Nuclear power plant sites: maps of seismic hazards and population centers.
Currently, 104 commercial nuclear power plants operate on 64 sites in the 48 contiguous United States. (1) Sixty-nine of the 104 are pressurized water reactors (PWR) and the 35 remaining are boiling water reactors (BWR). The PWR plants are based on Babcock & Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, and Westinghouse designs. The BWR plants are based on a series of General Electric designs. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received 28 Combined License (COL) applications for new reactors based on advanced reactor designs (Table 2). Three COL applications will involve new sites.
CRS determined the coordinates of plant sites using web-based applications and overlaid the sites on base maps of:
1. Quaternary faults,
2. Seismic hazards in terms of percent gravitational acceleration,
3. Levels of horizontal ground shaking (gravitational acceleration) that have a 2-in100 (2%) probability of being exceeded in a 50-year period, and
4. Metropolitan populations
To map the proximity of plant sites to faults (Figure 1), CRS referred to the USGS Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States. (2) This database contains information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of greater than magnitude 6 (M>6) earthquakes during the Quaternary (the past 1,600,000 years). It is important to note that this map is not a prediction of an earthquake event.
To map the proximity of plant sites to seismic hazards (Figure 2), CRS referred to the USGS Seismic Hazard Map for the United States. (3) This map displays quantitative information about seismic ground motion hazards as horizontal ground acceleration (in terms of gravitational acceleration) of a particle at ground level moving horizontally during an earthquake. It is important to note that this map is not a prediction of an earthquake event.
To map the proximity of plant sites to geographic areas with levels of horizontal shaking having a 2% probability of being exceeded in a 50-year period (Figure 3), CRS referred to the 2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps. (4) The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Maps incorporate the latest findings on earthquake ground shaking, faults, seismicity, and geodesy to display earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across the United States. The resulting maps are derived from seismic hazard curves calculated on a grid of sites across the United States that describe the frequency of exceeding a set of ground motions. The Seismic Hazard maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes to allow buildings, highways, and critical infrastructure to withstand earthquake shaking without collapse. (5) The NRC requires that every nuclear plant be designed for site-specific ground motions that are appropriate for their site locations. In addition, the NRC has specified a minimum ground motion level to which nuclear plants must be designed. For further information about nuclear power plant siting criteria, refer to 10 Code of Federal Regulation, Appendix A to Part 100--Seismic and Geologic Sitting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants. It is important to note that this map is not a prediction of an earthquake event.
For further information about earthquake hazards, refer to CRS Report RL33861, Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research, by Peter Folger.
In mapping the population near nuclear power sites (Figure 4), CRS referred to the U.S. Census Bureau FactFinder website for 2009 population estimates on urban area nearest to each of the plant site. (6) The latest census figures do not include all smaller geographic locations, so we used Census Bureau estimator for the last known projected estimates before the 2010 census was taken. It is important to note that the circular map symbol denotes population size, not the areal extent of population.
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Jacqueline Nolan, Library of Congress Geography and Maps Division, firstname.lastname@example.org, 7-8520
Author Contact Information
Specialist in Energy and Defense Policy
(1) There are no nuclear power plants operating in Alaska or Hawaii.
(2) USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States http://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards/qfaults/.
(3) USGS http://www.nationalatlas.gov/mld/quksigx.html
(4) USGS, 2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps, http://pubs.usgs/fs/2008/3018/pdf/FS08-3018_508.pdf
