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Observando aves en el Peru: 1963-2006.

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006

Introduction

As a teacher of Biology and German language at the Colegio Pestalozzi in Lima, the author lived in Peru from 1963 to 1973. Fascinated by the extraordinary diversity of Peruvian birdlife, he dedicated a large part of his spare time to birdwatching. He was lucky to count on the support of Maria Koepcke, a pioneering ornithologist of Peru. The author met her regularly at the Museum of Natural History to discuss his newest sightings. Travelling the Peruvian territory by all means of transports (and often by foot), he always had his binoculars and his notebook to hand. Although his interest covered all aspects of birdlife, he focused his attention on behavior related to reproduction, including vocal emissions, courting, nest-building, breeding and caring for the young.--Since returning to live in Switzerland in 1973, he has visited Peru several times, always aiming to enlarge his knowledge of the Peruvian birds.

In 2009 encouraged by Manuel Plenge, the author began to select and process the large amount of data, photos and drawings in order to prepare this publication. This paper reports on the main sighting and observations on 319 Peruvian birds made between 1963 and 2006.

Material and methods

This work follows the taxonomy and the order given in the List of the Birds of Peru by Manuel Plenge (2010). Species which were difficult to distinguish in the field have been excluded. Subspecies have not been considered.

Vertical distribution: In a considerable number of species the records of minimum and maximum altitude exceed the data of Birds of Peru (2007), referred to as BP; these figures are highlightend in bold, so are records concerning reproduction, as song activities, courting, nest-building, breeding etc.

Vocal emissions: It was adopted the standards used in BP in a slightly simplified form. Due to the difficulty of transforming birds' voices from the German to the English phonetic system, my notes differ in many cases from the ones given in BP.

Sites indicated as south/north of Lima are within a range of 20 km of Lima City. Lima City is referred to as urban Lima. Lima refers to the Department of Lima. Districts of Lima are identified with a slash, e.g. La Victoria/Lima. Sites without altitude indication are below 200 m.

Photos and sketches by the author if not declared otherwise.
Glossary

lomas:      fog vegetation area
totoral:    community of Typha and Scirpus
gramadal:   community of Distichlis and Sporobolus
quebrada:   ravine; small tributary valleys of the Andes

Abbreviations

ad(s).    adult(s)
alt.      altitude
ca.       circa/approximatly
ind(s).   individual(s)
juv(s).   juvenile(s)
occ.      occasion/occasionally
NP        North Peru
CP        Central Peru
SP        South Peru


Results

TINAMIFORMES

TINAMIDAE

1. Nothoprocta ornata

02/05/1964. Near Corpacancha, Junin, 4400 m: Group of about 6 inds. in open Puna grassland.

04/12/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4000 m: Ind. in open Polylepis wood.

29/06/1969. Watershed between Concepcion and Comas, Junin, 4100 m: Group of 4 inds. in Puna grassland.

28/09/1970. Between Coracora and Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3500 m: Several sightings in Puna grassland and barren rocky slope. When flushed, they emit a high-pitched di'di'di.

2. Nothoprocta pentlandii

Sightings

NP: Lambayeque (between Olmos and Abra Porculla), 600 m.

CP: Coastal Valleys of Lima: Huaura 3000-3600 m, Rimac 1900-3000 m, Santa Eulalia 3000-3600 m, Mala 3500 m; most sightings around 3000 m.

Habitat.- Semi-arid to humid montane scrub, humid montane forest, patches of agricultural areas; once in an Eucalyptus grove.

16/06/1963. Above San Bartolome, Rimac Valley, Lima, 1900 m: 2 inds. flushed on the steep, scrub-covered slope. They hide some 200 m away. A third ind. with at least 6 young in tow stops after a few hurried steps. With its crest raised it emits a soft call. The young respond to the luring ad. running for a short distance, then suddenly freezing for a while (virtually becoming invisible) before starting to run again.

26/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3600 m: Several ind. in montane scrub. In the afternoon (16:30), several inds. call simultaneously: a soft., melodic tshewit.

08/06/1967. Chiuchin, Huaura Valley, Lima, 3000-3600 m: Several sightings in dense montane scrub with open, grass-covered patches; several young in different stages of development (Fig. 1).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

3. Tinamotis pentlandii

Two voice records, no sightings.

26/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4700 m: Very conspicuous song in a barren, scree-strewn landscape above Polylepis wood: kee...kiaw; first syllable hoarse and prolonged. Several separate inds. calling in chorus: As soon as an ind. starts, it is joined by the others. The song may last several minutes. When approached, they fall silent.

09/09/1969. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima. 3800 m: Slope with low scrub, scree and dispersed boulders. Chorus song between 7 and 9 am kewa'kewa'kewa. It begins all of a sudden, lasts several minutes and ends as abruptly as it had begun. The birds remain invisible.

ANSERIFORMES

ANHIMIDAE

4. Anhima cornuta

19/01/1965. Rio Huallaga between Yurimaguas and mouth of Rio Maranon, Loreto: Pair on a sandy beach.

29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, ca. 50 km north of Pucallpa, Ucayali: During a 6 hour-trip by boat about 12 ind. mostly in pairs; most numerous on the shore of a swampy oxbow lake; occ. song.

Anatidae

5. Chloephaga melanoptera

Sightings

CP: Ancash 4000-4300 m, Lima 3900-4500 m, Junin 4100-4500 m, Ayacucho 4000 m

SP: Ayacucho 3300/4200 m, Arequipa 4200 m, Cusco 4100 m, Puno 4000-4900 m

Lowest record: Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300 m; highest record: Ananaea, Puno 4900 m.

Behavior.- Mostly in pairs or small groups (as stated in BP) but also gathering in large numbers, as shown in the following records:

26-29/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash, 4050 m: About 200 ind. sighted on both days.

08/06/1968. Between Puquio and Chalhuanca, Ayacucho, 4200 m: Very numerous.

28-29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas near Incahuasi, Ayacucho, 3300 m: Hundreds of ind.; often in pairs or groups of different sizes.

17/07/1976. Between El Puerto Pass and Ocongate, Cusco, 4100 m: Very numerous.

12/07/1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, Lima/Junin, 4200 m: Extraordinary numerous; forming pairs even when gathered in great numbers.

11/03/2003. Between Arequipa and Puno, 4000-4300 m: In large numbers at different locations.

6. Merganetta armata

Behavior.- Males often climb rocks and boulders using their stiff tails for support (Fjeldsa et al. 1990) in midstream or on riverbanks (possibly to express territorial claims).

21/07/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Male flying upstream.

29/02/1964. Mala Valley, Lima, 1400 m: Male standing on a pebble in shallow water. He glides into the water, first swimming upstreams along the riverbank then getting caught by the strong current, drifting downstream. Occ. he disappears in the turbulent waters, suddenly popping up again like a cork. Twice he niftily climbs up a boulder at rivers edge. Meanwhile, a female appears at the same place, where I had discovered the male before.- 500 m upstream another female is sighted, swimming in midstream.

15/05/1965. Santa Cruz de Laya, Lurin Valley, Lima, 2000 m: 4 inds. (2 males and 2 females) in a gorge of the fast flowing Rio Lurin. They are engaged in a courting ritual (Fig. 2). The males bob their heads back and forth and approach the females in an agressive manner. There is occ. a hissing sound, probably emitted by the males. Finally they withdraw, some flying, some swimming--even diving--against the stream.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

18/07/1965. Pair at the same place; very shy. There is probably a breeding place at the upper end of the gorge, where there are many holes and crevices. Boulders and rocks are marked with droppings.

26/03/1966. Beneath Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, 3300 m: Male flying downstream, passing beneath a small bridge.

09/12/1972. Rio Maranon, near La Union, Huanuco, 3000 m: Male swimming along the river bank against the strong current, occ. by diving. On one occ. he climbs momentarily on a protruding rock.

14/07/1988. Achoma, Colca Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m: 5-7 inds. on a stretch of about 1 km of the Rio Colca; there are fast and quiet flowing sections. Among the sighted inds. are two pairs. Male and female elevate together when flushed.--Behavior of a single male: He swims, dives and occ. perches on one of the many polished, volcanic boulders in and along the stream. In one occ. he climbs a 1,50 m high boulder and slips down again in the next instant. For several minutes he stays on the calm side of a big boulder in midstream, foraging on algae, which cover the wet part of the rock.

7. Lophonetta specularioides

Sightings

CP: Ancash: Santa Valley (Lagunas Conococha 4050 m, Pachacoto 4000 m, Yanganuco 3900 m); Lima: Huaura Valley 4000/4800 m, Chancay Valley 4300 m; Junin 4200-4400 m

SP: Ayacucho: Laguna Parinacochas 3300 m (on freshwater pond alongside the alkaline lake)

Behavior.- Predominantly on standing water (lakes, lagoons, ponds); on one occ. in a slow flowing stream. Mostly in pairs. Larger gatherings (up to two dozens) at the following sites:

26+29/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash 4050 m.

29/06/1969+12/07/1979. Between Concepcion and Comas, Junin, 4400 m.

29/11/1972. Chancay Valley, Laguna Aguashuman, Lima, 4300 m.

07/07/1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, Junin, 4200 m.

8. Anas flavirostris

Sightings

CP: Ancash 3900/4050 m (Fig.3), Lima 4000-4300 m, Junin 4100-4400 m

SP: Ayacucho 3300 m, Apurimac 2700 m (Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama, north of Andahuaylas), Cusco 2800-3600 m, 3800-4300/4800 m.

28-29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300m: Hundreds - maybe exceeding one thousand--on the alkaline lake itself, its tributaries, on the shore and on small freshwater ponds.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

23/07/1988. Laguna Lucre, southwest of Cusco, 3100 m: Very numerous. An isolated group of 5 inds. is engaged in a courting display: They are eagerly swimming around in a muddled crisscross . Occ. some ind. (probably males) rise steeply out of the water, first with their head lowered to the breast, then stretching it with nape feathers raised, making the head look larger. Some are simultaneously flapping their wings. Others dip their heads into the water, then shake their plumage--as they do when bathing.

9. Anas georgica

Sightings/Behavior

CP: Junin 4200-4400 m, Ancash 4050 m, Lima 4300/4500 m.

SP: Arequipa sealevel, Puno 3800/3900 m, Cusco 3600 m.

Mostly in pairs or small groups; occ. in larger numbers.

30/04/1967. Between Carhuacayan and Junin, Junin, 4300 m: Very numerous on a medium sized lagoon.

03/02/1972. Camana, Arequipa: At least 20 inds. on a long stretched lagoon in a mixed group with Anas bahamensis.

07/07/1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, Junin, 4200 m: Numerous on different lagoons.

12/07/1979. Between Concepcion and Comas; Junin, 4400 m: Numerous.

18/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Pair with 3 young on a shallow lagoon, about 300 m long and 20-30 m wide. One third is covered with reed and totora, the rest with floating waterweed. The family group goes instantly into hiding.

12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Quite common on the totora covered part of the bay of Puno; always in pairs.

10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Rio Pachacoto, Ancash, ca. 4000 m: Not present on the Laguna Patacocha but in adjacent flooded area with small lagoons; groups of 3-4 inds. Three ads. with 5 dark grey young.

10. Anas bahamensis

Sightings.- From Tumbes to Arequipa; in small numbers on coastal lagoons of Lima (Villa, Chilca, Puerto Viejo).

06/01/1964. Rio Viru, Lambayeque: 30-40 pairs on the lagoon at the mouth of the river.

22/11/1966. Between San Juan and Villa, south of Lima: About 50 inds. in a mixed group with Anas discors in the middle of a lagoon formed recently by irrigation. Occ. they rise together for a short 'flight show' over the lagoon.

11/01/1972. Bay of Paracas, Ica: About 50 inds. on a mudflat in company of Phoenicopterus chilensis.

03/02/1972. Camana, Arequipa: Very numerous on a long stretched lagoon in a mixed group with Anas georgica.

27/07/1979. El Salto north of Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: 16 inds. on a marshy lagoon at the edge of a mangrove thicket.

11. Anas puna

Sightings

CP: Ancash 4050 m, Junin 4100-4400 m, Huancavelica 4300 m.

SP: Cusco 3100/3600 m, Puno: 3800-4300 m.

20-27/01/1972. Near Putina north of Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3900-4000 m: Next to Anas flavirostris the most numerous duck of the region. Ad. with young on Laguna de Checayani.

18/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Two pairs on a long stretched, shallow lagoon, one third covered with totora and reed, the rest with floating waterweed. When foraging they dip their bills, at most their heads, into the food-loaded water, humming along softly. They 'grumble' when alarmed.

12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Common in the bay of Puno; often in pairs or small groups (4-5 inds.), on one occ. pair with 5 young.

12. Anas discors

Boreal migrant

22/02/1964. Paracas, Ica: 150-200 inds. in a shallow bay; they rest on the shore or swim close to it.

11/03/1964. Laguna Villa, south of Lima: In the afternoon they leave the totoral by and by. At 6 pm there are at least 10 inds. (4 males) swimming in open water.

09/12/1964. Lagunas de Chilca, south of Lima: On two small lagoons 3 resp. 1 ind.

17/01/1966. Lagoon near Piura: Very numerous.

22/11/1966. Between San Juan and Villa, Lima: About 40 inds. on a newly formed lagoon by irrigiation in a mixed group with Anas bahamensis. Occ. they rise together for a short 'flight show' over the lagoon.

11/01/1967. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: 9 inds. on a small lagoon.

13. Anas cyanoptera

18/07/1988. Between Urubamba and Ollantaytambo, Cusco, 2800 m: Extended marshland with a shallow lagoon at the edge of Rio Urubamba: Group of 3 males and 4 females engaged in a courting display. A male begins by moving his head up and down in front of a female at a distance of 20-30 cm. The female responds in the same way. A male about 1 m away participates in a 'contained' manner. The other females are seemingly not interested. There are occ. short persecution runs.

23/07/1988. Laguna Lucre southwest of Cusco, 3100 m: 2 pairs.

14. Oxyura jamaicensis

28/06/1965. Laguna Yanganuco, Ancash, 3900 m: A single male in open water.

30/04/1967. Lago de Junin, 4100 m: Male near shore; escapes by diving.

19/06/1968. Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama, north of Andahuaylas, Apurimac, 2700 m: About 12 inds. on the shallow, algae-infested lagoon; no totora.

27/04/1969. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima: Laguna Milloc (4300 m) about 20 inds. on the shallow lagoon; the majority in a sleeping position (7:30 am), some are straightening their plumage.--Quite numerous on a small but deep lagoon (4500 m).

29/01/1972. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Rather numerous in the bay of Puno; two or three together, often in company of Fulica ardesiaca.

12/07/1979. Between Concepcion and Comas, Junin, 4400 m: Several inds. in company of other waterfowl.

12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Common in the bay of Puno; numerous young in different stages of development. Nest with clutch (belonging to O. jamaicensis according to a native guide) in totora thicket: Platform of about 20 cm in diam. Two cream coloured eggs with irregular darkbrown streaks. Measures: 51x83/50x81 mm.

PODICIPEDIFORMES

PODICIPEDIDAE

15. Rollandia rolland

Sightings

CP: Lima coast/4300 m, Junin 3400/4100 m.

SP: Apurimac 2700 m (> 19.06.68), Cusco 3100/3600 m, Puno 3800/3900m.

Regularly on the coastal lagoons of Lima: Chilca (4x), Conchan (4x), Puerto Viejo (2x), Villa (1x), Cerro Azul (1x).

27/11/1963. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: 4 ads. and 1 juv. on one of the many small lagoons.

09/12/1964. Same place: 8-10 ads. on different lagoons, 1 juv.

19/12/1967. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Pair with 3 juvs.

19/06/1968. Laguna Huampica, Hda. Toxama, Andahuaylas, Apurimac, 2700 m: Several ads. and some juvs. on the shallow, algae-infested lagoon.

20-27/01/1972. Putina-Munani, Puno, 3900 m: Fairly common on the many lagoons of the region; some juvs.

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo: Fairly numerous; 12 inds. on a single lagoon; ads. with juvs.

12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Fairly common in the bay of Puno (even in the polluted part of it); singles, pairs, juvs.

16. Rollandia microptera

12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: On a 5-hour-trip by boat in the bay of Puno we sighted 5-6 single ind.

17. Podilymbus podiceps

Sightings

NP: Lambayeque: On the river mouth lagoons of Rio Jequetepeque (Cajamarca) and Rio Viru (La Libertad).

CP: On the coastal lagoons of Lima: Between San Juan and Villa (2x), Conchan (2x), on the river mouth lagoon of Rio Mala (1x).

18. Podiceps occipitalis

Sightings/Habitat.- Most sightings in the La Viuda-Region (Upper Santa Eulalia Valley and Pampa de Junin) 4300-4700 m: 1-6 inds. in different habitats: On a deep water lagoon in a barren, rocky environment as well as on shallow lagoons in Puna grassland.

Sightings outside La Viuda-Region:

30/07/1966. Laguna Sausacocha near Huamachuco, La Libertad, 3100 m: Pair.

19/06/1966. Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama, Andahuaylas, Apurimac, 2700 m: Several ads., some with young on the small, shallow, algae-infested lagoon.

July 1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, 4200 m and between Concepcion and Comas, 4400 m, Junin: Present on different lagoons.

PHOENICOPTERIFORMES

PHEONICOPTERIDAE

19. Phoenicopterus ruber

26/02/1965. Paracas, Ica: 2 inds.

24-26/02/1966. Same Place: Daily in varying numbers (1-6 inds.).

13/02/1970. Same Place: 9 inds.

28-29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300 m: Probably several thousands on the shallow, alkaline lake. They are dispersed over the whole lake with a strong concentration near Incahuasi. At the end of the dry season, the lake has reached a very low level. There are numerous immature inds. Voice: a hoarse, gooselike gaggle, emitted especially early in the morning. Their movements are perfectly coordinated. When approached, they all behave like one ind.: They start moving together, change the direction together. Hundreds take flight at the same moment. In flight they form flocks of 20-30 ind. They spend the night standing on one leg on the mudflat.

11/01/1972. Paracas, Ica: 400-500 inds. in loose groups, about 1/3 immature. About 100 inds. have settled on the shore.

