary symbolisms.

6. Conclusions

The present study has stated the official colours of 29 Chinese regimes. The results sorted by regime are given in Appendix 1.

Remarkably, the official colours of the most ancient regimes were the three primitive colours: (1) white-yellow, (2) black-grue-yellow, and (3) red-yellow, instead of the simple colours. Later, the official colour of the Xia Empire was black-grue instead of arguing whichever black or grue. There were inconsistent historical records on the official colours of the most ancient regimes, because the composite colour terms had had been split. It has solved the historical problem with the linguistic theory of composite colour categories.

The present study has concluded how an official colour was determined. At first, the official colour might be naturally determined according to the substance of the ruling population. There might be three groups of people in the Far East. (1) The developed hunter-gathers with livestock preferred the white-yellow colour of milk. (2) The farmers preferred the red-yellow colour of sun and fire. (3) The mobile herders preferred the black-grue-yellow colour of water bodies. Later, after the Han-Chinese consolidation, the official colour could be politically determined according to the main property of the five elements in Sino-metaphysics.

The present study has suggested that the red colour has dominated in China for many reasons throughout the history.

The major new advances of the present study are:

1) It is the first panchronic study on the official colours in such a strict format of philological studies with both Chinese and Western references.

2) Upon conventional philological methods, it has contradicted the misreading on the official colours of a few regimes by some previous studies. Moreover, upon the linguistic theory of composite colour categories, it has adjusted the official colours of the most ancient regimes.

3) It has suggested the official colours might be originally determined by the substance of the ruling populations.
APPENDIX 1

Official colours of Chinese regimes sorted by regime

seq.   1 regime                                     start *    801 *

1 *    PaoXi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]       ca-60000   --
2 *    ShenNong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]    ca-3000    --
3 *    XuanYuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]    ca-2500    b/w/r

4 *    Xia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         ca-2000    black
5      Shang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]       ca-1600    white
6      Zhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        ca-1050    red

7      Qin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]            -221    black
8      Chu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]            -207    --
                                                       -202    black
9      Han [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]          [-104]    yellow
                                                       [26]    red

10     Wei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]             220    yellow
11     Jin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]             266    red
12     Song [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]            420    red
13     Qi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]              479    red
14     Liang                                            502    red
15     Chen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]            557    red
T1     Taugas Wei                                     (399)    yellow
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]               [491]    black
T2     Taugas Qi                                      (550)    black
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
T3     Taugas Zhou                                    (557)    black
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
16     Sui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]             589    red
17     Tang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]            618    red
                                                      [750]    yellow

18     Jin II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]          936
N1     Khitan Liao                                    (947)
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
19     Han II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]          947
20     Zhou II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         951
21     Song G [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]          960
N2     Tangut Xia                                    (1038)
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
N3     Jin/Kim [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]      (1115)
22     Yuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]           1276
23     Ming [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]           1368
24     Qing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]           1644
       ROC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]            1912

25                                                   [1928]
26     PRC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]            1949

seq.   1 regime                                     1399 *   2008 *

1 *    PaoXi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]       --       --
2 *    ShenNong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]    --       --
3 *    XuanYuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]    --       --

4 *    Xia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         black    grue
5      Shang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]       white    white
6      Zhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        red      red

7      Qin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         black    black
8      Chu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         --       --
                                                    --       red
9      Han [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         --       yellow
                                                    red      red

10     Wei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         --       yellow
11     Jin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         --       white
12     Song [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        --       black
13     Qi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]          --       grue
14     Liang                                        --       red
15     Chen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        --       yellow
T1     Taugas Wei                                   --       yellow
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]             --       black
T2     Taugas Qi                                    --       --
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
T3     Taugas Zhou                                  --       --
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
16     Sui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         --       red
17     Tang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        --       --
                                                    yellow   yellow

18     Jin II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]      --       white
N1     Khitan Liao                                  --       white
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
19     Han II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]      --       black
20     Zhou II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]     --       grue
21     Song G [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]      red      red
N2     Tangut Xia                                   --       --
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
N3     Jin/Kim [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]     --       white
22     Yuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        --       --
23     Ming [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        red      red
24     Qing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]                 --
       ROC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]                  --

