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(1.) John A. Dorr, Jr., and Donald F. Eschman, Geology of Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1970), especially pp. 164-66.

(2.) Lawrence M. Sommers, ed., Atlas of Michigan (East Lansing, 1977), p. 18. 3. David I. Verway, ed., Michigan Statistical Abstract, Twentieth Edition, 1986-87 (Detroit, 1987), p. 490.

(4.) Reference works vary widely in the land and water area they assign to Michigan due, presumably, to differences in methods of measuring as well as human-made and natural changes from year to year. The figures cited here are from the Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1976, pp. 180-81. The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1995, p. 653, gives Michigan's land area as 56,809 square miles and its total area, including land and water, as 96,705 square miles.

(5.) The term "Michiganian" was used as early as 1813 to designate a resident of Michigan, and such writers as Charles Fenno Hoffman and Harriet Martineau in the 1830s in their accounts of travels in Michigan employed it. The term "Michigander" was made popular after Abraham Lincoln, in a speech in 1848, sarcastically referred to the Democrat, Lewis Cass, as "the great Michigander." But "Michiganian" is more sensible and consistent with the form employed in referring to residents of most other states. In the 1980s the Detroit News made the editorial decision to use "Michiganian" as the acceptable term while the Detroit Free Press, after a poll of its readers' preference in the matter, opted for "Michigander." See Mitford M. Mathews, ed., A Dictionary of Americanisms (Chicago, 1951), 2.1051; Richard H. Thornton, An American Glossary (New York, 1962), 2.579; an article by Don Faber in the Ann Arbor News, 8 April 1979; and George S. May, Michigan: An Illustrated History of the Great Lakes State (Northridge, Calif., 1987), p. 43.


(1.) For a discussion of recent discoveries and the controversies surrounding them, see William McDonald, "How Old Is American Man?" The National Observer, 31 May 1975.

(2.) Donald B. Simons of Grand Blanc and the Michigan Archaeological Society has excavated the Gainey Site and the nearby Butler Site, discovered in 1988 and dating from the same general era. He has been assisted by volunteers and staff members and students from the University of Michigan and other colleges. That both sites are located in developing areas may end the archaeological investigations before they have been completed. John R. Halsey, State Archaeologist, to George S. May, Nov. 19, 1992.

(3.) John R. Halsey, "Miskwabik--Red Metal: Lake Superior Copper and the Indians of Eastern North America," Michigan History 67 (Sept.-Oct. 1983): 32-41.

(4.) See Edmund Jefferson Danziger, Jr., The Chippewas of Lake Superior (Norman, Okla., 1979); Charles E. Cleland, Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan's Native Americans (Ann Arbor, 1992), p. 158.

(5.) R. David Edmunds, The Potawatomi: Keepers of the Fire (Norman, Okla., 1978), pp. 4-5.

(6.) For a discussion of Indian names and their meanings, see Virgil J. Vogel, Indian Names in Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1986).


(1.) It is occasionally claimed that Norsemen and even Phoenicians reached Michigan centuries earlier than the French. There is certainly no evidence to substantiate the claim for the Phoenicians. The claim that the Norsemen, or Vikings, as they are sometimes referred to, may have seen Michigan about the year 1362 is based on the so-called Rune Stone found near Kensington, Minnesota, in 1898. A translation of an inscription on the stone indicated that a group of Norsemen were in that area in 1362, which might mean that they also had visited the Michigan area in the same period. But subsequent investigation has demonstrated that the Kensington Rune Stone is a fake. See Erik Wahlgren, The Kensington Stone, a Mystery Solved (Madison, 1958); and Russell W. Fridley, "Debate Continues over Kensington Rune Stone," Minnesota History 45 (Winter 1976): 149-51.

(2.) Original source material on Nicolet's western exploration is limited and the geographical references in this material are so vague that some have concluded that Nicolet, on his outward journey, went up into Lake Superior and along the northern shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula and then overland to Green Bay, rather than following the southern shore through the Straits of Mackinac. See Milo M. Quaife and Sidney Glazer, Michigan: From Primitive Wilderness to Industrial Commonwealth (New York, 1948), pp. 21-22n.; and Harry Dever, "The Nicolet Myth," Michigan History 50 (Dec. 1966): 318-22. The principal narrative on Nicolet's journey is reprinted in George S. May and Herbert J. Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1865 (Grand Rapids, 1974), pp. 51-52.

(3.) Fielding H. Yost, famous football coach of the University of Michigan Wolverines, recounts his futile efforts to find any solid evidence of wolverines in Michigan in an article, in collaboration with R. Ray Baker, "The Wolverine," Michigan History 27 (Oct.-Dec. 1943): 581-89. More recently the Michigan State University zoologist Rollin H. Baker argued that a few wolverines were found in northern Michigan as late as the nineteenth century, but he admitted that much of his evidence for this conclusion was hearsay. See Baker, Michigan Mammals (East Lansing, 1983), pp. 503-10. Why the name of this beast, sometimes called the "glutton," was applied to residents of Michigan and to the state is not certain. The wolverine was an animal the Indians had traditionally disliked intensely. Some believe that when the Americans moved into Michigan in the 1830s and gobbled up the Indians' land, the Indians began calling these settlers "wolverines" because it was the worst thing they could call them.

(4.) For some voyageur songs, see Grace Lee Nute, The Voyageur (New York, 1931), pp. 103-55.

(5.) Radisson's travel narrative can be found in Louise P. Kellogg, ed., Early Narratives of the Northwest, 1634-1699 (New York, 1917), pp. 27-67.

(6.) Although the accuracy of this claim is arguable, it is far easier to defend than the one put forth by local enthusiasts who push the city's founding back to 1620, the approximate date of Brule's visit to the area. No French settlement resulted from that visit, but nevertheless advocates of this date blithely contend that this makes Sault Ste. Marie the third oldest city in the United States.

(7.) For many years historians assumed that the "man named Jolliet" in Galinee's journal was the famous Louis Jolliet, leader of the expedition to the Mississippi in 1673. Jean Delanglez, in Life and Voyages of Louis Jolliet, 1645-1700 (Chicago, 1948), pp. 7-11, convincingly demonstrated that the Jolliet encountered by the Sulpicians in 1669 was Louis's older brother Adrien.

(8.) Raphael N. Hamilton, S.J., "Location of the Mission of St. Ignace from 1670 to 1673," Michigan History 42 (Sept. 1958): 260-66.

(9.) There are three contemporary accounts of the pageant at the Sault. One is an official state paper, translated and published in the Wisconsin Historical Collections 11 (1899): 26-28. An account by Nicholas Perrot appears in Emma H. Blair, ed., Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi and Region of the Great Lakes (Cleveland, 1911), 1.220-25. An account from the Jesuit Relations is reprinted in May and Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 56-59.

(10.) Catherine L. Stebbins, Here I Shall Finish My Voyage (Omena, 1960), contends that the description of the place where Marquette was put ashore and later died, and the changes that have occurred in the shoreline since that time indicate that the missionary died, not near Ludington but near Frankfort. She discusses this thesis at greater length in "The Marquette Death Site," Michigan History 48 (Dec. 1964): 333-68. Miss Stebbins's arguments brought a rebuttal from Raphael N. Hamilton, in "The Marquette Death Site: The Case for Ludington," Michigan History 49 (Sept. 1965): 228-48. Not only is the place where Marquette died a matter of dispute, but there is also uncertainty regarding the final resting place of his bones. See George S. May, ed., "The Discovery of Father Marquette's Grave at St. Ignace in 1877, as Related by Father Edward Jacker," Michigan History 42 (Sept. 1958): 267-87.

(11.) See W. J. Eccles, Frontenac, the Courtier Governor (Toronto, 1965).

(12.) The fate of the Griffin has piqued the curiosity of generations of students of Great Lakes lore. In 1957 parts of a vessel that tests indicated might well be three hundred years old were found near Tobermory at the tip of the peninsula that separates Lake Huron from Georgian Bay. A number of Canadian authorities have accepted these remains as those of the Griffin. Prior to this find it seemed most probable that the Griffin had been lost off the western tip of Manitoulin Island, not far north of Tobermory. See F. Clever Bald, Michigan in Four Centuries (New York, 1961), pp. 40-41; and Harrison John MacLean, The Fate of the Griffin (Toronto, 1974).

(13.) The name was that of a battle fought in Europe.

(14.) Francis Parkman, La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West (Boston, 1901), pp. 179-84. The Jesuit Henry Nouvel had journeyed from St. Ignace to the vicinity of Midland and conducted a mission there in 1675-76. See Harold W. Moll, ed., "A Canoe Trip to Midland in 1675," Michigan History 46 (Sept. 1962): 255-74.


(1.) The modern city of Duluth, Minnesota, bears his name. (2.) George Pare, The Catholic Church in Detroit, 1701-1888 (Detroit, 1951), pp. 81 and 85. (3.) The exact location of the fort has long been a subject of controversy. Some thought it stood on the hill above the present Marquette Park, others thought that it was situated on the waterfront, in the center of the present business district in St. Ignace. But a map of the fort prepared in 1749 by Michel Chartier de Lotbiniere, with an accompanying narrative discovered in 1974, indicates that the fort was actually located west of Point St. Ignace, west of the Mackinac Bridge. For a discussion of the de Lotbiniere map and other eighteenth-century maps of the Mackinac area, see Richard Alan Sambrook, "Thematic Innovation on the Colonial Frontier: Four Historic Maps of Fort Michilimackinac," Michigan Academician 23 (Winter 1991): 1-18.

(4.) W. J. Eccles, Canada Under Louis XIV, 1663-1701 (Toronto, 1964), p. 174. For the favorable view of Cadillac, see Henry D. Brown and others, Cadillac and the Founding of Detroit (Detroit, 1976).

(5.) For a summary of the evidence regarding the date of the founding of the fort on the south side of the Straits, see Lyle M. Stone, Fort Michilimackinac: 1715-1781, An Archaeological Perspective on the Revolutionary Frontier (East Lansing, 1974), pp. 7-8.

(6.) Donald Chaput, "The French Post at Detroit: An Unrealized Promise," Detroit in Perspective 3 (Spring 1979): 167-84.

(7.) For a sympathetic view of the French settlers, see an account by Henry M. Utley reprinted in May and Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 123-30.

(8.) Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (Princeton, 1947), p. 30.

(9.) Ibid., pp. 30-33.

(10.) Bald, Michigan in Four Centuries, pp. 58-59.

(11.) See the appendix in Douglas Southall Freeman, George Washington (New York, 1948), 1.546-49.

(12.) Claude T. Hamilton, "Western Michigan History," Michigan History 13 (Spring 1929): 211-18.

(13.) Milo M. Quaife, "The Romance of the Mackinac Country," Michigan History 13 (Summer 1929): 392. 14. Louise P. Kellogg, The British Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest (Madison, 1935), pp. 4-6.

(15.) Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising, pp. 59-63.

(16.) Ibid., pp. 63-67.

(17.) Ibid., pp. 82 and 84.

(18.) See Fred Coyne Hamil, "The French Heritage of the Detroit Region," Michigan History 47 (March 1963): 41-46, for the continuing French influence.


(1.) Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising, pp. 122-25.

(2.) James Bain, ed., Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories (reprint of the original 1901 edition, Rutland, Vt., 1969), p. 80. 682 notes to pages 40-68

(3.) Irving I. Katz, "Ezekiel Solomon: The First Jew in Michigan," Michigan History 32 (Sept. 1948): 247-56.

(4.) Kellogg, The British Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest, pp. 3, 4, 13, 35, 226, 253, 329.

(5.) The fullest account of how the British met their responsibilities is found in Clarence W. Alvord, The Mississippi Valley in British Politics (Cleveland, 1917). A more recent treatment is found in Lawrence P. Gipson, The British Empire Before the American Revolution, vol. 10, The Triumphant Empire (New York, 1961).

(6.) For a discussion of Carver's work see John Parker, The Great Lakes and the Great Rivers: Jonathan Carver's Dream of Empire (Lansing, 1965).

(7.) The best biography of Rogers is John R. Cuneo, Robert Rogers of the Rangers (New York, 1959). Rogers is the central figure in the classic historical novel by Kenneth L. Roberts, Northwest Passage (New York, 1937).

(8.) John D. Barnhart, ed., Henry Hamilton and George Rogers Clark in the American Revolution, with the Unpublished Journal of Henry Hamilton (Crawfordsville, Ind., 1951), pp. 93-101.

(9.) Pare, Catholic Church in Detroit, pp. 99, 228-31.

(10.) For recent treatments of George Rogers Clark, see George M. Waller, The American Revolution in the West (Chicago, 1976), and The French, the Indians, and George Rogers Clark in the Illinois Country; Proceedings of an Indiana American Revolution Bicentennial Symposium (Indianapolis, 1977).

(11.) Philip P. Mason, Detroit, Fort Lernoult, and the American Revolution (Detroit, 1964).

(12.) De Peyster's verses were published by a descendant in the late nineteenth century, and several examples of those relating to Michigan are reprinted in May and Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 137-41.

(13.) For the archaeological work that has been carried on at the site of the old fort in Mackinaw City, see Stone, Fort Michilimackinac, as well as the numerous other reports published before and since Stone's book by the Mackinac Island State Park Commission and the agencies associated with it in this project.

(14.) "The Haldimand Papers," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 10 (1888): 450-51.

(15.) Lawrence Kinnaird, "The Spanish Expedition Against Fort St. Joseph in 1781: A New Interpretation," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 19 (Sept. 1932): 173-91, discusses the various theories as well as advancing one of his own. The article is reprinted in May and Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 143-55.

(16.) Quoted in J. E. Day, "The Moravians in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 30 (1906): 55.

(17.) Dwight L. Smith, "The Old Northwest and the Peace Negotiations," in The French, the Indians, and George Rogers Clark, pp. 92-105.

(18.) Samuel Flagg Bemis, The Diplomacy of the American Revolution (Bloomington, 1957), p. 233.

(19.) Louis C. Karpinski, "Early Michigan Maps: Three Outstanding Peculiarities," Michigan History 29 (Oct.-Dec. 1945): 506-7. Karpinski errs in stating that the treaty of 1783 awarded the mythical Phelipeaux Island to Great Britain. See also Annah May Soule, "The International Boundary of Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 26 (1896): 597-632; and James C. Starbuck, "Ben Franklin and Isle Royale," Michigan History 46 (June 1962): 157-66.


