Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract.
Since last decade many countries have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock feeding due to the pressure from general public regarding drug resistant microbes and presence of residues in animal products. Many attempts are being made to develop alternatives using natural products. Recently phytochemicals such as saponins, condensed tannins and essential oils are being explored, out of which saponins are one of the important category.
Globally tea is the No. 1 beverage, consumed by vast majority of the people. China and India are the leading producers of tea in the world and in India area under tea plantation is 0.58 million hectares with annual production of 966 million kg per year . Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) from Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh province of India produce seeds in abundance . In few studies reported in literature, Chinese workers observed that supplementation with tea seed saponin (TSS) improved rumen fermentation, increased microbial N yield, decreased methane production  and improved average daily gain (ADG) . In contrast, supplementation of TSS at higher dose level decreased dry matter intake (DMI) , digestibility  and ADG [5,6]. So the effects of TSS supplementation is not uniform and highly variable depending upon the saponin dose level and type of diet . Although most saponins are considered safe when they are supplemented, however, certain kinds of saponins may exert toxic effects in the animal body , which must be tested in vivo in long term experiments. Some reports suggest that saponin based adjuvants have the unique ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system, as well as to enhance antibody production . However, there is limited literature available on effects of oral supplementation of saponins on immunity in ruminants.
There is also no information available regarding feeding tea seed in the diet of ruminants. In India, in most of the tea gardens, the tea seeds are not collected because of lack of demand resulting in loss of bioresource when there is huge scarcity in concentrates for feeding animals. In view of the above, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding tea seed and TSS during short term and long term on the growth performance, nutrient utilization, nitrogen balance, microbial protein synthesis, haematobiochemical attributes and immune response in Gaddi kids.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study was conducted at the experimental animal shed of Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Regional station, Palampur in Himachal Pradesh province of India. It is located at an altitude of 1,291 m above mean sea level with latitude and longitude 32.6[degrees]N and 76[degrees]E, respectively. The study was approved by the Institute Scientific Research Committee and Animal Ethics Committee.
Source of tea seed and preparation of saponin extract
Tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds used for the experiment were harvested from tea garden of Department of Tea husbandry and Agroforestry, Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Palampur during October, 2014. Tea seed contained 97.5% organic matter (OM), 8.45% crude protein (CP), 21.8% ether extract (EE), 44.4% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and 36.4% acid detergent fibre (ADF). Saponins were extracted from tea seeds by the method  as given in detail earlier . On dry matter (DM) basis, saponin yield was 15.35%. Detection and purity estimation of saponin was performed on a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with evaporative light scattering detector, quaternary gradient pump and Lichrosphere C-18 column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:water (75:25) in isocratic elution with flow rate 1.0 mL/min. Purity of the crude saponins mixture was 73.6%.
Animals, diet and experimental design
Eighteen male Gaddi kids of 7.03 [+ or -] 0.16 months of age and 19.72 [+ or -] 0.64 kg body weight (BW) were selected for the trial and were housed in well ventilated shed. After a period of acclimatization, the animals were randomly distributed into three homogenous groups, [T.sub.0] (control), [T.sub.1], and [T.sub.2], consisting of six animals each in completely randomized design. All the animals were dewormed with Fenbendazole at dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg BW on 0th day. Kids were fed for maintenance and for the growth rate of 40 g/d as per ICAR  feeding standards, on basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder during feeding trial of 120 days. Concentrate mixture (Table 1) was formulated by using ground maize, soybean meal, wheat bran, mineral mixture and common salt. In [T.sub.1], a part of the ingredients of concentrate mixture of [T.sub.0] was replaced with tea seeds and in [T.sub.2] with extracted TSS. In [T.sub.2], TSS was supplemented at the dose rate of 0.4% of total DMI and in [T.sub.1] tea seed was supplemented at 2.6% to provide an equivalent dose of TSS as in [T.sub.2]. Same TSS dose was maintained in [T.sub.1] and [T.sub.2] during the trial. The animals were fed with respective concentrate mixture daily at 9:00 and 9:30 h. The oat fodder was offered after 1 hour of feeding concentrate mixture. Feed refusals for individual animal was weighed daily. Suitable samples of feed offered and refusals were collected daily from individual goats and composited group wise and dried at 60[degrees]C and daily DMI estimated during the experimental period of 120 days. Animals were provided with potable drinking water 3 times a day. Daily DMI was estimated. Animals were weighed at the start of the study and then every week (on two consecutive days before feeding), to determine changes in BW, before feeding and watering on an electronic weighing balance.