25                                                           --
26     PRC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]                  --

seq.   1 regime                                     the present
                                                    study

1 *    PaoXi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]       white-yellow
2 *    ShenNong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]    red-yellow
3 *    XuanYuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]    the three in
                                                    shift *
4 *    Xia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         black-grue
5      Shang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]       white
6      Zhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        red
                                                    (but black dress)
7      Qin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         black
8      Chu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         red
                                                    black
9      Han [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         yellow
                                                    red
                                                    (but black dress)
10     Wei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         yellow
11     Jin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         red
12     Song [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        red
13     Qi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]          red
14     Liang                                        red
15     Chen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        red
T1     Taugas Wei                                   yellow
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]             black
T2     Taugas Qi                                    black
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
T3     Taugas Zhou                                  black
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
16     Sui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         red
17     Tang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        red
                                                    [reddish]
                                                    yellow
18     Jin II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]      --
N1     Khitan Liao                                  black
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
19     Han II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]      --
20     Zhou II [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]     --
21     Song G [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]      red
N2     Tangut Xia                                   white
       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
N3     Jin/Kim [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]     white
22     Yuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        white
23     Ming [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        red
24     Qing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]        yellow
       ROC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         the five
                                                    together *
25                                                  blue and white
26     PRC [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]         red

Note: "start*": It indicates the starting year when the central
regime gained de jure Chinese sovereignty. If the regime is not
a de jure central regime, the starting year of sovereignty
declaration is given in brackets. If the official colour has been
reset within a regime, the restarting year is given in squared
brackets. The years are given in the international calendar.
"-" indicates BCE. "801 *" = 801-TD. "1399 *" = 1399-MSL.
"2008 *" = 2008-ZH5S.

The official colours are given in English. If an entry is not de
jure but de facto, it is given in italic. "the three in shift *":
black-grue-yellow > white-yellow > red-yellow.
"the five together *": red, yellow, blue, white and black.
"--" indicates that the regime is not studied or studied with
no result.


Acknowledgements

I thank prof. dr. Urmas Sutrop for encouraging me to take up the theme and reading and commenting on the manuscript. The study was supported by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research project no SF0050037s10.

Address:

Gao Jingyi [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]

University of Tartu

Ulikooli 18

51014 Tartu

Estonia

E-mail: jingyi.gao@ut.ee

Chinese References (Ordered by dates)

0-YI [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhou]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Yi, logic]>>.

0-SU [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhou]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Shu, writing]>>.

0-LI [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhou]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Li, etiquette]>>.

0-ZS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhou]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Yizhoushu, writing of Zhou]>>.

0-YIW: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yiwei, an extension of Yi]>>.

0-SUDZ: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shangshudazhuan, an extension of Shu]]>>.

0-SUZH: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shangshuzhonghou, an extension of Shu]]>>.

0-LIJMZ: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Limingzheng, an extension of Li]>>.

-338-SJS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Qm of Zhou](?) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shang Yang](395~338BCE): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shangunshu, writing of Sir Shang]".

-30[theta]-ZSJN [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Wei of Zhou]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhushujinian, bamboo annals]>>.

-239-LL [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Qin] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Lu BuWeig](ca-290~235BCE): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Lulan, viewing of Sir Lu]>>.

-139-HN [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Han] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Liu An] (179-122BCE) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Huainanzi, a book by Huainan King]>>.

-104-CQFL [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Han] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Dong ZhongShu] (179-1048BCE): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Chunqiufanlu, an extension of Chuqiu]>>.

-91-SJ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Han] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [SiMa Qian](145-ca.86BCE): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shiji, the historiography]>>.

121-SW [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Han] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xu Shen] (ca.58-ca.147): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shuowenjiezi, the zi-book]>>.

92-HS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Han] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Ban Gu] (32~92): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Hanshu, writing of Han]>>.

28-220-HJ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Han]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Hanji, Actual recording of Han]>>.

241-DW [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jin] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [HuangFu Mi] (215~282): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Diwangshiji, historical accounts of the emperors]>>.