(5) For complete discussion of the USGS methodology see Mark D. Petersen, Arthur D. Frankel, Stephen C. Harmsen et al.; Documentation for the 2008 Update of the United State National Seismic Hazard Maps. Open-File Report 20081128; USGS.
(6) U.S. Census Bureau, American fact Finder, http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en.
Table 1. Operating Nuclear Power Plants Unit Type MW Vendor St. Arkansas Nuclear One 1 PWR 843 B&W AR Arkansas Nuclear One 2 PWR 995 CE AR Beaver Valley 1 PWR 892 W3L PA Beaver Valley 2 PWR 846 W3L PA Braidwood 1 PWR 1,178 W4L IL Braidwood 2 PWR 1,152 W4L IL Browns Ferry 1 BWR 1,065 GET4 AL Browns Ferry 2 BWR 1,104 GET4 AL Browns Ferry 3 BWR 1,115 GET4 AL Brunswick 1 BWR 938 GET4 NC Brunswick 2 BWR 937 GET4 NC Byron 1 PWR 1,164 W4L IL Byron 2 PWR 1,136 W4L IL Callaway 1 PWR 1,236 WFL MO Calvert Cliffs 1 PWR 873 CE MD Calvert Cliffs 2 PWR 862 CE MD Catawba 1 PWR 1,129 W4L SC Catawba 2 PWR 1,129 W4L SC Clinton 1 BWR 1,065 GET6 IL Columbia Gen. St. BWR 1,190 GET5 WA Comanche Peak 1 PWR 1,200 W4L TX Comanche Peak 2 PWR 1,150 W4L TX Cooper Station BWR 830 GET4 NE Crystal River 3 PWR 838 B&WLL FL Davis-Besse PWR 893 B&WLL OH Diablo Canyon 1 PWR 1,151 W4L CA Diablo Canyon 2 PWR 1149 W4L CA Donald C. Cook 1 PWR 1,009 W4L MI Donald C. Cook 2 PWR 1,060 W4L MI Dresden 2 BWR 867 GET3 IL Dresden 3 BWR 867 GET3 IL Duane Arnold BWR 640 GET4 IA Fermi 2 BWR 1,122 GET4 MI Fitzpatrick BWR 852 GET4 NY Fort Calhoun PWR 500 CE NE Grand Gulf 1 BWR 1,297 GET6 MS Hatch 1 BWR 876 GET4 GA Hatch 2 BWR 883 GET4 GA Robinson 2 PWR 710 W3L SC Hope Creek 1 BWR 1,061 GET4 NJ Indian Point 2 PWR 1,023 W4L NY Indian Point 3 PWR 1,025 W4L NY Joseph M. Farley 1 PWR 851 W3L AL Joseph M. Farley 2 PWR 860 W3L AL Kewaunee PWR 556 W2L WI LaSalle County 1 BWR 1,118 GET5 IL LaSalle County 2 BWR 1,120 GET5 IL Limerick 1 BWR 1,134 GET4 PA Limerick 2 BWR 1,134 GET4 PA McGuire 1 PWR 1,100 W4L NC McGuire 2 PWR 1,100 W4L NC Millstone 2 PWR 884 CE CT Millstone 3 PWR 1,227 W4L CT Monticello BWR 579 GET3 MN Nine Mile Pt .1 BWR 621 GET2 NY Nine Mile Pt. 2 BWR 1,140 GET5 NY North Anna 1 PWR 981 W3L VA North Anna 2 PWR 973 W3L VA Oconee 1 PWR 846 B&WLL SC Oconee 2 PWR 846 B&WLL SC Oconee 3 PWR 846 B&WLL SC Oyster Creek BWR 619 GET2 NJ Palisades PWR 778 CE MI Palo Verde 1 PWR 1,335 CES80 AZ Palo Verde 2 PWR 1,335 CES80 AZ Palo Verde 3 PWR 1,335 CES80 AZ Peach Bottom 2 BWR 1,112 GET4 PA Peach Bottom 3 BWR 1,112 GET4 PA Perry 1 BWR 1,261 GET6 OH Pilgrim 1 BWR 685 GET3 MA Point Beach 1 PWR 512 W2L WI Point Beach 2 PWR 514 W2L WI Prairie Island 1 PWR 551 W2L MN Prairie Island 2 PWR 545 W2L MN Quad Cities 1 BWR 867 GET3 IL Quad Cities 2 BWR 869 GET3 IL R. E. Ginna PWR 498 W2L NY River Bend 1 BWR 989 GET6 LA Salem 1 PWR 1,174 W4L NJ Salem 2 PWR 1,130 W4L NJ San Onofre 2 PWR 1,070 CE CA San Onofre 3 PWR 1,080 CE CA Seabrook 1 PWR 1,295 W4L NH Sequoyah 1 PWR 1,148 W4L TN Sequoyah 2 PWR 1,126 W4L TN Shearon Harris 1 PWR 900 W3L NC South Texas 1 PWR 1,410 W4L TX South Texas 2 PWR 1,410 W4L TX St. Lucie 1 PWR 839 CE FL St. Lucie 2 PWR 839 CE FL Surry 1 PWR 799 W3L VA Surry 2 PWR 799 W3L VA Susquehanna 1 BWR 1,149 GET4 PA Susquehanna 2 BWR 1,140 GET4 PA Three Mile Island 1 PWR 786 B&WLL PA Turkey Point 3 PWR 720 W3L FL Turkey Point 4 PWR 720 W3L FL VC Summer PWR 966 W3L SC Vermont Yankee BWR 510 GET4 VT Vogtle 1 PWR 1,109 W4L GA Vogtle 2 PWR 1,127 W4L GA Waterford 3 PWR 1,250 CE LA Watts Bar 1 PWR 1,123 W4l TN Wolf Creek 1 PWR 1,166 W4L KS Table 2. Combined License Applications for New Reactors Received by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Proposed New Reactors Design Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant U.S. EPR New Site, Bellefonte Nuclear Station, Unit 3 & 4 AP1000 Luzerne, PA Callaway Plant, Unit 2 U.S. EPR Calvert Cliffs, Unit 3 U.S. EPR Comanche Peak, Units 3 & 4 US-APWR Fermi, Unit 3 ESBWR Grand Gulf, Unit 3 ESBWR Levy County, Units 1 & 2 AP1000 New Site, Nine Mile Point, Unit 3 U.S. EPR Levy North Anna, Unit 3 U.S. EPR County, FL River Bend Station, Unit 3 ESBWR Shearon Harris, Units 2 & 3 AP1000 South Texas Project, Units 3 & 4 ABWR Turkey Point, Units 6 & 7 AP1000 Victoria County Station, Units 1 & 2 ESBWR New Site, Virgil C. Summer, Units 2 & 3 AP1000 Victoria Vogtle, Units 3 & 4 AP1000 County, TX William State Lee III, Units 1 & 2 AP1000 Source: NRC. Notes: AP1000--3,400 Megawatt Advanced Passive Reactor, ESBR--4,500 Megawatt Economic Simplified Boiler, U.S. APWR- -4, 451 Megawatt Advanced Pressurized Reactor, U.S. EPR-- 4,500 Megawatt Evolutionary Power Reactor.
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|Publication:||Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2011|
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