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Nuevos registros, notas de distribucion y diversidad de especies de Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) de Parques Nacionales de Tunez.

New records, notes on distribution and species diversity of Carabidae (Coleoptera) from Tunisia National Parks

Introduction

The family Carabidae, or ground beetles, currently includes about 40,000 (Thiele 1977) to 50,000 species (Desender 1987) but Gaston 1991 consider it could be about 60,000 species. This family is characterized by a very wide adaptive success on the multiple ecological conditions encountered worldwide. They are able to colonize almost all terrestrial habitats and represent an important part of the ground-dwelling invertebrate predators. Furthermore, Carabidae are a relevant indicator group which was used for biodiversity research, ecological surveillance, and research in the domain of environmental change (Latty 2006). Besides that, ecologists employ endangered and endemic species to prioritize the creation of protected areas (Brooks et al. 2006). Studies on the distribution and survival of many Carabidae species along different habitats serve to consolidate our level of knowledge of the effects of environmental and climate change (Vaibhao et al. 2013; Kerr et al. 2007). Species checklists are effective tools in the domain of natural science. They are directly related to any program of species conservation. Carabidae fauna from Tunisia is rather unknown in comparison to other zoogeographical areas such as Europe. Only a few studies cover the topic of ground beetles in Tunisia so far Bedel (1895), Peyerimhoff (1909) and Normand (1933), or recently leading to the discovery of new species (Gueorguiev 2012; Queinnec and Ollivier 2012; Ghannem et al. 2014). In general, no Tunisian or African law, referring to insects' protection exists, and, Tunisia does not have a red list of threatened species adapted to its territory. Only the International Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN) exists as a baseline data. It is, therefore, essential to determine a list of species requiring urgent protection measures. In addition, natural heritage sites play an important role in the conservation ecological systems and biodiversity. This survey aims to update the Carabidae checklist in order to improve the knowledge on ground beetles in Tunisia, particularly in case of two national parks Ichkeul and El Feidja, and in order to establish a first list of heritage species (endemic and new species to the country).

Material and methods

Study area. Specimens were collected from El Feidja national park and Ichkeul national park during 2012-2013. The study areas were located in the northern Tunisia.

Site 1. Ichkeul National Park (37'08'51.31"N 9[grados]40' 03.18"E, altitude: 46 masl).

Situated 25 km to the southeast of Bizerte and 15 km from the cities of Menzel Bourguiba and Mateur, it surrounds a wetland, with lake Ichkeul in the middle, occupying a surface of 150 [km.sup.2], being one of the most important bird sanctuaries of North Africa. Vegetation of the park is characterized mainly by Olea europaea L.

Ichkeul has been registered since 1977 as a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO MAB program, in 1979 as a World Heritage Site Natural and Cultural and in 1980 as a Wetland of International Importance under the RAMSAR Convention. It is important to mention that Ichkeul station was the first national park in the world that has benefit from this international status. In Tunisia, the value of Ichkeul National Park is linked to its diversity of habitats and taxonomic groups (Hollis et al. 1986).

Site 2. El Feidja (36[grados]46'09.17"N 8[grados]39'00.14"E; altitude: 571 masl).

This national park is located 100 km to the south of Mediterranean Sea, near the frontier with Algeria. The park is the natural environment of the Kroumirie, which is the wettest region of Tunisia. The soil is rich in humus and slightly acid and the most important component of vegetation are Quercus faginea Lam., 1785, Ilex aquifolium L., Celtis australis L., Salix pedicellata Desf., 1799, Ficus carica L., and Populus alba L. (Rossler 1996).

Sampling methods. Ground beetles were sampled using 20 pitfall traps. Traps were installed in different sites. Each trap was filled with acetic acid diluted to 30% in order to kill and preserve samples. Additionally, some other specimens were collected by hand. Once the beetles were entrapped, the samples were separated and stored in plastic sacs. Dates, locations, and number of carabids were recorded. The specimens were identified using the guides by: Jeannel (1941; 1942) and Antoine (1955; 1957; 1959; 1961; 1962) and later confirmed by Mr. Olegario Del Junco (Jerez de la Frontera, Spain), and Pr. Ildefonso Ruiz-Tapiador (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain). The permanent preparations of the collected material were deposited in the collections of the Faculty of Science of Bizerte, Tunisia.

In general, we followed the classification suggested by Bouchard et al. (2011).