(1.) Frank Woodford, Yankees in Wonderland (Detroit, 1951); Lois Kimball Mathews, The Expansion of New England (Boston, 1909).

(2.) Jefferson's manuscript map, depicting the states he proposed for the West, is reproduced in George S. May, Pictorial History of Michigan: The Early Years (Grand Rapids, 1967), p. 56. See also Frederick L. Paxson, History of the American Frontier, 1763-1893 (Boston, 1924), pp. 61-63.

(3.) After the federal Constitution went into operation these appointments were made by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(4.) Anthony Wayne's correspondence relating to this Indian campaign is found in Richard C. Knopf, ed., Anthony Wayne: A Name in Arms (Pittsburgh, 1960).

(5.) The text of the treaty may be found in Charles J. Kappler, ed., Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties (Washington, 1904), 2.39-45.

(6.) The total amount of money spent on purchasing Indian lands between 1776 and 1880 is given in Thomas Donaldson, The Public Domain: Its History, U.S. House of Representatives, 47th Cong., Mis. Doc. 45 (Washington, 1884), p. 20. 7. F. Clever Bald, Detroit's First American Decade, 1796 to 1805 (Ann Arbor, 1948), pp. 16-28.

(8.) Quoted in Edwin O. Wood, Historic Mackinac (New York, 1918), 1.280.

(9.) Wilbur M. Cunningham, Land of Four Flags: An Early History of the St. Joseph Valley (Grand Rapids, 1961), pp. 89-100.

(10.) Vivian Lyon Moore, "A Pocahontas of Michigan," Michigan History 15 (Winter 1931): 71-79.

(11.) Quaife and Glazer, Michigan: From Primitive Wilderness to Industrial Commonwealth, pp. 129-30n.

(12.) A careful distinction must be made between a "survey township," as defined under the Land Ordinance of 1785, which was six miles square, and a "government township," which might be any size.


(1.) Frank B. Woodford, Mr. Jefferson's Disciple: A Life of Justice Woodward (East Lansing, 1953); William L. Jenks, "Augustus Elias Brevoort Woodward," Michigan History 9 (Oct. 1925): 515-46.

(2.) Jeffrey P. Brown, "Samuel Huntington: A Connecticut Aristocrat on the Ohio Frontier," Ohio History 89 (Autumn 1980): 428-30.

(3.) George B. Catlin, The Story of Detroit (Detroit, 1923), pp. 115-19.

(4.) For the complete text of Woodward's protest, see Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 12 (1887): 473-83.

(5.) John W. Reps, Town Planning in Frontier America (Princeton, 1969), pp. 367-76.

(6.) Beverly W. Bond, The Civilization of the Old Northwest (New York, 1934), pp. 234-35.

(7.) Ora B. Peake, A History of the United States Indian Factory System, 1795-1822 (Denver, 1954).

(8.) Woodford, Mr. Jefferson's Disciple, pp. 84-91.

(9.) The treaty is sometimes called the Treaty of Brownstown or the Treaty of Detroit.

(10.) Glenn Tucker, Tecumseh: Vision of Glory (Indianapolis, 1956), pp. 35-92.

(11.) Freeman Cleaves, Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time (New York, 1939).

(12.) For discussions of the different interpretations of the origins of the War of 1812, see Reginald Horsman, The Causes of the War of 1812 (Philadelphia, 1962); Bradford Perkins, ed., The Causes of the War of 1812: National Honor or National Interest? (Hinsdale, Ill., 1962); and William Barlow, "The Coming of the War of 1812 in Michigan Territory," Michigan History 53 (Summer 1969): 91-107.

(13.) George S. May, War 1812! (Mackinac Island, 1962), pp. 5-18.

(14.) Alec R. Gilpin, The War of 1812 in the Old Northwest (East Lansing, 1958), pp. 91-92, 126-28.

(15.) Gilpin, ibid., strongly supports Hull. Harry L. Coles, The War of 1812 (Chicago, 1965), pp. 55-57, presents the contrasting view.

(16.) G. Glenn Clift, Remember the Raisin! (Frankfort, Kentucky, 1961).

(17.) Charles J. Dutton, Oliver Hazard Perry (New York, 1935), pp. 71-170. The message was first seen by Lewis Cass, then a brigadier general, since Harrison was absent from the American camp on the Sandusky River. For an account of Perry's opponent, Robert Barclay, see Howard H. Peckham, "Commodore Perry's Captive," Ohio History 72 (July 1963): 220-27.

(18.) The question of who killed Tecumseh was much debated, with Colonel Johnson's claim that he was responsible being the basis for his successful campaign for the vice presidency in 1836. For an interesting account by an Indian writer regarding the circumstances of Tecumseh's death, see Andrew J. Blackbird, History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan (Ypsilanti, 1887), p. 23.

(19.) Milo M. Quaife, "An Artilleryman of Old Fort Mackinac," Burton Historical Collection Leaflet 4 (Jan. 1928), pp. 33-48.

(20.) May, War 1812! pp. 33-42.

(21.) In a recent study, Richard White argues that the importance of the fur trade in the relationship between whites and Indians has been exaggerated. The two developed a mutually acceptable "middle ground" in which both benefited through the accommodations that were worked out. Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge, U.K., 1991).


(1.) Kenneth W. Porter, John Jacob Astor, Businessman (Cambridge, Mass., 1931), 2.686-852. For the most recent biography of Astor, see John D. Haeger, John Jacob Astor: Business and Finance in the Early Republic (Detroit, 1991).

(2.) Porter, John Jacob Astor, 2.702.

(3.) Haeger, John Jacob Astor, p. 26. For a thorough review of the bribery story, see also Porter, John Jacob Astor, 2.723-25.

(4.) This included the profits from both the "northern division" and the "western division," with headquarters at St. Louis, which were established in 1822.

(5.) Hubbard to H. G. Wells, in a letter written in 1875 and quoted in Samuel W. Durant, History of Kalamazoo County, Michigan (Philadelphia, 1880), pp. 82-83. Hubbard's Autobiography (Chicago, 1911) contains an excellent description of the Fur trade.

(6.) George H. White, "Sketch of the Life of Hon. Rix Robinson," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 11 (1888): 186-200.

(7.) Yellow pages of Detroit city telephone directory, 1977; Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Twenty-eighth Biennial Report, 1975-1976, pp. 186-87; Grand Rapids Press, 14 Dec. 1980.

(8.) While the Ferrys were on the island, they had a son, Thomas W. Ferry, who became a United States senator and a prominent citizen of Grand Haven. As senator, Thomas Ferry was responsible for the congressional action in 1875 that made Mackinac Island a national park.

(9.) John McCabe, Grand Hotel, Mackinac Island (Sault Ste. Marie, 1987).

(10.) Henry B. Selleck, Beaumont and "The Mackinac Island Miracle" (East Lansing, 1961).

(11.) Frank B. Woodford, Lewis Cass, the Last Jeffersonian (New Brunswick, 1950), p. 125.

(12.) Ephraim S. Williams, "The Treaty of Saginaw in the Year 1819," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 7 (1886): 262-70.

(13.) Donaldson, Public Domain, p. 21.

(14.) Indian Claims Commission, Annual Report, 1975.

(15.) Detroit Free Press, 9 May 1979; and May, Michigan: An Illustrated History, p. 23.

(16.) Francis Paul Prucha, Lewis Cass and American Indian Policy (Detroit, 1967), pp. 14-16.

(17.) A. B. Copley, "The Pottawattomies," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections

(14) (1890): 256-68; Everett Claspy, The Potawatomi Indians of Southwest Michigan (Dowagiac, 1966).

(18.) Darlene Gay Emmert, "The Indians of Shiawassee County," Michigan History 47 (Sept. 1963): 268-69; Robert F. Bauman, "Kansas, Canada, or Starvation," ibid., 36 (Sept. 1952): 287-99; Alpheus Felch, "The Indians of Michigan and the Cession of Their Lands to the United States by Treaties," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 16 (1894-95): 274-97.

(19.) The Census Bureau now groups together under one heading the totals for American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts. The last two are an insignificant population element in Michigan and would therefore not account for the approximately 350 percent increase in the figures for the state's Indian population since 1970. At least one-quarter Indian blood is the accepted requirement for anyone to receive government Indian benefits, but Charles Cleland argues that "Indianness is not simply a biological phenomenon but a cultural one as well." Cleland, Rites of Conquest, p. 296. For early Indian population numbers, see Claude S. Larzalere, "The Red Man in Michigan," Michigan History 17 (Summer-Autumn 1933): 373. The figure of 16,012 for Michigan's 1970 Indian population is found in the final report of the Census Bureau on American Indians. In its final report on population, however, it lists Michigan's Indian population as 16,854. Bureau of Census, 1970 Census of Population: Subject Reports, American Indians; Bureau of Census, 1970 Census of Population: Characteristics of the Population, vol. 1, United States Summary, section 1, p. 293. For the 1990 Indian census figures, see World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1995, p. 507.

(20.) Non-Indians constitute the great majority of the total number of residents of the Indian reservations and trust lands: only 795 of the 22,974 people living on the most populous of these areas, the Isabella Reservation and Trust Lands, are listed as Indians. 1990 Census of Population and Housing: Summary Population and Housing Characteristics, Michigan (Washington, 1991), p. 355.

(21.) Detailed Population Characteristics: Michigan, 1980 Census of Population (Washington, 1983), table 218.

(22.) Grand Rapids Press, 20 Dec. 1992.

(23.) Alan S. Brown, "William Austin Burt: Michigan's Master Surveyor," Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 47 (1962): 263-74; Knox Jamison, "The Survey of the Public Lands in Michigan," Michigan History 42 (June 1958): 197-214.

(24.) Malcolm J. Rohrbough, The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1789-1837 (New York, 1968), pp. 257-58.

(25.) Quoted in Bald, Michigan in Four Centuries, p. 144.

(26.) Madison Kuhn, "Tiffin, Morse, and the Reluctant Pioneer," Michigan History 50 (June 1966): 111-38. The geographer Bernard C. Peters has presented evidence that indicates that an unfavorable image concerning conditions in Michigan may not have been an entirely negligible factor in retarding settlement. See Peters, "The Remaking of an Image: The

Propaganda Campaign to Attract Settlers to Michigan, 1815-1840," The Geographical Survey 3 (Jan. 1974): 25-52.

(27.) B. Frank Emery, "Fort Saginaw," Michigan History 30 (July-Sept. 1946): 476-503; R. Carlyle Buley, The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period, 1815-1840 (Indianapolis, 1950), 1.242.

(28.) The true source of the Mississippi, Lake Itasca, was discovered by an expedition led by Henry R. Schoolcraft in 1832. See Philip P. Mason, ed., Expedition to Lake Itasca: The Discovery of the Source of the Mississippi (East Lansing, 1958).

(29.) Schoolcraft's most extensive work was his Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia, 1851-57). The most recent assessment of Schoolcraft's work is Richard G. Bremer, Indian Agent and Wilderness Scholar: The Life of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (Mount Pleasant, Mich., 1987).

(30.) Floyd R. Dain, Every House a Frontier (Detroit, 1956), p. 9.

(31.) Willis F. Dunbar, "The Erie Canal and the Settlement of Michigan," Detroit Historical Society Bulletin 21 (Nov. 1964): 4-10.

(32.) George N. Fuller, The Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan (Lansing, 1916), p. 76.

(33.) Quoted in ibid., p. 77.

(34.) George Taylor, "First Visit to Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 6 (1884): 16.

(35.) Buley, Old Northwest, 2.461.

(36.) Carl E. Pray, "An Historic Michigan Road," Michigan History 11 (July 1927): 338.


(1.) The partial or complete text of this song has appeared in a number of publications, including Paul H. Johnstone, "Old Ideals Versus New Ideas in Farm Life," The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1940 (Washington, 1940), pp. 129-30n.

(2.) Rohrbough, The Land Office Business, pp. 241-48.

(3.) Douglas H. Gordon and George S. May, eds., "Michigan Journal, 1836, John M. Gordon," Michigan History 43 (March 1959): 1-42; 43 (June 1959): 124-49; 43 (Sept. 1959): 257-93; 43 (Dec. 1959): 433-78.

(4.) James H. Lanman, History of Michigan, From Its Earliest Colonization to the Present Time (New York, 1841), pp. 15-24.

(5.) Albert F. Butler, "Rediscovering Michigan's Prairies," Michigan History 31 (Sept. 1947): 267-86; 32 (March 1948): 15-36; 33 (June 1949): 117-30; 33 (Sept. 1949): 220-31. Scattered remnants of prairie land that had survived as part of the Amtrak railroad's right-of-way in Cass, Berrien, and Van Buren counties were preserved in 1978 by an agreement between the railroad and conservation groups, headed by Margaret Kohring, a botanist in Niles, to prevent the destruction of the ecosystem in these prairies. Ann Arbor News, 24 Sept. 1978.

(6.) James Fenimore Cooper's novel, The Oak-Openings, is set in Michigan. For a discussion of what constituted an oak opening, and its difference from a prairie, see Bernard C. Peters, "No Trees on the Prairie: Persistence of Error in Landscape Terminology," Michigan History 54 (Spring 1970): 19-28; and Peters, "Pioneer Evaluation of the Kalamazoo County Landscape," Michigan Academician 3 (Fall 1970): 15-25.

(7.) For the dates and circumstances of the establishment of Michigan's counties, see William L. Jenks, "History and Meaning of the County Names of Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 38 (1912): 439-77. For dates of county organization and the census of 1837 by townships, see Fuller, Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan, pp. 531-39.

(8.) John T. Blois, Gazeteer of the State of Michigan (Detroit, 1838), is a valuable source on early settlements. It has been reprinted on numerous occasions, most recently by the Arno Press of the New York Times in 1975.

(9.) The restored pioneer village at New Salem, Illinois, provides a good idea of the structure of earlier log cabins. There are also a number of restored log cabins in Michigan. For a classic discussion of this, and subsequent forms of pioneer building styles, see William Nowlin's The Bark-Covered House, or Pioneer Life in Michigan, originally published in 1876, reprinted in Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 4 (1881): 480-541; and reprinted in a paperback edition in recent years by Nowlin's hometown Dearborn Historical Society.

