Printer Friendly

Occult Orbital Injury with Dagger Fragment with Resulting Pneumocephalus.

1. Introduction

Traumatic eye injuries due to retained large foreign bodies are rare [1]. Eyelid or periocular wounds may be the only initial clinical sign of a penetrating orbitocranial foreign body [2]. Retained orbital dagger fragments are rare [3-11]; we present a case in which an unnoticed dagger fragment, only detected byimage tests, caused eyeball perforation and orbital fracture with pneumocephalus. Transorbital penetrating brain injury with open globe is an unusual occurrence, representing about 0.4% of all head injuries [12]. We report a young male with an intraorbital fragment of a dagger after being aggressed. Early suspicious of intracranial damage and surgical removal of the foreign body are necessary to prevent potential complications [13-15].

2. Case Presentation

A 25-year-old male patient presented to emergency department after an assault with an incise wound in the external canthus of the left eye and severe alcohol intoxication, which prevented history taking. The physical exam of the ocular globe was not possible due to the large hematoma that hindered opening the eyelid. The exploration of right eye was normal. Therefore, the skin wound was initially sutured with a polypropylene 5/0 interrupted suture and an orbital computed tomography (CT scan) and skull X-ray were performed. An intraorbital foreign body with triangular shape of 4.6 cm x 2 cm was seen in the left orbit, passing through the orbit and the ocular globe, fracturing the superomedial wall of the orbit, with a probable associated fracture of the ethmoidal cells, and reaching the anterior cranial fossa, causing pneumocephalus (Figures 1 and 2). The patient did not present any neurological symptoms beyond his alcohol intoxication nor did he develop rhinorrhea at any time, and the Glasgow Coma Scale/Score was normal (15/15). He remained under observation and was treated with intravenous antibiotic (ciprofloxacin 200 mg twice daily, for fivedays, selected duetoits broad spectrumfor gram negative and positive) and corticosteroids (methylprednisolone 80 mg per day for 3 days). Surgical extraction was performed. The foreign body turned out to be a fragment of a dagger. The extraction was done locating the end of the foreign body after removing the suture of the wound and disinserting the lower eyelid to have a wider surgical field. The foreign boy was carefully extracted without exerting force. It was then possible to see a corneoscleral wound 2 cm long affecting the upper cornea 7 mm and the sclera 8 mm located from 9 to 2 o'clock positions. It was closed with nylon 10/0 suture and polyglactin 910 7/0 suture. The entrance area in the orbit was revised, with special attention to the upper nasal quadrant, ruling outthe need for repair by neurosurgery (Figure 3). One week after the surgery, the cornea was transparent, but there were amaurosis, hemophthalmos, and hypotony (Figure 4). The patient remained painless. Evolution to phthisis bulbi was evident, with clouding and folds in the cornea, shrinkage of the eyeball and a very soft tone, and six months later the eye was eviscerated. Two years later there were no signs of sympathetic ophthalmia in the right eye, whose examination remained completely normal.

3. Discussion

Penetrating orbitocranial injuries by nonmissile low velocity particlesare quiteuncommoninthe literature [16 ]. Traumatic eye injuries due to large retained foreign bodies are even more unusual with only a few cases of a retained knife affecting the orbit [3-11]. Only one case of an intraorbital retained knife undetected during external examination and diagnosed by image tests has been reported [3]. The visual prognosis is often poor in these cases because of severe ocular damage. Suspicion is critical in the diagnosis of a hidden foreign body. In such cases the diagnosis maybe delayed until complications develop weeks or months later [2, 3, 7, 8,12].

In penetrating orbital injuries it is mandatory to rule out associated intracranial problems. The frontal lobe is the one most commonly affected in orbitocranial injuries; in most cases the foreign body will penetrate over and vertically through the orbital roof. This can be explained because most patients extend their head backwards during injury [1]. In this case, the foreign body turned out to be a fragment of a dagger, as suggested by CT scan and X-ray images (Figure 2). The fracture of the steel could have been caused by the force of the aggressor in the attack and the leverage against the outer orbital rim after the distal end of the dagger became encased in the upper nasal quadrant of the orbit.

In the treatment, hemodynamic stabilization and treatment of neurologic lesions are a priority. With regard to the eye, the initial steps are directed toward removing the foreign body and repairing the ocular damage, although both may be difficult and will not improve vision. In the current case, the removal of the foreign body caused a massive escape of intraocular contents; nevertheless, surgical reconstruction was performed. The optimal management is controversial, but evisceration seems to be an effective and safe procedure with a low risk of sympathetic ophthalmia. The prognosis of such trauma can be quite promising in cases where there are no serious complications.

In conclusion, when ruling out the possibility of an intraorbital foreign body, it is essential to perform image tests. Most foreign bodies, with the exception of wood, are detected by orbital CT scan. In our case, external signs did not suggest the presence of a foreign body, making the orbital CT scan the key tool in the diagnosis. Suspicion is critical in the diagnosis of a hidden foreign body.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5093417

Ethical Approval

All works are conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964).

Consent

Consent for publication of ophthalmic images was obtained from the patient.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.

References

[1] A. S. Orbay, O. A. Uysal, O. Iyigun, D. Erkan, and F. Guldogus, "Unusual penetrating faciocranial injury caused by a knife: A case report," Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 279-281, 1997

[2] J. D. Bullock, R. E. Warwar, G. B. Bartley, R. R. Waller, and J. W. Henderson, "Unusual orbital foreign bodies," Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 44-51, 1999.