18-29/01/1972. Puno-Juliaca-Putina-Munani, Puno, 3800-4000

m: Present in flocks of up to 40 inds. on several of the many lagoons of the region; two small flocks in the bay of Puno.

08-09/07/1988. Paracas, Ica: In groups of 6-15 inds., together less then 100 ind. When taking flight, they emit hoarse, coughing calls.

13/07/1988. Between Arequipa and Chivay, Arequipa, 4200 m: 9 inds. in extended marshland with countless lagoons.

12/03/2003. Between Arequipa and Puno, 4200 m: Small flock on a lagoon in Puna grassland.

SPHENISCIFORMES

SPHENISCIDAE

20. Spheniscus humboldti

4-5/01/1964. Between Paramonga and Huarmey, Ancash: At least a dozen inds. in an isolated bay enclosed by vertical cliffs. On both days 3 or 4 inds. are cavorting in the water, while the rest is on shore at the entrance (possibly also in the interior) of a cave. At 6.30 am all are engaged in 'body-cleaning', be it on shore or splashing in the water. The latter turn occ. onto their back, scratching their belly with one wing, a procedure they really seem to enjoy.

26/02/1965. Peninsula Paracas, Ica: 3 inds. at the base of a high cliff in peaceful company of about 300 sealions. One ind. swimming near the cliff in the rough surge.

12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Groups of 2 or 3 inds. swimming; pair only 500 m away form the port entrance.

25/02/1966. Same place as 26/02/1965: 8 resp. 4 inds. at two neighbouring bays in company of numerous sea lions. They perch motionless on boulders, warming up in the sun.

01/03/1970. Playa Caleta de Lobo, km 230, Panamericana Norte: Single ind. swimming close to the cliff line.

10-11/06/1972. Punta San Juan (protected area) between Nazca and Chala, Ica: The peninsula is a refuge to a major colony of S. humboldti. There are three seperate nesting sites (Fig. 4/5). According to the warden, there were 50-60 pairs breeding at the end of April. Considering the presence of only 40-50 young, it is evident, that the colony has been affected by the mass mortality of seabirds in the current year.

Site I is situated at the border of the plateau with about 25 nesting caves, placed side by side at the same level. The site is completly abandoned. There are two abandoned clutches with two eggs each; measures of one clutch: 57x75/54x71 mm. The caves are 15-30 cm high, 30-40 cm wide, 50-80 cm deep.

Site II consists of about 90 superposed nesting caves. It is situated at the foot of the plateau, protected by high cliffs (Fig. 6). There are about 40 young of different sizes (20-40 cm), forming small groups of up to 10 inds. Each group is in custody of an ad. In our presence the young cluster together (Fig. 7) or seek shelter in a nesting cave. Their 'plumage' is clogged with dirt and excrement. By bending forward, they eject their droppings in a sharp jet, regardless of their fellow young.--In the afternoon (4 pm) the ad. population is engaged in feeding the young. About 15 ads. are present, some climbing ashore, just returning from their hunting trip. The young communicate with a constant cheeping, the ad. respond with a ventriloquist-like grumbling or a strong trumpeting sound (probably alarmed by our presence). When they feel menaced, they herd the young to the entrance of a refuge at the base of the cliff. Feeding ceremony: 2 or 3 young snuggle up to an ad., whilst expressing their urgency to be fed with delicate bites. Then they force their bills sidewise into the slightly opend bill of the ad.

[FIGURE 4/5 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

Site III is--like site II--situated at the foot of the plateau and nearly inaccessible. It consists of about 12 nesting caves. We sighted 1 ad. and 3 young.

PROCELLARIIFORMES

PROCELLARIIDAE

21. Macronectes giganteus

12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Ind. swimming near the island.

22. Daption capense

12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Sporadic; ind. within the port area.

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Exhausted ind. on the beach (with no apparent injury).

23. Procellaria aequinoctialis

07/08/1976. Ancon, Lima: Ind. in the bay of Ancon approaches the shore up to 100 m, then rests for a while between the boats.

24. Puffinus griseus

12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Numerous; singles or in loose flocks.

Mass mortality of seabirds 1972:

29-30/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: P. griseus is heavily affected: On a 300 m-section of the beach there are 82 fresh carcasses; (2nd. place out of a total of 227 dead birds).

23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: No dead P. griseus in a total of 99 fresh carcasses on the 800 m long beach.

08/08/1972. Same place: 52 dead P. griseus out of a total of 312 carcasses (3rd place).

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: 2 dead inds.; only a few other carcasses.

04/08/1983. Playa Conchan: A few dead inds.

HYDROBATIDAE

25. Oceanodroma hornbyi

16/02/1972. Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Rimac Valley, Lima, 800 m: Injured ind. found in a garden; some of the outer primaries of one wing are missing. It dies four days later. Length: 23.5 cm (Fig. 8).

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

PELECANOIDIDAE

26. Pelecanoides garnotii

21/09/1965. Callao-Isla S.Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Numerous, but only singles.

PELECANIFORMES

PELECANIDAE

27. Pelecanus thagus

12/01/1972. Punta Lomas (protected area) between Nazca and Chala, Arequipa: Large breeding colony (according to the warden 28 000 birds). Some nests still contain eggs or recently hutched young (Fig. 9); the rest of the young shows different stages of development (Fig. 10-12). The older ones are left without parental protection. Exposed to the merciless sun, they try to cool temselves by panting constantly. If approached, they emit eerie croaking sounds. During our presence (11 am-2 pm) there are only a few feedings. (See also Phalocrocorax bougainvillii)

Mass mortality of seabirds 1972:

29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m section of the beach 2 dead P. thagus out of a total of 227 fresh carcasses.

23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: 15 dead inds. (one dying) out of a total of 99 fresh carcasses on the 800 m long beach (2nd place).

08/08/1972. Same place: 5 dead inds. out of 312 carcasses.

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: No dead P. thagus, only a few carcasses of other species.

SULIDAE

28. Sula nebouxi

22/02/1968. Between Casma and Tortugas, Ancash: About 6 inds. on a rocky reef together with Pelecanus thagus and Phalocrocorax gaimardi.

29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m long beach 5 dead inds. out of a total of 227 carcasses.

26/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Numerous on a long sandbank.

28/07/1979. Between Mancora and Zorritos, Tumbes: About 20 inds. on a cliff.

08/07/1988. Punta Pejerrey, Paracas, Ica: 2 inds. perched on a shipwreck.

31/03/2003. Tortugas, north of Casma, Ancash: Singles and small groups in flight over the bay.

29. Sula variegata

04-05/01/1964. Between Paramonga and Huarmey, Ancash: In the evening (until about 7 pm) there is an almost uninterrupted procession of S. variegata, Pelecanus thagus and Phalacrocorax bougainvillii northward. The birds are probably heading for their roosting place at the Punta Guanera of Huarmey. Between 5 and 6 pm several hundred inds. gather at a vertical cliff. They spend the night crowded on narrow ledges in company of a minority (10:1) of Phalocrocoraxgaimardi. The next morning at 6 am most of them are still in a sleeping position. Some are straightening their plumage, some are leaving the cliff, others are returning to it.

11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Very numerous on the cliffs and on the rocky reefs dispersed in the bay. They dive as singles or in groups. In contrast to the normally practiced method--dropping from the sky like arrows--they are performing a slightly different technique: Single birds rise in a curve to a moderate height, turn downward and hit the surface of the water in a flat angle. They rise again a few moments later. One ind. manages to perform 47 diving-flights in 5 minutes! (It had started before I began counting and it went on when I stopped counting).

29-30/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m long beach 97 dead inds.; 1st place out of a total of 227 fresh carcasses of other seabirds. It is the most numerous species on the site. On one occ. there is a mass gathering offshore with spectacular, kamikaze-like diving-flights.

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: 10 dead inds. (one dying) out of a total of 99 fresh carcasses (3rd place).

08/08/1972. Same place: 84 dead inds. out of 312 carcasses (2nd place).

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Only a few dead inds., one dying.

08/07/1988. Islas Ballestas, Paracas, Ica: Very numerous; accounts for about 90% of all seabirds. Breeding: Nests on narrow ledges, each containing 2-3 white fledglings.

PHALOCROCORACIDAE

30. Phalocrocorax brasilianus

Sightings/Behavior

Coast: Tumbes, Piura, Lima, Ica.

Highland: Puno.

Eastern lowland: Ucayali, Madre de Dios.

Mostly in small groups, occ. in larger numbers.

April 1963. Playa Chira, Chorrillos: 100-150 inds. on cliffand rocky reef (birdrock) with smaller number of Pelecanus thagus, Phalocrocorax bougainvillii and Phalocrocorax gaimardi. Feeding of several juvs.

21-22/02/1964. Peninsula of Paracas, Ica: In flight and on shore; quite numerous at a shallow bay. A group of juvs. is warming up in the morning sun by spreading its wings.

11/01/1968. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Singles or small groups, foraging near the shore; occ. flying upstream. (Recorded on three more visits at the same place; up to 20 ind. on nearby rock reef; 09/03/1971: many juvs.).

11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Resting and roosting site at the southern end of the bay, where up to 30 inds. gather on a slab.

08/08/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: Mass mortality of seabirds: Only one dead ind. out of a total of 312 carcasses.

28/01/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: Close flock of about 70 inds. circling over the lagoon; they depart in V-formation.

08/07/1988. Islas Ballestas, Paracas, Ica: Breeding: The untidy nests are situated on exposed places on rocky reefs. They consist mainly of large feathers.

31. Phalocrocorax gaimardi

Sightings/ Behavior

CP: Ancash, Lima (13 sightings out of 21), Ica.

Normally in small groups; in larger numbers at roosting and breeding sites; often in close neighberhood with Sula variegata, another 'cliff-dweller'.

23/11/1963. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: Food-carrying ind. approaching rocky headland.

18/10/1964. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Food-carrying ind. twice flying to nearby island.

24-28/02/1965. Peninsula Paracas, Ica: Several food-carrying inds. flying along the cliff.

25/02/1966. Same place: Large group of ads. and jusv. on an extended slab in company of Spheniscus humboldtii and sealions. It's feeding time.

29/02-05/03/1970. Playa Caleta de Lobo, Panamericana Norte km 230, Ancash: Numerous on neighbouring cliffs. Several ads. approach the cliff with nesting material (patches of seaweed). They disappear in a dark crevice. The nests, placed on narrow ledges, are made of seaweed and mud. No records of eggs or young.

08/07/1988. Islas Ballestas, Paracas, Ica: Several ad. carrying nesting material (stripes of seaweed). Nest sites: Narrow ledges protected from direct sunlight (niches, crevices, caves).

Mass decease of seabirds 1972: 29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: 2 dead Ph.gaimardi out of 227 carcasses.

23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos: 5 dead inds. out of of 99 carcasses.

08/08/1972. Same place: 3 dead inds. out of 312 carcasses.

32. Phalocrocorax bougainvillii

21/01//1968. Punta Lachay/Las Salinas, south of Huacho, Lima: Large colony of (according to the guard) 400 000 birds. From a distance (we are not allowed to enter the protected area) they are blackening the top of the peninsula. In the colony reigns a restless coming and going. Some ind. carry long stripes of seaweed to their nesting places.

12/01/1972. Punta Lomas (protected area), between Nazca and Chala, Arequipa: There are only two small groups of breeding Ph. bougainvillii (Fig. 13) at the edge of a large colony of Pelecanus thagus, counting by the thousands. The young are blackish, speckled with white down. Only one feeding scene in three hours: Ad. besieged by three young.--According to the guard, P. thagus regularly harrass Ph. bougainvillii by destroying their nests or stealing nesting material. We witness the following scene: A P. thagus, sitting on its nest, reaches out to a neighbouring nest of Ph. bougainvillii and--using its long bill as a rake--draws a batch of feathers to his side. Unimpressed by the protesting Ph. bougainvillii, he repeats the maneuvre a second and a third time.--The statistics reveal a dramatic decline of breeding Ph. bougainvillii at Punta Lomas: 1965/66: 159 000, 1971/72: 1500 (probably the consequences of over-fishing in recent years). Presence of non-breeding birds at the site: 11:30 none; 14:00 in midst of the breeding P.thagus some isolated groups; numerous on rocky reefs and swimming offshore; 16:00 arriving by very large numbers at their roosting sites.

[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]

Mass mortality of seabirds 1972:

29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m long beach 30 dead inds. out of a total of 227 fresh carcasses (3rd place).

23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: On the 800 m long beach 64 dead inds. (1/3 immature) out of 99 carcasses (1st place).

08/08/1972. Same place: 138 dead inds. out of a total of 312 carcasses (1st place).

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Only a few dead inds. on a 1 km long beach.

CICONIIFORMES

ARDEIDAE

33. Ixobrychus exilis

Seven records between 1963 and 1967 at the Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: 1-3 inds. mostly at the edge of the totoral, occ. in the adjacent marshland. When disturbed they take flight or escape into the interior of the Typha-thicket, moving hurriedly from stem to stem.

06/08/1970. Conchan, south of Lima: Ind. at a small, newly emerged totoral as a result of the construction of a crossroad.

34. Nycticorax nycticorax

Sightings/Behavior

NP: Coast of Tumbes and Piura.

CP: Ancash 3900 m, Junin 4000-4300 m (most numerous), Lima coast/ 4300 m.

SP: Apurimac 1300/2400/2700/2800 m, Cusco 3100 m, Arequipa 3400 m, Puno 3800-3900 m.

Solitary or in small groups of up to 10 ind; often ad. with juv. Does not mix with other herons.

22/11/1966. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: At dusk 3 groups leave the totoral in short intervals: 1 ad.+1 juv./ 2 ads.+1 juv./ 3 ads. A group of 6 inds. circles during 15 minutes over the marshland, occ. emitting their caracteristic huoc.

17-22/06/1968. Rio Toxamayo-Rio Pampas, north of Andahuaylas, Apurimac: 1 ind. at each of the following sites: Laguna Huampica 2700 m, Hacienda Toxama 2400 m, Rio Pampas 1300 m.

13-14/07/1988. Achoma, Colca Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m: At dusk (6 pm) a small group leaves an Eucalyptus grove at the Centro Vacacional in direction of the nearby stream. Next morning at 7 am they return to their roost. Before settling down, they draw some circles over the grove.

28/04/2006. San Bartolo, 50 km south of Lima: Juv. perches at the edge of a roof at the seafront.

35. Butorides striatus

Sightings

Coast: Tumbes, Lambayeque, Ancash, Lima, Ica.

Regularly in totorales (Villa!) and estuaries.

Eastern lowland: Loreto, San Martin (up to 800 m), Huanuco, Ucayali (most numerous in Yarinacocha/Pucallpa).

Behavior.- Mostly solitary; also in pairs and small groups. In eastern lowland on two occ. 'climbing' nimbly from branch to branch. Foraging: The neck retracted, body, head and bill in a perfect horizontal position, B. Striatus wades cautiously and in slow motion through shallow water (Fig. 14). Suddenly it freezes for some seconds, then throws its head flashlike towards its prey.

26/09/1971. Rio Fortaleza, Lima: 2 ads. and 1 juv. in a hunched position near the river mouth. Alarmed, they rise to their full size. After taking flight, they emit their hoarse call.

36. Ardea cocoi

Sightings

At each of the following sites 1 ind.:

17/02/1967. Hacienda Mallares near Sullana, Piura: In flight.

11/01/1970. Rio Pachitea between Tournavista and Puerto Inca, Huanuco.

29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, about 50 km north of Pucallpa, Ucayali.

21/02/2003. Rio Leche, Bosque de Poma, Lambayeque.

22/03/2003. Rio Madre de Dios near Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios.

37. Ardea alba

Sightings/Behavior.- Along the coast from Tumbes to Arequipa; in totorales, marshland and estuaries; very numerous in the ricefields of the north. Solitary or in flocks of up to 100 inds.; often in mixed groups with Egretta thula and Bubulcus ibis; less numerous in the eastern lowland; preferably at oxbow lakes (Yurimaguas, Pucallpa, Puerto Maldonado).

05/01/1964. Lower Santa Valley, Ancash: About 100 inds. in flooded ricefields; singles or in loose groups; some with elongated back feathers. An ind., that has just caught a mouse, takes flight, to escape some envious neighbours. At a safe place it waits till the mouse stops dithering. Then it lays the dead prey on the ground, grabs it again and swallows it with a flip.

04-05/01/1966. Puerto Casma, Ancash: At 6 pm 60-80 inds. are circling over the marshland at the river edge high in the air. By and by they gather on some large trees to roost. Next morning at 7 am they are foraging at the mouth of the Rio Sechin.

25+30/08/1968. San Juan de Miraflores, south of Lima: More than 100 inds.--some with elongated feathers on the back--at a large wastewater lagoon, which has been created a year ago in plain desert. It teems with small fish.

38. Philherodias pileatus

Single ind. at the following sites: Rio Llullapichis/Rio Pachitea, Huanuco; Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali; Rio Utiquinilla, Pucallpa, Ucacyali; Rio Madre de Dios, Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios.

39. Egretta tricolor

02/01/1966+26/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Fairly numerous in the mangrove forest; solitary or in small groups of up to 8 inds.

40. Egretta thula

Sightings/Behavior.- Along the coast from Tumbes to Arequipa; in totorales, marshland, estuaries and irrigated areas (ricefields!); also at the lower reaches of coastal rivers (Rio Jequetepeque up to about 400 m); on mudflats (Paracas), beaches and rocky headland adjacent to the beach (mouth of Rio Mala); often in mixed groups with Ardea alba, but in general more numerous.

Behavior.- Twice recorded rushing about in shallow water near the shore with flapping wings (to flush small fish, according to Fjeldsa & Krabbe 1990). Courting display (or rivalry?): 2 or 3 ind. (probably males) performing vertical jumps in front of each other (up to 1/2 m) with raised plumage on head and back; recorded twice in Sep, once in March. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: At dusk, about 60 inds. settle down on the site to roost. A smaller group has already adopted its sleeping position at the edge of the totoral.

41. Florida caerula

Sightings/Behavior.- Coast of Tumbes, Lambayeque, Lima and Arequipa. Most numerous in the mangrove forest of Tumbes.