Two metabolism trials were conducted, first after 21 days and second after 90 days of feeding to know the effect of tea seed and TSS on digestibility of nutrients and N balance during short term and long term. Each metabolism trial consisted of 2 days adaptation period followed by 6 days collection period. The metabolism cages had provision for separate collection of urine and faeces. Metabolism trial was carried out on all kids involving total fecal and urine collection. The animals were offered with weighed quantity of respective concentrate mixture daily at 9:00 and 9:30 h. The weighed quantity of oat fodder was offered after 1 hour of feeding concentrate mixture. Feed refusals for individual animal was weighed daily. Suitable samples of feed offered and refusals were collected daily from individual goats and dried at 60[degrees]C and daily DMI of individual goat estimated during the metabolism trial period. The faeces and urine were collected daily at 10 AM weighed and stored appropriately for further analysis. Suitable aliquots of faeces were used for DM estimation and dried samples were stored in the air-tight container and pooled for 6 days. Another fraction of the sample was pooled in glass bottle containing 20% H2SO4, this sample was used for the N estimation in the faeces of individual goat. The fraction of the urine voided 24 hrs was collected individually in the Kjeldahl flask containing digestion mixture and H2SO4. For estimation of urinary purine derivatives (PD), fraction of urine was 5 times diluted with distilled water and stored in deep freezer (-20[degrees]C).
The samples of feed offered, orts and faeces were dried in an oven at 60[degrees]C until constant weight to estimate DM and ground to pass 1 mm sieve for further analysis. Nitrogen was determined by the Kjeldahl procedure  and the CP was calculated as Nx6.25. The EE was estimated by solvent extraction procedure . Ash was determined by combustion in a muffle furnace . The NDF and ADF were determined without sodium sulphite or [alpha]-amylase and expressed inclusive of residual ash . Lignin determined by Robertson and Van Soest  procedure.
Estimation of microbial protein synthesis
For analysis of PD, urine samples samples were diluted 15 fold, so that the concentrations in the final samples will be within the range of the standards used in the assays (5 to 50 mg/L) for both uric acid and allantoin). The PD (allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, and hypoxanthine) were estimated by following the procedures as mentioned in IAEA  manual. The quantity of purines absorbed (X, mmol/d) is considered to be proportional to the PD excreted (Y, mmol/d). It was estimated as per the equation  as:
Y = 0.84X+(0.150 [BW.sup.0.75] [e.sup.-025X])
Supply of microbial N to the duodenum (g/d) = 70X/(0.83x0.116x1,000) = 0.727X
Where 70 is the purines mean N concentration (mg N/mmol), 0.83 is the purines true digestibility, and 0.116 is the ratio of purine
N: total N in mixed rumen microbiota.
Blood collection and hemato-biochemical analysis
Blood samples were collected into two separate tubes from all goats on 0th, 30th, 60th, 90th, and 120th day before morning feeding and watering by puncturing jugular vein. Blood samples were collected into the ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid impregnated tubes for hematology, where as blood was collected in serum tubes for blood biochemical estimations. Serum tubes without anticoagulant were kept slanted at room temperature for serum separation and were stored at -20[degrees]C for further analysis. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) estimated in whole blood immediately after blood collection by cyanomethaemoglobin method and Wintrobe's tube, respectively. Serum glucose, protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea N, bilirubin, creatinine, cholesterol were estimated by using diagnostic kits (Span Diagnostic limited, Surat, India and Beacon Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Navasari, India).
Cell mediated immune response: The cell mediated immune (CMI) response was assessed in the goats after 96 days of experimental feeding by delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction by measuring the increase in skin thickness  in response to intra-dermal inoculation of phytohaemaglutinin-p (PHA-p).
Humoral immune response: Humoral immune response was assessed by haemagglutination test using sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) . Experimental animals were challenged with 2 mL of 20% SRBCs at 100th day (0 day) of experiment and booster dose was given on the next 7th day. Blood collection was done on day 0 (before inoculation), 7, 14, 21, and 28. The antibody titers were expressed in [log.sub.2] basis.
The data generated from the experimental study were subjected to statistical analysis by following the standard procedures with the help of SAS 9.2 statistical software. Comparison between groups was made by one way analysis of variance by using the model
[y.sub.ij] = [mu] + [T.sub.i] + [e.sub.ij]
Where, [y.sub.ij] = observed value of the response variable for i-th treatment, [mu] = General mean effect, [T.sub.i] = i-th treatment effect, [e.sub.ij] = random error.
The data on intake, BW changes, blood and immunity parameters were analyzed in repeated measures analysis of variance. Individual goat is the experimental unit. Fixed effects are treatment, period (sampling day/time) and the interaction of treatment and period. Period was a repeated effect in the model. Results were presented as means and standard error of means. The significance of difference between means was compared using Duncan's multiple range test. In all cases, statistical differences were accepted if p<0.05 and trends were accepted when p<0.10.
The tea seed contained good amount of EE (21.8%) and saponin content (15.35%). Chemical composition of concentrate mixture was comparable for all the groups (Table 2). The CP content of concentrate mixture and oat fodder was 21.51% and 12.27% respectively.
Though DMI was comparable, total BW gain (kg) and ADG (g/d) in [T.sub.1] and [T.sub.2] were higher (p<0.05) than control (Table 3). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better (p<0.05) in supplemented groups as compared with control.
Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, and plane of nutrition
Daily intake of different nutrients and digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and fibre fractions were comparable among the groups after 21 d as well as 90 d of feeding (Tables 4 and 5). However, EE digestibility was low (p<0.05) in supplemented groups during 1st metabolism trial where as similar during 2nd metabolism trial. The digestable crude protein (DCP) and total digestable nutrients (TDN) intake and the nutritive value of the diet were comparable among the groups during both the trials. Values of TDN and DCP intake were sufficient to meet maintenance as well as growth needs of goats according to ICAR  feeding standard in all the groups.
Nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis
Nitrogen balance (g/d and g/kg [W.sup.0.75]) and N balance as proportion of intake or absorbed were higher (p<0.05) in [T.sub.2] group as compared to [T.sub.0] and [T.sub.1] after 21 d of feeding (Table 6). After 90 d of feeding N balance (g/d) and N balance (g/kg [W.sup.0.75]) were higher (p<0.05) for both [T.sub.1] and [T.sub.2] groups as compared to control. Total PD excretion (mmol/d), PD absorption (mmol/d) and microbial N supply (g/d) were higher (p<0.05) for [T.sub.1] and [T.sub.2] as compared with [T.sub.0] during both the periods (Table 7).
There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters and PCV, Hb, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein, albumin, globulin, A:G ratio, creatinine and bilirubin were comparable (Table 8). All the blood parameters were within the normal ranges. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05) and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-Cholesterol level increased (p<0.05) in [T.sub.2] as compared to [T.sub.0] and [T.sub.1].
Cell mediated and humoral immunity
There was no effect of supplementation on cell mediated immunity (Table 9) as evidenced from no difference observed in DTH reaction in response to intra-dermal inoculation of PHA-p. Similarly humoral immune response was also comparable among the treatments (Table 10).
Though different tea plant varieties are cultivated in different regions based on the agroclimatic condition of the region, some plant varieties produce seeds in abundance. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis var. kunte cultivated in Kangra valley produce tea seeds in abundance as compared to Camellia assamica of Darjeeling valley which produce very little quantity. The percentage and yield of saponin from tea seeds is also better than most of the other plant sources, which range from 10% to 28% depending on the plant variety . In most of the farms in India since there is no ready market for tea seeds, tea seeds are not collected and the biological resource is wasted. Tea seeds contain good amount of oil comparable to the common oil seeds.
This study was designed to assess the effects of tea seed or TSS supplementation on performance of Gaddi goats. Though few studies reported by Chinese workers observed beneficial effects of feeding TSS, however, to our knowledge there are no previous studies on effect of tea seed on animal performance. And also the supplementation of TSS at higher dose level decreased DMI , digestibility  and ADG [5,6]. So the effects of TSS supplementation is not uniform and highly variable depending upon the saponin dose level and type of diet . Although most saponins are considered safe when they are supplemented, however, certain kinds of saponins may exert toxic effects in the animal body. Photosensitization, liver and kidney damage and gastro intestinal disorders were observed during saponin toxicity .
Intake and apparent digestibility
Consistent with our findings, some earlier workers also did not find any effect of saponin supplementation on DMI . However, others reported improved DMI with saponin supplementation . In our study, there was no such effect observed on feeding either tea seed or TSS (during short term or long term) on DMI to Gaddi goats. Saponins are bitter in taste, highly soluble in water and at higher dose level may depress intake due to low palatability . It was reported, 5% increase in DMI when TSS was fed at the dose of 0.25% and 27% decrease in DMI when fed at 0.5% . However, we did not observe any negative effect on intake at the dose level studied.
There was no significant difference in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF during both short term as well as long term in Gaddi goats. However, during short term the EE digestibility was low (p<0.05) in [T.sub.1] (54.58%) and [T.sub.2] (54.68%) groups as compared to control (58.83%). Whether saponin had any role in reduction in EE digestibility during initial period is not clear. Similar to our findings no effect on digestibility due to feeding saponin containing diet in ruminants was reported by many workers [18,19]. The administration of 30, 60, or 90 mg of Quillaja saponarie per kg DMI had no effects on feed digestibility in Barbarine lambs  and in another study  administration of 100 or 200 mg/kg DMI of Quillaza saponin also did not affect digestibility in Baluchi sheep. Contrary to our findings, supplementation of high doses of saponin decreased the digestibility of nutrients and linear decrease in apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, and NDF with supplementation of saponin from Biophytum petersianum in goats, lucerne and Sapindus saponins in sheep were observed [20-22]. In contrast, positive effect of saponins on digestibility was reported in cattle supplemented with sarsaponin  and in sheep with Sapindus rarak saponin . So in some studies where there is substantial decrease in protozoal population and also where there is no compensatory increase in bacterial population there is reduction in digestibility.
In the present study, there was no significant difference in the DCP and TDN value of the diet during short term or long term. The DCP and TDN intake were also comparable among treatments and no change observed during short term or long term. The nutrient intake was also higher than the requirement stipulated for the animals.
Nitrogen utilization and microbial N supply
Increased N retention during short term in TSS fed group and increased N retention in both the supplemented groups during long term indicates that TSS in the diet has some role in improved N retention. In tea seed ([T.sub.1]) fed group though the N retention was numerically higher during short term, however, only during long term the effect was significant indicating that tea seed supplementation needed more time for getting the beneficial effect as compared to TSS supplementation. Though, linear decrease in urinary N with saponin supplementation was reported earlier , however, we did not observe any effect of supplementation on urinary N.
In the present study, the microbial protein supply was higher (p<0.05) for [T.sub.1] and [T.sub.2] during both the periods as compared with control. Similar to our findings, improvement in microbial N supply has been reported by many workers [20,21]. Ciliated protozoa in the rumen plays significant role in intraruminal cycling of microbial N and negatively affecting the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, so reduction in protozoal populations invariably found in saponin supplementation could improve dietary N utilization and increase microbial protein flow to the intestine . Increased microbial biomass, [sup.15]N incorporation and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis with the addition of saponins from Quillaja, Yucca, and Acacia auriculiformis fruit also reported in literature . Contrary to our findings, in a previous study  it was observed that the total excretion of urinary PD (allantoin, uric acid, and xanthine+ hypoxanthine) and microbial N supply were not affected by supplementation of Quillaja saponaria saponin extract (0, 30, 60, and 90 mg/kg DMI) in Barbarine lambs.
Both TS and TSS supplementation improved (p<0.05) BW gain as compared to control. These results are in agreement with previous reports [4,24]. ADG of goats recorded in this study was comparable to the performance of the breed for the age group. In a previous study , it was observed that the goats supplemented with 3 g of tea saponin/d had higher ADG and FCR than those on 0 and 6 g of tea saponin/d. In sheep, feeding of Sapindus rarak saponin improved growth rate , in contrast, no effect on ADG due to saponin supplementation also reported . Contrary to these findings, decrease in ADG was also reported when saponin dose level was higher [5,6]. It was postulated  that effect of saponin varied depending on type of diet, nature of saponin and dose level which may be the reason for the difference in the effects.
In the present study, there was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters and PCV, Hb, glucose, BUN, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine and bilirubin were comparable. All the blood parameters were within the normal ranges. Normal hemtocrit readings, blood biochemical parameters and serum enzymes in the study indicated that no hemolytic effect of saponin occurred when it was fed to kids and there also no occurrence of liver or kidney dysfunction. Similar to our findings, no effect on blood parameters due to feeding saponin containing diet also reported in a previous study  indicating that it is safe for feeding to ruminants.
A number of studies have suggested that saponins from different sources lowered serum cholesterol levels in a variety of animals . Saponin supplementation reduced the more harmful LDL-cholesterol selectively in the serum of rats, gerbils and human . The improvement in HDL-Cholesterol level, observed in the present study was also observed by some workers due to supplementation of saponin . Decreased serum cholesterol levels and improvement in HDL cholesterol were observed when tea saponin was supplemented in the diet of Boer goats . Saponins delay the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity . Low serum cholesterol levels may be due to inhibition of absorption or reabsorption of cholesterol from small intestine. Saponins prevented absorption of high proportion of dietary cholesterol as well as cholesterol derived from bile and desquamation of mucosal cells . Changes in lipid profile were beneficial in terms of decreased triglycer ides and LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and increased HDLcholesterol (good cholesterol). There is need for further studies on meat quality.
Cell mediated and humoral immunity
Saponin based adjuvants have the unique ability to stimulate the CMI system, as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity . In this study, supplementation of tea seed or TSS did not affect cell mediated and humoral immune response. Similar to our findings, no effect of feeding 2.5 g/d of quillaja saponins on colostral IgG and IgA contents in swines also reported in a previous study . Dietary treatment of piglets with crude soap bark of Quillaja saponaria did not counteract the negative effects on feed intake and growth induced transiently by a challenge with Salmonella typhimurium .
Supplementation of both tea saponin (0.4% of DMI) and tea seed at 2.6% (dose equivalent to 0.4% saponin) improved growth rate, FCR, N balance and microbial N supply in Gaddi goats. Tea seed and TSS supplementation did not show any harmful effects on biochemical profile indicating that it is safe to feed to animals. Tea saponin favourably modified lipid profile by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and increasing HDL-cholesterol (good cholesterol) which was not noticed in tea seed supplementation. It is concluded that tea seed at 2.6% of DMI (dose equivalent to 0.4% saponin) and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis. These saponin containing natural feedstuffs may be used to replace antibiotics or chemical additives there by reducing the chances of drug resistant microbes and presence of residues in animal products.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
We certify that there is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript.
Authors are thankful to the Director, Indian Veterinary Research Institute for providing necessary facilities for undertaking the study. Financial assistance provided to the senior author in the form of a fellowship by the Director, Indian Veterinary Research Institute is also gratefully acknowledged.
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M. Kumar (1),a, A. Kannan (1,a) *, R. Bhar (1), A. Gulati (2), A. Gaurav (1), V. K. Sharma (3)
* Corresponding Author: A. Kannan
Tel: +91-1894-230526; Fax: +91-1894-233063; E-mail: email@example.com
(1) Animal Nutrition Lab, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Regional Station, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176061, India
(2) Department of Hill Area Tea Sciences, CSIR- Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176062, India
(3) Department of Animal Nutrition, G.C. Negi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK HPKV, Palampur Himachal Pradesh 176062, India
(a) These authors contributed equally to the work.
Submitted Jun 11, 2016; Revised Jul 25, 2016; Accepted Sept 8, 2016
Table 1. Ingredient composition of concentrate mixture Ingredients Percentage (1) [T.sub.0] [T.sub.1] [T.sub.2] Maize 34.00 31.00 34.00 Soybean meal 28.00 28.00 28.00 Wheat bran 35.00 32.80 34.20 Tea seed -- 5.20 - Tea seed saponin -- - 0.80 Mineral mixture 2.00 2.00 2.00 Salt 1.00 1.00 1.00 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 (1) [T.sub.0] control group; [T.sub.1] tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. Table 2. Chemical composition of concentrate mixture and oat fodder Attributes Concentrate mixture (1) [T.sub.0] [T.sub.1] Dry matter 88.42 [+ or -] 0.49 87.10 [+ or -] 0.75 Organic matter 92.77 [+ or -] 0.02 92.40 [+ or -] 0.02 Crude protein 21.66 [+ or -] 0.10 21.23 [+ or -] 0.02 Ether extract 3.17 [+ or -] 0.01 3.54 [+ or -] 0.20 NDF 47.45 [+ or -] 0.20 44.06 [+ or -] 0.35 ADF 13.02 [+ or -] 0.01 12.45 [+ or -] 0.05 Hemicellulose 34.42 [+ or -] 0.20 31.59 [+ or -] 0.32 Cellulose 10.39 [+ or -] 0.04 10.44 [+ or -] 0.02 Total ash 7.24 [+ or -] 0.05 7.62 [+ or -] 0.06 Calcium 1.37 [+ or -] 0.01 1.28 [+ or -] 0.01 Phosphorus 0.63 [+ or -] 0.05 0.64 [+ or -] 0.05 Attributes Concentrate mixture Oat fodder (1) [T.sub.2] Dry matter 88.48 [+ or -] 0.51 18.55 [+ or -] 2.33 Organic matter 92.74 [+ or -] 0.04 87.38 [+ or -] 0.02 Crude protein 21.64 [+ or -] 0.10 12.27 [+ or -] 0.03 Ether extract 3.15 [+ or -] 0.02 2.59 [+ or -] 0.01 NDF 47.49 [+ or -] 0.22 64.07 [+ or -] 0.39 ADF 13.06 [+ or -] 0.01 36.99 [+ or -] 0.34 Hemicellulose 34.52 [+ or -] 0.17 27.08 [+ or -] 0.73 Cellulose 10.41 [+ or -] 0.03 33.46 [+ or -] 0.16 Total ash 7.25 [+ or -] 0.04 12.63 [+ or -] 0.21 Calcium 1.38 [+ or -] 0.01 0.53 [+ or -] 0.01 Phosphorus 0.64 [+ or -] 0.05 0.40 [+ or -] 0.02 NDF, neutral detergent fibre; ADF, acid detergent fibre. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. Table 3. Overall performance of the goats during the 120 day feeding trial Attributes [T.sub [T. [T. .0] (1) sub.1] sub.2] Initial body weight (kg) 19.96 19.76 19.43 Final body weight (kg) 23.11 24.11 24.17 Overall gain (kg) 3.15 (b) 4.35 (a) 4.74 (a) Average daily gain (g) 26.25 (b) 36.30 (a) 39.54 (a) Feed conversion ratio 23.98 (a) 18.09 (b) 16.73 (b) Attributes SEM p value Initial body weight (kg) 0.64 0.950 Final body weight (kg) 0.68 0.797 Overall gain (kg) 0.20 0.01 Average daily gain (g) 1.67 0.001 Feed conversion ratio 1.37 0.01 SEM, standard error of the mean. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. (ab) Means values bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly (p < 0.05). Table 4. Intake, digestibility of various nutrients and plane of nutrition after 21 days of feeding in different groups Attributes [T.sub [T.sub.1] [T.sub.2] SEM p value .0] (1) Intake (g/d) Dry matter intake 507.92 585.09 614.01 38.25 0.535 Organic matter 460.99 531.23 554.61 34.11 0.537 Crude protein 90.09 102.65 105.71 5.47 0.494 NDF 289.62 307.16 330.57 21.11 0.764 ADF 137.89 143.07 159.00 11.99 0.771 Digestibility (%) Dry matter 75.11 75.15 74.66 0.88 0.559 Organic matter 76.32 76.80 76.29 0.84 0.910 Ether extract 58.83 54.58 (b) 54.68 (b) 0.59 0.047 (a) Crude protein 73.44 74.85 73.76 0.50 0.804 NDF 72.35 71.65 70.17 0.51 0.239 ADF 61.93 64.25 62.88 0.91 0.558 Hemicellulose 76.81 78.08 77.52 0.34 0.589 Cellulose 66.98 66.30 66.89 0.67 0.706 Plane of nutrition and nutritive value of diet DCP (g/d) 66.59 76.81 78.08 4.28 0.511 DCP (g/kg 7.36 8.17 8.61 0.59 0.715 [W.sup.0.75]) TDN (g/d) 381.89 429.21 457.40 29.06 0.599 TDN (g/kg 42.10 45.74 50.48 3.81 0.706 [W.sup.0.75]) DCP (%) 12.07 12.96 12.57 0.26 0.381 SEM, standard error of the mean; NDF, neutral detergent fibre; ADF, acid detergent fibre; DCP, digestable crude protein; TDN, total digestable nutrients. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group. (ab) Means values bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly (p<0.05). Table 5. Intake, digestibility of various nutrients and plane of nutrition after 90 days of feeding in different groups Attributes [T.sub [T.sub.1] [T.sub.2] SEM p value .0] (1) Intake (g/d) Dry matter intake 573.37 714.12 657.34 44.98 0.445 Organic matter 515.83 637 595.75 40.08 0.463 Crude protein 95.01 115.08 109.32 6.49 0.438 Ether extract 15.30 19.45 17.76 1.20 0.374 NDF 331.97 407.01 370.34 25.82 0.504 ADF 159.77 182.91 168.23 12.49 0.758 Digestibility (%) Dry matter 75.11 74.83 75.85 0.62 0.821 Organic matter 77.18 76.98 77.73 0.50 0.848 Ether extract 60.44 60.46 57.53 0.99 0.433 Crude protein 78.09 80.60 79.37 0.71 0.357 NDF 73.03 71.77 71.73 0.55 0.576 ADF 66.01 63.60 63.56 0.71 0.282 Hemicellulose 76.92 76.72 76.40 0.76 0.966 Cellulose 70.21 70.02 69.95 0.71 0.989 Plane of nutrition and nutritive value of diet DCP (g/d) 75.52 92.68 86.77 5.46 0.435 DCP (g/kg 8.13 9.49 9.06 0.68 0.720 [W.sup.0.75]) TDN (g/d) 421.37 523.82 490.30 34.81 0.482 TDN (g/kg 45.57 53.74 51.26 4.28 0.740 [W.sup.0.75]) DCP (%) 12.11 12.95 12.96 0.24 0.057 TDN (%) 71.73 73.18 73.93 0.60 0.372 SEM, standard error of the mean; NDF, neutral detergent fibre; ADF, acid detergent fibre; DCP, digestable crude protein; TDN, total digestable nutrients. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. Table 6. Nitrogen balance after 21 and 90 days of feeding in different groups Attributes [T.sub [T. [T. .0] (1) sub.1] sub.2] After 21 days N intake (g/d) 14.41 16.42 16.91 Faecal N (g/d) 3.99 4.33 4.69 Urinary N (g/d) 8.69 9.91 9.25 N balance (g/d) 1.72 (b) 2.17 (b) 2.96 (a) N balance (% intake) 11.90 (b) 13.20 (b) 17.50 (a) N balance (% 16.49 (b) 17.92 (b) 24.21 (a) absorbed) N balance (g/kg 0.19 (b) 0.22 (b) 0.32 (a) [W.sup.0.75]) After 90 days N intake (g/d) 15.20 18.41 17.49 Faecal N (g/d) 3.01 3.48 3.95 Urinary N (g/d) 10.24 11.80 10.16 N balance (g/d) 1.94 (b) 3.13a 3.37 (a) N balance (% intake) 12.79a 17.10 (ab) 19.25 (a) N balance (% 15.95 (b) 20.98 (ab) 24.88 (a) absorbed) N balance (g/kg 0.20 (b) 0.32 (a) 0.35 (a) [W.sup.0.75]) Attributes SEM p value After 21 days N intake (g/d) 0.87 0.492 Faecal N (g/d) 0.30 0.669 Urinary N (g/d) 0.64 0.755 N balance (g/d) 0.16 0.010 N balance (% intake) 1.04 0.042 N balance (% 1.54 0.040 absorbed) N balance (g/kg 0.01 0.005 [W.sup.0.75]) After 90 days N intake (g/d) 1.03 0.438 Faecal N (g/d) 0.19 0.142 Urinary N (g/d) 0.85 0.699 N balance (g/d) 0.20 0.001 N balance (% intake) 1.07 0.04 N balance (% 1.39 0.074 absorbed) N balance (g/kg 0.02 0.020 [W.sup.0.75]) SEM, standard error of the mean; N, nitrogen. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. (ab) Means values bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly (p<0.05). Table 7. Microbial protein supply after 21 and 90 days of feeding in different groups Attributes [T.sub.0] [T.sub.1] After 21 days Purine derivatives excretion (mmol/d) Allantoin 3.42 (b) 4.14 (a) Uric acid 1.84 2.03 Xanthine+hypoxanthine 0.15 0.19 Total 5.42 (b) 6.37 (a) Purines absorbed (mmol/d) 6.08 (b) 7.31 (a) Microbial N supply (g/d) 4.42 (b) 5.31 (a) Microbial protein supply (g/d) 27.66 (b) 33.22 (a) After 90 days Purine derivatives excretion (mmol/d) Allantoin 3.51 (b) 4.14 (a) Uric acid 1.77 1.89 Xanthine+hypoxanthine 0.18 0.25 Total 5.46 (b) 6.29 (a) Purines absorbed (mmol/d) 6.12 (b) 7.20 (a) Microbial N supply (g/d) 4.45 (b) 5.23 (a) Microbial protein supply (g/d) 27.83 (b) 32.72 (a) Attributes [T.sub.2] SEM p value After 21 days Purine derivatives excretion (mmol/d) Allantoin 4.48 (a) 0.12 0.001 Uric acid 1.94 0.05 0.399 Xanthine+hypoxanthine 0.18 0.01 0.443 Total 6.60 (a) 0.13 0.001 Purines absorbed (mmol/d) 7.61 (a) 0.17 0.001 Microbial N supply (g/d) 5.53 (a) 0.12 0.001 Microbial protein supply (g/d) 34.61 (a) 0.80 0.01 After 90 days Purine derivatives excretion (mmol/d) Allantoin 4.22 (a) 0.11 0.012 Uric acid 2.00 0.06 0.426 Xanthine+hypoxanthine 0.22 0.01 0.228 Total 6.45 (a) 0.14 0.003 Purines absorbed (mmol/d) 7.40 (a) 0.19 0.004 Microbial N supply (g/d) 5.38 (a) 0.14 0.004 Microbial protein supply (g/d) 33.66 (a) 0.87 0.004 SEM, standard error of the mean. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. Means bearing different superscripts (a and b) in a row differ significantly. Table 8. Mean blood biochemical profile and serum enzymes of Gaddi goats In different groups Attributes [T.sub [T.sub.1] [T.sub.2] SEM .0] (1) PCV (%) 38.61 38.92 38.58 0.41 Hb (g %) 11.64 11.95 11.77 0.17 Glucose (mg/dL) 50.63 54.32 50.90 1.11 BUN (mg/dL) 14.55 15.25 15.95 0.43 Total protein (g/dL) 6.68 6.83 6.64 0.10 Albumin (g/dL) 2.91 3.07 3.09 0.03 Globulin (g/dL) 3.83 3.85 3.60 0.11 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.93 0.91 0.84 0.02 Bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.68 0.65 0.65 0.04 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 27.67 (a) 27.08 (a) 25.36 (b) 0.56 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 64.80 63.35 61.69 1.28 HDL (mg/dL) 28.47 (b) 29.27 (b) 32.43 (a) 0.46 LDL (mg/dL) 33.23 (a) 31.75 (ab) 29.08 (b) 0.67 ALT(IU/L) 21.98 22.52 25.32 0.65 AST (IU/L) 92.21 103.82 106.68 3.31 