(10.) Dunbar, Kalamazoo and how it grew, pp. 71-72.

(11.) R. Carlyle Buley, "Pioneer Health and Medical Practices in the Old Northwest Prior to 1840," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 30 (March 1934): 497-520. See also Madge E. Pickard and R. Caryle Buley, The Midwest Pioneer: His Ills, Cures, and Doctors (Crawfordsville, Ind., 1945).

(12.) Wallace J. Bonk, "The Botanic Luminary, a Michigan Incunabulum," Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 67 (Feb. 25, 1961): 77-84. See also Pickard and Buley, Midwest Pioneer; and Fannie J. Anderson, Doctors Under Three Flags (Detroit, 1951). Medical doctors in this period also sometimes doubled as dentists. For the history of dentistry in Michigan, see Robert M. Warner, Profile of a Profession: A History of the Michigan State Dental Association (Detroit, 1964).

(13.) Buley, Old Northwest, 1.271.

(14.) Ibid., 1.332-33.

(15.) Emelyn E. Gardner and Geraldine J. Chickering, Ballads and Songs of Southern Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1939). See also Caroline M. Kirkland, writing under the pseudonym of Mrs. Mary Clavers, A New Home--Who'll Follow? or, Glimpses of Western Life. Originally published in 1839, this description of pioneer life in Michigan by a cultivated eastern woman is one of the finest portrayals of the new settlements when Michigan was young. An excerpt from this work is reprinted in May and Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 219-29. See also John C. McCloskey, "Jacksonian Democracy in Mrs. Kirkland's A New Home--Who'll Follow?" Michigan History 45 (Dec. 1961): 347-52.

(16.) Catlin, Story of Detroit, pp. 261-63, 289-94.

(17.) Clarence M. Burton, "Detroit in the Year 1832," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 28 (1898): 163-71.

(18.) Charles E. Rosenberg, The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, 1866 (Chicago, 1962); Robert C. Kedzie, The Cholera in Kalamazoo, ed. Alexis Praus (Kalamazoo, 1961).

(19.) For sidelights on the Detroit of the 1820s and 1830s, see "Detroit Half a Century Ago"; William Phelps, "Reminiscences of Detroit"; and several short articles following this article in Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 4 (1881): 89-96 and 459-79.


(1.) Father Drinan retired from Congress at the end of 1980 after Pope John Paul II had voiced the papacy's opposition to priests holding public office. Thus Father Richard's political career may never again be duplicated.

(2.) Frank B. Woodford and Albert Hyma, Gabriel Richard, Frontier Ambassador (Detroit, 1958), pp. 101-41.

(3.) See the letters of Lucius Lyon in Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 27 (1896): 412-604.

(4.) The laws passed by the Council are included in Laws of the Territory of Michigan, published in four volumes between 1871 and 1884.

(5.) Members of the six legislative councils are listed in Michigan Manual 1977-1978, pp. 105-7.

(6.) William Jenny, "Governors of Michigan Territory," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 3 (1881): 119-20. Bela Hubbard, Memorials of Half a Century (New York, 1887), is a valuable source for this period. For official records of the territorial period, see Clarence E. Carter, ed., Territorial Papers of the United States, Michigan Territory, vols. 10, 11, and 12 (Washington, 1942-45), and vols. 36 and 37 of Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. See also Clifford I. Tobias, "Henry D. Gilpin: 'Governor In and Over the Territory of Michigan,'." Michigan History 59 (Fall 1975): 153-70.

(7.) Cass was absent from the territory when the act was passed. Even today those who attempt to pronounce the word vary in their renderings: Cath-ol-eh-pist-eem'-ead seems to be the most popular.

(8.) Egbert R. Isbell, "The Catholepistemiad, or University, of Michigania," in University of Michigan Historical Essays (Ann Arbor, 1937), pp. 159-82; Wilfred B. Shaw, ed., The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey, part 1 (Ann Arbor, 1942), pp. 3-38.

(9.) Because of this action, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor (which was the ultimate recipient of these lands) awarded five separate scholarships for Indians in 1932. Bald, Michigan in Four Centuries, p. 179n. In 1976 an Indian tuition waiver program, administered by the Michigan Commission on Indian Affairs, began providing free tuition in any state public college or university to persons with at least a quarter Indian blood who had lived in the state for at least a year. By 1993 some 13,000 students had enrolled under the program. Cleland, Rites of Conquest, p. 295; Holland Sentinel, 6 January 1994.

(10.) Floyd R. Dain, Education in the Wilderness (Lansing, 1968), pp. 126-43; Willis F. Dunbar, The Michigan Record in Higher Education (Detroit, 1963), pp. 36-39.

(11.) Several vivid accounts of pioneer schools were written by A. D. P. Van Buren. See "The Log-Schoolhouse Era," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 14 (1890): 283-402; "The Old Academy and Seminary, the Classic Schools of our Pioneer Days," ibid., 18 (1892): 397-411; and "A Quarter-Century of Teaching," ibid., 10 (1888): 24-32.

(12.) The Forty-fourth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the Year 1880 (Lansing, 1881) includes a lengthy section on the history of education in Michigan, pp. 297-453.

(13.) Pare, Catholic Church in Detroit, pp. 141-278.

(14.) Silas Farmer, History of Detroit and Michigan (Detroit, 1884), p. 715.

(15.) E. H. Pilcher, History of Protestantism in Michigan (Detroit, 1878), pp. 16, 56, 88, 109, 115, 129, 175-78. A more recent account is Margaret B. Macmillan's The Methodist Church in Michigan: Nineteenth Century (Grand Rapids, 1967).

(16.) M. E. D. Trowbridge, History of the Baptists in Michigan (Detroit, 1909); Coe Haynes, Baptist Trail-makers in Michigan (Philadelphia, 1936).

(17.) R. C. Crawford, "Reminiscences of Pioneer Ministers in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 17 (1892): 226-38.

(18.) Colin B. Goodykoontz, Home Missions on the American Frontier, with Particular Reference to the American Home Missionary Society (Caldwell, Idaho, 1939).

(19.) Many of these letters are reproduced in Maurice Cole, ed., Voices in the Wilderness (Ann Arbor, 1961).

(20.) C. C. Trowbridge, "History of the Episcopal Church in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 3 (1881): 213-21.

(21.) Farmer, History of Detroit and Michigan, p. 671.

(22.) Catlin, Story of Detroit, pp. 286-87.

(23.) Douglas C. McMurtrie, Early Printing in Michigan, with a Bibliography of the Issues of the Michigan Press, 1796-1850 (Chicago, 1931); William Stocking, "Prominent Newspaper Men in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 39 (1915): 155-69; Tom S. Applegate, "A History of the Press in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 6 (1884): 62-98.

(24.) Frank Luther Mott, American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States through 260 Years, 1690 to 1950 (New York, 1950), p. 169.

(25.) Quoted in ibid., p. 168.

(26.) Farmer, History of Detroit and Michigan, p. 354.

(27.) Note in Michigan History 24 (Spring 1940): 289-90.

(28.) Buley, Old Northwest, 2.574.

(29.) Detroit Free Press, 9 Aug. 1837.

(30.) Emil Lorch, "The Development of Architecture," Michigan, A Guide to the Wolverine State (New York, 1941), pp. 164-73.

(31.) Howell Taylor, "Michigan's Pioneer Architecture," Michigan History 37 (March 1953): 19-26. Kathryn Bishop Eckert, Buildings of Michigan (New York, 1993), is an exhaustive survey of historic buildings, region by region.

(32.) Clyde H. Burroughs, "Painting and Sculpture in Michigan," Michigan History 20 (Autumn 1936): 395-409; 21 (Winter 1937): 39-54; and 21 (Spring 1937): 141-57. Arthur Hopkin Gibson, Artists of Early Michigan: A Biographical Dictionary of Artists Native to or Active in Michigan 1701-1900 (Detroit, 1975), p. 63 clears up questions regarding Burnham.


(1.) George N. Fuller, ed., Messages of the Governors of Michigan (Lansing, 1925), 1.121-24.

(2.) The text of the 1835 Constitution can be found in Floyd B. Streeter, Political Parties in Michigan, 1837-1860 (Lansing, 1918), pp. 295-311. The proceedings of the convention of 1835 are in Journal of the Proceedings of the Convention to Form a Constitution for the State of Michigan (Detroit, 1835). See also Harold M. Dorr, "The Michigan Constitution of 1835," Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 19 (Ann Arbor, 1934): 441-57.

(3.) Kent Sagendorph, Stevens Thomson Mason, Misunderstood Patriot (New York, 1947), pp. 207-11.

(4.) Clark F. Norton, "Michigan Statehood, 1835, 1836, or 1837?" Michigan History 36 (Dec. 1952): 321-50.

(5.) Several of the maps at that time, all showing the southern tip of Lake Michigan further north than it actually is, may be found in Louis C. Karpinski, Bibliography of the Printed Maps of Michigan, 1804-1880 (Lansing, 1931), pp. 186ff. The story of the hunter is told in Claude S. Larzelere, "The Boundaries of Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 30 (1906): 13.

(6.) Annah May Soule, "The Southern and Western Boundaries of Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 27 (1897): 849.

(7.) Wade Millis, "When Michigan Was Born," Michigan History 18 (Summer-Autumn 1934): 208-24.

(8.) Carl Wittke, "The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Dispute Re-examined," Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Quarterly 45 (Oct. 1936): 299-319.

(9.) Buley, Old Northwest, 2.201n.

(10.) See, for example, Bruce Catton, Michigan: A Bicentennial History (New York, 1976), p. 92; and Sommers, ed., Atlas of Michigan, pp. 115, 116. Discussions that continued for many years after Michigan became a state sought to promote the formation of a new state of Superior, composed of the Upper Peninsula, northern Wisconsin, and northeastern Minnesota. See Charles E. Twining, "The Long Lost State of Superior," Wisconsin Magazine of History 61 (Winter 1977-78): 91-111. These discussions were unrelated to the semiserious movement promoted by a few residents of the Upper Peninsula in the 1970s to make that area into the fifty-first state.

(11.) In 1926, the United States Supreme Court had dealt with a dispute between Michigan and Wisconsin over their boundary, although some questions regarding the location of this boundary remained unresolved until 1936. See George N. Fuller, ed., Michigan: A Centennial History of the State and Its People (Chicago, 1939), 1.242-43.


(1.) Harry J. Carman and Harold C. Syrett, A History of the American People (New York, 1952), 1.384.

(2.) Alpheus Felch, "Early Banks and Banking in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 2 (1880): 111-14.

(3.) Henry M. Utley, "The Wildcat Banking System in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 5 (1884): 209-22. See also Arthur M. Woodford, Detroit and Its Banks: The Story of Detroit Bank & Trust (Detroit, 1974), pp. 35-62. notes to pages 205-23 691

(4.) "A Trip from Utica, New York, to Ingham County, Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 1 (1877): 190.

(5.) L. Benj. Reber, History of St. Joseph (St. Joseph, n.d.), p. 17.

(6.) Bela Hubbard, "A Michigan Geological Expedition in 1837," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 3 (1881): 200.

(7.) A provision in the bill approved Jan. 26, 1837, that granted statehood to Michigan permitted it to receive the first quarterly payment of the distribution although its status as of Jan. 1 was still that of a territory.

(8.) Lew Allen Chase, "Michigan's Share in the Establishment of Improved Transportation Between the East and the West," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 38 (1912): 596.

(9.) Fuller, Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan, p. 79; Laws of the Territory of Michigan, 3.844.

(10.) Catlin, Story of Detroit, p. 365. For more detail on these and other early railroad developments, see Willis F. Dunbar, All Aboard: A History of Railroads in Michigan (Grand Rapids, 1969), pp. 13-28.

(11.) Mrs. Frank P. Dodge, "Marking Terminus of Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 38 (1912): 491-98; and Clarence Frost, "The Early Railroads of Southern Michigan," ibid., 498-501.

(12.) According to Lawrence Lambert, president of the Erie and Kalamazoo, as of August 1978 the company had had no income since the bankruptcy of Penn Central. Through legal channels it was pressing its claims for compensation from Penn Central and it was also awaiting the promised payment of $188,000 from Conrail for the use of its tracks. But Lambert, the major stockholder in the company, declared that he intended to keep the company in existence regardless of the outcome of these proceedings. Telephone conversation of George May with Lambert on Aug. 18, 1978.

(13.) Edward W. Barber, "The Vermontville Colony: Its Genesis and History ...," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 28 (1900): 198. As late as the 1960s some interest was being expressed in the construction of a barge canal across southern Michigan as a means of reducing the cost of water-borne freight shipments around the Lower Peninsula.

(14.) Robert J. Parks, Democracy's Railroads: Public Enterprise in Jacksonian Michigan (Port Washington, N.Y., 1972), p. 223.

(15.) Theodore E. Potter, "A Boy's Story of Pioneer Life in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 35 (1907): 394-95; Catlin, Story of Detroit, pp. 370-71.

(16.) J. N. Ingersoll, "The Clinton and Kalamazoo Canal Celebration," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 5 (1882): 469-71.

(17.) O. C. Comstock, "Internal Improvements," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 1 (1877): 46.

(18.) Parks, Democracy's Railroads, pp. 186-87.

(19.) William L. Jenks, "Michigan's Five-Million Dollar Loan," Michigan History 15(Autumn 1931): 575-633.

(20.) Hubbard, Memorials of Half a Century, p. 103.

(21.) William W. Upton, "Locating the Capital of the State of Michigan," Michigan History 23 (Summer 1939): 275-90; Frank E. Robson, "How Lansing Became the Capital," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 11 (1888): 237-43; Ellen C. Hathaway, Your Capitol and Mine: A Story of Michigan's Government for Young Readers (Lansing, 1953), pp. 44-45.

(22.) Catlin, Story of Detroit, pp. 338-42; Neil F. Morrison, "The Battle of Fighting Island and Pelee Island," Michigan History 48 (Sept. 1964): 227-32. Detroit's financial problems led to staff reductions in the city's historical agency and the closing of Fort Wayne to the public in the early 1990s.

(23.) George C. Bates, "Reminiscences of the Brady Guards," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 13 (1889): 530-46.


(1.) W. V. Smith, "The Puritan Blood of Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 38 (1912): 355-61.

