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Nuevos registros de nematodes parasitos de Euryzygomatomys spinosus (Rodentia, Echimyidae) en la provincia de Misiones, Argentina.


Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814) (Syn. E. brachyuran [Rengger, 1830]; E. catellus Thomas, 1916; E. guiara [Brandt, 1835]; E. rufa Litchtensein, 1820) (Echimyidae: Rodentia) is distributed in southern and eastern Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and Paraguay (Woods and Kilpatrick, 2005; Alvarez and Martinez, 2006). This species occurs in moist grasslands of the southern cerrado and pampas habitats of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It is also found in forests, at forest edges and in introduced grasslands in the Atlantic Forest from Espiritu Santo south to northeastern Argentina and Paraguay (Lacher and Alho, 2001; Woods and Kilpatrick 2005; Catzeflis et al., 2008).

This spiny rat, with a complex taxonomic history revised by Tate (1935), has been recorded as a host (cited as Mesomys guiara [Brandt, 1835]) of three species of nematodes from Brazil: Pudica gamma (Travassos, 1918) (Syn. Heligmosomum gamma Travassos, 1918) (Heligmonellidae: Strongylida), Monodontus rarus Travassos, 1929 (Ancylostomatidae: Strongylida) and Filaria diacantha Molin, 1858 (Onchocercidae: Spirurida) (Stossich, 1897; Hall, 1916; Travassos, 1918, 1929; Durette-Desset and Justine, 1991; Guerrero and Bain, 2001; Durette-Desset, 2009).

The last species requires a particular analysis. In this way, although F. diacantha was cited by Stossich (1897) and Hall (1916) as parasite from E. spinosus, the specimens studied by Molin (1858) came from the Matto Grosso, area that is not included in the known distribution of this rodent. In addition, later studies confirm that no filaroid nematodes have been found in this host (Vicente et al., 1997; Guerreiro and Bain, 2001).

To date, no helminths have been reported from E. spinosus in Argentina. It is common to find parasites not studied previously in taxonomic collections. Three vials with unidentified nematodes from E. spinosus were deposited about 30 years ago in the helminthological collection of Museo de La Plata (CHMLP; La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina) under the numbers MLP 159, 216, 250. The purpose of this note is to identify these parasites.

The studied specimens, preserved in 70% ethanol, were cleared in temporary mounts of lactophenol for study, and keys and specific bibliography were used for their identification. The classification follows Anderson (2000). Data about hosts, collection localities and collectors were obtained from the curatorial book of CHMLP. The complete data and identification of hosts were corroborated by finding the corresponding voucher specimens which belong to the Coleccion Elio Massoia (acquired by the Fundacion de Historia Natural Felix de Azara, Buenos Aires, Argentina). The hosts were captured in Cuartel Rio Victoria, Ruta Nacional 14 km 273 INTA, Guarani Departament, Misiones Province, between 1976-1978 by E. Massoia and collaborators. Skins belonging to three host specimens were deposited (CFA05302, CFA05802, CFA06065; see Table 1).

Phylum NEMATODA Rudolphi, 1808 Class ADENOPHOREA Chitwood, 1958 Order ENOPLIDA Baird, 1853 Superfamily TRICHINELLOIDEA Hall, 1916 Family TRICHURIDAE Raillet, 1915 TRICHURIS Roederer, 1761 Trichuris sp.

Studied specimens.--Two complete males and one incomplete female (MLP 159/D), and one incomplete female (MLP 250).

Site of infection.--Large intestine.

Comments.--These specimens have been assigned to the genus Trichuris Roederer, 1761 by the general diagnostic characteristics such as anterior part of body long, narrow, tapered, and whip-like; and the posterior part of body broad, and handle-like; bacillary band located in anterior portion of body; eggs oval, flat, with bipolar plugs. The study of specific characteristics such as the presence of spicular tube, spicular sheath spinose (spines very small, densely arranged), nonprotusive vulva; along with morphometric characters (e.g., length of the body, spicule, cloacal tube, esophagus and egg) allows the separation of this species within this genus.

To date, six species of Trichuris have been reported from Argentina, one of these in Caviidae (Trichuris dolichotis Morini, Boero and Rodriguez, 1955), two in Ctenomyidae (T bursacaudata Suriano and Navone, 1994, T pampeana Suriano and Navone, 1994), and the others in Cricetidae (T. laevitestis Suriano and Navone, 1994, T pardinasi Robles, Navone and Notarnicola, 2006 and T. navonae Robles, 2011) (Morini et al., 1955; Suriano and Navone, 1994; Robles and Navone, 2006; Robles et al., 2006; Robles, 2011). The specimens found in E. spinosus can be differentiated from T. dolichotis by the body length of female and egg size (male unknown), and from the rest of the mentioned species, except T. laevitestis, by the presence of spicular tube. The main difference between the specimenes recorded in this note and T. laevitestis is the nonprotusive vulve.

Trichuris thrichomysi Lopes Torres et al., 2011 described from Thrichomys apereoides (Lund, 1839) (Rodentia, Echimyidae) in Brazil, shares some diagnostic morphological and morphometric characters with the specimens recorded in this note (e.g., in males, presence of the spicular tube, and lengths of the spicule, cloacal tube and esophagus). However, the specimens studied here show differences with those of T. apereoides in general proportions of males (e.g. total body length/ posterior body length 2.04-2.15 vs. 1.66-1.91, posterior body length/ spicular length 2.27-2.54 vs. 3.5-5.2) and posterior body length in female (9.8-9.9 vs. 15.7-17.3) (Lopes Torres et al., 2011).

According to the data at hand the studied specimens are refered as Trichuris sp. It would be useful to obtain new samples from E. spinosus to confirm the species and carry out a complete and detailed description. This finding constitutes the first record of the genus Trichuris in Echimyidae from Argentina.

Class SECERNENTEA Von Linstow, 1905 Order ASCARIDIDA Yamaguti, 1961 Superfamily HETERAKOIDEA Chabaud, 1957 Family ASPIDODERIDAE Skrjabin and Schikhobalova, 1947 Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1914

Syn. Ascaris uncinata Rudolphi, 1819; Heterakis uncinata Schneider, 1866; P. americana Khalil and Vogelsang, 1931; P. uruguaya Khalil and Vogelsang, 1931.

Studied specimens.--12 complete males, 11 complete females and three anterior parts (MLP 159/D). Site of infection.--Large intestine.

Comments.--These specimens have been assigned to Aspidoderidae by diagnostic characteristics such as square lips connected by lateral lobes and esophagus long and narrow with small posterior esophageal bulb. Moreover, the cephalic cap not being modified into plates, absence of cephalic cordons, lateral alae present, deirids located near of excretory pore, pre-anal sucker well developed, number of caudal papillae (about 14-21; although in Rossin, 2007, the maximum number is 40), gubernaculum present, vulvar morphology and localization in females; along with morphometric characters (e.g., length of the spicule, gubernaculum, ventral sucker), allows the assignment of the specimens to P. uncinata (Travassos, 1914; Sutton, 1976; Pinto et al., 2002; Rossin, 2007).

Despite the extensive synonymy, available descriptions of this species are scarce and incomplete (Rudolphi, 1819; Travassos, 1914; Pereira and Vaz, 1933; Sutton, 1976). Gardner (1991), in a study of coevolution between Paraspidodera species and Ctenomys species from Bolivia, suggests a specific parasite-host relationship. However, this hypothesis was not supported by descriptions or discriminatory morphologic characters. In addition, other studies indicated that the number and distribution of caudal papillae (within a restricted range) are intra-specific variable characters, supporting the synonymy of species suggested previously, and recognizing this species as monotypic (Rudolphi, 1819; Schneider, 1866; Travassos, 1914; Khalil and Vogelsang, 1931a, b; Lent and Freitas, 1939; Pinto et al., 2002; Rossin, 2007).

P. uncinata has been recorded in Argentina by Sutton (1976) from Cavia aperea (Caviidae) and by Rossin (2007) from Ctenomys talarum (Ctenomyidae) in Buenos Aires province. This is the first record of an aspidoderid species in Echimyidae, and in Misiones province, enlarging the distribution range of the species in Argentina.

Order STRONGYLIDA Diesing, 1851 Superfamily HELIGMOSOMOIDEA Travassos, 1914 Family, gen. et sp. indet.

Studied specimens.--One male and one female (MLP 216) and one posterior part of male (MLP 159/B).

Site of infection.--Small intestine (specimen MLP 159/B was recorded from stomach, but this is likely an error and the true habitat is the small intestine).

Comments.--These specimens have been assigned to the superfamily Heligmosomoidea by the absence of a buccal cavity, the presence of a caudal bursa in males and an ovijector in female. Other characteristics were observed in the specimens, such as a cephalic vesicle, symmetrical caudal bursa with pattern of type 2-2-1 and monodelphic uterus and localization of the vulva near the anus.

Travassos (1918) described Pudica gamma (Pudicinae: Heligmonellidae: Heligmosomoidea) from E. spinosus in Angra dos Reis, Brazil (Travassos, 1918; Durette-Desset and Justine, 1991). Although some characteristics are shared with the specimens studied here--and it is probable that these correspond to Pudica sp.--a precise assignment has not been possible. This is mainly due to the fact that important diagnostic characters, among these, the morphology of the synlophe could not be observed, since there were only two complete specimens and their preservation was not satisfactory. This is the first record of a strongylid species in Echimyidae from Argentina.

The Echimyidae includes some rare species, difficult to capture and distributed in little studied microhabitats. Among these, E. spinosus has a wide distribution, presumably representing large populations (Catzeflis et al., 2008). Nevertheless, the parasite species reported from this host consist of a few isolated records from Brazil. It suggests that current number of parasites registered represents but a small fraction of those that probably occur in this rodent, and that additional surveys should yield additional species.

This study represents additional progress in the research on nematode species from rodents in Argentina. Trichuris sp., P uncinata and a heligmosomoid undetermined species are recorded for the first time from Echimyidae from Argentina. In addition, this survey illustrates the value of examining "hidden taxa" in taxonomic collections and integrating data from both helminth and mammal collections to increase our knowledge of biodiversity.

Recibido 10 octubre 2011. Aceptado 21 diciembre 2011. Editor asociado: UFJ Pardinas

Maria del Rosario Robles, Carlos Galliari, and Graciela T. Navone

Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores CEPAVE (CCT--CONICET--La Plata--UNLP), Calle 2 # 584, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina [Correspondence: Maria del Rosario Robles <>].

Aknowledgements. We thank Cristina Damborenea and Hugo Merlo (curator and assistant of Coleccion Helmintologica del Museo de La Plata, Division Zoologia Invertebrados, Museo La Plata), and Sergio Bogan (Fundacion de Historia Natural Felix de Azara, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Antropologia, Universidad Maimonides), Julia Diaz and Mike Kinsella for the critical reading of the ms, Mike for the English revision, and Celina Digiani and an anonymous referee for their contribution and corrections on the ms. The authors are members of Consejo Nacional de investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET). This investigation was financed by the UNLP (Programa de Incentivos N627).


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Table 1
Combined data from host vouchers and helminthes
recorded for the spiny rat Euryzygomatomys
spinosus in Misiones, Argentina

Hosts           Host         Date       Locality
collection    collector

CFA05302     Massoia, De     Jul.      Cuartel Rio
               Simone,       1976       Victoria,
               Lopez,                  Ruta 14 km
              Temchuck                 273, INTA,

CFA05802       Massoia        Not      Cuartel Rio
                           recorded     Victoria,
                                       Ruta 14 km
                                       273, INTA,

CFA06065       Massoia     Jul. 1978   Cuartel Rio
                                       Ruta 14 km
                                       273, INTA,

Hosts        Helminthes    Site of     Parasite
collection   collection   infection    collector
number         number

CFA05302       0159/B     stomach *   Massoia, De
               0159/D       large       Simone,
                          intestine     Lopez,
                                      Massoia, De

CFA05802                    large       Massoia
               0250/D     intestine

CFA06065                    small       Massoia
               0216/C     intestine

* See the main text.
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Title Annotation:texto en ingles
Author:del Rosario Robles, Maria; Galliari, Carlos; Navone, Graciela T.
Publication:Mastozoologia Neotropical
Date:Dec 1, 2012
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