[3] K. F. Lee and S. R. Lin, "Unusual penetrating injury of the orbit. Case report.," American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 349-351, 1971.

[4] S. Ballim, B. Gundry, S. Mahomed, and L. Visser, "Intra-orbital knife blade foreign body: A case series," South African Journal of Surgery, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 134-137, 2013.

[5] R. B. Saxena and P. Matalia, "Retained foreign body in orbitomaxillary region.," Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 38-39, 1976.

[6] M. Subasi, M. P Cakar-Ozdal, P. Naljacioglu-Yuksekkaya, and A. Alakus, "Management of an orbitocranial knife injury: a case report," The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 184-186, 2012.

[7] M. A. Rana, A. Alharthy, W. T. Aletreby, B. Huwait, and A. Kulshrestha, "Transorbital Stab Injury with Retained Knife: A Narrow Escape," Case Reports in Critical Care, vol. 2014, Article ID 754053, 5 pages, 2014.

[8] A. M. de Matos Bourguignon Filho, A. A. C. Puppin, D. P. Pimentel et al., "Unusual penetrating orbit injury," International Journal ofOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 92-93, 2006.

[9] F. H. Chowdhury, M. R. Haque, Z. Hossain, N. K. Chowdhury, S. M. Alam, and M. H. Sarker, "Nonmissile Penetrating Injury to the Head: Experience with 17 Cases," World Neurosurgery, vol. 94, pp. 529-543, 2016.

[10] S. Chibbaro and L. Tacconi, "Orbito-cranial injuries caused by penetrating non-missile foreign bodies. Experience with eighteen patients," Acta Neurochirurgica, vol. 148, no. 9, pp. 937-942, 2006.

[11] N. Subburaman, K. Sivabalan, M. Ramachandran, and D. Chandrasekhar, "Impacted knife injury of the orbit, maxilla and oropharynx," Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 347-350, 2005.

[12] W. S. Paiva, B. Monaco, M. Prudente et al., "Surgical treatment of a transorbital penetrating brain injury," Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1103-1105, 2010.

[13] A. Abdulbaki, F. Al-Otaibi, A. Almalki, N. Alohaly, and S. Baeesa, "Transorbital Craniocerebral Occult Penetrating Injury with Cerebral Abscess Complication," Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 742186, 6 pages, 2012.

[14] S. E. Bayramoglu, N. Sayin, M. Erdogan, D. Yildiz Ekinci, N. Uzunlulu, and Z. Bayramoglu, "Delayed diagnosis of an intraorbital wooden foreign body," Orbit (London), pp. 1-4, 2018.

[15] F. Al-Otaibi and S. Baeesa, "Occult Orbitocranial Penetrating Pencil Injury in a Child," Case Reports in Surgery, vol. 2012, Article ID 716791, 4 pages, 2012.

[16] J. M. Mzimbiri, J. Li, M. A. Bajawi, S. Lan, F. Chen, and J. Liu, "Orbitocranial Low-Velocity Penetrating Injury: A Personal Experience, Case Series, Review of the literature, and Proposed Management Plan," World Neurosurgery, vol. 87, pp. 26-34, 2016.

Lucia Janez-Garcia, Enrique Mencia-Gutierrez [ID], Esperanza Gutierrez-Diaz, Luis F. Moreno-Garcia-Rubio, Laura Zarratea-Herreros, Alvaro Bengoa-Gonzalez, and Silvia Perez-Trigo [ID]

Ophthalmology Department, 12 de Octubre Hospital, Complutense University, 28041 Madrid, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Enrique Mencia-Gutierrez; emencia.hdoc@salud.madrid.org

Received 19 March 2018; Revised 13 August 2018; Accepted 3 September 2018; Published 18 September 2018

Academic Editor: Alexander A. Bialasiewicz

Caption: FIGURE 1: (a) Cranial X-ray showed a fragment of a dagger located intraorbitally in the superior and nasal quadrant and intracranially in the ethmoidal sinus in left site (including ruler for measurement). (b) The CT scans showed an intraorbital and intracranial foreign body of 4.6 cm x 2 cm in the left site.

Caption: FIGURE 2: CT scans showing intraorbital foreign body with triangular shape of 4.6 cm x 2 cm in the left orbit, passing through the orbit and the ocular globe, fracturing the superomedial wall of the orbit, with a probable associated fracture of the ethmoidal cells, and reaching the anterior cranial fossa, causing pneumocephalus (marked by asterisks).

Caption: FIGURE 3: Disinsertion of the lower eyelid. The foreign body turned out to be a fragment of a dagger.

Caption: FIGURE 4: (a) and (b) Result in the immediate postoperative period is shown. The eyeball had a normal tone and the upper eyelid had a good aesthetic appearance.
COPYRIGHT 2018 Hindawi Limited
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Case Report
Author:Janez-Garcia, Lucia; Mencia-Gutierrez, Enrique; Gutierrez-Diaz, Esperanza; Moreno-Garcia-Rubio, Luis
Publication:Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Date:Jan 1, 2018
Words:1696
Previous Article:Management of Congenital Clinical Anophthalmos with Orbital Cyst: A Kinshasa Case Report.
Next Article:Bilateral Diffuse and Cluster Pigment Epithelial Detachment Associated with Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |