Printer Friendly


Byline: Syed Ali Raza Shah, Arabella Bhutto, Liaquat Ali Rahoo and Muhammad Waqas Nazir

ABSTRACT: Occupational Stress is a major risk for many workers in the organizations where they are working in the different areas. There are many reasons to increase the stress during working for workloads, downsizing, overtime, hostile work environments, and shift work. The topic of research was the Occupational stress and its effect on job performance at the Universities of Jamshoro education city was selected. The population of the study was faculty members of Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, University of Sindh and Liaquat Medical University of Health and Sciences. The population of study includes the Lecturer, Assistant Professors, Associate Professors and professors were the population of all faculties of the selected universities. The aim of the study was to understand the occurrence of stress among the junior and senior facult y members and to find out the struggle to decrease the stress during the working environments of higher education institutions.

The data was collected from 400 respondents of three Universities on random sampling among the different types of institutes of universities.

Keywords: Work stress, Higher education, academic administrators, Stressors, job satisfaction, stress management


The modern world of competition and challenge is the public life. Any challenge beyond the development pressures of different coping abilities. In the educational institutes stress were found by the many studies of researchers. In general sense the stress is perceived as harmful condition but a positive level of stress is required for the efficacious functioning of the organizations. Stress cannot be ignored or eschewed but can be managed. Part of Universities in the improvement of human culture has acknowledged now past the uncovered conveyance of learning substance to supporting ability and satisfying the scholarly needs of the general public [1]. Organizations of advanced education are dependable to conjecture the forthcoming difficulties to a nation and give aggressive human funding to meet those difficulties.

Higher instruction because of its multidisciplinary part in the improvement of unadulterated, social and connected sciences, supplies the soul to societal life in different perspectives. Albeit, living soul of society is made out of man, cash, routines and materials as fundamental components, however human stands crucial to all components, in charge of the achievement of societal targets. Universities are the fundamental source, in charge of human building and planning human capital for all circles of life to cook the needs of open, private and social division [2]. It can likewise be seen that personnel having low level of anxiety with abnormal state of fulfillment can assist establishments of advanced education with achieving these objectives.

Instructor is viewed as a key player in showing learning procedure at basic, auxiliary and more elevated amount [3]. The targets of showing procedure can't be emerged without completely fulfilled instructors. A nation like Pakistan where, physical assets at instructive establishments are poor, pay rates are not suitable, discipline issues are incessant, the greater part of the instructors are not very much outfitted with cutting edge techniques for educating and also numerous administrative issues, which keep the educators distressing at work environment. At college level, desires from instructors are high. In the meantime, they need to confront exceptionally difficult and requesting assignments identified with showing and research. They confront a great deal of word related anxiety while they are performing their obligations [4].


The scholarly introduction towards new difficulties has expanded level of weight on personnel, which at last energizes the specialists of instruction administration to consider the relationship between work stretch and employment fulfillment of college personnel. Stress among educators and its relationship with occupation fulfillment is a standout amongst the most indispensable regions of study for instructors, instructive executives and instructive scientists [5].

Its importance lies in the way that word related push intently connected with occupation fulfillment, work duty, representatives' turnover, authoritative execution and efficiency. Antoniou [6] also, Vlachakis [7] presented the most essential wellsprings of anxiety which are being confronted by college instructors for example, understudies' collaboration issues, low level of interest and tricky state of mind of graduates. They likewise discovered the distinction in saw anxiety levels in connection to their sources, as interpersonal cooperation, scholastic weight and passionate exhaustion have higher effect on female educators. Expert confuses cause burnout in more youthful workforce, while matured staff feels stress because of less backing from the concerned powers.

As per Humphreys [8], stress in instructing has adequate consideration of instructive scholars and scientists in present days and scholarly enthusiasm on this subject is extending to different measurements. The expanded occupation shift propensity in showing calling is shown by the pattern that larger part needs to leave this calling while there is diminishing pattern towards joining this calling. Word related anxiety is considered as root reason for this declining pattern, which is one of the real reasons for occupation stress. The recently created working environment in colleges like increment in female educators and understudies, effects of corporate part and cozy association with partners has made this calling exceptionally requesting, while control is quickly moving towards low pattern. Scientists have discovered backwards relationship as anxiety level is high, when requests are high and control is low, conversely stretch level is low, when requests are low and control is high.