ALP (IU/L) 269.84 299.64 272.96 7.01 Attributes p value (2) P T TxP PCV (%) 0.082 0.092 0.632 Hb (g %) 0.052 0.059 0.277 Glucose (mg/dL) 0.56 0.159 0.639 BUN (mg/dL) 0.006 0.112 0.256 Total protein (g/dL) 0.048 0.105 0.254 Albumin (g/dL) 0.59 0.065 0.915 Globulin (g/dL) 0.141 0.092 0.541 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.710 0.541 0.929 Bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.611 0.234 0.542 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 0.218 0.005 0.835 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 0.167 0.052 0.984 HDL (mg/dL) 0.895 0.001 0.020 LDL (mg/dL) <0.01 0.047 0.021 ALT(IU/L) 0.061 0.051 0.102 AST (IU/L) 0.127 0.309 0.614 ALP (IU/L) 0.081 0.262 0.751 SEM, standard error of the mean; PCV, packed cell volume; Hb, hemoglobin; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate amino transferase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. (2) T, treatment; P, period; TxP, interaction. (ab) Means bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly. Table 9. Cell mediated immune response against PHA-p in different groups Attributes [T.sub.0] (1) [T.sub.1] Skin fold thickness (cm) 0 h 0.52 [+ or -] 0.03 0.45 [+ or -] 0.02 12 h 0.82 [+ or -] 0.02 0.84 [+ or -] 0.01 24 h 0.80 [+ or -] 0.03 0.81 [+ or -] 0.03 48 h 0.72 [+ or -] 0.02 0.71 [+ or -] 0.02 72 h 0.61 [+ or -] 0.02 0.62 [+ or -] 0.04 96 h 0.55 [+ or -] 0.03 0.55 [+ or -] 0.05 Treatment (mean 0.67 [+ or -] 0.02 0.67 [+ or -] 0.02 [+ or -] SE) Attributes [T.sub.2] Period p value (2) (mean [+ or -] SE) P Skin fold thickness (cm) 0 h 0.53 [+ or -] 0.03 0.50 [+ or -] 0.02B 0.001 12 h 0.84 [+ or -] 0.01 0.83 [+ or -] 0.01A 24 h 0.84 [+ or -] 0.02 0.81 [+ or -] 0.01A 48 h 0.69 [+ or -] 0.03 0.71 [+ or -] 0.01AB 72 h 0.61 [+ or -] 0.04 0.62 [+ or -] 0.02B 96 h 0.58 [+ or -] 0.05 0.56 [+ or -] 0.02B Treatment (mean 0.68 [+ or -] 0.03 [+ or -] SE) Attributes p value (2) T TxP Skin fold thickness (cm) 0 h 0.059 0.682 12 h 24 h 48 h 72 h 96 h Treatment (mean [+ or -] SE) SE, standard error; PHA-p, phytohaemagglutinin-p. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. (2) T, treatment; P, period; TxP, interaction. Means bearing different superscripts (A and B) in a column differ significantly. Table 10. Humoral immune response against sheep RBC's in different groups Attributes [T.sub.0] (1) [T.sub.1] Antibody titre (log2 basis) 0 d 2.04 [+ or -] 0.18 2.74 [+ or -] 0.30 7 d 3.69 [+ or -] 0.45 3.88 [+ or -] 0.42 14 d 4.08 [+ or -] 0.36 4.08 [+ or -] 0.36 21 d 3.88 [+ or -] 0.42 4.08 [+ or -] 0.36 28 d 3.60 [+ or -] 0.24 3.88 [+ or -] 0.42 Treatment (mean 3.46 [+ or -] 0.19 3.73 [+ or -] 0.18 [+ or -] SE) Attributes [T.sub.2] Period (mean [+ or -] SE) Antibody titre (log2 basis) 0 d 2.28 [+ or -] 0.44 2.36 [+ or -] 0.18B 7 d 3.93 [+ or -] 0.57 3.83 [+ or -] 0.26aB 14 d 4.09 [+ or -] 0.45 4.08 [+ or -] 0.21A 21 d 3.86 [+ or -] 0.5, 3.94 [+ or -] 0.23AB 28 d 3.76 [+ or -] 0.23 3.75 [+ or -] 0.17AB Treatment (mean 3.58 [+ or -] 0.23 [+ or -] SE) Attributes p value (2) P T TxP Antibody titre (log2 basis) 0 d <0.001 0.074 0.995 7 d 14 d 21 d 28 d Treatment (mean [+ or -] SE) RBC, red blood cell; SE, standard error. (1) [T.sub.0], control group; [T.sub.1], tea seed supplemented group; [T.sub.2], tea saponin supplemented group. (2) T, treatment; P, period; TxP, interaction. Means bearing different superscripts (A and B) in a column differ significantly.
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|Author:||Kumar, M.; Kannan, A.; Bhar, R.; Gulati, A.; Gaurav, A.; Sharma, V. K.|
|Publication:||Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2017|
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