ON THE CATEGORY OF CLUSIVITY IN THE UDMURT LANGUAGE.
Pronouns are described in all descriptive grammars of the Udmurt language, including the first Udmurt grammar book (for example, [phrase omitted] 59-64; [phrase omitted] 167-187; [phrase omitted] 1983 : 574-578; 2008 : 844-849), researches on territorial dialects ([phrase omitted] 1970 : 183-207; [phrase omitted] 1997 : 118-130; [phrase omitted] 2016 : 90-105), and other publications ([phrase omitted] 2001; [phrase omitted] 2005). But so far no monograph on the Udmurt pronouns has been published. Each following study, as a rule, supplements, clarifies or discusses a separate aspect of the pronominal system in more detail. However, there is no consensus of opinion among linguists on terminology and the number of pronominal subtypes.
The article deals with the following category of pronouns: [phrase omitted] 'myself / me personally', [phrase omitted] 'yourself / youSG personally', [phrase omitted] 'himself / him personally; herself / her personally; itself / it personally', [phrase omitted] 'ourselves / us personally', [phrase omitted] 'yourselves / youPL personally', and [phrase omitted] 'themselves / them personally'. According to the Russian linguistic tradition, the term [phrase omitted] 'attributive pronouns' is the most suitable one for this group of pronouns. As the Udmurt pronouns indicate person, they are also called [phrase omitted] 'personal attributive pronouns' or [phrase omitted] 'attributive personal pronouns'.
The discussed pronouns can also be used in combination with personal pronouns: [phrase omitted] 'I myself ', [phrase omitted] 'youSG yourself, [phrase omitted] 'he himself / she herself / it itself, [phrase omitted] 'we ourselves', [phrase omitted] 'youPL yourselves', and [phrase omitted] 'they themselves'. In this case they reinforce the corresponding personal pronoun and therefore they are called [phrase omitted] 'emphatic personal pronouns'.
However, in many oblique cases pronouns of the described category can be used as reflexive pronouns. According to our observations, these pronouns are semantically reflexive at least in five cases out of the nine cases they inflect for. As an example, we will provide the pronominal inflection for the accusative case: [phrase omitted] '(I) myself, [phrase omitted] '(youSG) yourself, [phrase omitted] '(he/she/it) himself/herself/itself, [phrase omitted] '(we) ourselves', [phrase omitted] '(youPL) yourselves', [phrase omitted] '(they) themselves'; and for the dative case: [phrase omitted]'(I) to myself, [phrase omitted] '(youSG) to yourself, [phrase omitted] '(he/she/it) to himself / to herself / to itself, [phrase omitted] '(we) to ourselves', [phrase omitted] '(youPL) to yourselves', and [phrase omitted] '(they) to themselves'. Considering the above-mentioned functional property of the described pronouns, I. V Tarakanov suggested using the term [phrase omitted] 'emphatic personal reflexive pronoun'.
As we can see, one and the same subtype of a pronoun is described as emphatic personal ([phrase omitted]), personal attributive ([phrase omitted]), attributive personal ([phrase omitted]) or emphatic personal reflexive ([phrase omitted]). Different names refer to different structural and functional properties of the analyzed pronouns. 2. The Udmurt pronoun [phrase omitted] is of considerable interest to us as, besides the above mentioned semantics, it is also used as the inclusive personal pronoun conveying the meaning 'youSG and I' and 'youPL and I'. Moreover, its genitive form [phrase omitted] 'my and yourSG/PL' and ablative form [phrase omitted] 'my and yourSG/PL' can also function as inclusive possessive pronouns.
The present paper addresses the topic of exclusive and inclusive pronouns in the Udmurt language and aims to describe the existing opposition of the clusivity forms in the pronominal sphere. The problem discussed in the article is crucially important as the category of clusivity in the Udmurt language has never been studied so far.
