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Oedipodinae (Acrididae: Orthoptera) of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Byline: Ansa Tamkeen, Khalid Mahmood and Naila Nazir

Abstract

Oedipodinae is the largest subfamily of Acrididae. Due to their greater economic importance this study was planned to explore the fauna of Oedipodinae from region of Azad Kashmir. In the present study sixteen species of Oedipodinae have been collected and identified from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. In addition the keys for local genera and species are also provided.

Keywords: Grasshoppers, Orthoptera, Oedipodinae.

INTRODUCTION

The state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is situated between 73-75 East longitudes and 33- 36 North latitudes in the north east of Pakistan as foot hills of the western Himalayas. It has subtropical to moist temperate climate with green grasslands, forests and croplands. The cereal crops are wheat, rice and maize while fruit orchards consist of stone fruits and palm fruits. The main canopy consists of deodar, pine, blue pine and walnut.

Grasshopper species belonging to family Oedipodinae are of extensive economic importance and continuously cause damage to pastures and different crops in rain-fed and irrigated areas. Oedipodinae is distributed throughout the world with approximately 185 genera (Bughio et al., 2012) and about 900 species, some of them are known as most notorious pests in the world (COPR, 1982). Members of Oedipodinae occur throughout Pakistan due to their diversity of habitats such as agricultural crops, hilly areas and desert like plain. Swarm of Locusta migratoria causes huge losses throughout the world (Vickery and Kevan, 1983). Species of genus Gastrimargus and Oedaleus are considered as major pest of agriculture (Samways and Lockwood, 1998). Gastrimargus spp. have also been found in semi arid areas of Azad Jammu and Kashmir causing damage to green grass in range lands where the farmers use the grasses as hay during winter season for cattle feeding.

Similarly, in Azad Jammu and Kashmir Hieroglyphus species out breaks were frequently found in last ten years in the areas situated below 5000ft from sea level causing considerable damage to maize, millet and rice crops (Personal observation) .The crop loss done for such out breaks have not been yet documented but significant material resources have been applied by farmers for control strategies. So, it is the need of time to identify the species of Oedipodinae of study area which shall be helpful in making control strategy in future. Some earlier works (Kirby, 1914; Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Kevan and Chen, 1969; Uvarov, 1977; Bhowmik, 1985; Willemse, 2001; Mahmood et al., 2008) have described Oedipodinae of Indo-Malaysian region. Mahmood and Yousuf (1999) provided a list of eleven species under nine genera of Oedipodinae from this area yet its ecological environment such as geographical situation, climatic pattern and environmental correspondence needs more comprehensive surveys.

To the grasshopper fauna, five more species have been added as new records in this area, which makes a total of sixteen species of Oedipodinae recorded from this region. In addition, key to genera and species has been rearranged as the taxonomic tool for this area.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Eighteen collection sites from 3 administrative divisions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir showing different ecological conditions were selected for adult grasshoppers. The plant species composition of the study area was not identified and calculated due to lack of expertise. From each site grasshoppers were collected by sweep net during 2009 and 2010. Repetitive surveys were made from March to October each year ensuring maximum collection. Collected specimens were killed in cyanide bottle and brought to the Entomology laboratory. The specimens were photographed using Cyber-short 7.2 mega pixels digital still camera with compact-macro lens, examined with the use of a Leica MZ6 microscope. For identification already published keys (Kirby,1914; Bei-Bienko and Mischchenko, 1951; Eades et al., 2011; Mahmood and Yousuf, 1999) were used. The identified specimens of grasshoppers were deposited in the Department of Entomology, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir.

RESULTS

A total of 16 species belonging to 13 genera of the subfamily Oedipodinae were collected from three divisions of study area.

KEY TO GENERA OF SUBFAMILY OEDIPODINAE FROM AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN

1. Median carina of pronotum intersected by one transverse groove ........................................................2

- Median carina of pronotum intersected by 2- 3 grooves ................................................................................. 10

2. Pronotum with median carina raised tectiform .............3

- Pronotum with median carina linear not raised; pronotum saddle shaped .............................................6

3. Body large; wings transparent at base; body ventrally covered with dense long hairs ............ Locusta Linnaeus

- Body medium size; wings colored at base; body ventrally covered with sparse short hairs ......................4

4. Head and pronotum with deep pits and rugae; wings without dark bands, rosy red at base, apically smoky..... ................................................... Pternoscirta Saussure

- Head and pronotum with shallow pits, without rugae; wings without complete dark bands, colored at base, apically transparent .....................................................5

5. Wings yellow at base, tegmina less densly reticulated in the basal half; dark brown with two yellow bands ........ ................................................ Gastrimargus Saussure

- Wings purple red at base; tegmina very densely reticulated in the basal half light brown without any bands........................................... Scintharista Saussure

6. Hind femur with ledge at its posterior end; wings brick red at base........................................ Oedipoda Latreille

- Hind femur without ledge at its posterior end; wings not brick red at base ......................................................... 7

7. Pronotum with x- shaped markings; spurious vein present equidistant to media and cubitus ....................... ............................................................Oedaleus Fieber

- Pronotum without x- shaped markings; spurious vein present closer to media .............................................. 8

8. Median field in front of spurious median vein with strongly slopping cross veins; metazona of pronotum golden yellow dorsally and laterally.......................................................................................Heteropternis StAl

- Median field in front of spurious median vein without slopping cross veins; metazoan of pronotum not colored....................................................................... 9

9. Foveolae long, trapezoidal reaching at the end of fastigium; mesosternal interspaces significantly wider than long............................................. .Aiolopus Fieber

- Foveolae triangular hardly reaching the fastigium of vertex; mesosternal interspaces hardly wider than long or narrow than long ........................ Epacromius Uvarov

10. Median carina of pronotum deeply intersected, look bifid; occiput with pair of tubercles........................................................................................ Trilophidia StAl

- Median carina of pronotum not deeply intersected not bifid; occiput without pair of tubercles .......................11

11. Wings blue at basal half, wings with well marked transverse bands, body dusty blue ...................................................................................... Sphingonotus Fieber

- Wings slightly bluish or yellowish at base with light dark bands medially; body medium size .....................12

12. Head and pronotum with white lateral bands on ventral margin; inner pair of spurs of hind tibia longer than the first segment of tarsus................. .Leptopternis Saussure

- Head and pronotum without white lateral bands on ventral margin; inner pair of spurs of hind tibia shorter than first segment of tarsus ................. Acrotylus Fieber

SYSTEMATIC ACCOUNT

Genus LOCUSTA Linnaeus

Type species: Gryllus migratorius Linnaeus

Locusta migratoria migratoria (Linnaeus)

The collected specimens completely agree with the published description (Bei Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Shahid, 1964; Wagan, 1990; Mahmood et al., 2008; Azim et al., 2010; Usmani and Naeem, 2012) of this species. The specimens compared with previous description showed a marked difference of 13mm in body length, 18 mm of tegmen length in male while in case of female 7mm in body length, 13mm of tegmen length and 7mm of hind femur length was recorded.

Measurements 5 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 19-37, pronotum length, 8, tegmen length, 37-38, hind femur length, 19-22, tibial length, 17-20. Female: Total body length, 45-48, pronotum length,8-11, tegmen length, 39-48, hind femur length, 23-25, tibial length, 21-25.

Material examined

6 6 shounter nala 8325 ft 3454'26.40" N 7424'49.57"E (A. Tamkeen) 12.9.2007; 1 Dadyal 3198 ft 3319'45.44" N 7341'56.87"E (A. Tamkeen) 19.8.07; 1 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (A. Tamkeen) 22.8.2008.

Habitat

This species have been collected from range land.

Geographical distribution

Pakistan, India, China, Africa, Kazakhstan, Australia. Temperate and tropical parts of the Eastern Hemisphere, from the Canaries and the Azores in the West to Japan and New Zealand in the East.

Genus PTERNOSCIRTA Saussure

Type species: Acrydium cinctifemur Walker

Pternoscirta cinctifemur (Walker)

The collected specimens completely agree with the published description (Kirby, 1914; Mahmood et al., 2008) of this species.

Measurements 2 and 2 (mm)

Male: Body length, 25-26, pronotum length, 6-6.5, tegmen length, 26-29, hind femur length, 10- 15, tibial length, 12-13. Female: Total body length, 30, pronotum length, 6.3-7.5, tegmen length, 29-30, hind femur length, 17-18, tibial length, 15.

