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Ocular Affections in Cattle - A Clinical Retrospective Study.

Abstract

The study was conducted on 128 cattle reported with ocular affections during a period of two years to determine the incidence and distribution of pattern. The incidence was 3.02 percent with crossbred mostly affected. Most of the animals were of age less than 5 years and female animals were found to be more prone to affections. Cornea and conjunctiva were noted as the most affected anatomical locations and corneal ulceration (15.6%) followed by conjunctivitis (11.7%) were the frequently diagnosed clinical conditions.

Keywords: Affection; cattle; eye; incidence.

Introduction

Vision impairment in livestock caused by various ocular affections leads to greater economic loss to farmers and indirectly to society. Eye is very sensitive organ, the function of which may be affected even with mild insult to its homeostasis, due to direct injury or due to other local or systemic diseases and hence studies on ocular affections may provide information on prevalence of ocular diseases and also help to limit diagnostic possibilities and treatment options (Andrade et al., 2005). On perusal of available literature documentations on ocular affections in cattle are found to be scanty (Mosbah, 2008 and Tamilmahan et al., 2013). Hence the objective of the present study was to record incidence and pattern of distribution of various types of ocular affections in cattle.

Material and Methods

A study was conducted on 128 clinical cases in cattle reported with ocular affections during 2013-15. The animal particulars viz. breed, age and sex were documented.

The complete history was obtained from the owner regarding probable etiological factors, time of occurrence of injury/disease, duration of clinical signs, progress of clinical signs, presence of any systemic diseases and medication undertaken.

Ocular examination was carried out after physical restraint of animals. In certain cases, animals were subjected to regional nerve blocks for eye examinaxtion using 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride solution and topical analgesia using 0.5% Proparacaine hydrochloride solution (Aurocaine (a)). Physical examination of eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea and sclera and clinical symptoms viz. photophobia, blepharospasm, ocular reflexes, discharge if any and extent corneal transparency were noted. Schirmer tear test was employed to measure reflex tear production in affected eye was estimated in mm of wetting on a paper strip (Visioaid (b)) as described by Grahn (2000). Fluorescein dye staining of corneal ulcer (Fluo Strips (c)) was performed to confirm presence of superficial ulcer (Image J Software, http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/), depending on pattern of spreading of dye between damaged tissues of cornea as described by Rosolen et al. (2009).

Results and Discussion

The incidence of ophthalmic conditions in cattle among the clinical cases presented during specific period was determined to be 3.02 percent. Tamilmahan et al. (2013) in a study reported incidence as 5.25 percent. Overall 44.9 percent of ophthalmic conditions diagnosed in the study had potential to develop in to impairment in vision, if not treated timely. In 9.5 percent of cases, animals were found to be having impaired vision on presentation. Crossbred cows were found to be mostly affected (82%) followed by calves (10%) and Hallikar bullocks (8%). In the present study, 53.13 percent of animals were aged less than 5 years and 9.38 percent of them recorded in calves. This is contrary to the observations or findings of Tamilmahan et al. (2013) who reported an increased incidence with age >5 years. Prashad and Joshi (1980) have reported an incidence of 52 percent in young grazing animals. Among side wise affections, left eye (48.4%) showed higher incidence than right eye (39.0%) and both eyes (12.5%) which is in agreement with that reported by Tamilmahan et al. (2013). Sex wise distribution indicated that female animals (92.2%) were highly affected than males. The most common etiology was found to be physical trauma except for congenital conditions. The clinical signs were shown for a period of 1-20 days and none of the animals were found to be suffering from any other systemic diseases nor were on any medication when presented.

The diagnosis of ocular affections was based on clinical examination and manipulation in most cases and to a less extent, on the use of diagnostic aids. Among various eye affections, highest percentage of prevalence was corneal ulceration (15.6%) followed by conjunctivitis (11.7%), corneal opacity (10.2%), congenital affections (blindness, dermoid), neoplasia (7.8% each), injured eyelids, orbital affections, keratitis, hyphema (7.2% each), pannus (4%), hypopyon, descemetocele, uveitis (2.3% each), luxation of lens, exophthalmos, eye worm, panophthalmia (1.6% each) and posterior synechia (0.8%).

