ON THIS DAY.
1566: James VI of Scotland, later James I - and first Stuart king - of England, was born in Edinburgh Castle.
1623: Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and philosopher who invented the first calculating machines, was born. Other research led to the invention of the syringe and hydraulic press and with it, Pascal's law of pressure. 1820: A baton was first used to conduct an orchestra in England, by Ludwig Spohr.
1829: The London Metropolitan Police was founded by Sir Robert Peel.
1896: Bessie Wallis Warfield (Mrs Simpson) was born in Baltimore. She later became the Duchess of Windsor, after Edward VIII abdicated the throne because of his love for her. 1903: Wally Hammond, England and Gloucester cricketer, was born.
1905: The world's first all-motion picture theatre opened in Pittsburgh. 1910: Deutschland, the first Zeppelin airliner, was launched, and crashed on June 28.
1953: Ethel and Julius Rosenberg went to the electric chair in New York, having been found guilty of spying for the Soviet Union.
1967: The Monterey Pop Festival attracted thousands of hippies to watch stars including Jimi Hendrix, Otis Redding, Janis Joplin and The Who.
ON THIS DAY LAST YEAR: Prince William, the Duke of Cambridge, urged fathers to discuss mental well-being with their children and families and be more open about their own feelings as he celebrated his third Father's Day as a parent.
BIRTHDAYS: Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel peace laureate and freedom campaigner, 72; Salman Rushdie, author, 70; Kathleen Turner, actress, 63; Paula Abdul, singer, 55; Rory Underwood, former rugby union player, 54; Boris Johnson, British foreign secretary, 53; Sadie Frost, actress/designer, 52; Zoe Saldana, actress, 39.
Birthdays: Sadie Frost and Salman Rushdie