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Nuclear energy.

In July 1997, U.S. nuclear generating units produced a total of 57 net terawatthours (billion kilowatthours) of electricity, 6 percent lower than in July 1996. Nuclear units generated at an average capacity factor of 76.6 percent, 4.8 percentage points lower than in July 1996. Nuclear power supplied 18.8 percent of the total electric utility-generated electricity in July 1997, compared with 21.1 percent in July 1996.

No low-power or full-power licenses for nuclear power plants were issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission during July 1997.

On July 31, 1997, there were 110 operable nuclear generating units in the United States, with a collective net summer capability of 100.7 million kilowatts of electricity. Of the 110 operable units, 19 units generated at less than 25 percent of capacity because of maintenance, refueling, or repair outage, and 15 of the 19 units generated no electricity during the month. The aggregate net design capacity of the 110 operable units was 102.3 million kilowatts.

In addition, there were 3 other units with construction permits, although construction for all 3 units was canceled or halted. Previous issues of this report have referred to 6 units as indefinitely deferred, instead of 3. However, work was canceled on Perry 2 in 1994 and on WNP units 1 and 3 in 1995 and their construction permits were rescinded upon cancellation. The design capacity of the 3 units with construction permits was 3.6 million kilowatts. The net design capacity of those units, when added to that of the 110 operable nuclear generating units, is 104.3 million kilowatts.

[TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 8.1 OMITTED]

[TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 8.2 OMITTED]

Nuclear Energy Notes

1. Operable Units: Nuclear generating units that have been issued a full-power license by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

Exceptions: The Shippingport (60 megawatts (MW)) and the Hanford-N (840 MW) nuclear units were included in the operable units until 1982 and 1988, respectively. The Shippingport unit was excluded from the operable category during March 1974-November 1977 due to a major core modification outage. Hanford-N, an unlicensed unit used for defense materiel production, was included in the operable category because power was produced as by-product and sold commercially. Three Mile Island 2 (880 MW) experienced a major accident in 1979 and, although that unit still retains its operating license and site cleanup continues, there is no plan to restart it. Therefore, it has not been included in the operable category since March 1979. Although Shoreham received a full-power license in April 1989, the unit is not currently scheduled to operate and, therefore, has not been included in the operable category. Rancho Seco (873 MW) was shut down by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) in June 1989 following a referendum on its continued operation. Because there are currently no plans to operate it as a nuclear unit, it is no longer included as an operable unit but is identified as a unit shut down for an extended period. As soon as SMUD and the NRC formalize the plant's official retirement, it will be noted as such in this report. The Department of Energy-operated Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 unit is not a commercial reactor and is therefore not included in the operable category.

In addition, nine units have been retired and therefore removed from the operable category. Those units are: Peach Bottom 1 (40 MW) and Indian Point 1 (265 MW), both retired in 1974; Humboldt Bay (65 Mw), officially retired in 1976; Dresden 1 (200 MW), retired in October 1979; LaCrosse (51 MW), retired in May 1987; Fort Saint Vrain (217 MW), retired in October 1989; Yankee Rowe 1 (185 MW), retired in February 1992; San Onofre 1 (436 MW), retired in December 1992; and Trojan (1,104 MW), retired in February 1993.

2. In Startup: The period of time between a nuclear generating unit's initial fuel loading date and the issuance of its full-power license. During that period, the unit is undergoing low-power testing and the maximum level of operation is 5 percent of the unit's design thermal rating.

3. Capacity: Nuclear generating units may have more than one type of net capacity rating, including the following:

(a) Net Summer Capability - The steady hourly output that generating equipment is expected to supply to system load, exclusive of auxiliary power, as demonstrated by test at the time of summer peak demand. Auxiliary power of a typical nuclear power plant is about 5 percent of gross generation.

(b) Net Design Capacity or Net Design Electrical Rating (DER) - The nominal net electrical output of a unit, specified by the utility and used for plant design.

4. Monthly Capacity Factors: The monthly capacity factors are computed as the actual monthly generation divided by the maximum possible generation for that month. The maximum possible generation is the number of hours in the month multiplied by the net summer capability at the end of the month. That fraction is then multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. Annual capacity factors are averages of the monthly values for that year.

Sources for Table 8.1

Operable Units

1973-1982: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Programs, "U.S. Central Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant Milestones."

1983-January 1996: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), "Licensed Operating Reactors" (NUREG-0020).

February 1996 forward: EIA estimates.

Nuclear Electricity Net Generation

Table 7.1.

Nuclear Portion of Domestic Electricity Net Generation

Calculated from data in Table 7.1.

Net Summer Capability of Operable Units

1973-1982: Compiled from various sources, primarily DOE, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, "U.S. Central Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant Milestones."

1983 forward: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report," and monthly updates as appropriate.

Capacity Factor

EIA, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

Sources for Table 8.2

Licensed for Operation

1973-1982: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Programs, "U.S. Central Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant Milestones."

1983 forward: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), "Licensed Operating Reactors" (NUREG-0020).

Construction Permits, On Order, and Announced

1973-1982: Compiled from various sources, primarily DOE, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, "U.S. Central Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant Milestones"; Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF), "Nuclear Steam-Electric Units That Have Been in Operation as of 1957-1989"; EIA, CNEAF, "Nuclear Plant Cancellations: Causes, Costs, and Consequences"; and Utility Data Institute, Inc., "U.S. Nuclear Plant Statistics, 1987.

1983 forward: NRC, "Summary Information Report" (NUREG-0871); NRC, "Licensed Operating Reactors" (NUREG-0020); and various journals.

Total Design Capacity

1973-1982: Compiled from various sources, primarily DOE, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, "U.S. Central Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant Milestones"; EIA, CNEAF, "Nuclear Steam-Electric Units That Have Been in Operation as of 1957-1987"; EIA, CNEAF, "Monthly Report for Electric Utilities-Power Generation"; EIA, CNEAF, "Nuclear Plant Cancellations: Causes, Costs, and Consequences"; and Utility Data Institute, Inc., "U.S. Nuclear Plant Statistics, 1987."

1983 forward: NRC, "Summary Information Report" (NUREG-0871); NRC, "Licensed Operating Reactors" (NUREG-0020); and EIA, Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."
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Title Annotation:industry reports for July 1997
Publication:Monthly Energy Review
Date:Oct 1, 1997
Words:1178
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