Results and discussion

There were found 52 species from 33 genera and 6 subfamilies found in Northern Tunisia parks represented in 274 individuals. All registered species belong to the following subfamilies: Nebriinae (one tribe, two genera, and two species), Omophroninae (one tribe, one genus, and one species), Apotominae (one tribe, one genus, and two species), Trechinae (two tribes, nine genera, and nine species), Brachininae (one tribe, one genus, and six species), and Harpalinae (eight tribes, 21 genera, and 32 species). The registered taxa are listed below.

Subfamily NEBRIINAE Laporte, 1834 Tribe Nebriini Laporte, 1834

Nebria (str.) andalusia Rambur, 1837 Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad]; 27.III.2013. Collection sites. Fresh place, under stones, and under dead leaves.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Italy, Portugal, Spain (Antoine 195; Lobl and Smetana, 2003).

Nebria (str.) rubicunda Quensel, 1806 Material examined. El Feidja: 3[feminidad][feminidad]; 27.111.2013. Collection sites. Fresh environment near streams, under fragments of dead leaves and wood. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955). Europe: Spain (Lobl and Smetana 2003). This species exists in Andalusia, and is considered an insect of Betic-riffian origin insect that spread eastward until Tripolitania (Antoine 1955).

Subfamily OMOPHRONINAE Bonelli, 1810 Tribe Omophronini Bonelli, 1810

Phrator variegatum seurati Alluaud, 1935

Material examined. El Feidja: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad]; 27.111.2013. Collection sites. Under pieces of wood and dead leaves. Distribution. Subspecies endemic to Tunisia (Valainis 2009).

Subfamily APOTOMINAE Le Conte, 1853 Tribe Apotomini LeConte, 1853

Apotomus rufithorax Pecchioli, 1838

Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad]; 27.V2012.

Collection sites. Under stones. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain, Italy (Sardinia, Sicily), France, Corsica, Greece (Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Apotomus clypeonitens canadensis Jedlicka, 1961 Material examined. El Feidja: 7[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad]; 27.V.2012; 4[masculinidad] [masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad]; 27.HL2013. Collection sites. Clayey ground under stones in a damp environment. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Tunisia. Europe: Italy (Sicily) (Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Subfamily TRECHINAE Bonelli, 1810 Tribe Bembidiini Stephens, 1827

Asaphidion stierlini (Heyden, 1880)

Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 22.V.2012. Collection sites. Edges of running water Distribution. North Africa: Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Austria, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Spain (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Nepha genei (Kuster, 1847) Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad]; 27.III.2013. Collection sites. Edge of ponds, rivers and streams. Hydrophilic species.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Greece, Italy (Sardinia), Portugal, Spain, (Bonavita and Taglianti 2005).

Ocyturanes dudichi (Csiki, 1928)

Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 27.111.2013. Collection sites. Edge of the sand of streams. According Zaballos (1984) is a Europhilic species. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain, France, Portugal (Antoine 1955. Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Nejacirtense Netolitzky, 1914

Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 27.111.2013. Collection sites. Edge of rivers and streams. Distribution. Endemic species for North Africa, distributed in Algeria and Tunisia (Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Subtribe Tachyina Motschulsky, 1862

Tachys scutellaris Stephens, 1828 Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 27.111.2013. Collection sites. Salt ground, along the ponds and streams. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Canary Island, Egypt, Morocco. Europe: France, Italy, Portugal, Spain (Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Polyderis algiricus (Lucas, 1848)

Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 27.III. 2013. Collection sites. Edge of a stream. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Canary Island, Egypt, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia. Europe: France, Italy (Sicilia), Spain (Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Sphaerotachys haemorrhoidalis Ponza, 1805 Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 27.III. 2013. Collection sites. Sand banks of running water and under stones in a very humid salty ground. Species heavily hygrophile (Therond 1975; Zaballos 1984). Distribution. North Africa: Tunisia, Morocco, Canary Island, Egypt. Europe: Spain, Italy, France (Lobl and Smetana 2003; Antoine 1955).