In linguistics, clusivity denotes the phenomenon of inclusive--exclusive distinction and simultaneously comprises both members of the opposition. This term was first coined by Viktor ElsIk (2000) and was readily accepted by linguists (Clusivity. Typology and Case Studies of the Inclusive-Exclusive Distinction 2005). The inclusive pronoun is used in referring to the speaker plus at least one addressee, for instance, in the Tagalog language: kata 'you and I' and tayo 'you and I and at least one other'. An inclusive form which is used to refer to a single speaker and a single addressee is called 'dual', while one which refers to more than these is generally called 'first plural inclusive' in opposition to 'first plural exclusive'. The languages that have an opposition of 'we' inclusive and 'we' exclusive are called inclusive languages. They are mostly spoken in Central and Southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, Australia, the Americas and Africa ([phrase omitted] 193). Languages lacking inclusives in their pronominal systems are called non-inclusive languages, among which are languages spoken in Europe. The inclusive is traditionally explained as an elaboration of the meaning of the first-person plural pronoun 'we' and considered as a subcategory within the first person, but nowadays researchers argue that inclusives should be treated as a separate grammatical person (Daniel 2005).
2.1. Taking into consideration the semantic features of the Udmurt word [phrase omitted] it may be regarded as 'we' inclusive, i.e. an addressee or addressees are included in the set of referents which also contains the speaker ('I'):
2.1.1. [phrase omitted] 1) = 'I + youSG' - English we 'youSG and I' 2) = 'I + [youSG.sup.1] + [youSG.sup.2] + ...' = 'I + youPL' --English we 'youPL and I' 3) = 'I + [youSG.sup.1] + [youSG.sup.2] + ... + he/[she.sup.1] (+ he/[she.sup.2] + ...) ' = 'I + youPL' --English we 'youPL and I' 4) = 'I + youSG + he/[she.sup.1] (+ he/[she.sup.2] + ...)' = 'I + youPL' --English we 'youPL and I'
In all Udmurt dialects this pronoun has similar meanings, although it can be pronounced differently, for example: in the peripheral southern Udmurt dialects [phrase omitted], in the southern Udmurt dialects [phrase omitted] and [phrase omitted], in the middle Udmurt dialects [phrase omitted], [phrase omitted] and [phrase omitted], and in the northern Udmurt dialects [phrase omitted] ([phrase omitted] 1932 : 19). As the pronominal systems of the Russian language and other languages spoken in Europe lack inclusives, the Udmurt pronoun [phrase omitted] had not been identified and described as a personal pronoun in grammar books, dictionaries and textbooks by the late 1990s. It used to be defined as attributive personal pronoun ([phrase omitted] 1983 : 34; [phrase omitted] 2008 : 50). The idea of classifying [phrase omitted] as a personal pronoun was first put forward by Sergei Maksimov, one of the authors of the present study. He proposed that Istvan Kozmacs include this pronoun in his coursebook on the Udmurt language for Hungarian students ([phrase omitted] 1998). The meanings of the pronoun [phrase omitted] both as a personal pronoun and as a reflexive one were also provided in the Udmurt-Finnish dictionary, so the inclusive meanings of the possessive pronouns [phrase omitted] and [phrase omitted] were given separately (Maksimov, Danilov, Saarinen 2008 : 20). On S. Maksimov's recommendation, [phrase omitted] was classified as a personal pronoun and briefly described by E. V Nazarova in her textbook on the Udmurt language ([phrase omitted] 2012 : 56).
Examples provided below demonstrate how this pronoun is used in the Udmurt language.
(1) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.INCL Udmurt-PL 'We [youPL and I] are the Udmurts' (it can be said only by an Udmurt person addressing only Udmurt people) (2) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.INCL that-ACC.PRON know-INF [phrase omitted] and-CONJ always-ADV memory-INESS-PxPL1 [phrase omitted] keep-INF necessary-ADV.PRED 'We [youPL and I] have to know it and always keep it in mind' (3) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.INCL that-ACC.PRON not-NEG do-FUT.PL1 We [youSG/youPL and I] will not do that' (4) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.INCL discuss-PAST-PL1 already-ADV be-PAST it-PRON about-PP We [youSG/youPL and I] have already discussed it' (5) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.INCL -ADV still-ADV old-ADJ in the way-PP be passive-CVB [phrase omitted] ([phrase omitted], 1925.07.17.) live-PRES.PL1 We [youPL and I] are still living passively as in the olden days' (6) [phrase omitted] many-PxSG3.EMPH we-PRON.PERS.INCL newspaper-ADVE China-INE war-ADJ [phrase omitted] ([phrase omitted], 1925.08.05.) going-ACC learn-PRES-PLl 'Many of u s [youPL and I] learn about the war in China from newspapers' (7) [phrase omitted] Chilean-ADJ minister-PL we-ACC.PRON.PERS.INCL war-INSTR [phrase omitted] 1925.07.14.) come-FUT-PL1 that-CONJ scare-PRES-PL3 'Chilean ministers are scaring u s [youPL and I] that they will make a war' (8) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.INCL-ACC she-PRON.PERS yesterday-ADV [phrase omitted] wait-PRES.SG3 be-PAST.SG3.EVID today-ADV Kez-ILL [phrase omitted] 2018 : 261) go-PAST.SG3.EVID 'She turns out to have expected u s [youSG and I] yesterday, and today she has left for [the town of] Kez'
2.2. [phrase omitted] is 'we' exclusive, i.e. the addressee ('youSG') or addressees are not included in the set of referents which also contains the speaker ('I'):
2.2.1. [phrase omitted]
1) = 'I + he/[she.sup.a]** (+ he/[she.sup.b] +...)' [left right arrow]*** 'youSG' --English we 'he/she/they and I s[but without youSG]'
2) = 'I + he/[she.sup.a] (+ he/[she.sup.b] + ...)' [left right arrow] 'youSG + he/[she.sup.1] (+ he/[she.sup.2] + he/[she.sup.3]...)' --English we 'he/she/they and I (but without youPL)'
The semantics of the pronoun MU does not actually emphasize the number of people referred to but highlights the fact that the addressee or addressees are excluded from the group of the speaker. The discussed pronoun may be generally presented as [phrase omitted] = I + he/she/they.
The name of the booklet on the Udmurt people written by ethnologist V. E. Vladykin for those who are going to visit the Udmurt Republic could serve as a representative example: [phrase omitted] 'Hello! We are the Udmurts' (it suggests that the author addresses non-Udmurts). Other examples from published sources:
(9) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.EXCL definitely-ADV you-PRON.PERS.PL-DAT [phrase omitted] help-FUT-PL1 'We will definitely help you [youSG/youPL]!' (10) [phrase omitted] we-DAT.PRON.PERS.EXCL today-ADV merry-ADJ.PRED [phrase omitted] you-PRON.PERS.PL-DAT also-PART likewise-ADV let-PART be-FUT-SG3 [phrase omitted] that-CONJ wish-OBJ do-PRES-PL1 'We are having fun today. We wish you the same' (11) [phrase omitted] you-PRON.PERS.PL we-PRON.PERS.EXCL to-PP not-NEG me-PAST.PL2 if-CONJ [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.EXCL you-PRON.PERS.PL to-PP not-NEG if-CONJ go-PAST.PL1 [phrase omitted] where-EGR -ever-PART.EMPH what-EGR -ever-PART.EMPH [phrase omitted] 2015 : 52). together-ADV PART.EMPH live-FUT-PL1 'If you do not visit us, / If we do not visit you, / Where and how / will we get on well with you?'
It is noteworthy that a subtle difference between the two pronouns--MU and acbMeoc--was perceived by those who speak the Yiddish idiom in Udmurtia (so called Udmurtish). The word ashmes was borrowed from Udmurt dialects (< acbMec, aHMec) to refer to the people of the community, i. e. to those who speak the above-mentioned idiom. Moreover, in conversational speech the word had a narrower meaning--'a group of people; close friends; a close-knit group of people; people who trust each other; you and I'. The loanword from Udmurt is synonymous with dialectal words which are German in origin--ikhtu (< Yiddish ikh 'I' + du you') in the Izhevsk subdialect of the Yiddish language and ishtu in the Sarapul and Votkinsk subdialects. (****)
2.3. The English concept we could be presented as follows:
2.3.1. we 1) = 'I + youSG' 'youSG and I' - Udmurt [phrase omitted] 2) = 'I + youSG + he/[she.sup.1] (+ he/[she.sup.2]...)' 'youPL and I'--Udmurt [phrase omitted] 3) = 'I + he/she' 'he/she and I'--Udmurt [phrase omitted] 4) = 'I + he/[she.sup.a] + (he/[she.sup.b]...)' 'they and I'--Udmurt [phrase omitted]
Nowadays, influenced by the Russian language the Udmurt word [phrase omitted] as a personal pronoun is being replaced with the pronoun [phrase omitted] ('we' = 'I + he/she/they'). Contemporary song lyrics confirm this process: [phrase omitted]'Girl, let's meet!'--instead of [phrase omitted]! According to the traditional Udmurt way of thinking, a young man does not ask a girl out on a date, but suggests that she meet with him and somebody else, for example, his friends: ... [phrase omitted]... 'Girl, let m e and he/she/they meet with you!'
As we have observed, the process of replacing [phrase omitted] started in the late 20th century Most people born in the 1970s-1980s tend to not use this pronoun although they to some extent understand its specific meaning, but the youngest generation speaking Udmurt is usually puzzled by the idea of translating the Russian pronoun [phrase omitted] 'we' with the Udmurt word [phrase omitted]. 2.4. As mentioned above, the pronoun [phrase omitted] is also an emphatic personal pronoun composed of the stem [phrase omitted] '-self. It derives from the reconstructed Finno-Ugric protoform *ice ~ *ise that originally meant 'shadow; soul-shadow'; some correspondences can be found in the Yukaghir languages ([phrase omitted] 1999 : 34; UEW 79). Some dialect forms of this pronoun in the oblique cases derive from the velar-final stem ac-, which is also used as the individual word ac '[one's] own'. The word is believed to have originated in the proto-Permian period ([phrase omitted] 1999 : 34; see also Csucs 2005 : 236).
In this case Udmurt emphatic personal pronouns are typologically equivalent to the corresponding pronouns in the closely related Komi language and the neighboring Tatar:
Udmurt Komi Tatar [phrase omitted] 'ourself/ourselves' [phrase omitted] [phrase omitted] self-Px1.ACC-PL self-PL-Px1 self-Px1.PL [phrase omitted] 'yourself/yourselves' [phrase omitted] [phrase omitted] self-Px2.ACC-PL self-PL-Px2' self-Px2.PL [phrase omitted] 'themselves' [phrase omitted] [phrase omitted] self-Px3.ACC-PL self-PL-Px3 self-PL-Px3
However, in the Komi and Tatar languages the emphatic first person plural pronouns are not used as the first person inclusive.
The emphatic personal pronoun [phrase omitted] is usually accompanied with the first-person plural pronoun [phrase omitted] 'we'--[phrase omitted] 'we ourselves' or the intensifying particle [phrase omitted] '(we) ourselves':
(12) [phrase omitted] because-CONJ we-PRON.PERS.EXCL ourselve-PRON.PERS.EMPH [phrase omitted] PART.EMPH sing-PAST.PL1 dance-PAST-PL1 ourselve-PRON.PERS.EMPH [phrase omitted] PART.EMPH Udmurt-ADJ people-ABL custom-PL-P3.ACC-PL [phrase omitted], 2010.07.02. [phrase omitted].) show-PAST.PL1 'Because we ourselves sang and danced, and we ourselves staged the Udmurt customs' (13) egir asmios charcoal-OBJ ourselves-PRON.PERS.EMPH lest-il-i-mi (Sep, Igra district, Udmurtia) (Kel'makov, Saarinen 1994 : 206) make-ITER-PAST-PL1 'We made charcoal ourselves' (14) [phrase omitted] ourselves-PRON.PERS.EMPH PART.EMPH incorrect-ADJ living-INSTR incorrect-ADJ [phrase omitted] working-INSTR peasant-ADJ people-DAT eye before-INESS-Px.PL3.PP [phrase omitted], 1925.12.29.) such-INSTR.PRON look like-PRES-PL1 'As we ourselves lead an incorrect lifestyle and choose incorrect methods of working, we are seen the same way by peasants'