280-3GZ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jin] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Chen Shou] (233~297): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Sanguozhi, writing of the three states]>>.

445-HHS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Song] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Fan Ye] (398~445): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Houhanshu, writing of continued Han]>>.

488-SS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Qi] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shen Yue] (441~513): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Songshu, writing of Song]>>.

51[theta]-QS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Liang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xiao ZiXian] (489~537): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Nanqishu, writing of Qi]>>.

554-WS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Taugas Qi] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xiao ZiXian] (506~572): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Weishu, writing of Taugas Wei]>>.

636-LS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yao SiLian] (557~637): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Liangshu, writing of Liang]>>.

636-CS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yao SiLian] (557~637): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Liangshu, writing of Chen]>>.

636-QS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [LI BaiYao] (565~648): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Beiqishu, writing of Taugas Qi]>>.

636-ZS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [LingHu DeFen] (583~566): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhoushu, writing of Taugas Zhou]>>.

636-SS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Wei Zheng] (580~543): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Suishu, writing of Sui]>>.

648-JS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Fang XuanLing] (579~648) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jinshu, writing of Jin]>>.

801-TD [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Du You] (735~812): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tongrfian, encyclopaedia]>>.

963-5DHY [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Tang] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Wang Pu] (922~982): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Wudaihuiyao, outline of Five Dynasties]>>.

945-TS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jin] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Liu Xu] (887~946) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jiutangshu, writing of Tang]>>.

974-5DS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Song] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xue JuZheng] (912~981) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jiutwudaishi, history of Five Dynasties]>>.

1008-GY [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Song] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Chen PengNian] (961~1017) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [...guangyun, the yun-book]>>.

1194-BMHB [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Song] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xu MengXin] (1126~1207): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [San chao bei meng hui bian, collection of northern affairs during the reign of three emperors]>>.

1214-DJDY [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jin/Kim] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:<< [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Dajin deyun tu shuo, illustration of official virtues of Da-Jin]>>.

1244-YL [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Mongol Khanate]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhongshuling yelu gong shendaobei, epigraphy of the general secretary Yelu]>>.

1345-SS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yuan] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Toqtogha] (1341~1356) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Songshi, history of Song]>>.

1345-JS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yuan] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Toqtogha] (1341~1356) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jinshi, history of Jin]>>.

1370-YS [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Ming] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Song Lian] (1310~1381) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [et al.]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yuanshi, history of Yuan]>>.

1399~1644-MSL [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Ming]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Mingshilu, actual recording of Ming]>>.

1635~1912-QSL [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Qing]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Qingshilu, actual recording of Qing]>>.

1937 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Guo MoRuo]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yinqicuibian kaoshi, etymological correlation of Yinqicuibian]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Tokyo): [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Bunkyudo shoten).

1956 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Chen Shu]: <[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Hala-qidan shuo, on Qara Khitan]> --<<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Lishi yanjiu] (Historical Research)>> 1956.2 (67-77), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Beijing).

1979 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Yu ShengWu]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Jiagu wenzi shi lin, decipherments of oracle bone inscriptions]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Beijing]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhonghuashuju].

1986 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Guo XiLiang]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Hanyu gu yin shouce, handbook of Chinese ancient ERFs]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Beijing]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Beijing daxue chubanshe].

1987 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhang ZhengMing]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Chu wenhua shi, history of Chu culture]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shanghai]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shanghai renmin chubanshe].

1992[2008] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xu XiQi]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xinbian zhongguo sanqian nianli ri jiansuo biao, newly edited historical Chinese calendar for 3000 years]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Beijing]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Beijing renmin jiaoyu chubanshe].

1994 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [He GuangYue]: <[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Xia zu shanghei de liuchuan he yingxiang, spread and influence of the black official colour of Xia]) - <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Anhui shixue, Historical studies of the Anhui Province]>> 1994.1 (9-14), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Hefei].

2002 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Chen LiangYu]: <[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Li dai shangse xintai de bianyi yu hanyu gouci] ("The variation of favorable colour state of mind in Chinese past dynastise [dynasties] and Chinese word-formation")>--<<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Qinghai shifan daxue xuebao (zhexue shehuikexue ban)] (journal of Qinghai Normal University (philosophy and social sciences)>> 2002.3 (109-112), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xining].

2002[-GL] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Li Pu] ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][ed.]): <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Gu wenzi gu lin, collection of glossary on ancient Chinese glyphs]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shanghai]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe].

2003 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [ZhengZhang ShangFang]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shang guyinxi, phonology of Old Chinese]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shanghai]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe].

2005 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Hu XinSheng]: <[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhou ren shangchi shuo de shili kaocha])--<<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Wenshizhe](joumal of literature, history and philosophy)>>, 2005.2 (91-97), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jinan].

2006 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Sun JianJun]: <[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Gudai shangse wenhua yu hanyu secai ci] (Ancient color-favored culture and the Chinese color words)) - <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhongguo qingnian zhengzhi xueyuan xuebao] (journal of China Youth College for Political Sciences)>> 2006.3 (128-133), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Beijing].

2008 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--[Gao JingYi]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII][Hanyu yu beiou yuyan: Hanyu yu yinouyuyan ji wulaer yuyan tongyuan tanjiu] (Chinese language and languages of northern Europe)>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Beijing]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhongguo shehuikexue chubanshe] (China Social Sciences Press).

2008[-ZH5S] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Peng De]: <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Zhonghua wu se, the five colours of China]>>, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Nanjing]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Jiansu meishu chubanshe].

2009 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Wang Jiong] & [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Peng XiangQian]: <"[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]"["Wude zhongshi shuo" shiye xiade "da-bai-gao-guo"] (The great state of upholding white: under the view of five cyclic virtues))--<< [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Qinghai minzu xueyuan xuebao](journal of Qinghai Nationalities Institute (Social Sciences)) 2009.3 (68-71), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Xining].

Non-Chinese References (Ordered by alphabets)

Chang, Tsung-tung (1988) "Indo-European vocabulary in Old Chinese: a new thesis on the emergence of Chinese language and civilization in the Late Neolithic Age". (Sino-Platonic Papers, 7.) Philadelphia.

Chen, Ching-lung (1989) "Concepts regarding numbers, colors, and the cardinal points among the Turkic peoples". Giovanni Stary, ed. Proceedings of the XXVIII permanent international Altaistic conference (Venice, 8-14 July 1985), 49-56. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Kay, Paul, Brent Berlin and William Merrifield (1991) "Biocultural implications of systems of color naming". Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1, 12-25.

Kay, Paul and Chad McDaniel (1978) "The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic color terms". Language 54, 3, 610-646.

Gao, Jingyi (2012) "Basic colour terms for black and white in Chinese: with discussions on models of language development". Journal of Estonian andFinno-Ugric Linguistics 3, 1, 87-128.

Liu, Li and Hong Xu (2007) "Rethinking Erlitou: legend, history and Chinese archaeology". Antiquity 81, 886-901.

Polo, Marco (author), Henry Yule (translator), Henri Cordier (editor) (1920) The travels of Marco Polo. London: John Murray.

Yule, Henry (1915) Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China. London: The Hakluyt Society.

(1) In this article, I have elevated most Chinese data to an advanced academic level to make the data clearer to general readers. A relevant Chinese term is regularly represented by its DOM number (Unicode sequence number of a primary glyph of a Chinese etymon, for specific references), primary glyph (for Chinese references), primary reading in Pinyin and primary reading in Sino-Vietnamese (for general references). Sino-Vietnamese is an incumbent Latin orthography that is clearer to non-Chinese readers. Moreover, it fits some southern lects of the Chinese language.

(2) The first four regimes of China are not universally acknowledged, because they are not archaeologically discovered. There might be different details in different philological texts. In the brief historical accounts concluded by the present study, if a detail is not common in the most historical sources, the relevant source is denoted.