Tribe Trechini Bonelli, 1810

Subtribe Trechina Bonelli, 1810

Trechus rufulus Dejean, 1831 Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 27.111. 2013. Collection sites. Wet field, under stone at the edge of a stream.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Italy (Sicily and Sardinia), Spain (Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Trechus obtusus Erichson, 1837 Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 27.111. 2013. Collection sites. Species collected under dead leaves. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Italy, Spain (Zaballos 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Subfamily BRACHININAE Bonelli, 1810 Tribe Brachinini Bonelli, 1810

Subtribe Brachinina Bonelli, 1810

Brachinus (str.) efflans Dejean & Boisduval, 1829 Material examined.El Feidja: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 08.III.2012. Collection sites. Under stones near a permanent watercourse. The former citations of B. efflans from Tunisia are included as a variety of Brachinus crepitans Linne, 1758 (Bedel 1895) from Haidra and under the synonym Brachinus etslans Dejean, 1830 in 2003 (Lobl and Smetana 2003). However the new record confirms the presence of this elusive species. Distribution. North Africa: Western Morocco (from Casablanca to Tangier and the Middle Atlas), Algeria, Tunisia. Europe: Bulgaria, Italy, Portugal, Spain (Machard 1993; Ruiz and Zaballos 2001; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Brachinus (str.) crepitans Linne, 1758 Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad], 17.I.2013. Collection sites. Under a stone in a wet limestone terrain and in a humus soil.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Medium Europe and Southern Asia: Syria (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Brachinus (Brachynolomus) immaculicornis Dejean, 1825 Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 5[feminidad], 17.I.2013; El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad], 26.II.2012.

Collection sites. Under stones in a clay-wet ground. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain, Italy, France (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Brachinus (Brachynidius) sclopeta (Fabricius, 1792) Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 17.I.2013; El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 21.III.2013.

Collection sites. Wet clay soil in a coastal ground under stones.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Greece, Germany, Italy, Spain (Serrano et al. 1990; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Brachinus (Brachynoaptinus) mauretanicus Bedel, 1914 Material examined. Ichkeul: 4[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad], 17.II.2013; El Feidja: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 21.III.2013.

Collection sites. Under stones and under plant debris in wet clay soil.

Distribution. North Africa: Morocco, Tunisia (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955). Endemic to North Africa.

Brachinus (Cnecostolus) exhalans Rossi, 1792 Material examined. Ichkeul: 4[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 18.I.2013. Collection sites. Salty marshy ground. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Albania, Armenia, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Spain (Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Subfamily HARPALINAE Bonelli, 1810 Tribe Chlaeniini Brulle, 1834

Subtribe Chlaeniina Brulle, 1834

Chlaenites spoliatus spoliatus (Rossi, 1792) Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 21.II.2012; 2[masculinidad] [masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16.I.2013; El Feidja: 5[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 13.V.2013. Collection sites. Found in the flooded fields, live under stones and under plant debris

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Canary Island, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. All temperate Europe and South and Central Asia (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Chlaenius velutinus auricollis Gene, 1839

Material examined. Ichkeul: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3 [feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013; El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 13.V.2013.

Collection sites. Under stones and roots of plants. It is a coastal species bound with running water (Bonadona 1971; Therond 1975; Novoa 1975). In the park El Feidja, its behavior is similar, but also appears on the shores of lakes (Ichkeul case).

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia. Europe: France, Greece, Germany, Italy (Sicily and Sardinia), Portugal, Spain, (Bedel 1895; Serrano et al. 1990; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Trichochlaenius chrysocephalus (Rossi, 1790) Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 11.II.2012; 1[masculinidad] [masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 16.I.2013.

Collection sites. Collected at theedges of stagnant water. It is a species of meso-hygrophilous behavior. In the study area we sometimes noticed a herd behavior and are frequently captured by living together with various species of Brachinus Weber.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Trichochlaenius aeratus varvasi Laporte, 1834

Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 27.111.2013. Collection sites. Under stones in a wet clay soil. Distribution. Endemic to North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia (Antoine 1955; Serrano 2003).

