ON THIS DAY IN ...
1655: Forces of the English Protectorate, thwarted in their main aim in the Caribbean of capturing Hispaniola, instead began a successful invasion of the lightly-defended Spanish possession of Jamaica. Spanish attempts to retake the island failed and it would be a British colony for another three centuries.
1802: The French Legion d'Honneur was created by Napoleon. 1898: William Ewart Gladstone, four times Liberal prime minister, died at Hawarden Castle in North Wales aged 88. 1900: Britain annexed Tonga, the Friendly Islands.
1906: The 20km Simplon rail tunnel, between Switzerland and Italy, was officially opened. 1935: North Wales-born T E Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) died six days after a motorcycle accident in Dorset. 1982: Italian actress Sophia Loren was jailed for a month for tax evasion.
1984: Sir John Betjeman, Poet Laureate from 1972, died aged 77.