Lima: Solitary or in small groups in the totorales of Villa and Cerro Azul and at the mouth of Rio Mala; often together with other herons.

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

42. Eudocimus albus

[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]

27/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Numerous; in groups of up to 12 inds.

43. Plegadis ridgewayi

Sightings

CP: Ancash 4050 m, Junin 3600/4100-4600 m.

SP: Aycucho 3300 m, Apurimac 2700 m, Cusco 3000-3600 m, Puno 3800-4300 m, Arequipa 4200 m.

Habitat/Behavior.- Lake sides, totora-covered lagoons, meandering streams, marshland, pastures, fields. Common in southern highland; often in pairs or flocks of up to 50 ind.

19/06/1968. Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama north of Andahuaylas, Apurimac, 2700 m: Flock of about 10 ind. together with grazing horses.

15/03/2003. Below Abra La Raya, Puno, 4200 m: Conspicuous gathering of 50-100 ind., crowded on a circular patch of barren ground.

44. Mesembrinibis cayennensis

29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, 50 km north of Pucallpa, Ucayali: Ind. in flight over swampy oxbow lake.

45. Theristicus caudatus

20-23/01/1972. Putina, Puno, 3900 m: Twice 4 inds. at the same site, foraging at the shore of a meandering stream. Without looking up, they poke the humid ground incessantly with their long, curved bill, occ. pouncing it forward forcefully.--Two inds. in flight between Putina and Munani.

46. Platalea ajaja

11/01/1966. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: 3 inds. foraging in shallow water at the edge of the mangrove forest.

CATHARTIFORMES

CATHARTIDAE

47. Cathartes aura

Sightings.- Sightings above 2200 m (BP: "only a vagrant to the high Andes"): Viuda-Carahuacayan, Junin, 4600 m; Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 3000 m; Fortaleza Valley/Santa Valley, Ancash, up to 4300 m; Chicama Valley, La Libertad, up to 3000 m; Huamachuco, La Libertad, 3300 m.

29/02-05/03/1970. Caleta de Lobo, Panamericana Norte, km 230, Ancash: Numerous, especially on the reef in front of the beach, together with half a dozen Vultur gryphus. They calmly walk about in midst of 300 sea lions. Up to 9 inds. foraging on a dead sea lion (Fig. 16).

48. Sarcorhamphus papa

Mid September 67: Between Rio Maranon and Rio Cenepa, Amazonas, between 500 and 1000 m: Ind. in flight over densely forested hills.

49. Vultur gryphus

Sightings

CP: La Libertad 100 m, Ancash 0/1600 m, Lima 0-4300 m, Ica coast.

SP: Cusco 2600/2700 m; east slope: Machu Picchu, Cusco, 3000 m.

Fourteen out of total of 41 sightings refer to the Coast; regularly at the Peninsula of Paracas, Ica (Fig. 15); up to 5 inds. simultaneously.

Lomas of Lima: 3 sightings (Lachay, Atocongo, Pacta)

Coastal valleys of Lima: Huaura, Canta, Rimac-Eulalia, Mala; at all altitudes up to 4300 m; regularly around Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, 3100 m.

25/05/1963. Watershed between Rimac and Lurin Valley, ca. 2000 m, Lima: Ad. and immature glide close over our heads along slope with scarce vegetation. Their enormous wings produce an impressive sound. The ad. flies the same stretch several times, turning his head and long neck from one side to the other, watching out for some carrion. Mistaking it for a potential enemy, a scared vizcacha (Lagidium peruanum) takes refuge beneath a slab.

07/01/1964. Panamericana crossing Jequetepeque Valley: Ind. circles over a carrion at the road side. A mixed group of Cathartes aura and Coragyps atratus and a single Caracara cheriway are already feeding on it.

07/02/1964. Playa de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Ind. feeding on a dead dolphin together with 4 Cathartes aura.

[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]

25-27/03/1966. Quebrada Huachugua, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3400-4000 m: 1-3 ind. almost permanently over montane scrub and Polylepis wood, often scanning the ground at close range.--At 8 am a close group of 22(!) inds. pass by over a distant ridge.

05-12/09/1969. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3100 m: Up to 4 inds. (ads. and immatures) almost daily over the village. They like to soar in the thermal at the edge of the village over a 1000 m high cliff-like slope.

29/02-05/03/1970. Playa Caleta de Lobo, Panamericana Norte, Ancash, km 230: Up to 6 ads. roost regularly on a reef in front of the beach in close neighborhood with 300 sea lions (Fig. 16). In the morning, when the fog begins to disappear and the sun is breaking through, they spread out their wings in a really majestic manner.

ACCIPITRIFORMES

[FIGURE 16 OMITTED]

PANDIONIDAE

50. Pandion haliaetus

Boreal migrant

Sightings

Coast: The main season is mid Nov to end of Feb with a clear culmination in Jan; sporadic in June (3x), Aug (1x), Oct (2x). Regularly present in Jan/Feb at the Peninsula of Paracas and the adjacent bays to the south (Fig. 17-19).

Most records over bays and along beaches; occ. at rivermouths and lagoons; twice over an artificial lake in La Molina, Lima.

Eastern lowland: Rio Pachitea and Rio Utiquinilla (Pucallpa region).

31/11/1963. Parque Central, Miraflores, Lima: Ind. circling over two high Araucaria. It settles on a lower branch and begins to gorge its prey. Remains of fish beneath the tree reveal, that it must be a regular feeding place.

24-28/02/1965. Peninsula of Paracas, Ica: Appears daily over the bay of Lagunillas; up to 3 inds. at a time. Only one succsessful dive recorded. After emerging from the water, it stops in mid-flight, contracts its wings and shakes its plumage forcefully. When in company,

P. haliaetus emits occ. a high-pitched peeping call.

[FIGURE 17 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 18 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 19 OMITTED]

ACCIPITRIDAE

51. Gampsonyx swainsonii

Jan 1967. Near Jayanca, between Chiclayo and Olmos, Lambayeque: Ind perched on top of a Prosopis pallida.

52. Chondohierax uncinatus

12-19/09/1967. Shaim, Rio Maranon, between Chiriaco and mouth of Rio Cenepa, Amazonas, 300 m: 2 inds. daily at a clearing, perched on two bare-branched trees. They communicate for hours, emitting two different calls: an extended hyaaa... and an accelerated kli'kli'kli.

28/02-05/03/1972 Around National Park of Cutervo, Cajamarca:

a) San Andres de Cutervo, 2200 m: Ind. in flight.

b) At the edge of the N.P., 2400 m: Ind.--temporary pair--circling over pasture, subsequently perching for a long time on a tree top. Several times it is 'attacked' by a single Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.

c) Between San Andres and Socota, 2400 m: Ind. circling over a steep slope.

53. Circus cinereus

Sightings

CP: Junin: Lake Junin, 4100 m; Huancavelica: Pisco Valley, Huaytara, 3600 m.

SP: Ayacucho: Laguna Parinacochas, 3300 m; Apurimac: Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama, north of Andahuaylas, 2700 m; Cusco: Laguna Lucre, 3100 m.

Behavior.- Solitary or in pairs; flies close to the ground with slow wing beats; hovers clumsily.

54. Accipiter bicolor

16/02/1964. Amotape Mountains, 800 m, Piura: Ind. in deciduous forest, collected by W. Markl.

55. Geranospiza caerulescens

13/01/1966. Zarumilla, Tumbes: Ind. perched on a tree in dense dry forest.

56. Leucopternis schistaceus

28/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martin, 300 m: Ind. perched on a high tree at the edge of a ravine, emitting occ. a shrill call.

57. Buteogallus anthracinus

12/01/1966. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Ind. in flight over mangrove forest.

58. Buteogallus meridionalis

Sightings.- Coastal plain from Sullana (Piura) to Guadalupe (La Libertad)

Habitat/Behavior.- Dry forest and rice fields; on one occ. together with Laruspipixcan and Bubulcus ibis; more often found on the ground, than perched on trees.

59. Geranoaetus melanoleucus

Sightings.- At any altitude from sea level to 4000 m; in NP and CP mostly on the westslope, also Maranon Valley.

NP: Lambayeque 500 m, Cajamarca 2500-2800 m, La Libertad 2400/2800/3200 m.

CP: Ancash 0/3000/3500/3700, Pasco 2600 m, Lima 0-3400 m, Ica 1000m, Huancavelica 3700 m.

SP: Ayacucho 3200 m, Apurimac 3400 m, Cusco 2600-4000 m, Arequipa 3400/3500 m.

Behavior.- Solitary or in pairs; occ. in small groups of ads. or family groups. Its broad-based wings and short, wedge-shaped tail, which form together a compact triangle, allows it to glide endlessly along slopes with minimal effort. In the lomas, where beetles and crickets abound, it picks up its prey walking on the ground. G. melanoleucus is often harassed by Falco sparverius (6 records). On one occ., an ind. was 'attacked' in flight by three hummingbirds.

12/06/1965. Between San Bartolome and Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima 2400 m: Ind. is perched on a tree, calling continuously. Attracted by its conspecific, another ind. settles on the tree and joins in the calling. It leaves the perch after a short time. The first ind. continues to emit its monotonous call.

27/08/1967. Lomas de Pacta, 45 km south of Lima, 400 m: Up to 5 ind. (ads. and immatures) gather on the seasonally green hills. The main attraction seems to be the abounding crickets (Fig. 21/22).

24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima: G. melanoleucus is present all day long (up to 5 inds. simultaneously). They circle in the air, perch on trees and boulders or pick up small prey on the ground.--Graceful flight-show (courting?) of two ads.: First, they fly side by side; suddenly, one of them plunges into the depth, immediately followed by its mate. Again, the first makes a sharp turn to one side, the partner follows it instantly. After two or three more playful twists, the two fly for a distance together again. Then the play begins anew. The agility of the rather heavy birds is amazing.

[FIGURE 20 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 21 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 22 OMITTED]

14/07/1988. Colca Valley, Cruz del Condor, Arequipa, 3400 m: No condors but a pair of G. melanoleucus appear over the canyon. Entering the thermal, they soar incredibly fast. A few moments later they had vanished in the vastness of the sky.

19/07/1988. Paucartambo, Cusco, 3000 m: Roost (or nesting place) in a high cliff over the river. The entrance of the small niche and the cliff below are whitened by droppings.

60. Parabuteo unicinctus

08/01/1966. Near Olmos at the road to Bagua, Lambayeque, 600 m: Immature in deciduous forest perched on a tree.

27/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Pair perched on a Bombax tree.

19-21/02/1999. Samaca, Ica Valley, Ica, 200 m: Pair and 2 single inds. on three different days and different times of the day; on each occ. flying upstream.

25/02/2003. Urb. California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m: Ind. perching momentarily on a Eucalyptus tree.

61. Buteo magnisrostris

23/01/1970. Watershed between Tingo Maria and Aguaytia, Huanuco/Ucayali, 1600 m: One ind. in flight, another perched on the roadside.

04/07/1972. San Ramon, Chanchamayo Valley, Junin, 800 m: Ind.

16/07/1976. Rio Tambopata, Madre de Dios, 250 m: Two single inds. on low perches at river edge.

17/07/1976. Between Quincemil and Marcapata, Cusco, 700-1700 m: Several records along the road; always singles on low perches; in one occ. in the middle of the road with a prey.

62. Buteo platypterus

Boreal migrant

All sightings in Miraflores/Lima, in the months of Nov (1x), Dec (3x), March (2x).

06/03/1968. Ind. circling for 5 min over a cotton field

06/03/1969. Ind. soaring slowly over the same field as exactly a year ago!

02/12/1970. Ind. in flight over the Colegio Pestalozzi. Immediatly afterwards, I found a primary of B. platypterus. in the school yard.

12/12/1970. Ind. settles on a tipa tree. Small birds in the neighbourhood are obviously alarmed.

05/11/1971. Ind. at the same place.

17/12/1972. Two ind. circling over the Colegio Markaham. A nervous flock of Pygochelidon cyanoleuca pursues the pair at a respectful distance. Some Columbina cruziana flutter around anxiously, seeking cover in the interior of a group of Eucalyptus trees.

63. Buteo polyosoma

Sightings.- (All records apply to the light morph only)

NP: Coastal plain of Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque; Cajamarca 3500, La Libertad 3300/3400 m.

CP: Ancash 0/3900/4000 m, Lima 0-3500/3900/4800 m, Junin

4100-4400 m, Ica sealevel.

SP: Ayacucho 3900-4200 m, Cusco 3500-3800 m, Puno 3900/4100 m.

Highest record: Ticlio Pass Lima/Junin, 4800 m: Ind. close to the summit.

19/10/1963. North of Chancay, Lima: Immature perches on a sandy elevation 100 m from the shore. Suddenly, it plunges to the foot of the slope, coming up with a small prey (possibly a lizard). Once returned to the perch, it tears up the prey with a few jerkey movements and swallows it. Afterwards it takes flight and perches in a similar place.

15-16/02/1964. Surroundings of Piura: Fairly common; within a distance of 4 km, we record 6 different inds., one perched on a telephone line, the others (3 an 2 inds.) circling over dry scrub with scattered trees.--Between Piura and Sullana: Ind. is gathering sticks and branches on top of a telephone pole. According to W. Markl, it has tried repeatedly to build a nest, but it has been destroyed subsequently by the Telephone Company.

13/06/1965. Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima: 2 ads. over the ridge above the forest (ca. 3500 m). Immature circling over the forest (3000 m). Suddenly it plunges down to a clearing, with its wings folded back and talons stretched out. It returns without prey.

24/07/1965. Between Paramonga and Huarmey, Ancash: Ind. has a short dispute in the air with a Geranoaetus melanoleucus.

29/07/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1600 m: Ind. gliding along scrub-covered slope. Reacts to a harrassing Falco sparverius by trying to avoid the intruder. It interrupts its flight occ. to hover.

06/08/1970. Lomas de Pacta, 45 km south of Lima: Ad. and 2 immatures engage for quite a long time in an acrobatic flight-show: Flying in a close formation, they perform abrubt turns and dives. Short scenes of attack with zig-zag flights alternate with straight passages.

01/03/2003. San Borja/Lima: Ind. circling; first record over urban area of Lima.

FALCONIFORMES

FALCONIDAE

64. Micrastur ruficollis

23/03/2003. Posada Amazonica, Rio Tambopata, Madre de Dios: (Location: Observation Tower) Ind. snatches a big-winged insect from a Cecropia-like leaf. It perches on a bare branch and begins to feed on its prey. It calmly tears out small pieces and swallows them. The undigestable wings are discarded. After the meal, it cleans its bill on the branch.

65. Caracara cheriway

Sightings.- Coastal plain from Tumbes to northern La Libertad.

[FIGURE 23 OMITTED]

Mostly solitary; up to 4 inds. together. When feeding on carrion, often in company of Cathartes aura and Coragyps atratus.

14/02/1964. Near Lambayeque: Ind. settles at the edge of a shallow pond. A group of Larus pipixcan dont take notice of the newcomer.

Jan. 1967. Rio Chamaya, Cajamarca, 900 m: Ind. on a fallow rice field together with numerous Crotophaga sulcirotris.

66. Phalcoboenus megalopterus

Sightings.- Throughout the Andes from Amazonas to Puno. Most sightings in the Paramo- and Puna-zone; on both slopes of the Andes; also in intramontane valleys.

Northernmost record: Between Abra Chanchillo and Leimebamba, Amazonas, 3200 m. Lowest record: San Andres de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400m.

Highest record: Ananea, Puno, 4700 m.

26/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash, 4050 m: Numerous; in groups of up to 20 inds. at the shore of the lake; about half of them immatures (Fig. 23) When searching for food, they scratch the ground like chickens.--Upper Santa Valley, 3900 m: Ind. perches on the straw roof of a abandoned hut. When it took to the air, the prey was clearly recognizable as a chick.

Mid Jan. 1967. Laguna Yanganuco, Ancash, 3900 m: Young perched on a ledge in a vertical cliffabout 100 m above the ground. It is fed twice by an ad. The approaching ad. anounces itself with kwaaa-calls, the young responds with squeaky sounds, that are reminiscent of a young pig.

18/02/1967. Machu Picchu, Cusco, 2700 m: Pair in flight, both calling all the time without interruption: kwaaakwaa...

06/07/1993. Between Chugay and Aricapampa, La Libertad, 3500 m: Pair in straight flight high over the Paramo, calling incessantly.

15/03/2003. Between Juliaca and Abra La Raya, Puno, 3800-4300 m: Fairly common; they like to perch on the telephone poles along the road.

67. Falco sparverius

Behavior.- Hovers frequently; in updraught winds uses 'hanging hover'. Aggressive attitude towards other birds of prey and owls. Recorded attacks: Geranoaetus melanoleucus (4x), Buteo polyosoma (2x), Falcofemoralis (1x), Bubo virginianus (1x). When pursuing an 'enemy' in flight, it approaches it from above and behind passing close over its head. It may pursue it over a long distance, persistently repeating the attacks. The attacked bird may be annoyed but obviously does not feel menaced. Even so, F. sparverius occ. succeeds in expelling the much larger birds from its territory.

29/02/1964. Viscas, Mala Valley, Lima, 1800 m: 3 inds. are attracted by a Bubo virginianus, sitting in a niche of a cliff at the edge of a dry quebrada. They harrass it incessantly by passing near the niche as close as possible, emitting their sharp killy'killy'killy-calls. The only reaction of the big owl: It shuts its eyes whenever the intruders pass.

02-07/02/1965. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3100 m: Ind. lingers daily in the same habitat: pasture, small fields, hedges and scrub. Perches preferably on a 3 m high pole, where it also feeds on its prey.

15/05/1965. Orcocoto, Lurin Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Ind. shoots forth from beneath the roof of a church. Judging from the white markings on the wall and the underside (!) of the roof, it just left its nesting site.

29/07/1965. Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1800 m: 4 inds. (2 ads. and 2 young) linger on a high, inaccessible boulder. The older young besieges the ad. by emitting begging calls. One of the young eventually climbs about in the vegetation (e.g. Bromeliaceae), that covers the cliff.

28/04/1967. Autisha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 2200 m: Mating act in the middle of the road; female crouched with spread out tail.