Chlaeniellus olivieri (Crotch, 1870) Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 27.111.2013. Collection sites. Under stones and roots of vegetables at the edge of running water. It has a behavior similar to the previous species, is cited on the point of the current waters (Bonadona, 1971), of stagnant waters (Antoine 1955) and from swampy zones (Georges, 1994). It is a western Mediterranean element. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Greece, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Italy (Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Tribe Harpalini Bonelli, 1810

Subtribe Harpalina Bonelli, 1810

Carterus (str.) rotundicollis Rambur 1837 Material examined. El Feidja: 4[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 27. III. 2013; Ichkeul: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I. 2013. Collection sites. Under stones in clayey-wet grounds. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Italy, Portugal, Spain (Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Carterus(str.) interceptus Dejean, 1830 Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I. 2013. Collection sites. Wet clay soil under stones. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Portugal, Spain (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Amblystomus mauritanicus Dejean, 1829 Material examined. Ichkeul: 1[feminidad][feminidad]; 16. I.2013. Collection sites. Clay soil under stone. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Italy, Spain (Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Ophonus (str.) opacus Dejean, 1829 Material examined. Ichkeul: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013. Collection sites. Under limestone in a wetland. Distribution. North Africa: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco. Europe: France, Portugal, Italy, Spain (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Harpalus (str.) distinguendus (Duftschmid, 1812) Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 28. VI.2012. Collection sites. Under stones and plant debris. Its tendency to dry and hot zones was demonstrated by Lindroth (1992); using as preference Thiele (1977) for light soils and its tolerance for a certain degree of salinity (10%) (Verdier and Quezel 1951). Kegel (1990) affirms that 62% of the daily activity comes true during diurnal period. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco. Asia Minor, Caucasus, Medium Europe (Antoine 1955; Wrase 2009).

Harpalus (str.) neglectus Serville, 1821

Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 26. VI.2012; Ichkeul: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013.

Collection sites. Under stones and under leaf ltter in clay soil, sometimes in sandy soil.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Medium and Northern Europe (Bedel 1895; Jeannel 1941; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Harpalus (str.) serripes (Quensel, 1806) Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013. Collection sites. Under stones and under dead leaves. According to Lindroth (1975), this appropriate species of xerophilic zones with wide-spread herbaceous vegetation, as well as other authors associate it with sandy soils and limestone (Jeannel 1942; Jeanne 1971c; Lindroth 1975; Therond 1975).

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Medium and Mediterranean Europe, England (Bedel 1895; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Acinopus haroldi Schaum, 1863

Material examined. Ichkeul: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013. Collection sites. Wet field under stones.

Distribution. Endemic for North Africa, where it was discovered for the first time in Morocco (Atlantic coast, from Tanger to Agadir) (Antoine 1955). First record from Tunisia.

Acinopus grassator Coquerel, 1858 Material examined. Ichkeul: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013. Collection sites. Sandy clay ground under stones. Distribution. North Africa: Morocco (Melilla) (Antoine 1955), Algeria (Oran) (Bedel 1895).

Parophonus hispanus Rambur, 1838 Material examined. Ichkeul: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013. Collection sites. The specimen was found on sandy soil between the debris of vegetation.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Italy, Spain (Sciaky 1992; Zaballos and Jeanne 1994).

Parophonus hespericus Jeanne, 1985

Material examined. Ichkeul: 4[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013.

Collection sites. Under stones and plant debris, most often colonization with P. hispanus Rambur.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Italy, Spain (Jeanne and Zaballos 1986; Sciaky 1992).

Cryptophonus litigiosus litigiosus (Dejean, 1829) Material examined. Ichkeul: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013. Collection sites. Under a stone and under plant debris. Distribution. Palearctic region. North Africa: Algeria, Egypt. Europe: France, Italy, Portugal. Asia: Palestine; Turkey, Spain, Syria (Bedel 1895; Lobl and Smetana 2003; Serrano 2003). First record from Tunisia.

Subtribe Stenolophina Kirby, 1837

Bradycellus lusitanicus Dejean, 1829

Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 26. III.2013. Collection sites. Under stone in a wet field.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Italy, Spain (Bedel 1895; Serrano et al. 1990; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Stenolophus teutonus (Schrank, 1781)

Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 13. V.2013. Collection sites. Under stones and debris in a humid place. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Canary Islands, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Malta, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine. Asia: Syria, Turkey (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Zaballos 1993; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003; Curcic and Stojanovic 2011).

Tribe Lebiini Bonelli, 1810

Subtribe Dromiusina Bonelli, 1810

Apristuss triatipennis Lucas, 1846 Material examined. El Feidja: 1[feminidad][feminidad], 23. IV.2013. Collection sites. Gravel at the edge of waters. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia (Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003). It is an endemic element for North Africa.