Material examined

1 Bagh 3781ft 3358'28.95" N 7347'29.49"E (A. Tamkeen) 18.8.2008, 1 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (A. Tamkeen) 2.7.2008; 2 Pir gali 1854 ft 3316'37.04" N 7352'06.02"E (A. Tamkeen) 18.8.2008.

Habitat

The specimens have been collected from maize field and grasses.

Distribution

Asia, Tropical (Indian Subcontinent), China

Genus GASTRIMARGUS Saussure

Type species: Gryllus virescens Thunberg

The collected species with two subspecies exactly agree with published description (Bei- Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Ritchie, 1982) of this genus.

KEY TO THE LOCAL SUBSPECIES OF GASTRIMARGUS AFRICANUS (SAUSSURE)

1. Wings basally yellowish green...................................................................... africanus sulphureus Bei-Bienko

- Wings bright yellow at the base .......................................................................... africanus africanus (Saussure)

Gastrimargus africanus sulphureus Bei-Bienko

The collected specimens exactly similar with the published description (Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Ritchie, 1981; Mahmood et al., 1999; Azim et al., 2010) of this species.

Measurement 5 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 19-28.2, pronotum length, 6-8, tegmen length, 21.2-28, hind femur length, 10-19, tibial length,10-17.

Female: Total body length, 30-40, pronotum length, 9-10, tegmen length, 29-36, hind femur length, 20-25, tibial length, 19-21.

Material examined

60 106 Tau But 6878 ft (A. Tamkeen) 10.9.2007; 18 108 Surgon (Altaf) 8.9.2007; 10 14 Doba 10150ft (A. Tamkeen) 13.9.2007; 1 Garhi Dopatta 2692 ft, 24 km from Muzaffrabad (Khalid) 22.8.2007; 9 Kel 7137 ft 3449'29.37"N 7421'43.94"E 19 km from sharda (A.Tamkeen) 12.9.2007; 6 5 Halmat 7540ft (A. Tamkeen) 10.9.2007; 9 Cami forest 5425 ft (A. Tamkeen) 7.9.2007; 1 Komi Kot 9590 ft (Khalid) 18.8.2007; 3 2 Shounter Nala 6326ft 3454'26.40" N 7424'49.57"E (A. Tamkeen) 9.9.2007.

Habitat

The specimens of this species have been collected from range lands and grasses.

Distribution

Kashmir, Pakistan, India, Nepal.

Gastrimargus africanus africanus (Saussure)

The collected specimens exactly tally with published description (Ritchi, 1982; Mahmood et al., 1999) of this species.

Measurements 5 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 19.2-28, pronotum length, 6.3-8, tegmen length, 25-30.3, hind femur length, 14-17.3, tibial length,10-16. Female: Total body length, 34-38, pronotum length,8-10, tegmen length, 33-38, hind femur length,19-23, tibial length, 18-21.

Material examined

12 7 Mirpur 1506 ft 33.14N 73.77E (A. Tamkeen) 8.10.2007; 10 14 Kotli 3280ft 33.52N 73.29E (A.Tamkeen) 9-10-2007; 21 Rawalakot 5500 ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (Muhammad Asif) 25.6.2008; 11 Chakothi 3719 ft 3406'46.40" N 7352'57.34"E, 59 km from Muzaffrabad (A. Tamkeen) 7 Abbaspur 4270ft 3348'52.64" N 7358'32.48"E; 111 Bagh 4920ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E; 1 Garidoppata 2692ft, 24 km from Muzaffrabad (A. Tamkeen) 18.8.2006; 2 2 Bhimber 1508 ft 3358'35.07" N 7304 '47.83"E, 50 km from Mirpur (Idrees Ahmed Tahir) 18.8.2006; 2 Plandri 4325ft 3342'45.55" N 7341'19.94"E (A. Tamkeen) 3.10.2010; 6 Bagh 4920ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E(A. Tamkeen) 8.9.2008; 1 Hajeera 3111ft 3346'17.96"N 7353'45.42"E 29 km from Rawalakot (A. Tamkeen) 18.9.2008.

Habitat

The subspecies have been collected from rang land and grasses.

Distribution

Pakistan, Kashmir, India, Sri Lanka, Africa.