28/09/1970. Pullo near Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3000 m: A boy shows us two downy-white young, that he had taken from their nest in a building of the village.

01-08/09/1972. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima. 3100 m: Pair perching daily on a pole or on the cable of a newly constructed powerline. Their main prey are insects (crickets abound). They softly glide to the ground, grab the prey with their bill, carry it back to the perch, fix them with one foot and consume it in 3-4 bits.

68. Falco femoralis

Sightings

NP: Cajamarca 3500 m

CP: Ancash 3900 m, Junin 4000-4400 m, Lima 3700-4000 m

SP: Ayacucho 3400 m, Arequipa 4000/4300 m, Puno 3900 m

Behavior.- Perches low on stones, boulders and poles; also on the ground. Solitary or in pairs; occ. 3 inds. together. Pursuit flight low over the ground. Likes to perch on a boulder when the sun rises with fluffed plumage and hanging wings, its back turned towards the sun.

01/10/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3400 m: Ind. perches on the edge of a cliff, warming up in the morning sun. It is harrassed by Falco sparverius and subsequently by Colaptes rupicola. After several attacks, the latter settles only a few meters away from F. femoralis

69. Falco peregrinus

Boreal migrant

Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Ica; 15 records (of a otal of about 35) in the urban areas of Miraflores/Lima and San Isidro/Lima. Main season: Nov-Feb (25 records); also in Oct (2), Mar (4), Apr (1). Earlyest record: 18.10.; latest record 13.4.

06/01/1964. Mouth of Rio Viru, La Libertad: Ind. in the morning mist, perching on a piece of driftwood at the beach. There are fresh footprints in the sand and leftovers of a meal: Fresh ones of Larus pipixcan (Fig. 24) and older ones of Sterna spec.

09/01/1966. Between Los Organos and Mancora, Tumbes: Ind. pursuing for a short time Coragyps atratus.

20/11/1967. San Antonio, Miraflores/Lima: The behavior of certain birds indicates the presence of F. peregrinus: Uncommon calls of alarm and an upset domestic dove in zigzag-flight. Moments later the feared hunter appears with fast wing beats over the residential area.

Feb 1969. South of Paracas, Ica: Ind. hunting over Laguna Grande. It steep dives in pursuit of a Sterna spec., which manages to escape several times by zigzaging low over the water. Occ. F. peregrinus is very close to its prey. After 2 or 3 min, the pursuer gives up.

[FIGURE 24 OMITTED]

09/03/1969. La Molina/Lima: Agricutural area: Cornfield with young plants bordered by long rows of mighty willows. An ind. steep dives onto the field almost touching the ground. Reason: There is an injured Zenaidura auriculata (which the falcon had failed to grab in the air earlier) anxiously jittering about. F. peregrinus repeats its attacks several times, starting at a considerable height. It always fails to grab the dove. Finally, I picked up the injured bird (it survived).

GRUIFORMES

RALLIDAE

70. Laterallus jamaicensis

07/02/1964. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Ind. flushed at the edge of a lagoon; it flies poorly and goes immediately into hiding in the totora thicket.

71. Pardirallus sanguinolentus

Sightings

NP: La Libertad sealevel

CP: Junin 3400, Lima 0-800/1600/1700/3200/3500 m, Ica 300 m

SP: Cusco 3600 m, Arequipa 2600 m, Puno 3800 m

Habitat.- Marshland, lagoons, totorales, river edges with dense vegetation, irrigation channels, and fields.

Behavior.- Solitary or in pairs; at favorable places (e.g. Laguna de Villa, mouth of Rio Mala) quite numerous. In general very shy; it does not venture far from cover. When alarmed, raises tail and bobs with head; prefers to run rather than to fly. Forages at any time of the day, but preferably at dawn and dusk.

13/02/1970. Laguna Orovilca, Ica, 300 m: Ind. foraging at the edge of the totoral, a small oasis in the middle of high sand dunes. Distance to the nearest irrigated field about 5 km.

06/07/1972. Laguna Paca near Jauja, Junin, 3400 m: Ind. at the edge of the large lagoon. The shallow water is covered with a carpet of aquatic plants, thick enough for P. sanguinolentus to walk on it. While foraging, it comes across a carcass of a small bird. With its long bill it tears off tiny bits and swallows them. Alarmed, it carries its prey into the nearby thicket.

18/07/1988. Lagoon near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Quite numerous at the longstretched lagoon, with extended totora thicket. Wading in the shallow water up to their bellies in search of food, they poke avidly in the rich floating vegetation.

72. Gallinula chloropus

Sightings

Coast: Piura, La Libertad, Lima, Ica

Andes: Cajamarca, Junin, Cusco, Puno

Northernmost record in the Andes: Rio Crisnejos, between Cajabamba and San Marcos, probably below 2000 m.

Behavior.- Gregarious; in pairs or groups of different size (e.g. Laguna Villa 50-60 ind.); in very large numbers at Lago de Junin, Laguna Lucre (Cusco) and at a lagoon near Piura. Feeds swimming or walking on mudflats and in marshland.

27/11/1963. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Present on many of the small lagoons. On one occ. a down-clad young disappears with their parents in totora thicket.

07/02/1964. Same place: Juv.

25/08/1968. San Juan de Miraflores, south of Lima: Several ind. on and at a large waste water lagoon in plain desert, that was created a year ago. They probably immigrated from Villa, about 3 km away.

13/02/1970. Laguna Orovilca, Ica, 300 m: Ind. on one of the three tiny lagoons, surrounded by high dunes. Distance to the next agricultural fields about 5 km.

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Numerous; ind. stalking with raised tail, outer tail feathers spread-out.

28/07/1976. Mouth of Rio Viru, La Libertad: Juv.

28/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Numerous on an extended lagoon. Family with 3 dark grey, downy young. Ad. adopts menacing posture raising its white tail feathers.

17/02/1999. Laguna de Huacachina, Ica, 300 m: Several inds.; they dispose of only a small patch of totora as a refuge and breeding site.

73. Fulica ardesiaca

18/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Quite numerous on a longstretched, partly covered by totora lagoon. Two pairs with 3 young each: upperparts light grey, underparts whitish, bill blackish. When foraging, they submerge their bill only slightly. While moving forward, they pick up water weed and throw it away by swinging their head from one side to the other. The young try to imitate the ads. Once in a while, they approach the ads. in order to beg for food, snatching it from their bill.

74. Fulica gigantea

Sightings.- Ancash 4000-4200 m, Lima 4300 m, Junin 4200 m, Puno 4000 m.

26/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash, 4050 m: Numerous; solitary, in pairs or loose flocks in company with Chloephaga melanoptera. Many of them are grazing on the lawn-like vegetation at the lake side. Pair with 2 young is foraging on the lake.

10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Laguna Patacocha, Ancash, 4200 m: 17 inds. at the shallow lagoon, which measures about 100x200 m and is largely covered with aquatic plants (mostly Myophyllum). F. gigantea and Lophonetta specularoides leave behind a net of narrow 'trails' on the thick green carpet. Out of 7 'nesting-islands' 3 or 4 are occupied by breeding ads. The nests consist of randomly piled up water weed. They measure about one meter at the base and rise 20-30 cm above the water. Calls: Growling and chortling sounds.

HELIORNITHIDAE

75. Heliornis fulica

13/01/1965. San Ango, oxbow lake south of Yurimaguas, San Martin, 200 m: Swimming ind. pecking at plants at the flooded edge of the lake.

EURYPYGIDAE

76. Eurypyga helias

16/07/1976. Lower Rio Tambo, Madre de Dios, 250 m: Ind. at the sandy shore.

CHARADRIIFORMES

CHARADRIIDAE

77. Vanellus resplendens

Sightings.- Throughout the Andes from Amazonas (lowest record 2400 m) to Puno (highest record 4800 m); most frequently in the Puna zone around 4000 m.

One record from the coast: Lagoon between San Juan and Villa, south of Lima: Pair together with numerous shore birds (17.08.69).

Behavior.- Solitary, in pairs or loose flocks, sometimes in very large numbers (Lago de Junin, Laguna Parinacochas).

19/04/1964. Marcahuasi, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900 m: Numerous on the rocky plateau with humid flats and dispersed small lagoons, forming groups of up to 10 inds. When approached, they fly low over our heads, emitting angry screams.--Single ind. perched on a boulder seems to act as a guard .

10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Laguna Patacocha, Ancash, 4100 m: Flock of 20-30 inds. performs graceful flight shows while screaming persistently. After some turns over the lagoon, they pause, starting anew after a short time.

78. Charadrius semipalmatus

Boreal migrant

Sightings.- Along the coast from La Libertad to Ica; regularly and most numerous at the Peninsula of Paracas; from July to March (highest frequency in Feb); earliest record 09.07. Paracas, Ica; latest record 11/03.Villa, Lima.

Behavior.- In loose groups (on the ground) or close flocks (in flight); 10-40 inds. often together with other shore birds. Forages on mudflats, wetland and at river mouths. Rests on reefs and sledges. Performs graceful flight shows. On one occ. a large flock suddenly splits up as if on command into three groups.

79. Charadrius wilsonia

26/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Common on beach and mudflat. Pair--probably breeding--on a long sand bank tries to attract my attention. When I stand still, it scurries around me. One of them adopts a crouched position. When I approach it, it gets up with hanging wings, performing some helpless hops. Then it flies for a short distance, just to start the ploy again.

80. Charadrius vociferus

Regularly in small groups of 2-6 inds. in flight over the urban areas of La Victoria/Lima and Miraflores/Lima. Their characteristic call can be heard at any time of the day. They pass by, circle or wander about aimlessly for up to half an hour. Nocturnal calls: Numerous records from Feb to Oct, e.g. "First half of March 67: Calling in flight almost every night, beginning at 18:30/19:00". No night records from Nov to Feb.

At the following sites, conspicuous behavior and anxious calls suggests breeding activity: 22/11/1966--18/11/1967 Lagoon between San Juan and Villa, south of Lima; 01/08/1976 Mouth of Rio Viru, La Libertad.

81. Charadrius alexandrinus

From the mouth of Rio Jequetepeque, La Libertad to Chala, Arequipa. Mostly in pairs or small groups of up to 8 ind. Often together with other shore birds.

19/11/1967. Playa Chira, south of Lima: Clutch of 2 eggs about 100 m from the shore. The shallow scrape is lined out with small pieces of shells and bordered with some large, rather casually arranged bird bones (Fig. 25/26). Eggs: a light turquoise with numerous black and a few grey dots; 23x34/22x31 mm.

[FIGURE 25 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 26 OMITTED]

29/12/1967. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Quite numerous at the shore, mostly solitary or in pairs. Two young in different stages of development: No. 1 is a sand colored downy ball with speckles; its wings measure 2-3 cm. It is amazingly fast on the run. No. 2 (not related to No. 1) is more developed. It tries to escape with a zig-zag run, spreading its 7-8 cm long wings to maintain the balance.

82. Oreopholus ruficollis

27/08/1967. Lomas de Pacta. 45 km south of Lima: Loose group of about 10 ind. at the foot of the lomas; not shy (Fig. 27).

24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima: Ind. at the sandy foothill.

29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300 m: Very numerous on a plain near Incahuasi. They do not form a close flock; each ind. stays some meters apart from its neighbours. When alarmed, they pause in a typically upright position.

[FIGURE 27 OMITTED]

HAEMATOPODIDAE

83. Haematopus palliatus

Sighted from Tumbes to Arequipa; regularly at the Peninsula of Paracas; solitary, in pairs or small groups of up to 10 ind. Feeding on sandy beaches, resting on dry ground not far from the shore.

11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Often in pairs or small groups along the beach; a total of 30-50 inds. at a length of several kilometers. When I approach a group, it withdraws inland, then suddenly stops. The birds almost 'disappear', thanks to their body pattern. When flushed, they take to the air, emitting their alarm call: kip-kip-ki'ki'ki'kip.

84. Haematopus ater

Recorded along the coast from Ancash to Ica; mostly in pairs; on reefs or rocky promontories, but often feeding on the adjacent beaches, attracted by Emerita.

Two ind. (different place, different date) with the same injurie: All three toes of one foot are missing. They seem to be only slightly disabled.

31/01/1999. Playa Grande, Panamericana Norte, km 340, Ancash: Up to 6 inds. on a flooded ledge with rich food supply.

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

85. Himantopus mexicanus

Sighted at coastal area of Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque and Ancash on mudflats, wetlands, ricefields and inundated fallow land; mostly in small, occ. in large groups (about 50 near Santa Rosa, Lambayeque; about 100 near Puerto Casma, Ancash)

BURHINIDAE

86. Burhinus superciliaris

15/08/1967. Limatambo/Lima: Ind. on partly asphalted waste land (ancient airport); runs fast, flies reluctantly (Fig. 28).

19/04/1969. La Molina/Lima: Pair on a sandy plain at the edge of agricultural fields; stuttering call, when taking to the air.

01/10/1970. Near Chala, Arequipa: Pair at the side of the road to Chaparra in the sand desert.

17-21/02/1999. Samaca, Rio Ica, 200 m: Occ. nocturnal calls. Numerous foot prints on the sandy or muddy ground along the river between patches of Tessaria and Prosopis.

21/02/2003. Batan Grande, Bosque de Poma, Lambayeque: Numerous foot prints at the muddy shore of Rio Leche.

SCOLOPACIDAE

87. Numenius phaeopus

Boreal migrant

Sighted from Tumbes to Tacna; from July to Apr, with no evident peak. Earliest record 07.07. Canete, Lima; latest record 05.04. Puerto Viejo, Lima. Mostly on sandy beaches, occ. on pastures or wetland not far from the shore: solitary or in small groups, also forming large flocks of 30, 50 or up to 100 ind. They associate easily with other shore birds. When flushed, they take refuge on reefs or rocky promontories.

24/09/1963. San Roque, Surco/Lima: Long stretched flock on their way south settles in groups of 3 or 4 inds. in pasture with tall grass.

31/08/1968. Miraflores/Lima: Close flock of 16 inds. flying southward over a cotton field, calling incessantly wee'wee'wee... The position of each ind. within the group changes during flight: Inds. at the front, slow down, turning up at the rear and those from the rear advance to the front.

[FIGURE 28 OMITTED]

11-17/02/1969. Between Paracas and Laguna Grande, Ica: Numerous; mostly in loose groups of up to 30 inds. on different beaches. They roost in close flocks on rocky shore or on reefs. When flushed, their standard call gets high pitched with a crescendo.

01/02/1972. Mouth of Rio Sama, Tacna: About 100 ind.; 4 of them are bathing in the shallow lagoon at the river mouth. They dip their heads into the water and throw it backward in an elegant sweep. Occ. they crouch, with hanging wings, belly and breast submerged.

88. Bartramia longicauda

Boreal migrant

09/03/1971. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: About a dozen inds. on a pebble-strewn area apart from the river.

89. Actitis macularius

Boreal migrant

Sighted from Tumbes to Ica on mudflats, beaches, along rivers and irrigation channels and on river mouths; lower reaches of coastal valleys of Lima.

East of the Andes recorded along rivers in San Martin, Ucayaly, Huanuco and Pasco.

Recorded from July to April; peak in Jan; earliest record 27.07. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes; latest record 11.04. mouth of Rio Chillon, Lima. In April, Aug and Sep some inds. in alternate plumage.

Highest records: Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima 1800 m; Lurin Valley, Lima, 1800 m; Rio Paucartambo, Pasco 2600 m: Several inds. during three days regularly along the stream.

90. Tringa melanoleuca

Boreal migrant

Most sightings along the coast, frequently around Lima; also in the region of Lake Titicaca. Number of monthly records: Jan 8x, March 2x, Aug 3x, Nov 1x; earliest record 01/08. mouth of Rio Viru, La Libertad; latest record 09/03. mouth of Rio Mala, Lima.

11/03/1964. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: Mixed group of T. melanoleuca and Tringa flavipes of about 40 inds.; some foraging at the mudflat and in shallow water, some tiding up or bathing, the rest sleeping with heads buried in their plumage.

25/08/1968. San Juan de Miraflores, south of Lima: Numerous on newly created waste water lagoons in plain desert, together with T. flavipes, Larus cirrocephalus, Ardea alba and Egretta thula.

05/08/1983. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Mixed group of T. melanoleuca and T. flavipes of 80-100 inds. feeding in shallow water and adjacent mudflat.

91. Tringa flavipes

Boreal migrant

Most sightings at the coast of Lima; also one in Puno and one in La Libertad (mouth of Rio Viru). Recorded in Jan, Mar, Apr, Aug, Nov.

Particular records see Tringa melanoleuca.

92. Tringa semipalmatus

Boreal migrant

11/01/1966. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: 2 inds, one feeding on mudflat, the other in flight together with 4 Numenius phaeopus.

29/12/1967. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Ind. at the beach together with 60 Numenius phaeopus.

30/09/1971. Mouth of Rio Jequetepeque, La Libertad: Ind.

05/08/1983. Playa Conchan, south of Lima: 2 inds.

93. Arenaria interpres

Boreal migrant

Recorded from Lambayeque to Arequipa; on rocky as well as on sandy shores. Groups of 10-30 inds.; may form large associations. Sighted from Aug to Apr; peak in Feb. Earliest record 01.08. mouth of Rio Viru, La Libertad; latest record 30.04. San Bartolo, Lima.

27/11/1983. Between Chilca and Mala, 80 km south of Lima:

Several groups of 8-12 inds. feeding on small reefs near the shore. They scrutinize the countless holes and crevices of the periodically flooded rocks. On two occ. a group is expelled from its hunting ground by a single Cinclodes taczanowski, which is defending its territory.

16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: 3 inds. are feeding on abundant crab carcasses. They push their bill beneath a crab shell, turn it forward, grab the edible content and swallow it hastily. The three birds are eagerly at work, whirling around the dry remains of the crabs.

94. Aphriza virgata

Boreal migrant

10/01/1964. Pimentel, Lambayeque: Small group at the beach.

21/02/1964. Paracas, Ica: 2 inds., one bearing the basic, the other one the alternate plumage; they forage on a rock within the tidal zone.

01/04/1964. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Numerous on the beach and on nearby reefs in company of Numenius phaeopus. (4 days later, A. virgata is absent)

12/09/1965. Callao/Lima: Numerous along the mole ofthe yacht port.