2.5. [phrase omitted] and [phrase omitted] are inclusive forms of possessive pronouns and can be expressed as follows: [phrase omitted] 'my + yourSG/yourPL'. The former usually functions as an attribute, but the latter can also be used as a predicate. Examples:
(15) [phrase omitted] that-PRON.DEM sector-ACC development-INSTR-Px3 our-PRON.POSS.INCL [phrase omitted] homeland everybody-DAT.PRON famous-ADJ.PRED [phrase omitted] become-PAST-SG1 'Having developed that sector, our [my and yourPL, i.e. Udmurt] homeland has become famous (16) [phrase omitted] old-ADJ year-PL-ILL our-PRON.POSS.INCL peasant-ADJ poor-ADJ [phrase omitted] people-ACC enlightener not-NEG if-NEG be-PAST 'Since there was nobody to enlighten our [my and yourPL] poor peasant people in days of old' (17) [phrase omitted] languageless-ADJ nation-PL not but-CONJ our-PRON.POSS.INCL [phrase omitted] mother-ADJ tongue-Px.PL1 this-PRON moment-ILL very-ADV dangerous-ADJ [phrase omitted] situation-ILL get into-PCPL.PAST-INESS 'There are no nations lacking languages, but our [my and yourPL, i.e. Udmurt] mother tongue is in enormous danger nowadays' (18) kema min-em nules-jos-t'i, a for a long time-ADV go-PAST.SG3.EVID forest-PL.PROL and-CONJ asme-len ved' nules-jos tatiin we-PRON.PERS.INCL-GEN PART.EMPH forest-PL here-ADV ve-zd'e (Bliz-Varyz, Balezino district, Udmurtia) (Kel'makov, Saaall around-ADV rinen 1994 : 188) 'He went through forests for a long time, and forests are everywhere here, you know (literally: all around u s [youSG/youPL and me])' (19) [phrase omitted] Our-PRON.POSS.INCL people prosperously-ADV [phrase omitted] live-INF be able-FUT-SG3 'Our [my and yourPL] people will be able to live prosperously'
In point of fact, the word [phrase omitted] in sentence 18 is not a possessive pronoun, but a genitive form of the personal pronoun [phrase omitted]. However, this example is useful in comparing personal and possessive pronouns.
Inclusive possessive pronouns [phrase omitted] are homonymous with possessive pronouns derived from the emphatic first person pronouns non-singular. The complete paradigm of the emphatic personal pronouns and possessive pronouns which are formed from the emphatic personal ones is as follows:
emphatic personal pronouns possessive pronouns / inclusive possessive pronouns [phrase omitted] 'ourself/ourselves' [phrase omitted] 'our / our own' [phrase omitted] 'yourself/yourselves' [phrase omitted] 'your / your own' [phrase omitted] 'themselves' [phrase omitted] 'their / their own'
Possessive pronouns developed from emphatic personal pronouns are generally used either with the exclusive possessive pronoun [phrase omitted] 'our' (see 2.6)--[phrase omitted] 'we have ... our own...' or with the emphatic particle [phrase omitted] 'our own'. Sometimes it is rather difficult to differentiate between the possessive pronoun and a genitive form of the emphatic personal pronoun as they are homonymous words, for example:
(20) [phrase omitted] we-PRON.PERS.EXCL we-PRON.PERS.EXCL.PRED not r-PRON.POSS.EXCL [phrase omitted] our own-PRON.POSS.EMPH cart-Pxl.PL 'We are not to blame (literally: we are not we, we have our own cart)' (21) [phrase omitted] anyway-CONJ our -PRON.POSS.EMPH PART.EMPH be/exist-PRES [phrase omitted] symphonic-ADJ orchestra-Px1.PL 'Anyway w e have our own symphony orchestra'
2.6. [phrase omitted] is an exclusive possessive pronoun associated with the personal pronoun [phrase omitted]:
2.6.1. [phrase omitted] 1) = 'my + his/her' --English our 'our, but not yourSG' 2) = 'my + his/[her.sup.B] + his/[her.sup.B] +...' --English our 'our, but not yourPL'
Thus, it may be formulated as follows: MUJIHM 'my + his/her/their'.