Genus SCINTHARISTA Saussure

Type species: Scintharista brunneri Saussure

Scintharista notabilis notabilis (Walker)

The collected specimens exactly similar with published descriptions (Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951) of this species.

Measurements 5 (mm)

Female: Body length, 39-48, pronotum length, 9.5-11.5, tegmen length, 38-41, hind femur length, 23-25.5, tibial length, 19-21.2.

Material examined

4 Kafful Garh 6497 ft (A. Tamkeen) 24.8.06; 6 Bagh 3781 ft 3358'28.95" N 7347'29.49"E (A. Tamkeen) 18.8.2008; 3 Kahuta 4870 ft 3353'50.76" N 7306'30.76"E (A. Tamkeen) 4.9.2010; 4 Hajeera 3111ft 3346'17.96"N 7353'45.42"E 29 from Rawalakot (A. Tamkeen) 4.10.2010.

Habitat

These species have been collected from grasses and near road side bushes.

New record

The species has been collected for the first time from Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Distribution

Kashmir, Pakistan, India, Spain.

Genus OEDIPODA Latreille

Type species: Gryllus caerulescens Linnaeus

Oedipoda neelumensis Mahmood and Yousuf

The collected specimens of a single species exactly tally with published description (Mahmood and Yousuf, 1999) of this species.

Measurements 3 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 23-24, pronotum length, 6-6.4, tegmen length, 16-18.2, hind femur length, tibial length, 11-12.

Female: Total body length, 17.1-18.3, pronotum length, 4.3-5, tegmen length, 22-23, hind femur length, tibial length, 9-10.

Material examined

6, 3 Neelum 6878ft.

Habitat

These species have been collected from thorny bushes and grasses.

Distribution

Kashmir.

Genus OEDALEUS Fieber

Type species: Acrydium decorus Germar

Oedaleus abruptus (Thunberg)

The collected specimens exactly similar with the published description (Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Dirsh, 1965; Ritchie, 1981; Mahmood et al., 1999; Azim et al., 2010) of this species.

Measurements 5 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length,15-18, pronotum length, 4.4-5, tegmen length,16-18, hind femur length, 11- 13, tibial length, 10-11.3. Female: Total body length,20-30, pronotum length, 4.5-5.4, tegmen length,20-22, hind femur length, 11.5-15, tibial length,11-13.

Material examined

212 Bagh 4920ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (A. Tamkeen) 8.9.2008, 2 Senhsa 2962ft 3329'05.15" N 7354'22.15"E (A. Tamkeen) 14.10.2008; 11 Chakswari 1500 ft 4939ft 3315'16.55" N 7346'04.16"E 44 km from Mirpur (A. Tamkeen) 5.7.2008, 1 Choch (Kotli) 2624 ft 3328'16.30" N 7352'57.41"E (A. Tamkeen) 27.9.2008; 5 4 Dadyal 3198ft 3319'45.44" N 7341'56.87"E (A. Tamkeen) 20-9-2007, 29 8 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (A. Tamkeen) 7.10.2009;1 Bhimber 1508 ft 3258'35.07" N 7404 '47.83"E,50 km from Mirpur (A. Tamkeen) 5.10.2006.

Habitat

The specimens of this species have been collected from mixed vegetation, herbs and shrubs, maize and sorghum fields.

Distribution

Kashmir, India, China, Nepal, Thailand, Myanmar, Sri Lanka.

Genus HETEROPTERNIS StAl

Type species: Heteropternis pyrrhoscelis StAl Heteropternis thoracica (Walker)

The specimens exactly similar with pulished description (Kirby, 1914; Mahmood, 1999) of this species. The given species previously reported from Azad Kashmir by (Mahmood, 1999) as Heteropternis partita (Walker) which according to OSF placed under Heteropternis thoracica. Comparison of measurements showed that a marked difference of 29mm was found in tegmen length that may be because of ecological variations.

Measurements 5 (mm)

Female: Body length, 24-30, pronotum length, 5-5.4, tegmen length, 25-26, hind femur length,14-16, tibial length11.3-12,.

Material examined

3 Kahuta 4270 ft 3353'50.76" N 7406'30.76"E (Muzaffar) 6.8.2010, 11 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (Tamoor) 6.8.2010; 3 Plandri 4325ft 3342'45.55" N 7341'19.94"E (Saad) 3.8.2010.