Because of late sensational advancements in financial life, the educating calling has turned out to be exceptionally requesting while the control (discipline) issues have turned into a noteworthy issue for some instructive organizations. The mix of expanded requests and control challenges has moved instructing into an exceedingly distressing occupation. In this unpleasant environment, just the quality instructor can adapt to the circumstance and can better help the organizations to achieve instructive destinations [9].

Dua [10], in his learn about recently accepted staff, has reported more employment anxiety of staff underneath senior speaker. The same pattern wins in bolster staff in which staff underneath senior specialized officer level is exceptionally upsetting. Supporting staff has demonstrated more stretch because of occupation criticalness and administrative uniform. Advanced education division is among the very affected segments of this move and assumes real liability to coordinate the country towards right way. Colleges basically play the art of advancing innovative work, upgrading instructing limit and creating administration discipline in the nations. The workforce of colleges guarantees to meet this extraordinary test of accomplishing goals of advanced education, which resultantly puts high weight on them. The anxiety bearing limit is upheld by their level of fulfillment to the establishments [11].

Significance of the Study

In the aim of the study is to observe the status level of the stress in the Jamshoro education city universities. In the study faculty member were be selected as population. The work done in such manner spreads expansive scope of controls like rudimentary and auxiliary training, however exceptionally less consideration is paid to advanced education regarding instructor fulfillment and employment stress. The creating nation like Pakistan, where education rate is low, assets are restricted, and exceptionally little rate of understudies span to the college level [12]. It requires basic consideration of higher administration towards showing framework and workforce allocated to grant the guaranteed learning. The employees as forefront players in the whole esteem chain of colleges convey more noteworthy obligation, what's more, assume a huge part in general institutional achievement.

The fulfilled workforce can offer the college to accomplish its some assistance with desiring objectives and meet the instructive targets. Conversely, educators' abnormal state of occupation anxiety makes the huge hole in the middle of guaranteed and real levels of instructive quality. The situation raises the need for an exhaustive study, to research the relationship between word related push and employment fulfillment of college educators [13].

Objective of the Study

* To identify the indicators and roots of occupational stress among JEC universities faculty members.

* To study the relationship of stress and performance of JEC Universities faculty members. To examine the factors that affects the performance of Faculty of JEC.


In the current study Jamshoro education city was selected as the aim of current study, Public sector Universities of Jamshoro, where the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, University of Sindh and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences were taking into account the increasing tension between the different faculty members teaching Jamshoro Education City. For this purpose of the study 400 samples were selected from all over population, 120 form MUET, 250 from UoS and 30 from LUMHS through the random sampling technique of research. The respondents of research were Lecturer, Assistant Professors, Associate Professors and Professors from different department of the all selected universities.


Demographic Information

The below figure shows that 269 (67%) were male from the respondents and the reaming 131 (33%) were the female respondents of the survey.

In the above figure which shows the respondents age wise distribution maximum 167 respondents are ages from 31 to 40 years, and other maximum category of respondent age is 41 to 50 years age. Minimum respondents are from more than 51 year age category.

The above figure shows that the maximum 235 (58%) of respondents are MS/M.Phil. and 84 (21%) bachelor degree holders are respondents. Minimum respondents are Ph.D. holders are 81(20.25%).

In the above figure the status of respondent are maximum 175 (44%) are associate professors and then assistant professors are 104 (26%). Lastly minimum respondents as professors in the survey.

Job Performance and Occupational Stress

a) Knowledge of Stress

Figure 5 shows that the maximum 327 (82%) of respondents have the knowledge of stress at the work place and very minimum 73 (18%) of respondent does not have any knowledge of stress at workplace.

b) From which Medium your hear about stress

The above figure show that the 247(62%) listen during study about stress and 103 (26%) of respondents get the knowledge about stress from the social media and very less 17 (5%) of respondents were get the knowledge about stress from newspapers.

c) To you, what constitute Occupational Stress?

Figure 7 above shows that 231 (58%) of the respondents have pointed to as excessive workloads and role ambiguity, respectively, and was martyred in 83 (21%) and 57 (15%) of the professional pressures that pose occupational stress.

d) What do you think followings are indicator of occupational stress?

The chart above shows that the 143 (35.75%) and 121 (30.25%) of the individuals tend to focus, worried, irritable or depressed in reference to occupational stress in a total of 400 replies. 65 (25.5%) and 50 (19.6%) responded to the apathy, loss of interest, sleep problems, fatigue, referring to occupational stress.

e) Have you any signs experience of occupational stress?

In the above there is a majority of respondents 238 (59.5%) were positive response regarding their occupational stress, 104 (26%) of the respondents have not any knowledge about occupational stress. In the last very minimum ratio of the respondent were don't know about the occupational stress. The figure shows the majority of respondent have the occupational stress.

f) What effects did it have on you?

In the above chart 252 (63%) of the respondents mentioned reduced productivity with stress and 86 (17%) of the respondents are found as low morale for the effect of the work that they have more experienced as a result of stress study. Remaining respondents were 55(13.55%) They also referred to absenteeism and poor working relationships as some of the effects of stress on them.

Stress Control Scale

a) How much effect do you have over the accessibility of materials and kit you need to do your work?

In the above chart 198 (49.5%) of the respondents are agree to supply of equipment is affected the result of work for the occupational stress. 74 (18.5) of respondent are agree for somewhat effect of equipment for the occupational stress. Only 82(21%) of the respondents are agree for not effect by equipment on the occupational stress.

b) How much impact do you have on the order of performing tasks at work?

Figure 12 show that the majority of respondent are 152 (38%) which show the distribution on the level as A little influence of work during task, 129 (32%) persons each respectively claimed they have a very much influence and 79 (20%) respondents claimed the they have somewhat influence. 46 (33.6%) and only 40(10%) of respondents claiming have no influence at all.

c) How long have you been away from your job and almost no time to finish your work?

The above chart show that 153 (38.25%) respondents respectively said that the sometimes to get things done, 111(27.75%) of the respondents were occasionally things done, 70 (17%) of He said the respondents, respectively; the kind of jobs that have not rarely leaves them little time to get things done. Again 37 (9.25%) of them claimed, respectively, the nature of their jobs, in some cases, and often to leave them with little time to get things done. It claimed the remaining 13 (9.5%) and jobs often leave them little time to get things done.

d) Do you think occupational stress can be minimized?

Figure 14 shows that up to 378 (94.5%) of the respondents felt that professional stress can be minimized. And (5.95%), only 22 people believed to be professional stress cannot be underestimated.

e) How can occupational stress be minimized?

The above chart figure 15 show that the 210(52.5%) of respondents indicate that stress can be minimized by the trainings on stress, 103 (25.75%) respondents indicate through the work design by organization stress can be minimized. The very minimum remaining percentage of respondents are agree to 37(9.25%) organizational development, 32(8%) of respondents agree to management development and 18(4.5%) are agree to early detection of stress for minimizations.

Support System

a) How supervisor immediately out of his / her way to do things to make life easier work for you?

In the above chart figure 16 shows that the 153 (38.25%) majority of respondents are agree to minimization of occupational stress through the support of immediate supervisor support very much, 136 (34%) of respondents are agree for somewhat supervisor support, 73 (18.25%) of respondents are a little agree for supervisor support for minimization of occupational stress. In the last category of respondents which is 38(9.5%) have no any knowledge about supervisor support for minimization of stress.

b) How do other people at work do their way out to do things that make working life easier for you?

The above figure 17 shows that 173 (43.25%) of the respondents are agree for somewhat for the out of station of work, 153 (38.25%) of respondents are a little levels of work at the out of station for work. Inference from the above is that, to a greater extent, the staff in the implementation of the work of colleagues in the process of the support staff to make their lives easier.

c) Your partner, friends and relatives how much money they make the way of doing things that makes life easier for you to work with?