(2.) J. Harold Stevens, "The Influence of New England in Michigan," Michigan History 19 (Autumn 1935): 351-52. See also Stewart H. Holbrook, The Yankee Exodus: An Account of Migration from New England (New York, 1950), pp. 77-96; and Morris C. Taber, "New England Influence in South Central Michigan," Michigan History 45 (Dec. 1961): 305-36.

(3.) Jo Ellen Vinyard, "Inland Urban Immigrants: The Detroit Irish, 1850," Michigan History 57 (Summer 1973): 121-39. See also Ms. Vinyard's expanded treatment of this entire subject in The Irish on the Urban Frontier: Detroit, 1850-1880 (New York, 1976).

(4.) Carl Wittke, History of Canada (New York, 1928), pp. 134-49.

(5.) Saralee R. Howard-Filler, "Michigan's 'Plain People,'." Michigan History 66 (May-June 1982): 24-33. In recent years the Amish have come into conflict with governmental authorities for their refusal to abide by some governmental regulations and requirements, but exemptions generally have been provided when such governmental measures run counter to Amish beliefs.

(6.) John A. Russell, The Germanic Influence in the Making of Michigan (Detroit, 1927); Mark O. Kistler, "The German Theater in Detroit," Michigan History 47 (Dec. 1963): 289-300. For a German visitor's account of German settlements in Michigan in the 1830s, see "Karl Neidhard's Reise Nach Michigan," reprinted in May and Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 235-39.

(7.) William L. Jenks, "Michigan Immigration," Michigan History 28 (Jan.-March 1944): 67-100.

(8.) Robert P. Swierenga, The Dutch Transplanting in Michigan and the Midwest, the Clarence M. Burton Memorial Lecture, 1985 (Ann Arbor, 1986), p. 2.

(9.) Kedzie, Cholera in Kalamazoo.

10. Swierenga, Dutch Transplanting in Michigan, pp. 8-9; Martin L. D'Ooge, "The Dutch Pioneers of Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 38 (1912): 204-12; Jacob Van Hinte, Netherlanders in America, Robert P. Swierenga, ed. (Grand Rapids, 1985), pp. 306-7.

(11.) William B. Gates, Jr., Michigan Copper and Boston Dollars (Cambridge, Mass., 1951), pp. 95-96; Lew Allen Chase, "Michigan's Upper Peninsula," Michigan History 20 (Autumn 1936): 327; Peter White, "The Iron Region of Lake Superior," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 8 (1886): 152.

(12.) Bald, Michigan in Four Centuries, pp. 232-34.

(13.) Angus Murdoch, Boom Copper: The Story of the First U.S. Mining Boom (New York, 1943); Robert J. Hybels, "Lake Superior Copper Fever, 1841-47," Michigan History 34 (June 1950): 97-120; 34 (Sept. 1950): 224-45; 34 (Dec. 1950): 309-27. notes to pages 241-52 693

(14.) Lew Allen Chase, "Early Days of Michigan Mining: Pioneering Land Sales and Surveys," Michigan History 29 (April-June 1945): 166-79.

(15.) Donald Chaput, The Cliff: America's First Copper Mine (Kalamazoo, 1971), p. 54.

(16.) The spelling "Minesota" is reputed to have come from a clerical error made in a charter application. Legally, however, this became the correct spelling once the charter was issued.

(17.) David S. Coon, "The Quincy Mine," Michigan History 24 (Winter 1940): 91-103; William H. Pyne, "Quincy Mine: The Old Reliable," Michigan History 41 (June 1957): 219-44; Anthony S. Wax, "The Calumet and Hecla Copper Mine," Michigan History 16 (Winter 1932): 5-41.

(18.) John S. Burt, "Boys, look around and see what you can find," Michigan History 78 (Nov.-Dec. 1994): 11-15, is an account of William Burt's work, written by a descendant.

(19.) Philo M. Everett, "Recollections of the Early Explorations and Discovery of Iron Ore on Lake Superior," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 11 (1888): 161-74. In this account, Everett does not acknowledge the debt to Marji-Gesick. See Daniel P. Maynard, "Marquette's Kawbawgans," Michigan History 74 (March-April 1990): 36-39. Robert Traver, Laughing Whitefish (New York, 1965), is a fictional account of Marji-Gesick and his daughter's claim. The author made no claim to historical accuracy, knocking fifty years off Charlotte's age and having her marry her lawyer, rather than the Indian, Charley Kawbawgan. For the case on which the novel is based, see Charlotte Kobogum, et al., v. The Jackson Iron Company, in Michigan Reports 76 (Chicago, 1890): 498-510. The spelling of the daughter's name, like that of the father's, varies greatly.

(20.) Ray A. Brotherton, "The Discovery of Iron Ore: Negaunee Centennial, 1844-1944," Michigan History 28 (April-June 1944): 199-213.

(21.) Herbert Brinks, Peter White (Grand Rapids, 1970); White, "The Iron Region of Lake Superior," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 8:145-61.

(22.) Walter Havighurst, Vein of Iron: The Pickands-Mather Story (New York, 1958).

(23.) John N. Dickinson, To Build a Canal: Sault Ste. Marie, 1853-1854 and After (Columbus, Ohio, 1981), p. 128. For some of the earlier works that tended to accept Harvey's exaggerated claims see Charles Moore, ed., The Saint Mary's Falls Canal ... Semi-centennial Celebration (Detroit, 1907), pp. 91-129; F. Clever Bald, The Sault Canal Through 100 Years, Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1954); and Clark F. Norton, "Early Movement for the St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal," Michigan History 39 (Sept. 1955): 257-80. Ernest H. Rankin was the first writer to challenge Harvey's claims. See his "Canalside Superintendent," Inland Seas 21 (Summer 1965): 103-14. The Indian Agency house, moved in the 1970s two blocks from its original site, is now operated as a museum by the Chippewa County Historical Society. Eckert, Buildings of Michigan, p. 539.

(24.) Philip P. Mason, ed., "The Operation of the Sault Canal, 1857," Michigan History 39 (March 1955): 69-80.

(25.) Manitou County, consisting of the Manitou, Beaver, and Fox islands, was organized in 1855. In 1895, however, the county was dissolved and these islands were attached to Leelanau County.

(26.) John Van Oosten, "Michigan's Commercial Fisheries of the Great Lakes," Michigan History 22 (Winter 1938): 107-43.

(27.) George A. Cuthbertson, Freshwater: A History and a Narrative of the Great Lakes (Toronto, 1931), and Walter Havighurst, The Long Ships Passing (New York, 1942), are among the numerous books that deal with Great Lakes shipping history.

(28.) Reber, History of St. Joseph, p. 65. 694 notes to pages 253-65

(29.) Ibid., p. 69. The quotation in the preceding paragraph is found in ibid., p. 67.

(30.) Alvin F. Harlow, The Road of the Century: The Story of the New York Central (New York, 1947), pp. 218-20.

(31.) Ibid., pp. 220-23; Arthur S. Hill, "The Romance of a Railway," Michigan History 23 (Winter 1939): 53-75.

(32.) Charles Hirschfeld, "The Great Railroad Conspiracy," Michigan History 36 (June 1952): 97-219. The article was published as a book, under this same title, in 1953.

(33.) Harlow, Road of the Century, pp. 245-80.

(34.) John T. Percival, "Railroads in Ottawa County," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 9 (1886): 270-79.

(35.) Thomas D. Brock, "Paw Paw Versus the Railroads," Michigan History 39 (June 1955): 130-31.

(36.) Stanley B. Smith, "Notes on the Village of Schoolcraft in 1850," Michigan History 40 (June 1956): 146-47.

(37.) Hirschfeld, "The Great Railroad Conspiracy," Michigan History 36:216-17.

(38.) Edmund A. Calkins, "Railroads of Michigan since 1850," Michigan History 13 (Winter 1929): 5-25.

(39.) Harriet Martineau, Society in America (London, 1837), 1.245ff.

(40.) Robert L. Thompson, Wiring a Continent: The History of the Telegraph Industry in the United States, 1832-1866 (Princeton, 1947).

(41.) Ralph R. Tingley, "Postal Service in Michigan Territory," Michigan History 35 (Dec. 1951): 447-60; Alvin F. Harlow, Old Post Bags (New York, 1928).

(42.) Stocking, "Prominent Newspaper Men in Michigan," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 39:155-68; Justin E. Walsh, "Radically and Thoroughly Democratic: Wilbur F. Storey and The Detroit Free Press," Michigan History 47 (Sept. 1963): 193-225.

(43.) McMurtrie, Early Printing in Michigan.

(44.) Kistler, "The German Theater in Detroit," Michigan History 17:289-301.


(1.) Exactly how much each man contributed has been a matter of some controversy. See John C. Patterson, "Marshall Men and Marshall Measures in State and National History," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 38 (1912): 220-44.

(2.) Ellwood P. Cubberly, The History of Education (Boston, 1920), pp. 687-88. Dain, Education in the Wilderness, covers the entire period of Crary and Pierce's educational activities.

(3.) For a brief biographical comment on Crary, see O. C. Comstock, "Hon. Isaac E. Crary," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 14 (1890): 280-83.

(4.) George W. Knight, History and Management of Land Grants for Education in the Northwest Territory, Papers of the American Historical Association, vol. 1, no. 3 (New York, 1885).

(5.) R. Clyde Ford, "The Life and Work of John D. Pierce," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 35 (1907): 295-308; Charles O. Hoyt and R. Clyde Ford, John D. Pierce (Ypsilanti, 1905). Cubberly, History of Education, devotes several pages to Mann and Barnard but does not mention Pierce.

(6.) John D. Pierce, "Origin and Progress of the Michigan School System," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 1 (1877): 37-45. notes to pages 265-83 695

(7.) Francis W. Shearman, System of Public Instruction and Primary School Law of Michigan (Lansing, 1852), pp. 23-37.

(8.) Ibid., pp. 32-33.

(9.) Ibid., p. 32.

(10.) Willis F. Dunbar, "The University and Its Branches," Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 46 (July 20, 1940): 303-15.

(11.) Archie P. Nevins, "The Kalamazoo Case," Michigan History 44 (March 1960): 91-100; Willis E. Dunbar, "The High School on Trial: The Kalamazoo Case," Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 45 (Part II) (1960): 187-200.

(12.) Van Buren, "The Log Schoolhouse Era," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 14:283-402.

(13.) Charles T. Perry, Henry Philip Tappan (Ann Arbor, 1933).

(14.) Egbert R. Isbell, A History of Eastern Michigan University, 1849-1965 (Ypsilanti, 1971).

(15.) Madison Kuhn, Michigan State: The First Hundred Years (East Lansing, 1955); Paul W. Gates, "The Morrill Act and Early Agricultural Science," Michigan History 46 (Dec. 1962): 289-302.


(1.) Gilbert H. Barnes, The Antislavery Impulse, 1830-1844 (New York, 1933), emphasizes the importance of Finney's role in the reform movements of this period. Streeter, Political Parties in Michigan, and Ronald P. Formisano, The Birth of Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827-1861 (Princeton, 1971), the principal sources for the politics of this era, discuss these reform impulses in the context of Michigan politics.

(2.) A. D. P. Van Buren, "Temperance in Pioneer Days ...," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 5 (1884): 426-32; and Van Buren, "Our Temperance Conflict," ibid., 13 (1889): 388-407.

(3.) Floyd B. Streeter, "History of Prohibition Legislation in Michigan," Michigan History 2 (April 1918): 289-308; John Fitzgibbon, "King Alcohol, His Rise, Reign, and Fall in Michigan," ibid., 2 (Oct. 1918): 737-80.

(4.) Beverly A. Fish, "Sojourner Truth: Michigan's First Black Feminist," Michigan Academician 17 (Fall 1984): 31-39.

(5.) Charles R. Starring, "Lucinda Hinsdale Stone: A Pioneer in the Education of Women in Michigan," Michigan History 42 (March 1958): 85-97.

(6.) John and Audrey Cumming, "The Saints Come to Michigan," Michigan History 49 (March 1965): 12-27.

(7.) Milo M. Quaife, The Kingdom of St. James (New Haven, 1930). The most recent of several biographies of Strang that have appeared since Quaife's is Roger Van Noord, King of Beaver Island: The Life and Assassination of James Jesse Strang (Urbana and Chicago, 1988). See also George S. May, ed., James Strang's Ancient and Modern Michilimackinac, Including an Account of the Controversy between Mackinac and the Mormons (Mackinac Island, 1959); and Mark Strang, ed., The Diary of James J. Strang (East Lansing, 1961).

(8.) N. Gordon Thomas, "The Alphadelphian Experiment," Michigan History 55 (Winter 1971): 205-16. Several other communitarian projects were launched in Michigan after 1860. The Ora Labora community existed in the Thumb area from 1862 to 1868. The Hiawatha Association maintained a community near Manistique in the 1890s, and 696 notes to pages 283-303 the Sunrise Co-operative Farm Community existed in the Saginaw Valley in the 1930s. See Carl Wittke, "Ora et Labora, A German Methodist Utopia," Ohio Historical Quarterly 58 (April 1958): 129-40; David C. Byers, with the assistance of Willis F. Dunbar, "Utopia in Upper Michigan," Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 63 (March 2, 1957): 168-74; and Joseph J. Cohen, In Quest of Heaven (New York, 1957).

(9.) Mildred A. Danforth, A Quaker Pioneer: Laura Haviland, Superintendent of the Underground (New York, 1961); Merton L. Dillon, "Elizabeth Chandler and the Spread of Antislavery Sentiment to Michigan," Michigan History 39 (Dec. 1955): 481-94; Larry Gara, The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad (Lexington, 1961). An example of the postwar reminiscences concerning underground railroad activities in Michigan is found in May and Brinks, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 279-82.

(10.) The best account of the Crosswhite Case is John H. Yzenbaard, "The Crosswhite Case," Michigan History 53 (Summer 1969): 131-43. For another fugitive slave case, see Benjamin C. Wilson, "Kentucky Kidnappers, Fugitives, and Abolitionists in Antebellum Cass County," ibid., 60 (Winter 1976): 339-58.

(11.) Betty Fladeland, James Gillespie Birney: Slaveholder to Abolitionist (Ithaca, N.Y., 1955).

(12.) In addition to Cass and Ford, other Michigan residents besides Birney have been candidates for president on third-party tickets; for example, E. Harold Munn of Hillsdale ran on the Prohibition Party ticket in 1964, 1968, and 1972.

(13.) Andrew C. McLaughlin, Lewis Cass (Boston, 1919), pp. 213-15; Willis F. Dunbar, Lewis Cass (Grand Rapids, 1970), pp. 58-59.

(14.) At this time and until 1913, United States senators were elected by the legislature, not by popular vote.

(15.) Sister Mary Karl George, Zachariah Chandler: A Political Biography (East Lansing, 1969); Anne McCain, "Charles Edward Stuart of Kalamazoo," Michigan History 44 (Sept. 1960): 324-35. For brief biographical sketches of the governors, see George Weeks, Stewards of the State: The Governors of Michigan (Ann Arbor, 1987).

(16.) Alan R. Richards, "The Traditions of Government in the States," in The Forty-Eight States (New York, 1955). For the convention proceedings see Report of the Proceedings and Debates of the Convention to Revise the Constitution of the State of Michigan, 1850 (Lansing, 1850). The text of the 1850 Constitution may be found in Streeter, Political Parties in Michigan, pp. 316-50.

(17.) Formisano, Birth of Mass Political Parties, pp. 213, 215, 270, 287-88, discusses in more detail the intricacies of the "colored suffrage" issue, as Formisano calls it, using the terminology of the period, not modern usage. See also Ronald P. Formisano, "The Edge of Caste: Colored Suffrage in Michigan, 1827-1861," Michigan History 56 (Spring 1972): 19-41.


(1.) Joel J. Orosz, "Lincoln comes to Kalamazoo," Chronicle: The Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan 14 (Summer 1978): 13-18, 25-30.

(2.) T. Maxwell Collier, "William H. Seward in the Campaign of 1860, with Special Reference to Michigan," Michigan History 19 (Winter 1935): 91-106; and Alan S. Brown, "Southwestern Michigan in the Campaign of 1860," Michigan Heritage 2 (Winter 1960): 67-74. For an overview of politics during the Civil War years, see Martin J. Hershock, notes to pages 303-17 697 "Copperheads and Radicals: Michigan Partisan Politics During the Civil War Era, 1860-1865," Michigan Historical Review 18 (Spring 1992): 29-69.

(3.) At this time, a voter had the opportunity to pick and choose among the six electors pledged to support each of the presidential candidates rather than having to vote for an entire slate of electors as in more recent elections. Thus on the 1860 ballot the vote totals of the candidates for electors for each of the parties varied considerably. The popular votes given for the presidential candidates represent the average vote cast for the electors pledged to support these candidates in the subsequent vote of the electoral college.

(4.) George S. May, "Ann Arbor and the Coming of the Civil War," Michigan History 36 (Sept. 1952): 241-43.

(5.) John Robertson, comp., Michigan in the War (Lansing, 1880), pp. 17-21. For the chronology of these and other wartime developments, see George S. May, Michigan and the Civil War Years, 1860-1866: A Wartime Chronicle (Lansing, 1964).

(6.) May, "Ann Arbor and the Coming of the Civil War," Michigan History 36:248-50; Dunbar, Kalamazoo and how it grew, p. 91.

(7.) Computations of the exact number of men from Michigan who served in the armed forces in the war vary greatly. The War Department in 1865 reported the number to be 90,048. The Michigan Adjutant General in 1882 computed the number as 90,747, but stated that this total did not include Michigan men who enlisted in the regiments of other states. For an overview of the soldiers' contributions, see Frederick D. Williams, Michigan Soldiers in the Civil War, revised edition (Lansing, 1994).

(8.) Irving I. Katz, The Jewish Soldier from Michigan in the Civil War (Detroit, 1962).

(9.) See Gerald G. Herdman, "Welfare Versus Rugged Individualism: Public Assistance to Soldiers' Families in Calhoun County, Michigan, during the Civil War," Michigan Academician 7 (Summer 1974): 75-86.

(10.) There is little agreement as to the exact number of Michigan men who lost their lives in the war. A "Roll of Honor" compiled by legislative order in 1869 contains the names of 14,855 men, but an authoritative compilation by Frederick H. Dyer in later years placed the number of fatalities at 14,753. See May, Michigan and the Civil War Years, p. 77.

(11.) Minnie Dubbs Millbrook, A Study in Valor: Michigan Medal of Honor Winners in the Civil War (Lansing, 1966).

(12.) The receipt Pritchard received for Davis was among a group of papers Pritchard's grandson showed to the author of this edition at the grandson's home in Allegan in 1981. Other papers show that Pritchard's share of the reward money was $3,000.

(13.) Ida C. Brown, Michigan Men in the Civil War, Michigan Historical Collections Bulletin 27 (Ann Arbor, 1977), lists 502 such collections containing an estimated 6,000 letters, diaries, and other papers of soldiers that were found at that time in the Michigan Historical Collections. Numerous other collections of soldiers' materials are found in other Michigan depositories.

(14.) Betty Fladeland, "Alias Franklin Thompson," Michigan History 42 (Dec. 1958): 435-62; Betty Fladeland, "New Light on Sarah Emma Edmonds, Alias Frank Thompson," ibid., 47 (Dec. 1963): 357-63.

(15.) Michigan has no official state song, but "Michigan, my Michigan," to the tune of "O Tannenbaum," is the one most widely sung. In 1902 the poet Douglas McCulloch composed new words for the familiar tune, and these are the ones used most generally today. A different tune was widely promoted but never caught on, partly because its range was too great. See Frederick Schneider, ".'Michigan, My Michigan': Origin and History of This Noble State Song ...," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 35 (1907): 155-69, for the story of the original song and a copy of all its verses.

(16.) Mrs. Raymond H. Millbrook, ed., Michigan Women in the Civil War (Lansing, 1963).

(17.) Richard H. Sewell, "Michigan Farmers and the Civil War," Michigan History 44 (Dec. 1960): 353-74.

(18.) Ibid., p. 357.

(19.) Gates, Michigan Copper and Boston Dollars, pp. 15-18.

(20.) Herbert Brinks, "The Effect of the Civil War in 1861 on Michigan Lumbering and Mining Industries," Michigan History 44 (March 1960): 103-5.

(21.) Ibid., p. 106; Martin D. Lewis, Lumberman from Flint: The Michigan Career of Henry H. Crapo, 1855-1869 (Detroit, 1958), p. 122.

(22.) Sidney Glazer, "The Beginnings of the Economic Revolution in Michigan," Michigan History 34 (Sept. 1950): 194.

(23.) The constitutional question was resolved in November 1866 when the voters, by a margin of 86,354 to 13,094, approved an amendment to the state constitution authorizing a soldiers' vote in future wars. See May, Michigan and the Civil War Years, p. 74.

(24.) Blair's career is covered in a series of four articles by Jean Joy L. Fennimore that appeared in Michigan History 48 (March 1964): 1-17; 48 (June 1964): 130-60; 49 (Sept. 1965): 193-227; and 49 (Dec. 1965): 344-69.

(25.) George S. May, "Parker Pillsbury and Wendell Phillips in Ann Arbor," Michigan History 33 (June 1949): 155-61.

(26.) John C. Schneider, "Detroit and the Problem of Disorder: The Riot of 1863," Michigan History 58 (Spring 1974): 5-24.

(27.) Harlan Hatcher, Lake Erie (Indianapolis, 1945), pp. 240-46.

(28.) George S. May, comp., Michigan Civil War Monuments (Lansing, 1965).


(1.) A board foot is a measure denoting a piece of wood one foot square and one inch thick.

(2.) Michigan, A Guide to the Wolverine State, p. 369.

(3.) Richard Henry Harms, Life After Lumbering: Charles Henry Hackley and the Emergence of Muskegon, Michigan (New York and London, 1989), pp. 8-9; Jeremy W. Kilar, Michigan's Lumbertowns: Lumbermen and Laborers in Saginaw, Bay City, and Muskegon, 1870-1905 (Detroit, 1990), p. 86.

(4.) See Clifford Allen, ed., Michigan Log Marks (East Lansing, 1941); and Ralph W. Stroebel, Tittabawassee River Log Marks (Saginaw, 1967).

(5.) Stewart Edward White's The Riverman (1908) is a novel that vividly portrays this phase of lumbering.

(6.) Carl Bajema, "Timber Express," Michigan History 77 (Nov.-Dec. 1993): 44. For Gerrish, see Rolland H. Maybee, Michigan's White Pine Era, 1840-1900 (Lansing, 1960), pp. 37-43; and Hudson Keenan, "America's First Successful Logging Railroad," Michigan History 44 (Sept. 1962): 292-302. The Whittemore family in the Tawas City area Had experimented with a logging railroad as early as 1855. See Ruth B. Bordin, "A Michigan Lumbering Family," Business History Review 34 (Spring 1960): 70.

(7.) Portrait and Biographical Album, Mecosta County, Michigan (Chicago, 1883), pp. notes to pages 329-43 699 572ff. Hartwick Pines State Park includes a partial reconstruction of a lumber camp, along with other materials relating to Michigan lumbering.

(8.) Carl A. Leech, "Deward: A Lumberman's Ghost Town," Michigan History 28 (Jan.-March 1944): 5-19; Ferris E. Lewis, "Frederick: A Typical Logging Village in the Twilight of the Lumbering Era," ibid., 32 (Dec. 1948): 321-39; 34 (March 1950): 35-49.

(9.) Stewart Holbrook, Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack (New York, 1938). E. M. Beck, Songs of the Michigan Lumberjack (Ann Arbor, 1941), and Lore of the Lumber Camps (Ann Arbor, 1948), represent the fruits of the many years that Beck spent in collecting lumberjack ballads.

(10.) Holbrook, Holy Old Mackinaw, pp. 119-24.

(11.) See James Stevens, The Saginaw Paul Bunyan (New York, 1932).

(12.) John I. Bellaire, "Michigan's Lumberjacks," Michigan History 26 (Spring 1942): 173-87; George B. Engberg, "Who Were the Lumberjacks?" ibid., 32 (Sept. 1948): 238-46. See also John W. Fitzmaurice, The Shanty Boy, or Life in a Lumber Camp (Cheboygan, 1889), reprinted in 1965 by the Central Michigan University Press.

(13.) See Martin D. Lewis, Lumberman fron Flint: The Michigan Career of Henry W. Crapo, 1855-1869 (Detroit, 1958); and the article by Ruth Bordin cited in n. 6 above. This article, together with sections from Lewis's biography of Crapo and a biography of Henry Sage by Anita S. Goodstein, are reprinted in Robert Warner and C. Warren Vander Hill, eds., Michigan Reader, 1865 to the Present (Grand Rapids, 1974), pp. 26-56.

(14.) Harms, Life After Lumbering, pp. 1 and 296.

(15.) Utley and Cutcheon, Michigan: As a Province, Territory and State, 4.77-85; Douglas Griesemer, "American Red Cross in Michigan," Michigan History 22 (Winter 1938): 5-18; Stewart H. Holbrook, Burning an Empire: The Story of American Forest Fires (New York, 1943), pp. 94-107.

(16.) Kilar, Michigan's Lumbertowns, pp. 16 and 304.

(17.) Norman J. Schmaltz, "The Land Nobody Wanted: The Dilemma of Michigan's Cutover Lands," Michigan History 67 (Jan.-Feb. 1983): 32-40.


(1.) Samuel W. Durant, History of Ingham and Eaton Counties, Michigan (Philadelphia, 1880), p. 493.

(2.) Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 2.44-45; Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Mineral Industry of Michigan, 1974 (Lansing, 1977), p. 17.

(3.) Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 2.49-50; Dorr and Eschman, Geology of Michigan, pp. 125-26; Michigan Statistical Abstract, 1978, pp. 773-74.

(4.) Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 2.17-24; William L. Webber, "Discovery and Development of the Salt Interest in the Saginaw Valley," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 4 (1883): 13-22; Mineral Industry of Michigan, 1974, pp. 9-10; Michigan Statistical Abstract, 1978, pp. 773-74.

(5.) Mineral Industry of Michigan, 1974, pp. 10-13; Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan 2.27, 45-48; Darrell H. Pollard, "Michigan Oil and the New Deal," Michigan History 43 (June 1959): 212-13; Lew Allan Chase, "Silver and Gold in Michigan," ibid., 30 (April-June 1946): 255-62; Daniel Fountain, Michigan Gold Mining in the Upper Peninsula (Duluth, 1992).

(6.) Alfred B. Lindley, "The Copper Tariff of 1869," Michigan History 35 (March 1951): 700 notes to pages 343-57 1-31; Charles B. Lawrence, "Keweena Portage," ibid., 38 (March 1954): 45-64. Gates, Michigan Copper and Boston Dollars, provides the best overall coverage.

(7.) Chaput, Cliff, p. 76.

(8.) Larry D. Lankton and Charles K. Hyde, Old Reliable: An Illustrated History of the Quincy Mining Company (Hancock, 1982).

(9.) Willis F. Dunbar, "The Opera House as a Social Institution in Michigan," Michigan History 27 (Oct.-Dec. 1943): 661-72.

(10.) Murdoch, Boom Copper, pp. 153-59; William A. Sullivan, "The 1913 Revolt of the Michigan Copper Miners," Michigan History 43 (Sept. 1959): 294-314; William Beck, "Law and Order During the 1913 Copper Strike," ibid., 54 (Winter 1970): 275-92. In the late 1950s R. Allen Good, professor of history at Michigan Tech in Houghton, felt that the intense feelings regarding the 1913-14 strike still existing among residents of the Copper Country made it politically unwise for him to publish anything about this event.

(11.) Philip P. Mason, Iron Ore Mining in Michigan Past and Present (Lansing, 1958), p. 5; Mineral Industry of Michigan, 1974, p. 16.

(12.) Mason, Iron Ore Mining in Michigan, p. 8.

(13.) Clint Dunathan, "Fayette," Michigan History 41 (June 1957): 204-8.

(14.) James Fisher, "Michigan's Cornish People," Michigan History 29 (July-Sept. 1945): 376-85. John Rowe, The Hard-Rock Men: Cornish Immigrants and the North American Mining Frontier (New York, 1974), is the best full-scale study.

(15.) Lindley, "The Copper Tariff of 1869," Michigan History 35:4-5; Murdoch, Boom Copper, p. 121.

(16.) Pyne, "Quincy Mine: The Old Reliable," Michigan History 41:228-29.


(1.) Utley and Cutcheon, Michigan: As a Province, Territory, and State, 4.52-58. Much of the material on railroads in this chapter is based on Dunbar, All Aboard: A History of Railroads in Michigan.

(2.) Robert S. Henry, "The Railroad Land Grant Legend in American History Texts," reprinted in Vernon Carstenson, ed., The Public Lands (Madison, 1963), p. 135.

(3.) Calkins, "Railroads of Michigan since 1850," Michigan History 13:5-26.

(4.) Brock, "Paw Paw Versus the Railroads," Michigan History 39:129-83.

(5.) Lee Alilunas, "Michigan's Cut-over Canaan," Michigan History 26 (Spring 1942): 188-201.

(6.) In the case of Village of Elberta v. City of Frankfort (347 Michigan Reports, pp. 173-85), the Michigan Supreme Court, on Dec. 6, 1956, upheld Elberta's contention that the land on which the car ferry docks were located was within the village of Elberta. The car ferry operations here ended in 1982.

(7.) See George W. Hilton, The Great Lakes Car Ferries (Berkeley, 1962).

(8.) "Historical Address, Delivered July Fourth, 1876, by the Hon. S. P. Ely of Marquette," Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 7 (1886): 168.

(9.) Calkins, "Railroads of Michigan Since 1850," Michigan History 13:8-10.

(10.) Havighurst, Vein of Iron: The Pickands Mather Story, pp. 95ff.; Milo M. Quaife, Lake Michigan (Indianapolis, 1944), p. 167; Havighurst, Long Ships Passing.

(11.) Hatcher, Century of Iron and Men.

(12.) Havighurst, Vein of Iron: The Pickands Mather Story, pp. 90-99. notes to pages 357-78 701

(13.) Lew Allen Chase, "Michigan's Upper Peninsula," Michigan History 20 (Autumn 1936): 327-28.

(14.) Daniel Drake, quoted in J. A. VanFleet, Old and New Mackinac (Ann Arbor, 1870), pp. 157-63.

(15.) Marquette Centennial (Marquette, 1949).

(16.) The Tourist and Investor: An Illustrated Guide to the Lake Superior District (Hancock, 1895).

(17.) The Standard Guide, Mackinac Island and Northern Lake Resorts (n.p., 1904).

(18.) Grand Rapids Press, 1 July 1912.


(1.) There was one exception. In 1855 black males had been authorized to vote in school elections, a move dictated largely by the fact that Calvin Township in Cass County was predominantly black. In Detroit, however, which had the largest black population, school board members were appointed, not elected, and thus blacks there had not voted prior to the changes in 1869-70.

(2.) Quoted in George S. May, A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan Origins of the American Automobile Industry (Grand Rapids, 1975), p. 81.

(3.) Harold H. Dunham, "Some Crucial Years of the General Land Office, 1875-1890," reprinted in Carstenson, ed., Public Lands, p. 192.

(4.) See Pauline Adams and Emma S. Thornton, A Populist Assault: Sarah E. Van De Vort Emery on American Democracy, 1862-1895 (Bowling Green, Ohio, 1982). Mrs. Emery was also active in the women's suffrage, temperance, and labor movements.

(5.) Utley and Cutcheon, Michigan: As a Province, Territory, and State, 4.217-18. See also George S. May, Ransom E. Olds: Auto Industry Pioneer (Grand Rapids, 1977), p. 38; Earl D. Babst and Lewis G. Vander Velde, eds., Michigan and the Cleveland Era (Ann Arbor, 1948); John W. Lederle and Rita F. Aid, "Michigan State Party Chairmen: 1882-1956," Michigan History 41 (Sept. 1957): 257-68; and Robert Bolt, Donald Dickinson (Grand Rapids, 1970).

(6.) Melvin G. Holli, Reform in Detroit: Hazen S. Pingree and Urban Politics (New York, 1969), p. 17.

(7.) Charles D. Rhodes, "William Rufus Shafter," Michigan History 16 (Autumn 1932): 375-83.

(8.) Jaspar B. Reid, Jr., "Russell A. Alger as Secretary of War," Michigan History 43 (June 1959): 225-39.

(9.) Thomas Powers, Bolita mula Maynila (News from Manila), Michigan Historical Collections Bulletin no. 19 (Ann Arbor, 1971). The materials on the Philippines at the Michigan Historical Collections of the University of Michigan are the most extensive of any American research center.

(10.) Fuller, ed., Messages of the Governors of Michigan, 4.310. The message is reprinted in Warner and VanderHill, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 85-96.


(1.) The 1840 statistics are in the 1840 federal occupational census and are cited in 702 notes to pages 378-94 May, Michigan: An Illustrated History, p. 60. The manufacturing statistics from 1850 to 1900 are summarized in the Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, vol. 8, Manufacturing, part 2, p. 411. For a discussion of these statistics, see Glazer, "The Beginnings of the Economic Revolution in Michigan," Michigan History 34:193-202; and Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 1.526-30.

(2.) Farmer, History of Detroit, pp. 776-77.

(3.) "Gale Manufacturing Company," Headlight, Albion Edition (Chicago, 1895), pp. 18-20; "The Advance Thresher Co." and "The Nichols & Shepard Co.," Headlight, Battle Creek Edition (May 1895), 2.36; Sidney Olson, Young Henry Ford: A Picture History of the First Forty Years (Detroit, 1963), pp. 23-24. Headlight, a railroad promotional magazine, is an invaluable source of information on business activities in a number of Michigan communities in the mid-1890s.

(4.) Gerald Carson, Cornflake Crusade (New York, 1957); Richard M. Schwarz, John Harvey Kellogg, M.D. (Nashville, 1970); Horace B. Powell, The Original Has This Signature--W. K. Kellogg (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1956).

(5.) Donald C. Thompson, "Grand Rapids--A Furniture Legend," Chronicle: The Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan 11 (third quarter 1975): 3-10; James S. Bradshaw, "Grand Rapids Furniture Beginnings," Michigan History 52 (Winter 1968): 278-98; James S. Bradshaw, "Grand Rapids, 1870-1880: Furniture City Emerges," ibid., 55 (Winter 1971): 321-42.

(6.) Report on the carriage industry in 17th Annual Report of the [Michigan] Bureau of Labor, p. 65.

(7.) Carl Crow, The City of Flint Grows Up (New York, 1945), pp. 24-37; Bernard Weisberger, The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors (Boston, 1979), pp. 3-59, deals with Durant's early career.

(8.) Dunbar, Kalamazoo and how it grew, pp. 99-101, 118-19, 133-38.

(9.) George W. Stark, The Huron Heritage: Fifty Years of Concrete Achievement by the Huron Portland Cement Company, 1907-1957 (n.p., n.d.), pp. 10-11.

(10.) Don Whitehead, The Dow Story: The History of the Dow Chemical Company (New York, 1968).

(11.) Esther R. Railton, "Marlborough," Michigan History 48 (Sept. 1964): 233-41; Stark, Huron Heritage.

(12.) Mineral Industry of Michigan, 1974, p. 8.

(13.) Woodford and Woodford, All Our Yesterdays, pp. 206, 242. Detroit did not support its championship baseball team, however, and Stearns sold it in 1888 to buyers who moved it elsewhere.

(14.) Farmer, History of Detroit, p. 823; Reuben Borough, "Saturday Afternoon Town," Michigan History 48 (June 1964): 120-22.

(15.) Leonard Engel, Medicine Makers of Kalamazoo (New York, 1961); Grand Rapids Press, 21 May 1978; Holland Sentinel, 30 Aug. 1992.

(16.) Arthur Pound, Detroit: Dynamic City (New York, 1940), pp. 236-42.

(17.) May, Michigan: An Illustrated History, p. 115; Donald Bull, Manfred Friedrich, and Robert Gottschalk, American Breweries (Trumbull, Conn., 1984), pp. 121-36. In recent years, small breweries, catering to a local market, have appeared in a number of cities, such as Kalamazoo and Grand Rapids.

(18.) Michigan and Its Resources (Lansing, 1893), pp. 51, 187-91, summarizes the data for Michigan shipyards.

(19.) Catlin, Story of Detroit, pp. 493-99. notes to pages 394-412 703

(20.) Woodford and Woodford, All Our Yesterdays, pp. 207-9; Dunbar, Kalamazoo and how it grew, pp. 139-40; Donald L. Van Reken and Randall P. Vande Water, Holland Furnace Company (Holland, 1993); "The Round Oak Stove Works," in Headlight, Dowagiac Edition (Chicago, 1895), pp. 13-20.

(21.) Holli, Reform in Detroit, pp. 6-7; Barbara S. Havira, "At Work in Belding: Michigan's Silk Mill City," Michigan History 65 (May-June 1981): 33-41; Barbara S. Havira, "Managing Industrial and Social Tensions in a Rural Setting: Women Silk Workers in Belding, Michigan, 1885-1932," Michigan Academician 13 (Winter 1981): 257-73.

(22.) Frank B. Presbrey, The History and Development of Advertising (Garden City, N.Y., 1929), p. 388.


(1.) This paragraph, and much of this chapter, is based primarily on May, Most Unique Machine, and the same author's Ransom E. Olds. For overall accounts of the auto industry's development and for the impact the automobile has had, see John B. Rae, The American Automobile (Chicago, 1965), and James J. Flink, The Automobile Age (Cambridge, Mass., 1988).

(2.) George S. May, "William O. Worth: Adventist Auto Pioneer," Adventist Heritage 1 (July 1974): 43-53.

(3.) Henry Ford, in collaboration with Samuel Crowther, My Life and Work (Garden City, N.Y., 1923), p. 22.

(4.) Ford's importance in the development of mass production is assessed in David A. Hounshell, From the American System to Mass Production: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States 1800-1932 (Baltimore, 1984).


(1.) Robert M. Warner, Chase Salmon Osborn, 1860-1949, Michigan Historical Collections Bulletin no. 10 (Ann Arbor, 1960), is a brief biographical sketch of this important figure.

(2.) Robert M. Warner, "Chase S. Osborn's 1910 Primary Election Campaign," Michigan History 43 (Sept. 1959): 349-84.

(3.) In accordance with his policy of economy, Osborn in 1911 vetoed a bill appropriating state funds to the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society. Since the inception of that society in 1874, the legislature had annually provided a sum varying from $500 to $4,000 to publish the volumes known as the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. Osborn's action was in part motivated by doubts concerning the legality of giving state funds to a private organization. Therefore, in 1913, during the administration of Governor Woodbridge Ferris, the legislature passed an act creating the Michigan Historical Commission, an official state agency, to receive funds for various historical programs. The old Pioneer and Historical Society continued, later changing its name to the Historical Society of Michigan. But society members continued to receive benefits from the state. From 1917 to 1978, the quarterly magazine Michigan History, published by the Michigan Historical Commission and its successor, the present Bureau of Michigan History of the Michigan Department of State, was furnished free to society members, until Attorney General Frank Kelley, belatedly following Osborn's line of thinking, ruled that the gift of this state-financed publication to members of a private organization was an inappropriate use of state funds. Thus, beginning in 1978, Michigan History became available strictly on a subscription basis, while the Historical Society of Michigan, deprived of the publication which had been a main incentive for individuals to join the organization, sought to beef up its own publication program.

(4.) Robert M. Warner, "Chase S. Osborn and the Presidential Campaign of 1912," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 46 (June 1959): 19-45.

(5.) The only other occasion in which the Republican candidate failed to win all of Michigan's electoral votes was in the election of 1892, when a Democratic-inspired change altered the method of choosing electors and enabled the Democrats to pick up five of the state's electoral votes, with the remaining nine votes going to the Republican candidate.

(6.) The other Democratic governor in this period was Edwin B. Winans in 189-192. The other non-Republican governor, Josiah W. Begole, governor in 1883-84, was elected on a combined Greenback-Democratic ticket. In earlier years Begole had been connected with the Republican Party.

(7.) Catlin, Story of Detroit, pp. 420-22; David B. Davis, "The Movement to Abolish Capital Punishment in America, 1787-1861," American Historical Review 63 (Oct. 1957): 23-46; Edward W. Bennett, "The Reasons for Michigan's Abolition of Capital Punishment," Michigan History 62 (Nov.-Dec. 1978): 42-55; Harold M. Helfman, "A Forgotten Aftermath to Michigan's Abolition of Capital Punishment," ibid., 40 (June 1956): 203-14. Tom Coffey of the University of Michigan in Flint told the present author, Sept. 15, 1982, that he had uncovered the court records of the Fitzpatrick case, which he found took place in 1837, not 1838, as previously reported. Fitzpatrick may have been a Detroiter, he thinks. Coffey declares that Michigan's action was the first by any English-speaking government. For recent developments on the issue of capital punishment, see Public Sector Consultants, Inc., Michigan in Brief: 1988-89 Issues Handbook (Lansing, 1988), pp. 55-56.

(8.) W. F. Hopp, The Michigan State Prison, Jackson, 1837-1928 (Jackson, 1928).

(9.) See "Detroit Against Tuberculosis," in Paul de Kruif, The Fight for Life (New York, 1938). De Kruif took part in the Detroit campaign but admitted that he himself did not go in for the tests he had been urging everyone else to take.

(10.) O'Ryan Rickard, "Caroline Bartlett Crane: Minister to Sick Cities," in Rosalie Riegle Troester, ed., Historic Women of Michigan: A Sesqui-Centennial Celebration (Lansing, 1987), pp. 117-32.


(1.) James D. Wilkes, "Van Tyne: The Professor and the Hun!" Michigan History 55 (Fall 1971): 183-204; John Carver Edwards, "Ann Arbor's Maverick Patriot: Professor W. H. Hobbs' Search for National Security, 1915-1918," Detroit in Perspective 3 (Fall 1978): 32-52.

(2.) Frank B. Woodford, Alex J. Groesbeck: Portrait of a Public Man (Detroit, 1962), pp. 94-100.

(3.) The 32nd Division in the World War (Milwaukee, 1920).

(4.) Richard M. Doolen, Michigan's Polar Bears: The American Expedition to North Russia, 1918-1919, Michigan Historical Collections Bulletin no. 14 (Ann Arbor, 1965).