Microlestes corticalis (Dufour, 1820) Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 17.III.2013. Collection sites. Under dead leaves and plants bass in an argilo-sandy ground. It is a species that is found in sandy soils (Zaballos 1984) and clay (Cardenas 1985). Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Canary Island, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain. Central Asia (Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Microlestes mauritanicus Lucas, 1846 Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad], 23.V.2013. Collection sites. Under stones and under plant debris. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Italy (Sicily), Spain (Andalusia) (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Tribe Platynini Bonelli, 1810

Olisthopus fuscatus Dejean, 1828 Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 24.VI.2013. Collection sites. Under stones and plant debris in a dry field with grass. According Bonadona (1971) is completely indifferent to salinity and hides under rock and at the base of plants.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Italy, Portugal, Spain (Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Tribe Pterostichini Bonelli, 1810

Subtribe Pterostichina Bonelli, 1810

Poecilus (Parapedius) decipiens Waltl, 1835

Material examined. Ichkeul: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 3[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013; El Feidja: 3[masculinidad][masculinidad], 1[feminidad][feminidad], 6. III.2012

Collection sites. Under stones and under plant debris.

Distribution. North Africa: Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain (Andalusia) (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Poecilus (Coelipus) crenulatus Dejean, 1828 Material examined. Ichkeul: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 4[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013. Collection sites. Under stones and plant debris. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Poecilus (Carenostylus) purpurascens (Dejean, 1828) Material examined. Ichkeul: 5[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16.I.2013. Collection sites. Under stones in a marshy area. Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: France, Greece, Portugal, Spain (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Poecilus (str.) tyrrhenicus Csiki, 1930

Material examined. Ichkeul: 4[masculinidad][masculinidad], 7[feminidad][feminidad], 16. I.2013; El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 5[feminidad][feminidad], 27. III.2012. Collection sites. Under stones and plant debris.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain (Andalusia) (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Tribe Sphodrini Laporte, 1834

Subtribe Calathina Laporte, 1834

Calathus (Bedelinus) circumseptus Germar, 1824 Material examined. El Feidja: 2[masculinidad][masculinidad], 4[feminidad][feminidad], 13.V.2013. Collection sites. Under feet of trees and under stones in a wet ground and at the edge of a stream.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Albania, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain (Antoine 1955; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003; Serrano et al. 2003).

Calathus (Neocalathus) mollis Marsham, 1802 Material examined. El Feidja: 1[feminidad][feminidad], 21.V.2012. Collection sites. Under stones and in feet of tree. Distribution. North Africa: Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain, Italy, Portugal, Croatia, Denmark, Greece, Germany, France (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Serrano et al. 1990; Machard 1993; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Subtribe Synuchina Lindroth, 1956

Platyderus ruficollis Marshamm, 1802 Material examined. Ichkeul: 2[feminidad][feminidad], 16.I.2013. Collection sites. Under stones.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Western Europe (Bedel 1895; Antoine 1955; Machard 1993).

Tribe Zabrini Bonelli, 1810

Subtribe Amarina Zimmermann, 1832

Amara (str.) familiaris Duftschmid, 1812 Material examined. El Feidja: 1[masculinidad][masculinidad], 2[feminidad][feminidad]; 22.VI.2012. Collection sites. Under dead leaves, in fields and along ways, running to the sun.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Germany, Greece (Bedel 1895; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

Tribe Zuphiini Bonelli, 1810

Subtribe Zuphiina Bonelli, 1810

Zuphium (str.) olens Rossi, 1790 Material examined. El Feidja: 2[feminidad][feminidad]; 22.VI.2013. Collection sites. Dead leaves.

Distribution. North Africa: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. Europe: Spain, Italy, France, Portugal, Germany, Greece (Bedel 1895; Lobl and Smetana 2003).

The results of this study indicate that there is a highly diverse fauna of Carabidae in both parks. In this survey, a total of 52 species belonging to 6 subfamilies were collected from two different localities. Of the six subfamilies studied here, Harpalinae was the most abundant with 32 species (61.5% of total). According to Lorenz (2005) the subfamily Harpalinae is the largest group of ground beetles with 19,000 species. Eight of the species (15.3% in total) were common to both parks.