In the above figure 18 shows that 154 (38.5%) and 132 (33%) respondents claimed that they received a great deal of support from friends, relatives and spouses to make their work easier.

78 (19.9%) said that spouses, friends and relatives rarely received support, making their work easier, and 21 (5.25%) claimed they did not receive any support from anyone.


In the study following conclusions were drawn:

* The majority of respondents were male (67.25%) and the rest (32.75%) were female.

* It has been identified workload as a key element of professional stress of the participants (57.75%).

* It is also realized that the trouble with focusing on work is signaling to the respondents that they are under stress.

* Noting that (10.5%) experienced some signs of stress, (35.75%) reported that occupational stress affected their performance. Finally, (63.6%) of the respondents experienced a decline in productivity due to occupational stress.

* The vast majority of 97% of respondents believe that professional stress can be minimized. They pointed out that the training on stress management (53.3%) and should be undertaken to help reduce the impact of work-related stress, and this would increase productivity. The majority of respondents indicated that their work in some cases (34.3%) had to work under pressure.

* Participants were satisfied with the support they received from direct supervisors, who responded at a rate of (35%) because they made their life easier in the workplace. Conversely, a staff member (47.4%) in difficult times had at least the support of their supervisors. This is critical in reducing work stress, as workers need some form of support from their superiors to help manage some of their stress.

* In conclusion, the study results show that there is a negative correlation between job stress and job performance.

* It found that stress levels are affected by many factors in educational institutions. According to a compilation of the results, the main causes of stress responders include poor relations with colleagues and lack of regular rest, and long working hours, and harassment of staff, lack of communication and lack of wage jobs, the speed and intensity of change, and trainees is limited. Therefore, to accept the alternative hypothesis that "you need a job, labor relations, job roles, and functional changes and support factors related to the impact of teachers' stress levels."

* You can agree on the role of erosion, role overload, lack of resources, and the role of isolation and the ambiguity of the role to improve the level of fatigue and stress of work. The hypothesis that "the work requirements, labor relations, job roles, job changes, and supporting factors do not affect the stress levels of the teacher" and overturned.


[1] Anderson, E. S., Social-Cognitive determinants of stress. Health Pyschology 19, 479-486, (2002).

[2] Andre, A. D., The value of workload in the design and analysis of consumer products. In P. A., (2001).

[3] Arnold, K, A., Tuner, N., Barling, J., Kelloway, K., E and Mckee, M., C., (2007).

[4] Performance, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 224-237.

[5] Baddeley, A., DWorking memory. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, (1986).

[6] Baddeley, A. D., Is working memory still working? European Psychologist, 7 (2), 85-97, (2002).

[7] Christo, B. and Piernaar, J., South Africa Correctional Official Occupational Stress: The Role of Psychological Strenghts, Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(1): 73-84, (2006).

[8] Bernier, D., and Gaston, L., Stress management: A review. Canada's Mental Health, 37, 15-19, (1989).

[9] Cercarelli, L. R., and Ryan G. A., Long distance driving behaviour of Western Australian drivers, (1996).

[10] Aitken, C. J., Schloss, J. A., Occupational stress and burnout amongst staff working with people with an intellectual disability. Behavioural Interventions, 9 (4), 225-234., (1994).

[11] Baddeley, A. D., and Hitch, G. J., Working memory. In G. Bower (Ed), The psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 47 - 90). San Diego, CA: Academic Press, (1974).

[12] Ben Zur, H., and Breznitz, S. J., The effects of time pressure on risky choice behaviour. Acta Psychologica, 47, 80-104, (1981).

[13] Bergh, U., Human power at subnormal body temperatures. Acta Physiologica Scandanavica, 478, 1-39, (1980).
COPYRIGHT 2017 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan
Author:Shah, Syed Ali Raza; Bhutto, Arabella; Rahoo, Liaquat Ali; Nazir, Muhammad Waqas
Publication:Science International
Article Type:Case study
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Oct 31, 2017

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters