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Nutritionally, functionally enrich cracker biscuits with soy derivatives.

The nutritional and functional enrichment of crackers using soy derivatives is an interesting alternative to wheat flour, considering the high protein, fiber and isoflavone content of these ingredients. Moreover, Brazil is the second largest producer of biscuits worldwide, with 1.242 million tons produced in 2010. Brazil is also the second-largest producer of soybeans.

Brazilian scientists examined how partially replacing wheat flour with soy derivatives would affect the pasting properties of the flour mixture used in making cracker biscuits. They also examined the technological and sensory properties of the final product.

The biscuit dough was fermented for 22 hours at 32 C and 80% relative humidity. The researchers added the soy derivatives at the second fermentation stage. An experimental design with three replications at the center point was used, with defatted soy flour (0.90 to 29.10 grams per 100 grams) and soy fiber (2.38 to 6.62 grams per 100 grams) as independent variables.

The flour mixtures containing defatted soy flour, soy fiber and wheat flour had an average particle diameter of 138.75 to 257.98 mm, when analyzed with light-scattering technology. A peak viscosity of 96.14 to 290.30 URV and final viscosity of 147.44 to 313.69 URV were measured with a commercial viscosity analyzer.

In the cracker samples, the soy fiber content led to a decrease in the color difference among the samples. Using soy fiber also avoided the Maillard reaction and reduced the loss of available lysine. On the other hand, the expansion index, the instrumental hardness and the sensory parameters of the crackers were negatively affected by adding defatted soy flour and soy fiber. But the results were close to the 100% wheat flour control sample, illustrating the viability of nutritionally enriching cracker biscuits using these ingredients.

Further information. Elizabeth H. Nabeshima, Centro de Tecnologia de Cereais e Chocolates--Cereal Chocotec, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Endereco, Av. Brazil, 2880, CEP. 13070-178, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; phone: +55 (19) 3743-1960; fax: +55 (19) 3743-1963; email:

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Publication:Emerging Food R&D Report
Date:Apr 1, 2016
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