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Of interest from the journals.

Calcium

Goulding A, Rockell JEP, Black RE, Grant AM, Jones IE, Williams SM. Children who avoid drinking cow's milk are at increased risk for prepubertal bone fractures. J Am Diet Assoc 2004:104;250-3

In this New Zealand study of 50 children who avoided drinking cow's milk, 22 were overweight and significantly more reported fractures (16 observed vs six expected from community data, [chi square] = 31.0, P < 0.001, df = 5).

Skinner JD, Bounds W, Carruth BR, Ziegler P. Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. J Am Diet Assoc 2003:103;1626-31

This prospective study of 52 white children studied from two months to eight years with 20 data collection points, examined averaged data from 24 hour recall and two-day diet diaries including one weekend day. Data were kept by mothers, tracking individual Ca intake was done with data from 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, 7.0, 8.0 years using correlation co-efficients. Milk provided approximately 50% of total Ca intake. Dietary Ca and PUFA (g) were negatively related to percent body fat (P = .02-.04) and explained 28-34% of variability. Total dietary fat, saturated fat, being female, sedentary, father's BMI and mother's body fat were positively associated with children's percent body fat.

Cardiovascular disease

Wang Z, Hoy WE. Waist circumference, body mass index, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular disease in Aboriginal people. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004:58;888-93

This analysis of cohort data found that waist circumference appears a better predictor of CVD risk in Australian Aboriginal people.

Child and infant nutrition

Devaney B, Kalb L, Briefel R, Zavitsky-Novak T, Clusen N, Ziegler P. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: Overview of the study design. J Am Diet Assoc 2004:104 Suppl 1;8S-13S

This paper outlines the methodology for studying the food intake of a national random sample of 3022 infants and toddlers. A 24-hour recall interview with parents, with supplementary questions on growth, development and feeding patterns was conducted.

Dwyer JT, Suitor CW, Hendricks K. FITS: New insights and lessons learned. J Am Diet Assoc 2004:104 Suppl 1;5S-7S

This is the introduction to a supplement on the Feeding Infant and Toddlers study. It covers methodologies for studying nutrition intake, discusses requirements and behaviours and focuses on the impact of WIC issues and new concerns are raised.

Fatty acids

Remans PHJ, Sont JK, Wagenaar LW, Wouters-Wesseling W, Zuijderduin WM, Jongma A, et al. Nutrient supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical and biochemical effects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004:58;839-45

This randomised, placebo-controlled trial found no effect of a fish oil supplement (1.4 g EPA, 0.2 g DHA, 0.5 g GLA) on anti-inflammatory variables.

Food

Davies WP. Drivers for change in modern food supply. Food Aust 2004:56;25-32

This paper formed the plenary address for the 2003 AIFST convention and focused on changing consumer demands on the whole food supply chain.

Food service

Schaffner DW. Challenges in cross contamination modelling in home and food service settings. Food Aust 2003:55;583-6

This paper discusses microbial cross contamination and presents an approach to risk assessment in food service and home settings.

Food science

Cato L, Gan JJ, Rafael LGB, Small DM. Gluten free breads using rice flour and hydrocolloid gums. Food Aust 2004:56;75-8

Dietitians working with coeliac disease might be interested in this paper outlining experimental approaches to developing better quality gluten free bread.

Fruit and vegetables

Knabel SJ, Fatemi P, Patton J, Laborde LF, Annous B, Sapers GM. On farm contamination of horticultural products in the USA and strategies for decontamination. Food Aust 2003:55;580-2

This paper outlines the range of pathogens found in fresh produce, and discusses approaches to decontamination. The apparent increase in reported outbreaks in the USA is also discussed.

Functional foods

De Jong N, Pijpers L, Bleeker JK, Ocke MC. Potential intake of phytosterols/-stanols: results of a simulation study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004:58;907-19

This modelling study using MORGEN project data (n = 23 106) identified groups who may be at risk of over-consumption of phytosterols if liberal fortification were allowed using margarine, cheese and yoghurt as exemplary food sources.

Thomsen AB, Hansen HB, Christiansen C, Green H, Berger A. Effect of free plant sterols in low-fat milk on serum lipid profile in hyercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004:58;860-70

This double-blind, randomised, controlled crossover study with 71 completing patients demonstrated a significant reduction in LDL with low fat milk (500ml) containing free plant sterols.

Insulin resistance syndrome

Coulston AM, Peragallo-Dittko V. Insulin resistance syndrome: A potent culprit in cardiovascular disease. J Am Diet Assoc 2004:104;176-9

This commentary provides useful definitions and clinical cut-off values for IRS and outcomes with implications for practice.

Sugar substitutes

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. J Am Diet Assoc 2004:104;255-75

This ADA position paper states that consumers can safety enjoy a range of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners when consumed under current guidelines. It reinforces the need for dietitians to consider the science of this area.
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Publication:Nutrition & Dietetics: The Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Date:Sep 1, 2004
Words:856
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