Habitat

The specimens have been collected from grasses near road sides.

Distribution

Africa, Asia (Indian subcontinent)

Genus AIOLOPUS Fieber

Type species: Gryllus thalassinus Fabricius

Aiolopus thalassinus tamulus (Fabricius)

The collected specimens totally agree with published description (Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Mahmood, 1999; Azim et al., 2010; Usmani and Naeem, 2012) of this species.

Measurements 5 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 16.1-19, pronotum length, 4-4.1, tegmen length, 17-20, hind femur length, 3-4, tibial length, 9-11.

Female: Total body length,20.1-24, pronotum length, 4.2-5, tegmen length, 21.3-24.4, hind femur length, 12.4-13.3, tibial length, 11-11.3.

Material examined

7 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (Rehan)25,6,2010; 23 Mirpur 1500ft 3302'07.90" N 7350'46.17"E (A. Tamkeen) 26.9.2007; 1 2 Choch Kotli 2624ft 33.52N 73.29E (A. Tamkeen) 27.9.2007; 2 Smahni 3198ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E, 30 km in the North East of Mirpur (A. Tamkeen)14.8.2007; 1 Hajera 3111ft, 3346'17.96"N 7353'45.42"E 29 km in East of Rawalakot (A.Tamkeen)18.9.2008; 3 Dadyal 3198ft 3319'45.44" N 7341'56.87"E (A.Tamkeen) 9.10.2007.

Habitat

This species have been collected from pastures, range lands and bushes.

Distribution

Kashmir, India, U.S.S.R, tropical and subtropical of Old World.

Genus EPACROMIUS (Uvarov)

Type species: Gryllus tergestinus Charpentier

KEY TO THE LOCAL SPECIES OF GENUS EPACROMIUS

1. Empodium between tarsal claws large ................................................................................ coerulipes (Ivanov)

- Empodium between tarsal claws small ...................................................... tergestinus tergestinus (Charpentier) Epacromius coerulipes (Ivanov)

The collected specimens exactly similar with published description(Bei-Bienko And Mishchenko, 1951; Azim et al., 2010) of this species.

Measurements 1 and 1 (mm)

Male: Body length, 19, pronotum length, 4.5, tegmen length, 20, hind femur length, 11.1, tibial length, 10.

Female: Total body length, 26.2, pronotum length, 6.2, tegmen length, 25.1, hind femur length, 14.3, tibial length, 11.3.

Material examined

1 Smahni 3198ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E 30 km in the North East of Mirpur (A.Tamkeen) 20.9.2007;1 Tatta Pani 2237ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E, 29 km from Hajeera (A.Tamkeen) 4.10.2010.

Habitat

The specimens of this species have been collected from maize, dry grasses.

Distribution

India, Kashmir, Europe, Korea, Mongolia, Australia, Kazakhstan.

Epacromius tergestinus tergestinus (Charpentier) The 2 collected male specimens exactly tally with published description (Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951) of this species.

Measurements 2 (mm)

Male: Body length, 17-18.1, pronotum length,4, tegmen length,18-19.1,hind femur length,11.2-16, tibial length,9.2-10.

Material examined

2 Plandri 4325ft 3342'45.55" N 7341'19.94"E (A. Tamkeen) 8.10.2010.

Habitat

The given species have been collected from grasses and pastures.

Distribution

Kashmir, Japan, U.S.S.R.

Genus TRILOPHIDIA (StAl) Type species: Oedipoda cristella StAl

KEY TO THE LOCAL SPECIES OF GENUS TRILOPHIDIA

1. Wings transparent at the base, body black densely covered ventrally.annulata (Thunberg)

- Wings yellowish at base, body yellowish with sparse hairs ........................................................ turpis Walker Trilophidia annulata (Thunberg)

The collected specimens exactly tally with published description (Kirby, 1914; Wagan, 1990; Mahmood, 1995; Azim et al., 2010; Usmani et al., 2012) of this species.

Measurement 5 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 15-16.2, pronotum length, 4-5, tegmen length,16-17, hind femur length,9-10, tibial length,34-38.