15/09/1965. Morro Solar, Chorrillos/Lima: Scattered ind. at rocky shore.

22+24/02/1966. Lagunillas, south of Paracas, Ica: Flock of 30-40 inds. on a small reef.

13/02/1970. Same place: Large group.

95. Calidris alba

Boreal migrant

Recorded along Coast from Lambayeque to Ica; from July to Apr.; peak in Sep; earliest record 09/07. Paracas, Ica; latest record 11/04. mouth of Rio Chillon, Lima.

Often forming large groups of 100 or more inds.; associates with other shore birds. C. alba can be found competing with Larus modestus for food or defending its prey when attacked. The sight of hundreds of C. alba running for food with the rhythm of the waves is impressive. When the waves ebb, the little birds turn around instantly, briefly taking advantage of the exposed prey. When the wave surges again, they run in the opposite direction. At some distance it looks like a flowing carpet, moving forward and backward in perfect accordance with the sea.

96. Phaloropus tricolor

Boreal migrant

Sightings

Coast: La Libertad, Ancash, Lima, Ica Andes: Aycucho 3300 m, Puno 3800 m

Out of 13 sightings 3 ocurred in Aug, 7 in Sep, 1 in Oct, 1 Jan, 1March; mostly on small, nearshore lagoons; normally 1-4 inds.; occ. in larger numbers. Typical feeding display: While spinning around as if sitting on a disc player, Ph. tricolor collects hastily the small prey, that it has flushed to the surface.

THINOCORIDAE

97. Attagis gayi

10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Ancash, ca. 4000 m: Pair in open Puna landscape; one of them goes into hiding, the other continues picking seeds at the road side. They communicate with a soft whisper.

98. Thinocorus orbignyianus

NP: Cajamarca 3500 m.

CP: Lima 3900 m, Junin 4100-4300m.

SP: Ayacucho 3400/3500 m, Cusco 4500m, Arequipa 4200 m, Puno 4000 m.

19/04/1964. Marcahuasi, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900 m: Small groups on rocky plateau; one fledgling.

02/05/1964. Near Corpacancha, Junin, 4200 m: Pair with fledgling in Puna grassland.

99. Thinocorus rumicivorus

19/10/1963 / 11/09/1965 / 22/09/1967 / 24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima: Numerous; courting activity; flight display: the ascent is followed by an even, curved descent. Song given during flight display: tOgaratOgara... ;call on the ground: wot'wot...

28/01/1970. Divide between Canta Valley and Chancay Valley (Trapiche-Huayan), Lima, 1500 m : Several voice records. The normally barren hills are covered with lush vegetation due to extraordinary rainfalls.

STERCORARIIDAE

100. Stercorarius chilensis

Austral migrant

12/09/1965. Between Callao and Isla San Lorenzo, Lima: Several sightings of 1-3 inds. on a boat trip.

Laridae

101. Creagrus forcatus

Boreal migrant

08/09/1988. Bay of Paracas, Ica: 10-15 inds. swimming about 500 m from the shore; most of them in basic plumage.

102. Leucophaeus modestus

23/06/1972. Playa Chira, south of Lima: At 6 pm about 500 inds. have gathered on a sandy plain about 100 m from the beach, probably a roosting place. There is a busy coming and going. 8 dispersed inds. of Leucophaeus dominicanus form part of the congregation.--A L. modestus arrives at the beach with a prey, that it has caught offshore: a bright coloured, blue and brown-orange crab. It lays the crab on the ground, grabs it, shakes it strongly, drops it again. After repeating the procedure several times, it manages--without use of the feet--to tear out piece after piece of the crab meat. Afterward it goes about grabbing the empty shell holding it up in a 'drinking' position. It drops, grabs and holds it up again. Finally it carries the shell about 20 m out to the sea. There, the gull continues to play, laying the relic of its meal on the surface of the water like a bowl. When it sinks, the bird retrieves it by submerging its head. After some repetitions, it gives up and withdraws.

103. Leucophaeus pipixcan

Boreal migrant

Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Tacna; coastal valleys of Lima: Rimac Valley up to 800 m; Canta Valley one record at 1500 m. The first flocks arrive at the beginning of Nov, the last ones depart at the end of Apr; one record in Oct (09/10, Pimentel, Lambayeque); one at the beginning of May (Conchan, Lima)

Habitat/Behavior.- Most numerous at sand beaches and river mouths, where they congregate by the thousands. They occ. take advantage of an upcurrent over the coastal plain, forming a kind of tube or whirl up to a hundred meters high. They disperse after some time and eventually reform at another adequate place.

05-08/02/1964. Playa Leon Dormido, Panamericana Sur, km 90: Daily 1000-1500 inds. at the 1200 m long beach. They appear at dawn and disappear at dusk, probably to roost somewehre inland. During the day, they rest on the sand within the dry area of the beach or they swim outside the surge.

27/12/1965. Playa Conchan, south of Lima: Thousands on their migration to the south: From 14:30 to 16:00 large flocks pass by in short intervals in chain or delta formation. Next day, same place, same time: The migration continues, but is less intense.

01/11/1972. Playa Leon Dormido: Flying southward in large numbers from 12:00 to 15:00 in flocks of 100-300 inds. constantly changing their formation: from orderless clusters to chain- or delta-formations (Fig. 30). The largest delta-formation counts 80 inds. on each 'wing'. Flight altitude: 20-150 m. Only one ind. touches for an instant the beach: to snatch away an Emerita from a startled Leucophaeus modestus.

[FIGURE 30 OMITTED]

29-30/04/1972. Playa Conchan, south of Lima: Very numerous; probably on their way north. The mass mortality of seabirds in 1972 seems also to have affected L. pipixcan: Among 227 dead birds there are 9 carcasses of L. pipixcan. An unidentified scavenger has left of them only bare bones and plumes. The other species have been left untouched.

104. Chroicocephalus serranus

Sightings

NP: Cajamarca 3500 m, La Libertad 2300 m.

CP: Ancash 4000 m, Junin 3800-4800 m, Lima 4200-4700 m, coast of Ica.

SP: Ayacucho 3300 m, Apurimac 2800 m, Cusco 3000-3400 m, Puno 3800-4300 m, Arequipa 4200 m.

Min. alt: Rio Chusgon, La Libertad, 2300 m; max. alt. Ticlio Pass, Lima/Junin, 4800 m.

28-29/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 4200-4700 m: Breeding activity on a lagoon at 4300 m: Tiny, cone-shaped nest islands; 3 of them with grey, downy young. Some young swimming. At the nest, that is next to the shore, the 2 young are permanently protected by an ad. Some ads. are trying to scare off the intruders by circling and screaming above our heads.

20-27/02/1972. Putina, Puno, 3900-4000 m: Common in the wohle region; solitary or in small groups, with exception of Laguna Checayani, where they occur in large numbers. Numerous nests near the shore (Fig. 31), some on open, shallow water, some within the rush belt. Two young are loudly begging for food, nodding their head.

[FIGURE 31 OMITTED]

Several ad. nearby don't take notice.

09/07/1988. Bay of Paracas, Ica: Several inds., one in alternate, the others in basic plumage.

105. Sternula lorata

21/01/1968. Near Punta Salinas, south of Huacho, Lima: Probably breeding activity. Numerous over desert plain. Alarmed by the intruders, they fly close over our heads, screaming. Two ads. carry small fish in their bills.

13-14/02/1970. Lagunillas, Paracas, Ica: Numerous; they steep dive from remarkable hight, snatching the prey from the surface without actually submerging in the water. They swallow their prey in flight.

106. Larosterna inca

05/08/1983. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Several ind. bathing in fresh water, strongly flapping their wings, prancing and shaking themselves; they even turn onto their backs.

08/07/1988. Paracas, Ica: Numerous at Punta Pejerrey and the Islas Ballestas; several immatures.

Mass mortality of seabirds 1972

23/06/1972. Playa Chira, south of Lima: 2 fresh carcasses out of 99 dead birds.

08/08/1972. Same place: 26 carcasses, most of them immatures, out of 312 dead birds.

107. Chlidonias niger

Boreal migrant

18/11/1967. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: Ind. circling over marshland and lagoon.

Rynchopidae

108. Rynchops niger

Boreal migrant

Sighted on coast of Ancash, Lima and Ica from Oct to May, most frequently in Feb and Apr; solitary or in small flocks, also in large associations.

11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Every day a congregation of more than 500 inds. gathers on the beach, always aligned head first towards the often strong wind (Fig. 32).

[FIGURE 32 OMITTED]

COLUMBIFORMES

COLUMBIDAE

109. Columbina talpacoti

24/01--02/02/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: Very numerous in second growth and cultivated areas. Nest in a plantation on a tutumo tree, about 2 m above ground: a platform barely 10 cm wide with two white eggs.

110. Columbina cruziana

All records refer to the urban area of Miraflores/Lima (Fig. 33).

The diagram shows, that in the mentioned area, there are two periods of reproduction. The main breeding season lasts from March to June, the secondary from Oct to Dec.

[FIGURE 33 OMITTED]

Courting.- Typical courting scenes:

a) Male and female are sitting very closely on the branch of a tree. Their bills hooked, they move their heads vehemently up and down. In the following sequence, the male 'cuddles' his mate by plucking her throat and head, especially around eye and bill. It is followed by a short mating act. Now its the turn of the female to caress her mate, with the difference, that she plucks him more softly. After that, both dedicate themselves to put their plumage in order without taking notice of each other but always keeping in touch.

b) Male and female are hopping and fluttering around on the ground. The male is following his mate closely. Occ. it approaches her with a short jump, followed by a bow and a short croaking - throat feathers raised, tail spread. The female is not impressed and goes on pitter-pattering around.

Breeding record (28/02-02/04/1969)

28/02. Ind. gathering nesting material in our garden. It picks up a straw here and a twig there, carefully choosing the adequate material. Finally it carries a fitting piece to the nesting site: a horizontal branch of a high Euaclyptus tree 3-4 m above the ground. For the moment, the nest consists just of a few stems.

02/03. In the morning: The nest has obviously been completed. The loosely arranged, fragile construction measures 8-9 cm in diameter and is 3-4 cm high. 6.30 pm: One ind. is sitting on the nest, the other is present nearby.

03/03. The first egg has been deposited before 8.30 am. The nest is guarded the whole day.

04/03. The second egg has been laid between 8.30 am and 6.30 pm. The eggs measure 18x24/18x23 mm. During the next two weeks the pair is dedicated to the breeding task, which is shared by both sexes. (To identify the male, I relied on his caracteristic croaking call.) They leave the clutch only for short periods unprotected.

17/03, 7.00-7.45 am: The breeding ad. is sitting motionless for several minutes, plumage fluffed, eyes half shut. Fully awake, it begins to straighten ist plumage. During the next 12 min, it moves about in the nest, restlessly cuddling and turning around. Occ. it plucks playfully at some protruding stems at the rim of the nest. For the rest of the time it dozes along.

18/03, 9.45-10.15 am: The breeding male is visited 6 times by his mate. Each time, the same ceremony takes place: The female arrives from a nearby cottonfield, carrying some nesting material. She lands on an outer branch and approaches the nest by foot. Occ. she is greeted by her mate by the characteristic croaking call. The female climbs immediatly onto the back of her mate to deliver the stem or twig she has brought with her. She does it in a somewhat ceremonious way, nodding her head affectionately. The male inserts the stem into the nest, sometimes assisted by the female. Once the job is done, she leaves again, only to return a few minutes later with a new 'gift'.

20/03, 9.30 am: The female is breeding. As soon as the male approaches, she leaves the nest immediatly. The male emits a croaking call, approaches the nest cautiously and takes over the breeding. 10.30 am: The first egg (marked red) has cracked. With some vigorous movements, the fledgeling manages to widen the gap.

21/03. The second young has hatched between 3 and 6 pm.

24/03, 7.30 am: The female is attending to the fledglings.

27/03, 9 am: The male is sitting on the nest. After a while the fledglings raise their head from beneath him. The begging gestures of the young are not attended by the ad.

29/03 Both fledglings have opened their eyes. The first born is now more than double the size of its sibling. 9.30-10.45 am: Three feedings recorded; both parents participate in the task. The fledglings--occ. both at the same time--are besieging the feeding ad. by vehemently pushing their bill sideways into its gorge. The regurgitating process may last several minutes.

01/04. The older fledgling has left the nest (the day before it was still there). The younger looks underdeveloped.

02/04. The second fledgeling found dead. Last feeding recorded the day before.

* Nest building: 2 days

* Breeding: 17 days

* Feeding at nest: 12 days

August 1970. Nest with two eggs on a date palm in a school yard, 3-4 m above the ground (Fig. 34)

* Breeding: 16 days

* Feeding at nest: 12 days

Oct/Nov 1970. Nest in a young Araucaria, about 2 m high (Fig. 35/36).

* Nest building: 2 days

* Egg deposition 23./24.10.; hatched 08./09.11.

* Breeding: 16 days

* Feeding at nest: 13 days

18/11/1974. Four tipa trees in a school yard with a total of 16 nests (Fig. 37). All nests are occupied. Since the trees are just beginning to bud, the nests are all visible. Minimal distance between two nests: 1.50 m.

111. Metropelia ceciliae

Sightings

NP: Cajamarca 1500-2000/2700 m, La Libertad 1200/1500/1700 m

CP*: Ancash 2600-3900 m, Pasco 3400 m, Lima 800/1000-3900 m

SP: Ayacucho 3000-3800 m, Apurimac 1500-2500 m, Cusco 3000 m, Puno 3900-4000 m, Arequipa 3400 m.

* most frequently between 2000 and 3500 m.

Behavior/Habitat.- In pairs or small flocks of up to 12 inds. in semi-arid areas with columnar cacti, montane scrub, fields, pastures and villages.

29/09/1971. Contumaza, Cajamarca, 2700 m: Nest building ind. at the edge of the village. It disappears with a long straw beneath a curved tile of an adobe construction. A few minutes later, it picks up the next piece on the adjacent pasture.

112. Metropelia melanoptera

Sightings/Behavior

CP: Lima 1500/2800/3000-4000 m

SP: Ayacucho 3000-3800 m, Puno 3900 m, Arequipa 3000-4200 m

[FIGURE 34 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 35 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 36 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 37 OMITTED]

Often in pairs or small groups; very numerous and in large flocks in the region of Putina, Puno and between Puquio and Pausa, Ayacucho.

05/06/1972. Quebrada Tinajas, Lurin Valley, Lima, 1500 m: 2 separate pairs in a semi-arid area with numerous columnar cacti and a dried out seasonal vegetation.

113. Patagioenas maculosa

16-17/06/1968. Pampas Canyon, Ayacucho: a) Tarhuy, 3400 m: Several inds. in montane scrub with small cultivated plots. b) Orongoy, 2800 m: Pair in a quebrada with dense vegetation.

June 1970/ July 1979. Beneath Yauyos, Canete Valley, Lima, 2700 m: Several inds. in lush river edge vegetation dominated by Salix humboldtiana.

14/07/1988. Achomas, Colca Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m: Group of 6 inds. foraging on a harvested wheat field.

13/03/2003. Above Puno, ca. 4000 m: Ind. in a shady grove surrounded by fields, hedges and scrub.

114. Patagioenas fasciata

The following sightings refer to the humid montane forest of Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 2900-3100 m:

15/09/1963. Perched in groups of 3 or 4 inds. on tree tops. Occ. they take to the air (as a group) describe an ample curve and return to the starting point.

13/06/1965. Like 15.09.63, but no collective flights. Occ. owl-like call. Leftovers on a stone beneath a tree: feathers and the contents of the crop.

11-12/06/1966. Numerous; in the morning up to 5 inds. on top of Oreopanax trees. Towards midday also in lower vegetation but not on the ground.

07/07/1968. Numerous; exceptionally on the ground.

22-23/03/1970. Sporadic on tree tops; ind. in montane scrub at 2600 m.

Sightings outside Zarate:

03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maranon Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m: At dusk 4 inds. in a lush quebrada perched on a tree top.

14/10/1967. Surco, Rimac Valley, Lima, 2400 m: 8-10 inds. temporarily on a Schinus molle, some perched in pairs in close proximity.

08/04/2003. San Luis, Callejon de Conchucos, Ancash, ca. 3400 m: Ind. flying over a rock-strewn slope towards a nearby patch of humid montane forest.

115. Zenaida meloda

Vertical distribution.- Sightings exceeding the max. alt. stated by BP (locally up to 1000 m):

NP: Casma Valley, Ancash up to 1400 m

CP: Santa Eulalia Valley up to 1800 m, Canta Valley up to 1700 m, Rimac Valley (Quebrada Tapicara) up to 1900 m, Canete Valley up to 1600 m.

SP: Cotahuasi Valley, Arequipa 2000-2200m

Courting/Breeding.- The courting and breeding period in Miraflores/Lima and Chosica, Rimac Valley, Lima 800 m, lasts from June to March. In the display flight Z. meloda rises steeply to the culmination point, then glides down with spread wings in a wide, flat curve. Song activity is most intense in the morning, beginning before dawn. It diminishes during the middle of the day and increases again in the afternoon and lasts till dusk.

16/11/1972. Miraflores/Lima: From 5.30 to 6 pm about 50 inds. gather in two giant bamboo bushes to roost. They share the place with numerous Columbina cruziana and Passer domesticus.

Jan 1999. Miraflores/Lima: Breeding on a Spathodea campanulata, about 5 m above the ground. In one occ. the unguarded nest is inspected by 3 male (!) Molothrus bonariensis.

14/02/2003. Mirafloes/Lima: Nest building in a Bougainvillea that spreads over a garden wall. Ind. gathers repeatedly twigs and branches from within a bush (not from the ground). A mating ritual takes place on top of the wall. It lasts about 15 min.

116. Zenaida auriculata

In CP recorded most frequently between 1500 and 3500 m in small groups and medium sized flocks of up to 100 ind.

31/07/1963. Near Ayacucho, 2900 m: Numerous in a quebrada with creek and rich vegetation. Nest about 2,5 m high on a scrub with two white eggs; loose platform made of stems and twigs, about 13 cm in diameter.