(5.) Allan Nevins and Frank Ernest Hill, Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915-1933 (New York, 1957), pp. 23-24; Harry Barnard, Independent Man: The Life of Senator James Couzens (New York, 1958), pp. 99-100.

(6.) Barbara S. Kraft, The Peace Ship: Henry Ford's Pacifist Adventure in the First World War (New York, 1978), is the most detailed study of Ford's peace venture.

(7.) Nevins and Hill, Ford: Expansion and Challenge, pp. 116-24, covers the Ford-Newberry contest. Spencer Ervin, Henry Ford vs. Truman H. Newberry: The Famous Senate Election Contest (New York, 1935), is a massive study.

(8.) Larry Engelmann, Intemperance: The Lost War Against Liquor (New York, 1979), pp. xii-xiii.

(9.) Bald, Michigan in Four Centuries, p. 316.

(10.) For the most recent treatment of this subject, see Sharon E. McHaney, "Securing the Sacred Right to Vote," Michigan History 75 (March-April 1991): 38-45.

(11.) Kenneth T. Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1930 (New York, 1967), pp. 90 and 129.

(12.) Robert K. Murray, Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919-1920 (Minneapolis, 1955), pp. 215-16, 231-35; Martin W. Littleton and O. L. Smith, Are Radical Activities Weakening American Institutions? (New York [1925]), p. 15.

(13.) Support for Hamilton's proposal had been blunted when Catholic leaders agreed to the Dacey bill, which took effect in 1921 and which allowed the state superintendent of public instruction to oversee teacher certification, course requirements, and sanitary conditions in Catholic schools. Ironically, some of those who favored keeping the parochial schools open did so chiefly in order to keep the Catholic immigrants' children in those schools and out of the public schools. Jo Ellen McNergney Vinyard, "For Faith and Fortune: Parochial Education in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Detroit," Michigan Academician 20 (Spring 1988): 163-88.

(14.) Jackson, Ku Klux Klan in the City, pp. 127-43; Ronald Edsforth, Class Conflict and Cultural Consensus: The Making of a Mass Consumer Society in Flint, Michigan (New Brunswick, N.J., 1986), pp. 105-10; DeWitt S. Dykes, Jr., "The Search for Community, 1945-1980s: Michigan Society and Education," in Hathaway, ed., Michigan: Visions of Our Past, p. 304; Grand Rapids Press, 24 April 1994.

(15.) In addition to Hamilton, the Reverend Frederick Perry, who was a Klan organizer, was also in the Republican gubernatorial primary. There were reports that Groesbeck had arranged Perry's entry in the race in order to draw votes away from Hamilton. Groesbeck's biographer, Frank Woodford, doubts that the charge is true. Perry received 79,225 votes, giving the two Klan-related candidates a total of 208,469 votes. Woodford, Alex J. Groesbeck, pp. 225, 227.

(16.) Ibid., passim.

(17.) Barnard, Independent Man, pp. 101-92.

(18.) C. David Tompkins, "Profile of a Progressive Editor," Michigan History 53 (Summer 1969): 144-57. Vandenberg's books on Hamilton were: Greatest American: Alexander Hamilton (1921), and If Hamilton Were Here Today (1923).


(1.) The limitations of the urban-rural distinction as it has been defined by the Census Bureau are discussed in R. D. McKenzie, The Metropolitan Community (New York, 1933), pp. 24-25.

(2.) Amos H. Hawley, The Population of Michigan, 1840 to 1960: An Analysis of Growth, Distribution and Composition (Ann Arbor, 1949).

(3.) See John C. Schneider, Detroit and the Problem of Order, 1830-1880: A Geography of Crime, Riot and Policy (Lincoln, Nebr., 1980).

(4.) George Bush, Future Builders: The Story of Michigan's Consumers Power Company (New York, 1973), pp. 35-50.

(5.) Z. Z. Lydens, ed., The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids, 1966), pp. 131-32.

(6.) Woodford and Woodford, All Our Yesterdays, pp. 278-81.

(7.) Allan R. Treppa, "The 'Ypsi-Ann'--Michigan's First Interurban," Detroit in Perspective 1 (Spring 1973): 191-201.

(8.) Philip P. Mason, "The League of American Wheelmen and the Good-Roads Movement, 1880-1905," unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1957; Roger L. Morrison, The History and Development of Michigan Highways (Ann Arbor, 1938).

(9.) Frank B. Woodford, We Never Drive Alone: The Story of the Automobile Club of Michigan (Detroit, 1958), pp. 26-28.

(10.) Carl B. Franks, "Marker to First Mile of Concrete Road," Michigan History 43 (March 1959): 109-14; George S. May, "The Good Roads Movement in Iowa," The Palimpsest 36 (Jan. 1955): 34.

(11.) Woodford, Alex J. Groesbeck, pp. 201-22.

(12.) J. H. Brown, "How We Got the R.F.D.," Michigan History 6 (nos. 2-3, 1922): 442-59.

(13.) Robert L. Kelly, "History of Radio in Michigan," Michigan History 21 (Winter 1937): 5-19; Cynthia Boyes Young, "WWJ--Pioneer in Broadcasting," ibid., 44 (Dec. 1960): 411-33.

(14.) The Consumers Power Company and Detroit Edison have, since 1948, furnished plaques to commemorate farms that have been owned by the same family for a century or more. This Centennial Farm program, inaugurated by the Michigan Historical Commission and carried on by its successor agency, resulted in a total of over 5,500 farms being so designated by 1992. Of these, several hundred had been in the family for over 150 years. Of course, a good many of the farms have ceased to be in the family in the years since this recognition was received.

(15.) Kuhn, Michigan State: The First Hundred Years, chaps. 2 and 3.

(16.) Philip Dorf, Liberty Hyde Bailey: An Informal Biography (Ithaca, N.Y., 1956).

(17.) United States Census of Agriculture, 1964, vol. 1, part 13: Michigan; Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1992, p. 646.

(18.) The annual volumes of the Statistical Abstract of the United States are sources for these agricultural statistics. See also John Kern, A Short History of Michigan (Lansing, 1977), p. 46, and World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1995, pp. 134, 137.

(19.) Gates, Michigan Copper and Boston Dollars, p. 145.

(20.) Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 2.29-33; Mineral Oil and Gas Story (Mount Pleasant, 1991), p. iii.

(21.) See Richard P. Scharchburg, "Walter Percy Chrysler," and John B. Rae, "Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr.," in Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography: The Automobile Industry, 1920-1980, ed. George S. May (New York, 1989), pp. 52-64, 402-13.

(22.) For an example of the articles on Detroit by outside reporters, see Warner and VanderHill, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 133-43.

(23.) See the article on "The New Laborer," in Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., ed., Giant Enterprise: Ford, General Motors, and the Automobile Industry (New York, 1964), pp. 181-94.

(24.) Robert C. Maday, "An Historical Geography of Hamtramck Township: An Attempt at Explaining the Origins of the City of Hamtramck," unpublished master's thesis, University of Michigan, 1977; George P. Graaf, The People of Michigan (Lansing, 1974), pp. 85-90.

(25.) John C. Dancy, Sand Against the Wind: The Memoirs of John C. Dancy (Detroit, 1966), provides insights into the black influx of this period. Michigan Challenge 8 (June 1968): 9-63, includes a series of articles on numerous topics relating to blacks in Michigan.


(1.) Barnard, Independent Man, pp. 194-96.

(2.) Rae, American Automobile, pp. 109-21; Weisberger, Dream Maker, pp. 223-61.

(3.) As noted earlier, Grover Cleveland, the Democratic presidential candidate in 1892, had won five of Michigan's fourteen electoral votes, the only Democrat to gain any of the state's electoral votes between the election of Franklin Pierce in 1952 and Franklin Roosevelt in 1932.

(4.) Because of the crucial role played in the developing bank crisis by Couzens and Ford, their biographers have devoted considerable space to this event. See, for example, Barnard, Independent Man, pp. 213-52; and David L. Lewis, The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company (Detroit, 1976), pp. 238-41.

(5.) Annual Report of State Banking Commission (1949), p. 10; Richard D. Poll, Howard J. Stoddard: Founder, Michigan National Bank (East Lansing, 1980).

(6.) Deborah Sturtevant, "A Poor Farm Withstands the Test of Time," Michigan History 76 (Sept.-Oct. 1992): 16-17.

(7.) Home-rule cities could levy an additional tax under the provisions of this amendment. It also provided that voters of any assessing district might authorize the collection of additional millage. The original provisions were somewhat modified by subsequent amendments.

(8.) As late as the 1960s, Democratic legislators angrily--and successfully--demanded the removal of a label that had been attached to the portrait of Comstock in the state capitol that referred to the Democratic governor as the "father" of the sales tax.

(9.) For a brief biographical sketch of Murphy by Sidney Fine, see Warner and Vander-Hill, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 205-12. Fine is the author of a definitive three-volume biography of Murphy, published between 1975 and 1984. For articles on the campaign of 1936 and the 1938 Murphy gubernatorial campaign, see Richard D. Lunt, "Frank Murphy's Decision to Enter the 1936 Gubernatorial Race," Michigan History 47 (Dec. 1963): 327-34; and Samuel T. McSeveney, "The Michigan Gubernatorial Campaign of 1938," ibid., 45 (June 1961): 97-127.

(10.) Sidney Glazer, "The Michigan Labor Movement," Michigan History 29 (Jan.-March 1945): 73-82; Doris B. McLaughlin, Michigan Labor: A Brief History from 1818 to the Present (Ann Arbor, 1970), pp. 3-49.

(11.) See Warner and VanderHill, eds., Michigan Reader, p. 135.

(12.) Sidney Fine, The Automobile Under the Blue Eagle (Ann Arbor, 1963), gives the background of the labor movement in the auto industry before the Depression and the impact of the Depression on the growth of union support.

(13.) Sidney Fine, "The General Motors Sit-Down Strike: A Re-Examination," American Historical Review 70 (April 1965): 691-713, indicates that union leaders circulated the report in order to create support for a strike that would close down the Flint plant's operations. A shortage of certain supplies would have caused the company to close the plant in a few days. The quotation is from Sidney Fine, Sit-Down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-1937 (Ann Arbor, 1969), p. 116, the most complete treatment of the subject.

(14.) For the Ford labor problems and the final labor settlement, see Allan Nevins and Frank Ernest Hill, Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933-1962 (New York, 1963), pp. 133-67.

(15.) James K. Pollock, "Civil Service Developments in Michigan," Good Government 58 (1941): 27-28.

(16.) For production figures, see Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, Automobiles of America (Detroit, 1974), pp. 107-14. Alan Clive's State of War: Michigan in World War II, (Ann Arbor, 1979) is the most complete treatment of the subject.

(17.) Nevins and Hill, Ford: Decline and Rebirth, p. 174.

(18.) Marion F. Wilson, The Story of Willow Run (Ann Arbor, 1956); Lowell J. Carr and James E. Stermer, Willow Run: A Study of Industrialization and Cultural Inadequacy (New York, 1952).

(19.) These events are covered in detail in Nevins and Hill, Ford: Decline and Rebirth.

(20.) Dancy, Sand Against the Wind, pp. 21-34; David Allan Levine, Internal Combustion: The Races in Detroit 1915-1926 (Westport, Conn., 1976), pp. 158-90. The case is also treated in Fine, Frank Murphy: The Detroit Years (Ann Arbor, 1975); and in Kenneth G. Weinberg, A Man's Home, A Man's Castle (New York, 1971).

(21.) Quoted in Robert Shogun and Tom Craig, The Detroit Race Riot: A Study in Violence (Philadelphia, 1964), pp. 6-7. This is the most extensive treatment of the 1943 riot. See also Alfred McClung Lee and Norman D. Humphrey, Race Riot (New York, 1943).

(22.) "Detroit is Dynamite," Life 13 (17 Aug. 1942): 15-23. The title of this remarkably prophetic article was perhaps a play on the old chamber of commerce promotional motto which had referred to "Dynamic Detroit," and as Arthur Pound had also done in his book, Detroit: Dynamic City, published only two years before the publication of the Life article.

(23.) Dominici J. Capeci, Jr. and Martha Wilkerson, Layered Violence: The Detroit Rioters of 1943 (Jackson, Miss., 1991), p. 86. Capeci earlier produced a study of the Sojourner Truth Housing riot: Race Relations in Wartime Detroit: The Sojourner Truth Housing Controversy of 1942 (Philadelphia, 1984).

(24.) In a review of Shogun and Craig's Detroit Race Riot, in Michigan History 50 (Sept. 1966): 271-74, Broadus N. Butler, a black official at Wayne State University, detailed the system which had arisen in Detroit that Butler felt had largely negated the possibility of another large-scale race riot from developing in that city.

(25.) Portions of Vandenberg's speech are reprinted in Warner and VanderHill, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 249-53.

Chapter 27

(1.) Charles T. Pearson, The Indomitable Tin Goose: The True Story of Preston Tucker and His Car (Minneapolis, 1974). Rae, The American Automobile, pp. 161-77, deals with the period of postwar adjustment in the auto industry.

(2.) Richard M. Langworth, Kaiser-Frazer: The Last Onslaught on Detroit (New York, 1975).

(3.) Barton J. Bernstein, "Walter Reuther and the General Motors Strike of 1945-1946," Michigan History 49 (Sept. 1965): 260-77.

(4.) John Barnard, Walter Reuther and the Rise of the Auto Workers (Boston, 1983), is the best biography.

(5.) For problems that resulted in Michigan labor circles from the AFL-CIO merger, see Jacqueline Brophy, "The Merger of the AFL and the CIO in Michigan," Michigan History 50 (June 1966): 139-57. Under Douglas Fraser, the UAW rejoined the AFL-CIO in 1981.

(6.) In their book Three Bullets Sealed His Lips (East Lansing, 1987), Bruce A. Rubenstein and Lawrence E. Ziewacz contend that Hooper's murder was engineered by Frank D. McKay, longtime state Republican boss, who got authorities at the Jackson State Prison to let mobster inmates take a deputy warden's car, go out and kill Hooper and return, without their absence from the prison having been recorded. Sigler, they declare, knew that these prison inmates were the murderers but he did nothing to bring them to trial because of his greater interest in nailing the one who was behind the murder--something he was unable to do.

(7.) Woodford, Alex J. Groesbeck, pp. 306-18.