Mosbah (2008) reported congenital anomalies viz. lateral convergent strabismus with exophthalmos and panophthalmitis and acquired conditions viz. conjunctivitis, keratitis, lacerations of the eyelids, punctured wounds of eyelids, hyphema, sub-conjunctival lower eyelid abscess, bilateral prolapse of third eyelid, nodular conjunctival lesion after lumpy skin disease, foreign body in cornea, perforating corneal wounds and buphthalmos in cattle. Gharagozlou et al.,(2007) also reported similar observations in cattle. Tamilmahan et al. (2013) reported corneal opacity as highest prevalent eye affection in cattle (28.57%) whereas Mosbah (2008) stated Infectious Bovine Keratoconjuctivitis (19.44%). In this study, the ocular affections were managed either medically or surgically following standard procedures. No treatment was advised in cases of exophthalmos, luxation of lens and posterior synechia. In all other cases, the success rate was variable

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to The Dean, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Pondicherry for facilities provided to conduct the study.

References

Andrade, S.F., Goncahes, I.N. and Junior, M.M.A. (2005). Evaluation of Schimer tear test with the use of melting filter paper prudente. Clinica Veterinaria 10: 34-36.

Gharagozlou, M. J., Hekmat, P. and Ashrafihelan, J. (2007). A clinical and histopathological study of ocular neoplasms in dairy cattle. Vet. Arhiv. 77: 409-26.

Grahn, B. (2000). Clinical examination of the visual system in Veterinary Clinical Examination and Diagnosis. WB Saunders. p. 543-59.

Mosbah, E. (2008). Surgical management of some ocular affections in domestic animals. Suez Canal Vet. Med. J. 13: 601-24.

Prashad, J. and Joshi, S.V. (1980). Studies of clinicopathics of grazing animals in tropics corneal opacity syndrome. Recommended under different geographical location. Indian Vet J. 57: 810-15.

Rosolen, S.G., Multari, D., Woods, M. and Jongh, O. (2009). Small Animal Ophthalmology - A Problem Oriented Approach, 4th Edn., Peiffer Jr. R.L. (ed). Elsevier. p. 14-16.

Tamilmahan, P., Zama, M.M.S., Rekha Pathak, Muneeswaran, N.S. and Karthik, K. (2013). A retrospective study of ocular occurrence in domestic animals - 799 cases. Vet. World. 10: 274-76.

T.P. Balagopalan (1), N. Aruljothi., R.M.D. Alphonse and B. Ramesh Kumar

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology

Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research (RIVER)

Puducherry - 605009 (Puducherry)

(1.) Associate Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail: drtpbalagopalan@rediffmail.com

(a) - Brand of Aurolab Ltd., Mumbai

(b) - Brand of Savavet Healthcare Ltd., Pune

(c) - Brand of Contacare Ophthalmics & Diagnostics, Gujarat
Table 1. Classification of ocular affections based on anatomical
locations

Anatomical                         Affections
location

Eyelids       Lacerated wound, Blepharospasm, Blepharitis, Neoplasia
              (Papilloma)
Conjunctiva   Acute/chronic conjunctivitis (Fig.1), Neoplasia (squamous
              cell carcinoma - Fig. 2)
Cornea        Dermoid (Fig. 3) , Keratitis, Corneal opacity, corneal
              oedema, superficial corneal ulcers, Descemetocele (Fig.4)
Eyeball       Exophthalmos (Fig. 5), Panophthalmia (Fig. 6)
Anterior      Hyphema, Hypopyon, uveitis, Luxation of lens (Fig. 7),
chamber       Posterior synechia (Fig. 8) and worm.
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Balagopalan, T.P.; Aruljothi, N.; Alphonse, R.M.D.; Kumar, B. Ramesh
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2016
Words:1217
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