(22) [phrase omitted] our-PRON.POSS.EXCL.PL1 only-PART our-PRON.POSS.EXCL.PL1 street-PL-Px1.PL [phrase omitted] (a line from a folksong) nice-PL.ADJ.PRED 'Only our [but not yourSG/yourPL], our village streets are nice' (23) [phrase omitted] our-PRON.POSS.EXCL.PL1 village-INESS old-ADJ MALE NAME [phrase omitted] be-PAST.SG3.EVID 'The old man called Jambay lived in our village' (24) [phrase omitted] hungry-PL-DAT road-OBJ block-PRES-PL2 then-PRNTH [phrase omitted] but-CONJ we-PRON.PERS.GEN.PL1.EXCL / our-PRON.POSS.PL1.EXCL [phrase omitted] bread-Px1.PL sell-INF even-PART.EMPH suffice-FUT-SG3 [phrase omitted] (TIK/[phrase omitted]/11 : 61-62) know-PRES-SG2 PART.EMPH 'You are blocking the road for the hungry then. But you know, we have enough bread even for sale'
In the latter example the pronoun [phrase omitted] is a genitive of the pronoun [phrase omitted], but at the same time it can also be considered as a possessive pronoun. In any case, here we deal with exclusive pronouns, not with inclusive ones. 3. Above we provided a description of the inclusive pronoun [phrase omitted] and revealed some semantic and functional dissimilarities between the exclusive pronoun [phrase omitted] and the inclusive [phrase omitted], as well as between [phrase omitted] and its grammatical homonym, i. e. the emphatic personal pronoun [phrase omitted], which the discussed inclusive pronoun derives from. We also demonstrated that the category of clusivity in the Udmurt language includes not only personal pronouns, but possessive ones as well: [phrase omitted] 'my and yourSG/yourPL'--[phrase omitted]'our, but not yourSG/yourPL'. It is noteworthy that in languages with an inclusive-exclusive opposition in the pronominal sphere, there is also often a parallel morphological opposition of verb person markers, but in the Udmurt language this type of opposition is not found in verb agreement suffixes.
The second questionnaire of the linguistic atlas of languages spoken in Europe (ALE) contains a question to reveal inclusive pronouns and provides an example from the French language: the pronoun nous autres 'we and others' includes an addressee or addressees, and contrariwise the pronoun nous 'we' excludes them ([phrase omitted] 77). Unfortunately, the ALE committee members could not find the inclusive in the Udmurt language despite the existing opposition [phrase omitted] (suppletive form). It may be associated with the fact that languages spoken in Europe lack morphological forms of the category of clusivity, and as for the French nous autres 'we and others' and the Russian [phrase omitted] 'youSG/youPL and I', they are not single words, but combinations of lexical units.
Geographically, the closest language which was brought to the attention of linguists interested in the category of clusivity, or more specifically in second person clusivity, is Abkhaz, a Northwest Caucasian language. The widespread grammars of George B. Hewitt present a pronominal paradigm which demonstrates the existence of the inclusive-exclusive distinction both in the first-person and the second-person non-singular (see Hewitt 2000). However, other researchers express doubts about an inclusive/exclusive opposition in the mentioned language or even state that there is no evidence for it (Simon 2005 : 121-124). New data from the Bavarian dialect of German allowed Horst J. Simon to suggest that the usage pattern of honorific pronouns of address is similar to the clusivity contrast, albeit it is intertwined with the grammatical category of respect (Simon 2005).
Inclusive pronouns are generally used in languages of those peoples who run a traditional economy. This observation may indicate that the category of clusivity in the Udmurt language is a relic of the past. However, the lack of the analyzed category in other languages spoken in Europe, including the closely related Komi and Komi-Permyak languages as well as the related Mansi and Khanty languages, the native speakers of which have preserved their traditional way of life, makes us question this assumption. Further research on the topic needs to be conducted to provide a convincing answer.