Female: Total body length,16-29, pronotum length,4.5-5.5, tegmen length, 19.2-22, hind femur length, 10.3-11.2, tibial length, 42.2-45.

Material examined

4 Senhsa 2962 ft 3329'05.15" N 7354'22.15"E, 35 km from Kotli (A. Tamkeen) 4.10.2007; 3 Bagh 3781ft 3358'28.95" N 7347'29.49"E (A. Tamkeen)5.9.2008; 4 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (A. Tamkeen) 22 Kotli (A. Tamkeen)5.10.2010; 2 Tatta pani 2385 ft 3335'21.50" N 7356'17.89"E,29 km from Hajeera (A. Tamkeen) 5.10.2010; 11 Bagh 3781ft 3358'28.95" N 7347'29.49"E (A. Tamkeen) 20.10.2010; 4 Senhsa 2962 ft 3329'05.15" N 7354'22.15"E, 35 km from Kotli (A. Tamkeen)12.10.2008; 1 Dadyal 3198 ft 3319'45.44" N 7341'56.87"E (A. Tamkeen) 9.10.2007; 1 Mirpur 1500 ft 33.14N 73.77E; 20 Kotli 3280t 33.52N 73.29E; 1 Bhimber 1508 ft 3258'35.07" N 7404 '47.83"E, 50 km from Mirpur (A. Tamkeen) 10.10.2007; 5 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (A. Tamkeen); 2 Smahni 3198ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E; 30 km in the North East of Mirpur (A. Tamkeen) 8.9.2008;

1 Hajeera 3111ft 3346'17.96"N 7353'45.42"E 29 km in East of Rawalakot (A. Tamkeen) 4.10.2010; 3 Mirpur 1500ft 33.14N 73.77E (A. Tamkeen)5.10.2010.

Habitat

The specimens of this species have been collected from thorny vegetation and grasses.

Distribution

Pakistan, India, China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, South East Asia.

Trilophidia turpis (Walker)

Taxonomic note

The collected species totally agree with the published description (Kirby, 1914) with some exception in body measurements. According to Kirby our specimen key out in two species viz. Trilophidia annulata and Trilophidia turpis. Eades et al., 2011, have synonymised Trilophidia turpis under Trilophidia annulata. The DNA barcoding result has given a significant difference between these two species. Following the DNA barcoding difference we treat the Trilophidia turpis as valid species.

Measurements 4 and 5 (mm)

Male: Total body length, 15-16, pronotum length, 3.2-3.4, tegmen length,17-17.3, hind femur length, 9-10, tibial length, 8-8.3.

Female: Total body length, 17.2-21.3, pronotum length, 3.2-4.4, tegmen length, 17-19.4, hind femur length, 9.3-10.2, tibial length, 8-9.4 .

Material examined

11 Samahni 3198ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (A.Tamkeen) 8.9.2008; 1 Hejeera 3111ft 3346'17.96"N 7353'45.42"E 29 km in East of Rawalakot (A.Tamkeen) 4.10.2010; 1 Jatlan 1500 ft 3302'07.90" N 7350'46.17"E10 km from Mirpur (A.Tamkeen) 8.7.2007; 11 Bagh 3781ft 3358'28.95" N 7347'29.49"E (A.Tamkeen) 14.7.2008; 1 Kotli 2334 ft 3328'16.30" N 7352'57.41"E (A.Tamkeen) 5.10.2010; 2 Rawalakot 5500ft 3335'21.64" N 7356'17.89"E (Ansa Tamkeen) 8.10.2010.

Habitat

The specimens have been collected from thorny vegetation, maize and grassy fields.

Distribution

India, Kashmir.

Genus SPHINGONOTUS (SPHINGONOTUS)

Fieber

Type species: Gryllus caerulans Linnaeus

Sphingonotus (Sphingonotus) longipennis Saussure

The collected specimens exactly tally with published description (Kirby, 1914; Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Mahmood, 1999; Azim et al., 2010) of this species.

Measurements 5 and 5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 26-27.1, pronotum length, 5.4-6.3, tegmen length, 28.1-31, hind femur length, 13-14.3, tibial length, 11.2-11.4.

Female: Total body length, 25-34, pronotum length, 6-7.1, tegmen length, 25-36.4, hind femur length, 15-17.2, tibial length, 12.1-15.2 .