117. Leptotila verreauxi

Sightings

NP: West slope: Coast of Tumbes, Piura 800 m, Lambayeque 200 600m, La Libertad 1500-2000/2400/2800 m

East slope: Cajamarca 300-2500 m, Amazonas 1600-2500 m

CP: West slope: Coast of Ancash, Lima 0/400 (lomas) /800/1400-2600 m.

East slope: Junin 700 m, Ayacucho 600 m

SP: East slope: Apurimac 2400 m

24/07/1966. Lurin Valley, Lima, 1400 m: Nest in riparian wood (mainly Alnus). The nest is a rather strong platform made of twigs and stems; diameter ca. 25 cm. An ad. and a well developed fledgling are looking over the rim of the nest.

02-03/08/1966 Aricapampa, Maranon Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m: Numerous in a quebrada with lush vegetation. During the day, they perch on trees or hide in dense scrub. Late in the afternoon, they forage on the ground at the edge of the thicket. When alarmed, they open their tail like a fan, close it again and raise it at the same time. Then they lower it slowly to the original position.

03/07/1972. Villa del Progreso, Chanchamayo Valley, Junin, 700 m: Common in secondary growth. Nest with 2 white eggs (28x21/30x21 mm) in a grass bush; loose platform made of dry grass; diameter 20-25 cm (Fig. 38).

[FIGURE 38 OMITTED]

PSITTACIFORMES

PSITTACIDAE

The distinction of the two following species are based on geographic distribution and habitat as described in BP.

118. Aratinga wagleri

Sightings

NP: La Libertad, Maranon Valley, 1300 m

CP: Lima: Huaura Valley 2600 m, Canta Valley 1700 m, Santa Eulalia Valley,1600 m, Canete Valley 2700/3200 m; Ica: Pisco Valley 1700/2200 m.

SP: Apurimac, Pampas Canyon 1300-2400 m

08-12/06/1967. Chiuchin, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600 m: Several times recorded in flocks of up to 20 inds. foraging in the cornfields at the outskirts of the village. In the evening they regularly perform a kind of flight show: They take to the air from the mountain slope, then glide back in a wide curve to the original place; after a while, they repeat the flight. Nesting place in a vertical cliff along the stream: About 20 holes are distributed over a length of 60 m, 6 to 10 meters above the ground. Most entrances are marked with white droppings. The cliff is exposed to the shade during the entire day (Fig. 39).

[FIGURE 39 OMITTED]

14-19/06/1968. Pampas Canyon, Apurimac/Ayacucho: a) Puente Santa Rosa, 1300 m: Numerous in an abandoned orchard at dusk and at dawn; they screech permanently. They feed on pods of Acacia-like trees. b) Between Orongoy and Cocas, 1400 m: 5 inds. roost in a rocky cliff high above the Pampas river. c) Below Hacienda Cocas: Numerous in semi arid area with cacti and scattered trees. d) Hacienda Toxama, 2400 m: Flock of over 100 inds. at 5.30 pm flying upwards the valley.

27/06/1970. Beneath Yauyos, Canete Valley, Lima, 2700 m: In the morning and in the evening flock of 10-15 inds. in montane scrub.

07/07/1979. Above Yauyos, Canete Valley, Lima, ca. 3200 m: Between 6 and 6.30 am large flock of 100-200 inds. in flight over mountain slope.

13/07/1997. Chagual, Maranon Valley, La Libertad, 1300 m: Numerous; they leave their roosting place in a dry quebrada with scattered trees at 6.30 and fly down to the orchards outside the village. They gather preferably on mango trees, although the fruits are not ripe yet.

119. Aratinga mitrata

20-23/07/1976. Limatambo, Cusco 2600-ca.3000 m: Numerous in cultivated areas, montane scrub and river edge vegetation, where they feed on the pods of Pisonia trees. Occ. in pairs, more often in groups; flocks of 100-200 inds. are not rare. Voice: During flight strident, noisy screeches. When feeding, they temporarly fell silent, then they chatter again. They emit two different calls: qyac'qyac'qyac and a whinny-like noise. They do not mix the two calls.

17/04/2005. Region of Lamud, Amazonas: a) Karajia, 2400 m: In the morning flock of about 20 ind. in a vertical cliff (archeological site); later over the humid montane forest below, screaming. b) Some ind. in a cornfield near the cavern of Quiocta (relic of humid montane forest), ca. 2500 m. c) Flock in flight over Lamud, 2200 m.

120. Aratinga erythrogenys

14-15/02/1964. Hacienda Mallares, Sullana, Piura, 200-800m: In semi-arid area with scrub and scattered trees and in deciduous forest. Perches on high trees, like Bombax; very noisy.

121. Forpus coelestis

Sightings/Habitat.- Tumbes, Piura 200-800m, Lambayeque 200400 m, Cajamarca 500-1000/1600 m and La Libertad 1500 m (Fig. 40). In small groups of up to 10 inds. in deciduous forest, semi-arid vegetation with scrub and cacti, Prosopis and Bombax forest, riparian vegetation.

[FIGURE 40 OMITTED]

122. Psilopsiagon aurifrons

Sightings

CP: Lima 0-800/1200/1900/2300/3200/3500 m, Huancavelica 1900-3300 m

SP: Arequipa 500 m, Puno 3800-4000 m

Max. alt.: Three records, that exceed the 3100 m limit on west slope, stated by BP: Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3200 m; Huaytara, Pisco Valley, Huancavelica, 3300 m; Huarochiri, Mala Valley, Lima, 3500 m.

Habitat/Behavior.- Frequently in medium sized flocks of 10-25 and up to 50 inds. in montane scrub, river edge vegetation, fields, orchards, lomas (Atocongo, Lachay). They feed on a great variety of fruits and seeds, e.g. Casuarina and sunflower seeds, Schninus berries corn and peaches.

Regular flights between (presumable) roosting and feeding places: San Antonio, Miraflores/Lima: Repeatedly recorded in the morning between 6.30 and 7.30 flying in south-eastern direction (possible feeding places: Atocongo, Monterrico) and in the evening between 6 and 6:30 in the opposit direction (possible roosting places: Cliffs of Miraflores and Barranco).

Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m: Similar phenomenon: Flocks of 10-30 inds. flying between 5 and 6 pm from their feeding place (rich vegetation along irrigation channel and scrub covered slope below) to the opposite side of the valley (El Bosque). Return flights occ. recorded bewteen 7 and 10 am.

123. Bolborhynchus orbygnesius

13/061965. Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 2900-3000 m: 2 or 3 small groups at the lower edge of the forest. Next morning 15-20 inds. foraging fruits on a thorn bush.

26/06/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4100 m: 6 inds. in flight over Polylepis wood.

14-15/06/1968. Pampas Canyon, Apurimac/Ayacucho: Group on both sides of the canyon in dense vegetation (scrub and trees): near Humaca, 3100 m and between Mollebamba and Orongoy, 3500 m.

CUCULIFORMES

CUCULIDAE

124. Crortophaga sulcirostris

Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Lima; Tacna. Coastal valleys of Lima: Chicama 1500-2000 m; Chancay 1200 m; Rimac 0-800/2200 m; Santa Eulalia Valley 1600/1800 m; Mala Valley 0-1700 m.

Behavior.- In small groups of up to a dozen inds. They forage on the ground on pastures and fields; very often together with grazing cattle (Fig. 41).

Voice.- Call: occ.starting with a low a qsew'qsew followed by a sharp qsYew'qsYew or qsida'qsida. Collective song: a slightly ascending and increasing heweeen.

[FIGURE 41 OMITTED]

Oct 1963. Sta. Catalina, La Victoria/Lima: Regularly but only temporarly in a small untended park.

01-03/11/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Numerous in pasture land boarderd with hedges and chirimoya trees.; mostly in pairs. About 10 inds. together with Mimus longicaudatus on a recently irrigated pasture, picking up small prey, that is trying to escape the flood. At dusk 7 inds. assemble on a dehydrated Acacia tree at the edge of a thicket. I flushed them twice, but they always returned to their roost, huddling against one another.

25/08/1968. Pachacamac, Lurin Valley, Lima: About a dozen inds. are following a tractor, that is plowing a field. Some are sitting on the clods, observing the scene. Others hop or jump or walk crow-like in order to pick up the varied prey, that the plow is bringing to light.

17/11/1968. Mala Valley, 100 m, Lima: 5 inds. are sitting beside a burning heap of weed at the edge of a field (Fig. 42). When they spot a prey, that is trying to escape, they pounce on it, occ. 2 or 3 inds. at the same time. They do not back away from the smoke, that occ. besieges them. They stay just about 30 cm away from the slowly extending flames. To grab a fleeing insect, they will risk going even closer.

[FIGURE 42 OMITTED]

04/08/1983. Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m: 0n two occ. food carrying ind.

20/04/2005. Chamaya Valley, Cajamarca, ca. 800 m: Ricefields and dense vegetation at the foot of an arid mountain slope. Bulky nest on a tree about 4 m above the ground. It is made of losely piled up branches and twigs, 30-40 cm in diameter. Ad. arrives with a big grasshopper to feed a nearly full fledged young.

STRIGIFORMES

TYTONIDAE

125. Tyto alba

03/01/1965. Nana, Rimac Valley, Lima, 500 m: Dead ind. at the road side.

13/11/1966. Tumbes: Ind. calls from a roof in front of the church at 8.30 pm; ind. in flight.

02/05/1968. Callao/Lima: Ind. captured by workers of an industrial mill (later released).

28/08/1971. Pisco, Ica: Dead ind. hanging from a power line at the road to Tambo Colorado.

STRIGIDAE

126. Megascops koepckeae

15/09/1963. Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: At dusk ind. perched on a lower branch of a big Oreopanax tree with raised 'ear' tufts.

18/06/1965. Same place: Voice recorded between 6 an 6.30 pm: ooc'ooc'ooc; repeated 8 to 10 times; slightly ascending and increasing; the last notes slightly falling and diminishing.

127. Bubo virginianus

28/02/1964. Viscas, Mala Valley, Lima, 1800 m: (9 am) Ind. flushed on its roost on an Acacia in a dry, narrow quebrada. It settels about 100 m away in a small niche situated at a crumbling cliff (Fig. 43). It stares at me with its wonderful golden eyes. It raises and lowers nervously its 'ear' tufts. As a sign of alertness, it turns its head around and upward. When I try to get closer, it ruffles its plumage menacingly. Suddenly a Falco sparverius settles on a cactus at the edge of the cliff. Its high pitched kli'kli'kli attracts two inds. of the same species. They start to harrass the big owl by alternately plunging down the ravine passing by the niche as close as possible and simultaneously emitting their aggressive call. The only reaction of B. virginianus: It shuts its eyes each time the troublemakers fly past.

[FIGURE 43 OMITTED]

128. Glaucidium peruanum

Piura: Amotape mountains, 700 m; riparian forest along Rio Chira, near Sullana

Lima: Rimac Valley, 2300-2900 m; Santa Eulalia Valley, 1600 m;

Canete Valley, 2700 m; voice records in the urban area of Lima (at dusk) and Urbanizacion California, Chosica, 800 m (from late afternoon till early in the morning).

Habitat/Behavior.- In deciduous forest, riparian forest, montane scrub, gardens. Old willows (Salix humboldtiana) seem to be the favorit roosting places (3 records). When alarmed, it nervously raises and flickers its tail. On two occ., two hummingbirds harass a roosting G. peruanum. They succeed in displacing it.

129. Athene cunicularia

Sightings.- Coast and west slope: from Piura to Ica; Tacna. (Ancash 2200 m, Lima up to 1100 m). Highland: Junin 4100 m, Puno 3900 m.

Habitat.- Urban areas, fields, gramadales, lomas (Atocongo, Pacta), sand or stone deserts at the edge of irrigated land, huacas (precolumbian adobe constructions; recorded at 6 different sites), dry valleys with columnar cacti, arid montane scrub, puna grassland (Fig. 44/45).

[FIGURES 44-45 OMITTED]

Behavior.- Solitary, in pairs or family groups (up to 5 inds.); on the ground or on low perches like adobe walls, boulders and cacti; occ. on trees (Prosopis, Casuarina). When alarmed it reacts in different ways: As a sign of alertness, it turns its head nervously to all sides reaching nearly 360[degrees] as well as upward at an angle of about 90[degrees]. Another expression of alarm is its charcteristic warning call, a penetrant qyaaac'qyac'qyac'qyac often accompanied by alternatly stretching and crouching. When fully raised, A. cunicularia reaches an impressive size thanks to its long legs. To chase away an intruder from its breeding area, it feigns attack by passing close over his head, screeching.

Breeding burrows

a) Huaca Limatambo in the middle of a cotton field, La Victoria/Lima:

April/May 1963. Pair perched regularly on 2-3 m high adobe walls, occ. together with a third (probably young) ind.; horizontal burrow; entrance about 15 cm wide. Numerous pellets at the foot of the walls: some containing bones and hairs of small rodents, the others show remains of diverse invertebrates.

27/04/1963. Ind. attacks and expells a straying dog.

14/07/1963. Clogged burrow; some fresh pellets.

04/02/1964. Pair perched on an adobe wall; juv. at some distance. There are several newly created (some unfinished) burrows; one is 1.5 m long. At two entrances dispersed feathers of a small bird (remains of a prey?); fresh pellets.

b) Dry quebrada above Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Rimac Valley, 800-1000 m:

08/08/1976. At 6 pm 2 ads. with 3 juvs.: 4 inds. pose immediately above the entrance, the fifth perches on a columnar cactus nearby. One by one they leave their perches and settle at some distance, except for one of the juv. An ad. warns insistently until the young finally withdrews. During my presence, an ad. 'attacked' me three times (Fig. 46).

[FIGURE 46 OMITTED]

09/08/1976. 9 am: One of the juvs. crouching at the entrance of the burrow with fluffed plumage, the other perching on a nearby rock. An ad.--alarmed by my presence--settles next to its offspring and begins to warn. Eventually all three leave the place. The ad. continues to call in the background.

Numerous pellets: About 1/3 consist nearly exclusively of bones and hairs of small rodents. About 2/3 are remains of invertebrates: a high percentage of black ants (they feed on the columnar cacti); at least 3 different species of beetles; scorpions (3 out of 7 pellets) and one grasshopper. Measures of the pellets: 20-40 mm long, 12-13 mm in diameter.

03-17/07/1979. On three occ. a single ind. stays in the neighberhood of the burrow. They behave inconspicuously and depart silently. Fresh pellets at the entrance of the burrow.

05/07/1983. No sign of life; only a few pellets and a complete skeleton of a toad with dehydrated skin.

July 1988. The breeding site described in 76 and 83 is abandoned, the burrow destroyed. Two new sites at a distance of 300 m (one burrow) and 500 m (three burrows [right arrow] Fig. 47) have emerged.

[FIGURE 47 OMITTED]

At both sites I collected a total of 18 fresh pellets in 20 days.

Measures: Length: average 28 mm, min. 21 mm, max. 42 mm; diameter (slightly oval) 10-12/12-14 mm.

Composition of the 18 pellets:

* 8 chitin (invertebrates) only

* 3 hairs and bones (rodents) only

* 5 chitin and bones (probably lizard), no hairs.

* 2 chitin, bones, hairs

The chitin remains come mainly from scorpions, a small amount from black beetles. Somewhat less than 2/3 of the overall remains belong to invertebrates. In the 15 pellets, that contained chitin, I found 21 scorpion stingers, up to 3 in one pellet.

Some striking differnces in comparison with the results of 09/08/1976: The high percentage of scorpions, the low percentage of rodents and the absence of ants.

Some singular remains: Longest hollow bone 23 mm, longest mandible 17 mm, leg segment of a grasshopper 21 mm; remains of scorpions: stingers up to 9 mm, pedipalps up to 11 mm.

15/02/1999. Two burrows about 500 m from the main irrigation channel; entrances beneath a rock, about 4 m apart from each other. 7-8 perches close to the burrows marked with droppings. At the entrances dispersed bones of small rodents, only few remains of invertebrates.

Five fresh pellets: One consists mainly of bones and hairs plus remains of a scorpion, 2 1/2 pairs of elytra of a black beetle (7-8 mm). 4 pellets consist exclusively of chitin, mainly scorpions (each pellet contains 1-2 stingers and 1-3 pedipalps) and a small percentage of black beetles. Measures (in mm): 15/38, 10/25, 11/32, 13/34, 14/33.

c) Quebrada above Chosica, right side of Rimac Valley, 1100 m:

07/08/1983. Burrow in arid montane scrub with columnar cacti; entrance beneath a rock (Fig. 48). Two boulders--one 5 m the other 8 m from the entrance--are strongly marked with droppings. An ind., perched on one of them, withdraws silently.

[FIGURE 48 OMITTED]

Numerous, partially decayed pellets. I examined 15 of them: They consist exclusively of remains of invertebrates, mainly scorpions, followed by a black beetle. Not a single bone!

d) Samaca, Rio Ica, 200 m:

17-21/02/1999. Numerous burrows in the transition zone between river edge vegetation and sand desert. Two pairs perch regularly near their burrows at a distance of about 400 m. Frequent calls at dusk and during the night. Ind. perched for half an hour on Prosopis.

Composition of 15 examined pellets deposited near the entrance of a burrow (Fig. 49):

* 9 chitin only (small brown scorpion)

* 5 hairs and bones only

* 1 hairs and bones and numerous elytra of a black beetle

[FIGURE 49 OMITTED]

Measures (in mm): 10/26, 12/28, 11/27, 11/32, 11/30, 11/27, 13/34, 12/28, 12/27, 11/24, 11/28, 11/25, 11/17, 11/18

In addition dispersed single bones of a rodent: pelvis 32 mm, thigh 28 mm, mandible 20 mm.

130. Asio flammeus

05/01/1966. Mouth of Rio Sechin, Casma, Ancash: Ind. at 8 am in extended gramadal. It criss-crosses low over the ground in search of prey for quite a long time (Fig. 50).

