ON THIS DAY.
1607: Captain John Smith landed on the Virginia coast and started what would prove to be the first permanent English settlement in the New World - Jamestown (there had been several previous failed attempts). 1830: The republic of Ecuador was created. 1835: Death of architect John Nash, who planned Regent's Park and Trafalgar Square.
1842: Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan, composer, was born in Lambeth, son of a bandmaster at Sandhurst Military College.
1846: The United States declared war on Mexico. 1914: Joe Louis, heavyweight boxing champion, known as the "Brown Bomber", was born in Lexington, Alabama. 1943: German and Italian forces in Africa surrendered. 1961: Death of Gary Cooper, American actor who was twice an Oscar winner. 1981: Pope John Paul II survived an assassination attempt in St Peter's Square in Rome.