Material examined

13 7 Degwar 4592 ft (A. Tamkeen) 14.7.2008; 1 Kahuta 4270 ft, 3354'20.05"N 7406'27.73"E (A.Tamkeen) 14.7.2008.

Habitat

The specimens of this species have collected from the barren stony soil.

Distribution

Pakistan, India, Europe, Africa, Kashmir, Himalayas, Southeastern Tibet.

Genus LEPTOPTERNIS Saussure

Type species: Oedipoda gracilis Eversmann

Leptopternis gracilis (Eversmann)

The collected specimens agree with the published description (Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Mahmood, 1999; Azim et al., 2010) of this species.

Measurements 1 and5 (mm)

Male: Body length, 17, pronotum length, 3.2, tegmen length, 16, hind femur length, 10, tibial length, 9.

Female: Total body length, 22-23.4, pronotum length, 4-4.1, tegmen length, 19-20, hind femur length, 12-13, tibial length, 10-11.

Material examined

71 Kahuta 4270ft 3354'20.05"N 7406'27.73"E (A.Tamkeen) 14.7.2008.

Habitat

These species have been collected from pastures.

Distribution

Pakistan, India, Kashmir, Mongolia, Dzungaria to Sahara, U.S.S.R.

Genus: ACROTYLUS Fieber

Type species: Gryllus insubricus Scopoli

Acrotylus humbertianus Saussure

These species exactly tally with published description (Kirby, 1914; Bei-Bienko and Mishchenko, 1951; Wagan, 1990; Suhail, 1994; Mahmood and Yousuf, 1999; Azim et al., 2010) of this species. There were some minor differences in body measurements of male whereas a marked difference of 12.2mm in Female tegmen length was recorded.

Measurement 5 and 1 (mm)

Male: Body length, 16.3, pronotum length, 3.1, tegmen length, 18, hind femur length, 9.3, tibial length, 9.

Female: Total body length, 18.3-20.2, pronotum length, 3.3-5.2, tegmen length, 20-22.2, hind femur length, 11-14, tibial length, 9-11.5

Material examined

1 Dadyal 3198ft 3319'45.44" N 7341'56.87"E (A.Tamkeen) 9.10.2007, 1 Hajeera 3111ft 3346'17.96"N 7353'45.42"E 29 km from Rawalakot (A. Tamkeen) 4.10.2010; 4 Bagh 3781ft 3358'28.95" N 7347'29.49"E (A.Tamkeen) 14.7.2008, 2 Kotli 2334 ft 3328'16.30" N 7352'57.41"E (A.Tamkeen) 5.10.2010; 1 1 Mirpur 1500 ft 33.14N 73.77E (A.Tamkeen) 26.9.2007.

Habitat

The specimens of this species have been collected from barren fields having less vegetation along with the stream.

Distribution

Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka.

DISCUSSION

In the present study out of sixteen species thirteen species were present in Poonch, seven species were found in Mirpur and six species were found in Muzaffarabad division. Mahmood and Yousuf (1999) published 11 species of Oedipodinae from this area and in the present study number of the species of Oedipodinae raised to sixteen species. Nazir et al. (2014) also reported six species of Oedipodinae from Poonch division of Azad Kashmir which are Gastrimargus africanus africanus (Saussure, 1888), Gastrimargus africanus sulphureus (Bie-Bienko, 1951) Aiolopus thalassinus tamulus (Fabricius, 1798), Trilophidia japonica (Saussure, 1888), Trilophidia turpis (Walker, 1870), Sphingonotus longipennis (Saussure, 1884). Uvarov (1925) described the genus Heliethera of Oedipodinae from this region. Sphingonotus sindhensis sp. nov. reported from Sindh Province of Pakistan (Bughio et al., 2011). Bughio et al. (2012) also reported a new species of genus Heliethera from Balochistan province of Pakistan.

Bughio e t al. (2014) reported three species namely Aiolopus thalassinus thalassinus (Fabricius, 1781) A. thalassinus tamulus (Fabricius, 1798) and A. simulatrix simulatrix (Walker, 1870) for the first time from different provinces of Pakistan.

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Author:Tamkeen, Ansa; Mahmood, Khalid; Nazir, Naila
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Date:Aug 31, 2015
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