[FIGURE 50 OMITTED]

CAPRIMULGIFORMES

STEATORNITIDAE

131. Staetornis caripensis

[FIGURE 51 OMITTED]

29/02-03/03/1972. San Andres de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Impressive cave at the foot of the Cordillera de Tarros. The main entrance of the cave is at the edge of the dense humid montane forest. We explored the cave at a length of 200-300 m. When we entered the cave it was filled with the clicking sound and the hoarse vociferation of hundreds of birds. Part of them were sitting on their nests, others were criss-crossing the cave. The nests (Fig. 52)--small platforms made of silt--are precariously placed on the walls and the ceiling of the cave. Some of the nests were dark coloured, indicating, that they were recently built. We saw no signs of breeding activity nor presence of young.

[FIGURE 52 OMITTED]

Evening exodus (Fig. 53): The first birds left the cave around 7 pm:

01.03. at 19:04

02.03. at 18:57

03.03. at 19:00

The exodus ended at about 21:30

[FIGURE 53 OMITTED]
Census:

29.02. 19:00-19:30   222 ind.
       19:30-20:00   226 ind.
       19:00-20:00   448 ind.

03.03. 19:00-19:15   159 ind.
       19.15-19.30   99 ind.
       19:00-19:30   258 ind.


The birds--they were clearly recognizable against the bright evening sky--left the cave in pairs or small groups of up to 6 inds. They often circled over the entrance before leaving the site definitely. They returned to the cave between 6 and 7 am. Half an hour before leaving and half an hour after returning, odd sounds emerged from the depth of the cave: hissing, shrieking, scrooping--increasing in the evening, diminishing in the morning.

[FIGURE 54 OMITTED]

How many birds live in the cave? Considering that we overlooked some birds during the count and that the exodus lasted roughly two hours, the cave accommodates well over a thousand guacharos.

CAPRIMULGIDAE

132. Chordeiles rupestris

25-31/071964. Juanjui, San Martin, 300 m: C. rupestrisapears daily at dusk, shortly after 6 pm. They fly in extended strings downstream. Some stay behind, hunting over the Rio Huallaga.

13/01/1965. Yurimaguas, Laguna San Ango, 200 m: A flock of 100-200 inds. hunting at 11 am in midst of dense rainfall. They gather temporarily in the canopy of an isolated tree.

23/07/1983. Huimbayoc, Rio Huallaga, San Martin, 250 m: At sunset (6 pm) a big flock appears over the river.

06/02/1999. Moyobamba, San Martin, 850 m: Three sightings on a boat trip on Rio Mayo: Two seperate groups of about 100 inds. densely perched on the branches of driftwood. At late afternoon a group hunting over the river.

133. Chordeiles acutipennis

Sightings/Habitat.- Coast of Piura, Lambayeque, Ancash, Lima, Ica. Urban areas, sand dunes with Prosopis, riparian vegetation, riverbanks, totorales, fallow land

Behavior.- Hunting alone or in small groups of up to 10 inds. over plazas, around street lighting at dusk and during the night. At daytime resting on the ground (where it often goes undetected thanks to perfect camouflage) or on low branches of scrub and trees.

Breeding.- On three occ. (Apr 1964-04/04/1966-23/04/1967) I found a fully fledged young (Fig. 55) in a school yard in San Antonio, Miraflores--evidence, that C. acutipennis is breeding on the flat roofs of the school buildings.

[FIGURE 55 OMITTED]

27/03/1963. International Airport, Callao: Ind. hunting undisturbed by the noise and the bustle in the waiting hall of the airport at midnight. There is plenty of prey fluttering around the numerous neonlights.

27/07/1963. Pisco, Ica: The first ind. appears at dusk (around 6 pm). Soon there is a second and a third ind. hunting over the plaza and the adjacent buildings.

04/09/1963-11/03/1964. Laguna Villa, south of Lima: The first ind. appears at 17:45/18:10. Later in increasing numbers hunting over the totoral.

16/10/1963. Panamericana Sur, Hipodromo Monterrico/Lima: The apearance of C. acutipennis coincides with the disapearance of Pygochelidon cyanoleuca, both insect hunters.

04/01/1964. Urbanizacion Santa Catalina, La Victoria/Lima: Ind. calling at dawn (05:45).

11/01/1968-17/11/1968-23/11/1969-09/03/1971. Rivermouth of Rio Mala (Fig. 56), Lima:

[FIGURES 56-59 OMITTED]

Numerous on all occ.; up to 6 inds. at the same site; hidden on sandy ground between pebbles (Fig. 59), beneath scrub or perched on low branches (Fig. 58). In late afternoon 2 or 3 inds. chasing each other in flight (Fig. 57).

Calls (recorded exclusively on 17/11/1968): During flight or on the ground. When calling on the ground, C. acutipennis rises its head, displaying its white throat. Song: a soft, cooing croo'croo'coorrr ...; call: a chicken-like gwaa'gwaa'gwaa.

15/02/1972. Miraflores/Lima: Ind. hunting at dawn (05.45) with the street lighting still switched on.

134. Nyctidromus albicollis

04/08/1963. Teresita (today San Francisco), Rio Apurimac, Ayacucho, 600 m:

Ind. netted on the beach of the river; length 23 cm.

14-20/01/1970. Panguana Research Station, Rio Llullapichis, Huanuco, 300 m: Common; hunting at dusk over the stream. Song and courting display performed on sandy ground in a clearing at dusk and during the night. Song at normal level: hewthewthewt; excited: hwew'hwEEw. The song is accompanied by awkward jumps, the white tailfeathers conspicuously shining in the dark. If one gets too close to a courting male, it emits an alarmed growl.

135. Caprimulgus longirostris

Sightings

Lima: Rimac Valley 800-1100/3000 m, Santa Eulalia Valley 1800/3300 m, Lomas de Pacta 300 m

Ayacucho: Between Puquio and Coracora in open Polylepis wood at 4000 m

Voice.- Song: a soft, but far-reaching pEEewr emitted at irregular intervals; when flushed a sharp, repeated ooic.

The following records refer to the Quebrada California, Chosica, Lima, 800-1100 m:

14/09/1963. On a foggy morning at 05:30, corresponding song of two ind. at the edge of the partially irrigated area.

13/10/1963. Two breeding sites:

Site I at 1000 m on a steep slope with sparse vegetation (Fig. 60). One white egg (19.5x22.5 mm) beneath a ledge. It lays on the bare ground on a thin layer of dust in a subtly scratched out hollow (13 cm in diam.). The breeding ad. flushed at short distance.

Site II at 1100 m at a distance of about 300 m from site I on flat, bare hilltop. Eggshell beneath a slightly crooked boulder. Diam. of the hollow ca. 10 cm.

[FIGURE 60 OMITTED]

11/04/1965. Several ind. calling between 5 and 6 am. The voice emissions come form both sides of the dry quebrada. Last emission at 5:50.

05/07 + 04/08/1983. On each occ. two inds. flushed. They spend the daytime in the shade of rocks on the bottom of the quebrada.

136. Hydropsalis climacocerca

04/08/1963. Teresita (today San Francisco), Rio Apurimac, Ayacucho, 600 m: Male (broad white wing bands, white underparts) caught in the net on the beach of the river; length 24 cm.

APODIFORMES

APODIDAE

137. Streptoprocne rutila

25/07-02/08/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500 m: Appears occ. over the Fundacion Kaufmann.

06/03/1972. Cochabamba, Cajamarca, 1600 m: Large, loose group hunting temporarily over the village.

10/03/1972. Cajamarca, 2600 m: Hunting in large numbers over the airfield.

138. Streptoprocne zonaris

Sightings

NP: La Libertad 1500/2400 m

CP: Ancash 3400 m, Lima* 100-3200 m, Pasco 2600 m, Huanuco 3100 m

SP: Cusco 3600 m

* Rimac/Santa Eulalia Valley at all levels from 200 (Vitarte) to 3100 m (San Pedro de Casta). No sightings over the urban area of Lima.

Behavior/Habitat.- Hunting solitary, in pairs and in small to large (rare) flocks over cultivated land, lomas, arid and semi-humid montane scrub; also over villages.

31/08/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Turning up several times at the sunbathed slope of the valley, hunting in company of Aeronautes andecolus and Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.

24/09/1963. Lomas de Atocongo, south of Lima, 400 m: For a short time big flock of about 100 inds. hunting over the ridge.

12/06/1966. San Bartolome, Rimac Valley, 1700 m: Close group of about 20 inds. circling and soaring without wingbeat in a thermal.

139. Chaetura pelagica

Boreal migrant.- The spearhead of Chaetura migration reaches the urban area of Lima on the first days of Nov, reaching its climax in mid Dec and declining rapidly in the first half ofJan. Only scattered records in Lima outside main period (Oct 1x, Feb 2x, Apr 3x).

Records outside Lima: 11.02. Tambo de Mora, Ica; 21.01. Moquegua, Moquegua, 1600 m; 17.02. Huacachina, Ica; 21.11./27.11. Canta Valley, Lima 500 m; 27.12. Huaura Valley, Lima, up to 600 m.

The following records refer to Miraflores/Lima:

04/11/1963. 6 pm: Hundreds of Ch. pelagica swirling around the high-rise of El Pacifico before departing for their (unknown) roosting place.

Nov/Dec 1968-1973. Daily in small groups of 5-10 inds. along the tipa-lined anvenues, flying low over the tree tops. (Recorded at the same period in other dirstricts of Lima: Ciudad de Dios, S. Isidro, Jesus Maria, La Victoria, Rimac, Comas and Callao)

First half of Jan 73 Daily over school area; occ. hunting in mixed groups with Pygochelidon cyanoleuca; on one occ. permanently present from 8 to 12 am, emitting chirping sounds.

04/01/1973. Flock of 200-300 inds. forming an impressive whirl over the Centro Comercial of San Antonio.

140. Chaetura brachyura

15-16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 700 m: Hunting noisily in loose groups over deciduous forest.

13/01/1966. Matapalo, Tumbes: Hunting over Bombax forest.

141. Aeronautes montivagus

17-18/02/1967. Machu Picchu/Huayna Pichu, Cusco, 2400-2700 m: In close group over mountain top and hotel, screeching during flight.

142. Aeronautes andecolus

Sightings

NP: Cajamarca 2800 m (northernmost record: Jequetepeque Valley), La Libertad 1500/3300 m

CP: Ancash 100/3500 m, Lima 200-3600 m (at all levels), Huan cavelica 2000-2800 m, Ica 300-2000 m

SP: Arequipa 3400 m, Moquegua 1400 m

Behavior.- Occ. solitary, mostly in small or medium sized groups. 31/08/1963. Sta. Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Large group together with Streptoprocne zonaris and Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.

15/09/1963. Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Turns up in great numbers together with Orochelidon murina as soon as the sunshine reaches the forest. They hunt at canopy-level as well as high over the forest, attracted by big swarms of mosquitoes.

01-03/11/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Appears daily in the afternoon in company of O. murina, the latter hunting on a lower level, the first at medium and higher altitudes. Both disappear at dusk.

Second half of Sep 64 Ten times recorded at the same place and at the same time of the day: Below Nana, Rimac Valley, Lima, 500 m; between 5 and 6 pm. They leave shortly before sunset.

03/10/1964. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1700 m: Appears at 3 pm together with O. murina. Great swarms of mosquitoes over pasture land!

TROCHILIDAE

143. Colibri coruscan

Sightings/Behavior.- Most sightings in Lima; most frequently between 2500 an 3500 m. Courting activity--song and flight display as described in BP--recorded from mid March to the end of July; on east slope of CP also in Feb (Huariaca, Pasco, 3000-3300 m)

05/02/1965. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3200 m: Ind. bathing in an irrigation channel, where the water flows over a slab.

12-13/06/1965. San Bartolome-Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 2000-3200 m: The most numerous hummingbird in montane scrub and humid montane forest. Courting activity from 6.15 am to dusk, including at noon.

28/07/1967. Cajatambo, Pativilca Valley, Lima, 3400-3600 m: Numerous in montane scrub. Courting activity early in the morning at a sun warmed slope.--Ind. preening and straightening its plumage after bathing in a irrigation channel (slab with shallow water).

02/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maranon Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m: Insect hunting ind. performing almost vertical leaps (3-5 m high), at the edge of a creek.

26/06-03/07/1971. Chiuchin, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600-3000 m: Numerous in montane scrub. Shows a rather agressive behavior: attacks and persues repeatedly Patagona gigas and on one occ. Falco sparverius.

144. Adelomyia melanogenys

29/07/1965. Huacamochal, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, ca. 2000 m: Ind. perched on a small tree.

28/09/1971. Contumaza, Cajamarca, 2700 m: Ind. in a lush 4 quebrada perched on Alnus.

145. Polyonymus caroli

Sighted on three occ. in Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 3000/3100 m:

15/09/1963. Ind. netted at the edge of the forest; length 11,5 cm, bill 2,5 cm.

12/06/1966. Ind. in open forest.

23/03/1970. Several sightings. Ind. bathing at a well at the upper fringe of the forest. After the procedure--lasting 2-3 min.--it carefully straightens its plumage, perched on a branche of a large Oreopanax.

146. Oreotrochilus melanogaster

(Identification of the female not based on physical characteristics but on geographical distribution; see BP)

25-26/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima: a) 3500 m: Female hunting insects over a bubbling mountain creek. She repeatedly crosses the spray. To rest, she perches on polished stones--or rather clings to them--in midstream. b) 3700 m: Female hunting low over the ground in montane scrub. She rests occ. on a stone. c) ca. 4500 m: Breeding female in a niche in a large boulder about 4 m above ground. The nest, a deep, thick walled cup, is 8-10 cm high. It consists mainly of moss, draped with lichen (Fig. 61).

[FIGURE 61 OMITTED]

26/04/1969. Chumcha, 4100 m: Same scene as 25.03.66 at 3500 m

27/04/1969. Watershed between Sheque and Marcapomacocha, Lima/Junin, 4700 m: Small lagoon with cushion plants. Male hopping from plant to plant, performing short leaps to catch insects in the air.

147. Oreotrochilus estella

28/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 4300 m: Male perched on a scrub at the edge of a lagoon.

01/07/1966. Hacienda Moyan, Rio Chusgon, La Libertad, 3600 m: Male on an overgrown cliff.

19/01/1972. Ananea, Puno, 4700 m: Male perched on a protruding beam of the church.

04/07/1993. Near Huamachuco, La Libertad, 3200 m: Male in montane scrub with fields, perching in a shady grove (Fig. 62). It repeatedly leaps into the air, catching insects. Later feeding on a blooming violet-red scrub with needle-like thorns.

[FIGURE 62 OMITTED]

148. Metallura thyriantina

Four records (1963, 1965, 1966, 1970) in humid montane forest of Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 3000 m:

15/09/1963. Ind. caught in the net at forest edge; length 9 cm, bill 1,4 cm.

13/06/1965. Ind. singing, perched on a bare branch in the shade of the forest: a high twitter alternating with a guttural rattle; head stretched out, throat feathers fluffed.

149. Metallura phoebe

NP: La Libertad 3500 m

CP: Ancash 3400-3900 m, Huanuco 3100 m, Lima 3000-4200 m (Coastal Valleys: Pativilca 3400 m, Huaura 3100/3800 m, Canta 3400/3700 m, Rimac 3000 m, Santa Eulalia 3300-4200 m)

19/04/1964. Marcahuasi, Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900 m: Quite numerous on the rocky plateau especially in shrubbery within the prehispanic ruins.

27-29/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 3800 m: In light Polylepis wood; often in pairs; occ. hunting insects over a turbulent stream.

28/06/1965. Yungay-Yanganuco, Ancash, 3500-3900 m: Quite numerous in Polylepis wood along stream.

01/11/1965. Sheque-Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, 3600-4200 m: Several sightings in montane scrub and Polylepis wood.

29/07/1966. Marcahuamachuco, La Libertad, 3500 m: Rather common in dense scrub vegetation covering the prehispanic ruins on a mountain top.

30/09/1970. Slope of Nevado Sarasara, Ayacucho, 3700 m: Ind. in scattered Polylepis wood; perched on a tree, it emits a guttural trill. It leaves its perch twice, aproaching the 'visitor'. It hovers for a moment in front of me, then returns to the perch. (Similar curiosity recorded on [right arrow] 01/11/1965).

150. Agleactis cupripennis

25-27/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3300-4300 m: Common in montane scrub and Polylepis wood.

29/07/1966. Huamachuco, La Libertad, 3300 m: Sightings in montane scrub with scattered fields. When feeding on a blossom, it often clings to it.

25/05/1967. Viso, Rimac Valley, Lima, 2900 m: Adult feeding young, perched on a scrub. The adult pokes its bill repeatedly into the gorge of the young.

07/07/1968. Zarate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Several sightings in the forest. The flight display is a kind of dancing in the air: It hovers for a moment, drops to a lower level, hovers again, turns around in full circle, raises again etc.

24/25/04/1971. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3600-4100 m: Omnipresent in Polylepis wood: perched on an outer branch of a tree or feeding on blossoms especially Phrygilanthus. Ind. netted (Fig. 63).

07/04/2003. Laguna Purhuay, Huari, Ancash, ca. 3500 m: Common in montane scrub and Alnus forest around lake. Ind. sunbathing on a branch, its back exposed to the sun, head turned aside, feathers fluffed; with hanging wings and spread out tail (Fig. 64). This attitude is interrupted 4-5 times by briefly scratching the warmed up side of the head (it is always the same side).

[FIGURE 63 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 64 OMITTED]

151. Boissoneaua matthewsi

28/02/1972. San Andres de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2000 m: Fields and pastures with scattered forest relics: Ind. feeding on banana blossoms, occ. clinging to the inflorescence.

02/03/1972. Same place, 2400 m: Ind. feeding on Fuchsia at the edge of the humid montane forest.

152. Patagona gigas

Sightings

NP: Cajamarca 2400 m, La Libertad (Maranon Valley) 2400 m.

CP: Ancash 2600-3700m, Pasco 2600/3000-3300 m, Lima 18004100 m (most frequently between 2600 and 3700 m).

SP: Ayacucho 3000-4000 m, Cusco 2700/3000/3800 m, Arequipa 3000-3500 m, Puno 3800 m.

Lowest record: San Bartolome, Rimac Valley, Lima, 1800 m (BP 2000 m).

Voice.- Call: a sharp qip often given in flight; song: a sputtering chatter.