S. A. MAKSIMOV, T. I. PANINA (Izhevsk)
S. A. Maksimov
Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature (Izhevsk)
T. I. Panina
Udmurt Institute of History, Language and Literature (Izhevsk)
1, 2, 3--first person, second person, third person; ADJ--1) Adjective, 2) adjectival form of the noun; ADV--Adverb; ADVE--Adverbial (case); ACC--Accusative; CONJ--Conjuction; CVB--Converb; DAT--Dative; EGR--Egressive; EMPH--Emphatic; EVID--Evidentiality; EXCL--Exclusive (pronoun); FUT--Future (tense); GEN--Genitive; ILL--Illative; IN[phrase omitted]L--Inclusive (pronoun); INE--Inessive; INF--Infinitive; INSTR--Instrumental; ITER--Iterative; NEG--Negative verb; OBJ--Object (zero-terminus accusative); PART--Particle; PAST--Past (tense); PCPL--Participle; PERS--Personal (pronoun); PL--Plural; PP--Postposition; PRED--1) Predicate, 2) predicative adverb; PRES--Present (tense); PROL--Prolative; PRON--Pronoun; POSS--Possessive (pronoun); PRNTH--Parenthesis; Px--Possessive marker; SG--Singular;
ALE--Atlas Linguarum Europae I: 17, Assen--Maastricht-Roma 1983-2007; TIK--Turku--Izhevsk Corpus. [phrase omitted].
Clusivity. Typology and Case Studies of the Inclusive--Exclusive Distinction, Amsterdam--Philadelphia 2005 (Typological Studies in Language 63).
Csucs, S. 2005, Die Rekonstruktion der permischen Grundsprache, Budapest.
Daniel, M. 2005, Understanding Inclusives.--Clusivity. Typology and Case Studies of the Inclusive--Exclusive Distinction, Amsterdam--Philadelphia (Typological Studies in Language 63), 3-48.
ElsIk, V. 2000, Dialect Variation in Romani Personal Pronouns.--Grammatical Relations in Romani. The Noun Phrase, Amsterdam (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 211), 65-94.
Hewitt, G. B. 2000, Abkhaz. A Descriptive Grammar, New York.
Kel'makov, V., Saarinen, S. 1994, Udmurtin murteet, Turku-Izevsk.
Maksimov, S., Danilov, V., Saarinen, S. 2008, Udmurttilais-suomalainen sanakirja. [phrase omitted], Turku.
Simon, H. J. 2005, Only You? Philological Investigations into the Alleged Inclusive--Exclusive Distinction in the Second-Person Plural.--Clusivity. Typology and Case Studies of the Inclusive--Exclusive Distinction, Amsterdam--Philadelphia (Typological Studies in Language 63), 113-150.
[phrase omitted], 563-591.
--2008, [phrase omitted], 827-864.
--2018, [phrase omitted].
[phrase omitted]. --Congressus Decimus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum. Pars 2. Linguistica. Summaria acroasium in sectionibus, Joshkar-Ola, 79-81.
--2015, [phrase omitted].
(*) Example sentences with no primary source provided are the authors' own examples.
(**) As a part of inclusive pronouns the third person in the group of the speaker he/[she.sup.1] (+ he/[she.sup.2] + ...)' corresponds with the third person in the group of the listener, and as a part of exclusive pronouns the third person in the group of the speaker he/[she.sup.1] (+ he/[she.sup.2] + ...)' does not correspond with the third person in the group of the listener he/[she.sup.a] (+ he/[she.sup.b] + ...)' and therefore they are marked with different symbols.
(***) The symbol [left right arrow] indicates that the listener / group of listeners is not included in the group of the speaker.
(****) The information was provided by Aleksei Vladimirovic Altyntsev (born in Izhevsk in 1989), a PhD student at the Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Institute of Natural Science, Udmurt State University (Izhevsk, Russia).
[Please note: Some non-Latin characters were omitted from this article]
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|Author:||Maksimov, S.A.; Panina, T.I.|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2018|
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