(3) People who really understand both European and Chinese histories would not call the Chinese imperial regimes "dynasties". A dynasty is a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family. A regime can be ruled by different dynasties. A dynasty can rule different regimes. Rulers of a Chinese imperial regime did not always belong to the same family. The Chinese regimes may have been with different polulations and religions. However, most Chinese regimes struggled to gain unique Chinese sovereignty. Besides, for an easy example, the situations of Zhou and Qin in China are comparable to the situations of England and Scotland in UK.

(4) Despite efforts by Chinese archaeologists to link the Xia Empire with Bronze Age Erlitou archaeological sites, the concrete existence of the Xia Empire is yet to be proven (Liu & Xu 2007).

(5) In Chinese, a name of country denotes rather a political regime than a natural territory. It is opposite to English. At present, Chinese people do think that "China is equal to the regime of PRC" in Chinese English. China as a natural territory is called the "territory of China".

(6) The Xiongnu Confederation was split in 48 CE, the south partition became a dependency of the Han Empire, and was allowed to live in near north-west and north-west central China. Its regime was dissolved 216. Due to the late arrival, its people (Inner Xiongnu) were not effectively neutralised in the Han-Chinese consolidation.

(7) Western references often mistake the etymological source of this exonym for the ethnonym of Qin [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. In fact, the ancient ERF of Qin [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] could be *dzien (Guo 1986:237), *zin (ZhengZhang 2003:445) or *ziem > zien (the present study). See also the section of the Qin Empire.

(8) A nominally dependent kingdom can declare top sovereignty in their own language, but it must be spoken as 'a kingdom granted by the Chinese Empire' in Chinese. The dependency has a duty to pay tributes to China. China has a duty to protect the dependency from the other countries. Besides, China usually gives more valuable Chinese presents back.

(9) Many contemporary scholars consider that AP forms discovered since the 20th century must be more prototypical than the PP forms. However, I follow the classical Sino-linguists, consider PP forms could preserve the most ancient prototypes, although those forms have not been discovered from more ancient archaeological layers.

Jingyi Gao

Institute of the Estonian Language,

University of Tartu, and Tallinn University
Table 1. Official colours of Chinese regimes sorted by colour

white[-yellow]                       red[-yellow]

(1) PaoXi (-60000~3000)       (2) ShenNong (-3000~-2500)
(3) XuanYuan (-2500~2000) *   (3) XuanYuan (-2500~-2000)*
(5) Shang (-1600~-1050)       (6) Zhou (-1050~-256)*
                              (8) Chu (-207~202)
                              (9.3) Han (26~220)*
                              (11~15) Jin~Chen (266~589)
                              (16) Sui (581~518)
(N2) Tangut (1038~1227)       (17.1) Tang (618~750)
(N3) Kim (1115~1234)          (21) Song (960~1276[1279])
(22) Yuan (1271~1368[1402])   (23) Ming (1368~1644[1662])
                              (26) PRC (1949~)

white[-yellow]                         yellow

(1) PaoXi (-60000~3000)
(3) XuanYuan (-2500~2000) *
(5) Shang (-1600~-1050)

                              (9.2) Ha n(-104~26)
                              (10) Wei (220~266)
                              (T1.1) T. Wei (399~491)
(N2) Tangut (1038~1227)       (17.2) Tang (750~907/936)
(N3) Kim (1115~1234)
(22) Yuan (1271~1368[1402])   (24) Qing (1636~1912)

white[-yellow]                   black[-grue-yellow] *

(1) PaoXi (-60000~3000)
(3) XuanYuan (-2500~2000) *   (3) XuanYuan (-2500~2000) *
(5) Shang (-1600~-1050)       (4) Xia (-2000~-1600) *
                              (7) Qin (-221~-207)
                              (9.1) Han (-202~104)

                              (T1~3) Taugas (491~581)
(N2) Tangut (1038~1227)
(N3) Kim (1115~1234)          (N1) Khitan (916~1218)
(22) Yuan (1271~1368[1402])

Note: The official colour of XuanYuan Empire was diachronically
the three primitive colours in shift: black-grue-yellow,
white-yellow, red-yellow. The official colour of the Zhou Empire
was red, but the official dress was mainly black. The official
colour of the later phase (26~220) of the Han Empire was red,
but the official dress was mainly black.
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Date:Sep 1, 2012
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