28/03/1964. Surco, Rimac Valley, Lima, 2300 m: Numerous on steep slope of montane scrub. On several occ. two inds. (probably rivaling males) engage in a kind of whirl dance and pursuit flight, some times high up in the air. (Similar behavior: 02/08/1966, Aricapampa, Maranon Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m).

01/11/1965. Sheque-Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 36003800 m: Common in montane scrub. Ind. perched on a cactus, capturing insects. After each foray it returns to the same perch (four successful forays in a row).

03/12/1966. Same place, 3300-4100 m: Numerous in montane scrub; some with yellow marks (pollen) on their forheads. Ind. repeatedly flying low over a creek, dipping its bill into the water, touching the surface with its tail.--One record in Polylepis wood.

06-12/06/1967. Chiuchin, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600-3600 m: Common in riparian vegetation, fields and montane scrub. Favoured feeding source: blooming Agavae. Often hunting insects at the edge of the stream, perched on exposed branches. Ind. makes 8-10 forays in 5 min.; max. distance 20 m.

08/07/1979. Yauyos, Canete Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Ind. performing acrobatic twists, while hunting insects in the air. Does not return to the perch after each foray, occ. stays hovering for some moments in search of a new prey.

06/04/2003. Banos de Chavin, Ancash, 3300 m: Ind. appears twice over torrential stream. It whirls around, hovers, bounces up and down, like in a ballet performance.

153. Myrtis fanny

NP: Cajamarca 1600/2600 m, Lambayeque 200 m.

CP: Lima 100-3600 m.

Highest record: Huaura Valley, Lima, 3600 m (BP 3200 m).

21/07/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Up to 4 inds. simultaneously hunting insects over a shallow pond formed by the stream. When they need a rest--and they often do--they perch on exposed branches close to the water. They don't take any notice of each other.

01/09/1963. Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Rimac Valley, Lima, 800 m: Male performing flight display, a kind of pendular dance in front of a perched female.

13/10/1963. Same place: A dozen of M. fanny buzzing around blooming Euclayptus trees, sometimes engaging in whirl dances or pursuit flights.

19/10/1963. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400 m: Very numerous on a cold, foggy day. Excellent food supply in lush herbal vegetation with a high percentage of Lamiaceae. Up to 6 inds. perched on small trees and Agavae.

154. Rhodopis vesper

Sightings

CP: Lima 0-500/900/1600-2600 m

SP: Ica 200 m, Moquegua 1500 m

Habitat: Regularly in gardens of La Victoria/Lima and Miraflores/Lima, also in riparian vegetation, arid and semi-humid montane scrub, lomas.

Behavior/Voice: Feeding on a great variety of blossoms; only two records hunting insects. Emits a guttural tserrr,tserr, while moving from blossom to blossom.

Mid Sep 1966. Chancay Valley, Lima, 500 m: 2 inds. circling and hovering around blooming Salix, probably in search of insects.

Mid Oct 1966. La Victoria/Lima: Male and female feeding daily on Hibiscus (but never at the same time); on one occ. R. vesper is chased away by Troglodytes aedon.

31/01/1972. Moquegua, Moquegua, 1500 m: 2 inds. in hotel garden; male feeding on banana blossoms, female on Hibiscus, piercing the flower from the side.

16/09/1972. Punta Hermosa, 45 km south of Lima: Several inds. in a patch of vegetation in a dry valley, where they feed on numerous trumpet- and cone-shaped blossoms.

04/08/1983. Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Rimac Valley, 900 m: Pair in dry quebrada feeding on a flowering columnar cactus. Later hovering around a non-blooming specimen, prossibly searching for ants.

155. Thaumastura cora

Sightings.- Lima, Rimac Valley: 0/100/800/2000-2800 m; regularly in gardens of Miraflores/Lima and Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Lima. Only one record outside Lima: Casma Valley, Ancash, 1300 m.

Behavior/Voice.- Males often engage in rivalries and pursuit flights emitting sharp calls (tsic) or an excited chatter. If they get very close, they spread out their long tail feathers (90[degrees] and more). Song is given from a perch and lasts several seconds: a hurried, squeezed, intermittent chatter. Additional sounds emitted during flight: tsftseretse or qsee'qsee'qsi'dede.

01/05/1968. Outskirts of Miraflores/Lima: Meeting on two young Salix at the edge of a cotton field: Male settles on one of the trees. A newcomer provokes him. They engage in a short aerial contest. Needing a rest, each chooses its own branch on a seperate tree. That's when a third male shows up. He tries in vain to engage the two in another contest. For a while, the three remain perched at a safe distance from each other. Occ. they communicate with a twitter: sit'rere,sit'rere, their throat feathers glittering in the evening sun. Afterward, two of them leave the site, pursuing each other. The third moves on to a neighbouring irrigation channel, where he starts insect hunting in a jerky criss-cross flight.

Mid of Oct to end of Nov 1969. Miraflores/Lima: Male appears regularly in our garden

09/11/1969. Same place: Male feeding on Coleus. In 1 min it visits 122 of the tiny blue blossoms; that's an average of two blossoms per second! When feeding on Tropaeolum, it does not penetrate the blossom from the front, but from the side.

Second half of Feb 1972 Same place: Male sings daily in our garden, perched on a bare branch of an Eucalyptus tree.

13/3/1972. Same place: Pair whirling the whole day long around Eucalyptus, chattering in flight. Regularly heard and seen during the following week; occ. 3 and in one oportunity 4 inds. pursuing each other.

156. Campylopterus largipennis

28/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Huanuco, 300 m: Ind. netted at forest edge; length 14 cm, bill 2,6 cm

02/07/1972. San Ramon, Chanchamayo Valley, Huanuco, 800 m: Ind. at forest edge.

157. Myrmia micrura

14-15/02/1964. Hacienda San Jacinto, Piura: Ind. repeatedly perched on a dwarf palm within reach of a sprinkler.

158. Amazilia amazilia

Sightings.- Coast from Piura to Ica, up to 800 m; higher elevations: Cajamarca 1600 m (east slope), La Libertad 1500 m (west slope).

Most records in gardens and parks of Miraflores/Lima.

Voice.- Call (often given in flight): a series of sharp whistles, like tsee'tsee'tsuc'tsuc. Song consists of an intense, sustained chatter (wftse'ge'ge) and a guttural trill (trrrut,trrut), emitted from a perch, often a bare branch of a tree or a bush, occ. from a tree top. Attitude: With bill slightly opened and aimed upward, the throat feathers intermittently raised, it turns its head constantly from one side to the other.

Courting/Breeding.- Miraflores/Lima: Judging from the song activity, there seems to be two reproduction periods: one from February to April, the other from July to October.

Oct. 1963. Miraflores/Lima: Ind. hunting insects by snatching them from underneath the leaves of a tree, a method, that I have not recorded since.

26/07-01/08/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500 m: Common in montane scrub and orchards around the Fundacion Kaufmann. Nest-building and breeding on a Thuja tree about 3 m above ground. The neatly done, cup-like nest is placed on a thin branch, that serves as a precarious platform (Fig. 65/66). It consists mainly of fine, vegetal fibers; the outside is camouflaged with moss and lichen. Measures: Outer diam. 4 cm, inner diam. 2,5 cm, height 3 cm. Nest-building: Ind. arrives with nesting material. It settles in the almost finished nest and begins to reinforce the rim and the wall by rapidly moving its bill up and down, resembling an old-fashioned sewing machine. Before leaving again, it carries out a full turn, still sitting in the nest, its body vibrating (possibly to consolidate the nest and give it its final form). After completing the nest (27/08), A. amazilia does not show up for four days. On 01/08. I found a clutch of 2 white eggs. One of the ad. begins to breed immediately (Observation discontinued).

26-28/02/1967. Miraflores/Lima: Ind. singing in our garden on three consecutive days between 7.00 and 8.30 pm (on one occ. also at 4.00 pm) always using the same perch.

22/08/1967. Same place: Ind. feeding on Hibiscus (with curled up blossom). To reach the nectar, it makes use of holes at the base of the blossoms, that have been worked out primarily by [right arrow] Sporophila simplex.

01/05/1968. Same place: Ind. bathing in an irrigation channel bordering a cotton field. Its vigorous movements make the water drops fly around.

July 1970. Same place: Despite an extraordinary damp winter, ind. sings regularly on top of Eucalyptus, mostly around midday.

12/08/1970. Same place: Ind. approaches an abandoned nest of Carduelis magellanica on a Casuarina. Poking into the nest, it extracts a sizable batch of cotton and flies away with it.

November 1970. Same place: Ind. often foraging on the blue blossoms of a Salvia. Occ. it grabs hold of a blossom, but mostly moves hurriedly from one blossom to the next. It manages to visit 27 blossoms in 40 sec.

April 1971. Same place: Song given regularly between 6.00 and 7.00 am.

04-13/02/1972. Same place: Ind. sings daily on Eucalyptus.

09-14/07/1976. Urbanizacion California, Chosica, Rimac Valley, Lima, 800 m: Numerous; feeding on Lantana hedges, presently one of the few blooming plants. They pause only a fraction of a second at each of the tiny blossoms.

End of July 1988 Same place: Daily in the garden and the scrub covered neighborhood, where A. amazila favors a 2 m high Lamiaceae with orange-red blossoms. A feeding ind. does not tolerate others, that try to feed at the same plant. Frequent pursuit flights are the result.

29/03/2003. Pariacoto, Casma Valley, Ancash, 1200-1400 m: Common in orchards and river edge vegetation. Ind. passes low over quiet flowing creek, touching the surface of the water or slightly plunging into it; then it disappears for a short time in the riparian thicket. The procedure is repeated 4-5 times.

[FIGURE 65 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 66 OMITTED]

159. Amazilia franciae

08/07/1993. Chagual, Rio Maranon, La Libertad, 1300 m: Ind. perched on a lower branch of a tree, hunting insects; occ. foraging on Passiflora and a climber with greenish-yellow blossoms. It returns each time to the same perch.

11/07/1993. Zarumilla/Pataz, La Libertad, 2700 m: Feeding on Cactus, Pitcairnia, Eucalyptus and a climbing Leguminosae.

CORACIIFORMES

ALCEDINIDAE

160. Megaceryle torquata

Sightings

Coast: Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Lima.

Amazonia: Loreto, San Martin, Huanuco, Ucayali, Madre de Dios.

07/01/1966. Mouth of Rio Jequetepeque, La Libertad: Ind. fishing in brackwater lagoon. Also seen hovering over salt water near the beach.

09/03/1971. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima (only record in the Department of Lima): Appears on three occ. over the lagoon bordered with Typha, hovering about 4 m above the water; occ. calling trac'trac'trac.

29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, abaou 50 km northeast of Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: Common; mostly perched at the edge of streams and oxbow lakes; also skimming low over the water, grabbing fish, that venture too close to the surface.

161. Chloroceryle americana

Sightings

NP: Lambayeque Coast, La Libertad Coast/300/500 m

CP: Lima: Lurin Valley 100/200/500/600/900/1100/1400/1500/ 1700 m, Chancay Valley 500 m, Mala Valley sealevel/200 m, Canete Valley 400 m.

Behavior.- Perched along streams and irrigation channels on branches above ponds or slow flowing water, rarely higher than 2 m; also on stones in midstream, on roots in the riverbank; on one occ. on a telephone wire.

02/06/1963. Lurin Valley, Lima, 200 m: Two seperate ind. in flight. The clear stream is teaming with small fish. Regurgitated remains of prey on a flat stone.

13/06/1963. Lurin Valley, Lima, 500 m: Ind. in flight; perch in dense vegetation at the edge of the stream: the horizontal branch is marked with droppings; underneath fishbones and scales.

22-23/06/1963. Lurin Valley, Lima, 600 m: Breeding site: Two tunnels in a vertical clay wall bordering the stream, one occupied (Fig. 68) the other unused; three additional unfinished tunnels distributed at a length of about 15 m, 1-1,5 m above the stream. An old tunnel, partially destroyed by a landslide, contains eggshells, fishbones and lots of crawfish leftovers. Feeding activity between 7.00 and 8.00 am: Ad. leaves the tunnel, its partner approaches the site, its bill charged with food (probably small crawfish). Aware of my presence, it approaches the site reluctantly, finally disappears in the tunnel.- Male (Fig. 67+69) and female caught in the net.

[FIGURE 67 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 68 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 69 OMITTED]

24/10/1964. Chancay Valley, Lima, 500 m: 2 inds. along irrigation channel, pursuing each other, emitting sharp whistles.

19/01/1967. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: At a length of 2 km at least 2 pairs. Ind. darts vertically from its perch in pursuit of a prey. Shortly afterward the same ind. flies low over the pond, barely touching the surface, when catching fish.

17/11/1968. Same place: Pair perched on a bush at the edge of the stream. One of them emits a guttural call trc'trc'trc.

MOMOTIDAE

162. Momotus momota

16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 800 m: 2 seperate inds. in deciduous forest.

GALBULIFORMES

GALBULIDAE

163. Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis

02/10/1972. Laguna San Ango, Yurimaguas, Loreto, 200 m: 4 inds. perched quietly on a tree at the edge of a clearing. One of them returns from a hunting foray with an insect. Before swallowing it, it turns and shifts the prey circuitously in its long bill.

27/01-02/02/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: (BP maintains, that Pucallpa belongs to the distribution area of Galbalcyrhynchus purusianus, conceding that the two species approach one another along central Rio Ucayali.) Rather common; it favors forest edges along rivers and lakes. Mostly 2, 3 or 4 inds. together, perched on a branch. In contrast to the motionless body, the head is constantly turning around, looking for flying insects. One ind. arrives with a dragonfly, another with a large beetle. To crash the rigid carapace, it bangs its bill several times against the perch until it manages to swallow the prey. Contact call: tsee'tsee-turr'turr; alarm call: qYap'qYap.

164. Galbula cyanescens

28/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martin, 400 m: Ind. perched in a shady quebrada.

18/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Lluallapichis, Huanuco, 300 m: Ind. perched at the edge of the forest on an exposed branch. It moves its head up and down or shifts it from one side to the other. It performs several forays to catch flying insects. On one occ. it returns with a large butterfly (Fig. 70). Twisting and turning it in its bill, one of the wings breaks off, then the other. While the wings are tumbling down slowly, the body of the butterfly is falling fast. But before it reaches the ground, G. cyanescens catches it in the air. It returns to the perch to swallow it in a swoop.

17/07/1976. Between Puente Inambari and Quincemil, Cusco, ca. 500 m: Ind. returns with an insect to its perch in the forest.

[FIGURE 70 OMITTED]

BUCCONIDAE

165. Notharchus hyperrhynchus

24/03/1903. Posada Amazonica (observation tower), Rio Tambopata, Madre de Dios: Pair in canopy perched on a dry branch.

166. Monasa nigrifrons

28/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martin, 300 m: Several ind. on a bush in dense vegetation at the edge of a forest creek.

14-20/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Huanuco, 300 m: Common; they perch in trees individually or in small groups, motionless. Lively and sustained song given in chorus. As one ind. begins, others join in. The song begins slowly and quietly, becoming louder and faster (up to 15 notes in 5 sec), at the climax, the chatter turns into a trill.

01-06/10/1972. Laguna San Ango, Yurimaguas, Loreto, 200 m: Quite numerous; hunting insects in the shady part of the forest as well as in clearings; also perched on solitary trees; often several ind. together.--2 inds. perched very closely on a mighty Ficus tree at the edge of the lake. Song: an uninterrupted chatter given in duet.

167. Chelidoptera tenebrosa

25-31/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martin, 300 m: Sporadic; in clearings and at river edge. Breeding tunnel at river bank: Pair arriving and departing.

31/01/1970. Puerto Inca, Rio Pachitea, Huanuco, 300 m: On a limited trajectory of the river rather numerous. 2 or 3 inds. perched conspicuously on stakes or dead trees, hunting insects.

03/07/1972. La Merced, Chanchamayo Valley, Junin, 800 m: Ind. hunting insects from a high pole.

05/10/1972. Laguna San Ango, Yurimaguas, Loreto, 200 m: Ind. perched on the dead top of a tree.

PICIFORMES

CAPITONIDAE

168. Capito aurovirens

24/01-02/02/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: Several sightings in humid forest. Calling ind. perched on a branch, twitching its wings: crrrew'crrrew.--Chorus song given by a group perched on a tree: One ind. begins, immediately followed by 2 or 3 others. The metronome like notes resemble the croaking of frogs. A sequence lasts 10-15 sec, then the group falls silent for quite a while.

169. Capito auratus

16/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Huanuco, 300 m: Ind. at the edge of the forest capturing insects by climbing skillfully through branches and lianas.

170. Eubucco richardson

16/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Llullapichis, Hanuco, 300 m: Ind. at the edge of the forest, hunting insects in dense foliage.

171. Eubucco versicolor

21/09/1968. Yaupi, Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, ca. 2000 m: 2 or 3 inds. in an isolated group of trees at the edge of the humid montane forest, calling simultaneously: a soft purrr. One ind. collected by a local.

RAMPHASTIDAE

172. Ramphastos tucanus

14-20/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Huanuco, 300 m: Regularly near the station perched on high trees. Distinctive song given individually or in duet. It consists of alternating high (qewc) and low notes (qyac), both being repeated in an irregular manner. The performing ind. raises its bill in accordance with the high notes, while accompanying the low ones by turning its head from one side to the other.

173. Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis

21/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2300 m: Ind. on a steep slope in a patch of humid montane forest.

174. Pteroglossus castanotis

24/01/1970. Fundo Helvetia, Tingo Maria, Huanuco, 800 m: Ind. perched on a tree in a coffee plantation (Fig. 71).

[FIGURE 71 OMITTED]

05/07/1972. San Ramon, Chanchamayo Valley, Junin, 800 m: 3 inds. in a group of trees surrounded by second growth. One of them is hopping from branch to branch of a Cecropia, probably collecting ants.

175. Pteroglossus beauharnaesii

24/03/2003. Posada Amazonica (observation tower), Rio Tambopata, Madre de Dios: Group of several ind. in canopy of humid forest.
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Title Annotation:p.27-p.59
Author:Luthi, Hansjakob
Publication:Revista peruana de biologia
Article Type:Report
Date:Apr 1, 2011
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