Within the other subfamilies, two species, Acinopus haroldi Schaum, 1863 and Cryptophonus litigiosus litigiosus (Dejean, 1829) from Ichkeul national park are new records for the fauna of Tunisia. Endemic species represent a particular class of rare species (Gaston 1994). Five species are endemic to the North Africa: Neja cirtense Netolitzky, 1914, Apristus striatipennis Lucas, 1846, Trichochlaenius aeratus varvasi Laporte, 1834 (El Feidja national park), Acinopus haroldi Schaum, 1863 (Ichkeul National Park) and Brachinus (Brachynoaptinus) mauretanicus Bedel, 1914 (both parks). Hence, one subspecies, Phrator variegatum seurati Alluaud, 1935 (El Feidja National Park) is endemic to Tunisia. The global species richness of ground beetles varied between sampling sites (Fig. 1); the highest value was recorded in El Feidja national park (37 species); in Ichkeul national park were recorded 24 species. Also, the higher abundance of specimens was observed in El Feidja with 146 individuals; where the most representative species were: Apotomus clypeonitens canadensis Jedlicka, 1961, Chlaenites spoliatus spoliatus (Rossi, 1792) and Poecilus (str.) tyrrhenicus Csiki, 1930. In Ichkeul the abundance obtained was 126 individuals, where the most abundant species were: Poecilus (str.)tyrrhenicus Csiki, 1930, Trichochlaenius chrysocephalus (Rossi, 1790), Chlaenites spoliatus spoliatus (Rossi, 1792), Brachinus (Brachynolomus) immaculicornis Dejean, 1825 and Poecilus (Carenostylus) purpurascens (Dejean, 1828). In other study sites, Ghannem et al. (2014) recorded five species of Carabidae, from Bou Hedma National Park southern Tunisia. Dajoz (1982) recorded eight Carabidae species, from southern Tunisia. In addition, in Algeria, in Mont Babor National Park, Benkhlil and Doumandji (1992) have been captured 28 species of Carabidae. Remini (2007) sampled in Ben Aknoun National Park, five species of Carabidae. Within Fezzan (desertic area of 15,000 [km.sup.2] located in Libya), 19 Carabidae were recorded by Peyerimhoff (1948). In comparison with the previous sites, the high species richness refers to the sites seems to be related to altitude, vegetation, soil, availability of trophic resources, structural complexity of the environment and the degree of disturbance. Different abiotic factors can influence the activity of carabid beetles and associated taxa in different climates (Moraes et al. 2013). The difference can attribute to the affinity and adaptation by local species to their habitats (Erwin et al. 2005). According to Loreau (1978) deciduous litter can provide favorable microclimatic conditions, and creates a complex spatial structure through generating stratification that may allow the coexistence of some ground beetle species.

In this study, we noticed that there is no great difference in species richness sorted by abundance specific level, which proliferates despite the study sites are geographically distant from each other. This will demonstrate the importance of the conservation of these sites (national parks since 1980 and 1956) which are relevant for the entire ecosystem and in particular the species of Carabidae.

This study constitutes a guide for future taxonomical and ecological research of Tunisian species. With more long-term and periodic work the checklist of Carabidae from Tunisia can be updated with new findings of different species.

The presence of such ground beetles' biodiversity at the El Feidja and the Ichkeul National Parks can only approve their heritage significance. Managers of this biodiversity hot spot are required to entrust more interest and conservation efforts, reducing the unsustainable practices (overgrazing, fire...) that exist in these "protected" area. Sustainable management of these heritages requires taking into account all functions and uses that the both parks have to offer (ecological, economic, tourism...) and their integration to management reflections undertaken by the different concerned parties.

Received: 06-Sep-2015 * Accepted: 02-Feb-2017

Suggested citation:

GHANNEM, S.; BEJAOUI, M.; BOUMAIZA, M. 2017. New records, notes on distribution and species diversity of Carabidae (Coleoptera) from Tunisia National Parks. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 43 (1): 69-76. Enero-Junio 2017. ISSN 0120-0488.

Acknowledgements

We thank to Mr. Olegario Del Junco (Jerez de la Frontera, Spain) and Dr. Ildefonso Ruiz-Tapiador Aparicio (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid), who helped us for the identification of specimens.

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Samir Ghannem (1,2), Mustapha Bejaoui (1,3), Moncef Boumaiza (1,4)

(1) Laboratory of Environment Bio-monitoring (L.B.E), Faculty of Science of Bizerte, University of Carthage, Zarzouna 7021 Tunisia. (2) ghan_samir@yahoo.fr, corresponding author. (3) bejaouimustapha@yahoo.com. (4) boumaizamoncef@yahoo.fr.

Leyenda: Figure 1. Abundance (N) and species richness (S) variation in sampling sites.
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