(8.) Stephen B. and Vera H. Sarasohn, Political Party Patterns in Michigan (Detroit, 1957), p. 55. Much of the political discussion in this chapter is based on this perceptive, brief study of Michigan politics in the first half of the twentieth century.

(9.) Frank McNaughton, Mennen Williams of Michigan: Fighter for Progress (New York, 1960), is the only adequate source for Williams's career through his gubernatorial period.

(10.) Woodford, Alex J. Groesbeck, pp. 229-34; C. W. Shull, Legislative Reapportionment in Michigan (Detroit, 1961).

(11.) Like Republicans, however, Democrats favored the retention of county lines, because party organization was by counties. Apportionment strictly according to population could not be achieved without laying out districts that cut across county lines. In the areas that could be most affected by strict reapportionment, the issue of whether to support change was to a considerable degree a nonpartisan one. Many Republicans in the Detroit area supported the granting to that area of its fair share of legislative representation, while Democrats in the Upper Peninsula, who had dominated elections there since the Depression of the thirties, tended to favor the status quo as much as did Republicans in other outstate areas because of the power that the existing apportionment system gave them in the legislature.

(12.) Michigan Department of Revenue, 19th Annual Report, p. 10.

(13.) By the time the bonds were paid off in 1986, eight years ahead of schedule, about $147 million in interest payments had been added to the principal. See Lawrence A. Rubin, Bridging the Straits: The Story of Mighty MAC (Detroit, 1985), p. 159. Rubin was the executive secretary of the Mackinac Bridge Authority from 1950 to his retirement in 1983, and his book is the most complete account of the difficult struggle bridge supporters faced in getting the project approved.

(14.) The Mackinac Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in terms of the distance between the cable anchorages at either end of the bridge. Supporters of the claims to preeminence of San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge argued that the length of the span between the bridge's towers was the important statistic, in which case the Golden Gate Bridge, with a span of 4,200 feet, was 400 feet longer than the Mackinac Bridge. The opening of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York in 1964, with a suspension span 60 feet longer than that of the Golden Gate Bridge, demoted the California and Michigan bridges to second and third places in this record category.

(15.) Weeks, Stewards of the State, p. 110.

(16.) Although the use tax was thrown out by the courts, about $13 million had already been collected, of which amount applications were received for the refunding of only $900,000.

(17.) See Neil Staebler to G. Mennen Williams, June 27, 1957, in the Neil Staebler Papers at the Michigan Historical Collections, University of Michigan, quoted in J. Bradford Freeman, "The Influence of the Michigan Delegation to the 1960 National Convention of the Democratic Party," seminar paper written under George S. May at Eastern Michigan University in 1969.

(18.) While he was serving as assistant secretary of state for African affairs, Williams acquired a large collection of African art objects, much of which he later donated to the Detroit Institute of Arts.

(19.) Quoted in Bald, Michigan in Four Centuries, p. 486.

(20.) Quoted in McNaughton, Mennen Williams of Michigan, p. 23.

(21.) Neil Staebler, Out of the Smoke-Filled Room: A Story of Michigan Politics (Ann Arbor, 1991), p. 78.


(1.) The assumption was apparently that any voter who did not vote on the issue of constitutional revision while voting on other matters on the ballot must not feel strongly on the issue and was, in effect, indicating his or her satisfaction with the existing constitution.

(2.) See Albert L. Sturm, Constitution-Making in Michigan, 1961-1962 (Ann Arbor, 1963), for the movement to call a convention and for a discussion of the convention's activities.

(3.) The Constitutional Convention Preparatory Commission arranged for the facilities required by the delegates and supervised the preparation of eighteen detailed background reports on the major issues with which the delegates would have to deal.

(4.) Remarks made by Pollock before a University of Michigan Alumni meeting in Lansing in the winter of 1961-62, a meeting the author of this revised edition attended.

(5.) T. George Harris, Romney's Way: A Man and an Idea (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1967), is a campaign biography prepared for Romney's abortive presidential bid in 1968.

That Romney had been born in Mexico raised the question as to whether he would meet the constitutional stipulation that only "a natural-born citizen" is eligible to become president. Romney's contention that he did qualify, because his parents were American citizens, is discussed in ibid., pp. 197-200. Romney's withdrawal from the race left the issue unresolved.

(6.) Tom Mahoney, The Story of George Romney: Builder, Salesman, Crusader (New York, 1960), is a more complete discussion of Romney's automotive career than that found in the politically oriented biography by T. George Harris.

(7.) Romney was criticized for not including his party's name on billboards and bumper stickers advertising his candidacy, but he was doing what most politicians felt they had to do in a time when more and more voters voted for a candidate, not for a party. In 1952 Martha Griffiths, in her first campaign for a Democratic seat in Congress, had gone on Detroit television to explain how voters could split their vote and vote for her at the same time they cast their ballot for the popular Republican candidate for president, Dwight Eisenhower.

(8.) Paul W. McCracken, ed., Taxes and Economic Growth in Michigan (Kalamazoo, 1960); William Haber and others, The Michigan Economy: Its Potential and Its Problems (Kalamazoo, 1959).

(9.) Hayden describes the origins of the Students for a Democratic Society and his activities during this period in his autobiography, Reunion: A Memoir (New York, 1988), pp. 29-102.

(10.) Quoted in R. L. Tyler, Walter Reuther (Grand Rapids, 1974), p. 76.

(11.) Hayden, Reunion, p. 92.

(12.) See The Autobiography of Malcolm X (New York, 1964), pp. 3-11.

(13.) Hayden, Reunion, pp. 119-20.

(14.) Sidney Fine, Violence in the Model City: The Cavanagh Administration, Race Relations, and the Detroit Riot of 1967 (Ann Arbor, 1989), p. 37.

(15.) Ibid., p. 2.

(16.) See Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (New York, 1968). Racial disturbances erupted in Detroit and several other cities in Michigan on the weekend following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in April 1968. Fortunately, violence did not reach the level that it did in Washington, D.C., and other large cities in the nation.

(17.) Quoted in Time 90 (15 Sept. 1967): 22.

(18.) Weeks, Stewards of the State, p. 128n.

(19.) The Wallace vote in 1972 spurred demands for change that would prevent such crossover voting. The requirement that a voter's party preference should be recorded prior to a presidential primary, however, did not sit well with many voters, who were used to Michigan's open primaries.

(20.) Levin was elected to Congress in 1982 from the Seventeenth Congressional District. In Washington he joined his younger brother Carl, who had been elected to the United States Senate from Michigan in 1978.

(21.) Ford discusses his 1948 campaign for Congress and the other aspects of his political career in his autobiography, A Time to Heal (New York, 1979).

(22.) Some dispute Ford's right to be called the first Michigan resident to serve as president on the grounds that Thomas W. Ferry of Grand Haven technically held that office for one day, on March 4, 1877. When President Grant's term had ended and his successor, Rutherford B. Hayes, did not want to take the oath of office because March 4 fell on a Sunday, Ferry, president pro tem of the Senate, was, under the succession rules of the time, next in line for the presidency. But Ferry had no occasion to exercise the duties of the office, and on March 5 Hayes was inaugurated.

(23.) Griffin was elected to the Michigan Supreme Court in 1986.

(24.) Joyce Egginton, The Poisoning of Michigan (New York, 1980), is a thorough examination of this case.


(1.) Bureau of Census, Religious Bodies: 1936 (Washington, 1941), 1.368. The 1936 figures, however, are almost identical to those reported in 1926, showing an increase of only eight individuals over the earlier totals. Church membership throughout the country was adversely affected by the Great Depression, with some states showing a drop in membership and the others generally reporting only modest gains.

(2.) Bernard Quinn and others, Churches and Church Membership in the United States, 1980 (Atlanta, 1982), p. 17. For the 1971 figures, see Douglas W. Johnson and others, Churches and Church Membership in the United States ... (Washington, 1974), p. 5. The published results of these surveys are far less detailed than those found in the earlier Census Bureau reports, which were based on information supplied by individual churches and synagogues, while the council relied on statistics supplied by denominations.

(3.) Cardinal Dearden died in 1988. Cardinal Szoka in 1990 was given an administrative position in the Vatican and was succeeded as Detroit archbishop by Adam J. Maida.

(4.) The African Methodist Episcopal Church did not participate in either the 1971 or the 1980 surveys. The membership figures for 1978 were supplied to the author at that time by the Reverend Martin Luther Simmons, presiding elder, Northern District, Michigan African Methodist Episcopal Church. The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church did not take part in the 1971 survey but did participate in 1980.

(5.) The line between black Baptist and white Baptist churches is no longer a clear one since many black Baptist churches are now affiliated with the American Baptist Churches, USA. Blacks reportedly constitute about 20 percent of the membership of this organization nationally, with the percentage probably much higher in Michigan.

(6.) The 1971 membership figure is from Irvin I. Katz, "Jews in Michigan," Family Trails (a State Library publication), 4 (Spring 1974): 6. Jewish membership figures were not included in the National Council of Churches' 1971 survey, but in 1980 20,675 members and adherents were listed for Conservative and Reform Jewish congregations in the state. No statistics were available, however, for the more numerous Orthodox synagogues.

(7.) Detroit Free Press, 24 Dec. 1992.

(8.) The 1990 membership figures are in Clare Adkins, Jr., Brother Benjamin: A History of the Israelite House of David (Berrien Springs, Mich., 1990), p. 324. This is the most detailed treatment of the group. Far less sympathetic in its view of Purnell is Robert S. Fogarty, The Righteous Remnant: The House of David (Bowling Green, Ohio, 1981).

(9.) The monastery was part of the Vedanta Society that originated in the United States in 1893 when lectures given by Swami Vivekananda during the Parliament of Religions at the Chicago World's Fair led to centers being established in Chicago, New York, and several other major cities. Never having more than a small following, the Vedanta Society made its first organized appearance in Michigan with the establishment of the monastery, which serves both the residents of the monastery and others in the area who attend its weekly services.

(10.) In 1936 the Bahai faith had 105 followers in six centers in Michigan. It was not included in the groups surveyed in 1971 or 1980, but it is still active in the state with a membership that remains small but is no doubt considerably larger than that of 1936.

(11.) C. Eric Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America, revised edition (Boston, 1973), pp. 30-31.

(12.) The Detroit Free Press, 2 Dec. 1992, cites the Federation of Islamic Associations as the source for the number of Muslims in the Detroit area. It cites C. Eric Lincoln for an estimate of five million Muslims in the country as a whole, which, if correct, represents notes to pages 594-602 713 an astounding increase from Lincoln's earlier estimate in 1973 that there were only 33,000 orthodox Muslims in all of North America. See Lincoln, Black Muslims in America, p. 247.

(13.) Ibid., p. 14. The Black Muslims were early leaders in demanding the use of "black" in place of the term "Negro," which was, they said, "a label the white man placed on us to make his discrimination more convenient." Ibid., p. 70.

(14.) C. Eric Lincoln, who was working on a new study of the Black Muslims in 1992, estimated the followers of W. Deen Muhammad as numbering between 100,000 and 200,000, while Farrakhan had about 50,000. Detroit Free Press, 2 Dec. 1992.

(15.) See Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 2.611-37, for discussion and notes on fraternal groups and other private organizations.

(16.) The Michigan Department of the American Legion received its charter Aug. 1, 1920. See Emil L. Carlson, "The American Legion in Michigan," Michigan History 23 (Winter 1939): 15-21. See also Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 2.632-33.

(17.) Fuller, ed., Centennial History of Michigan, 2.634-35.

(18.) The association is still active and its building still in use. See Mrs. George E. Foote, History of the Ladies' Library Association (Kalamazoo, 1941).

(19.) For the 1990 and 1992 data, see World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1993, p. 197.

(20.) William W. Lutz, The News of Detroit: How a Newspaper and a City Grew Together (Boston, 1973).

(21.) Mott, American Journalism, pp. 635-37.

(22.) Under the joint operating agreement, the News, although still having the largest circulation of any evening paper in the country, fell behind the Free Press in circulation figures for the issues appearing Monday through Friday. The circulation of the combined Saturday edition fell short of the combined totals for the weekday editions of the two papers, while the single Sunday edition's circulation exceeded the combined weekday rates.

(23.) Edson H. Mudge, "The Old-time Country Newspapermen," Michigan History 30 (Oct.-Dec. 1946): 754-58.

(24.) John L. Kolehmainen, "Finnish Newspapers and Periodicals in Michigan," Michigan History 24 (Winter 1940): 119-27; Mark O. Kistler, "German Language Press in Michigan: A Survey and Bibliography," ibid., 44 (Sept. 1960): 303-23; Georges J. Joyaux, "French Press in Michigan: A Bibliography," ibid., 36 (Sept. 1952): 260-78.

(25.) Norma Lee Browning, Joe Maddy of Interlochen (Chicago, 1963).

(26.) See Kit Lane, Saugatuck's Big Pavilion (Saugatuck, 1977), for one of the most famous of these dance pavilions in western Michigan.

(27.) An article on Gordy and Motown, originally published in the New York Times Magazine, is reprinted in Warner and VanderHill, eds., Michigan Reader, pp. 273-84.

(28.) Gibson, comp., Artists of Early Michigan: A Biographical Dictionary of Artists Native to or Active in Michigan, 1701-1900; Lillian Myers Pears, The Pewabic Pottery (Des Moines, 1976).

(29.) For details on the Ann Arbor art fair see the July 1977 issue of the Ann Arbor Observer and the Detroit News, 24 July 1986.

(30.) Henry Ford Museum Staff, Greenfield Village and the Henry Ford Museum (New York, 1972).

(31.) See Eugene T. Petersen, Michilimackinac: Its History and Restoration (Mackinac Island, 1962), and some of the other publications of the Mackinac Island State Park Commission for details of that agency's historical program.

(32.) For the state's historical markers, see Laura R. Ashlee, ed., Travelling Through Time: A Guide to Michigan's Historical Markers (Lansing, 1991). For Michigan's historical buildings, see Eckert, Buildings of Michigan.

(33.) Dunbar, "The Opera House as a Social Institution in Michigan," Michigan History 26:661-72; Elaine E. McDavitt, "The Beginnings of Theatrical Activities in Detroit," ibid., 31 (March 1947): 35-47.

(34.) For an interesting discussion of Michigan's literary output, see Arnold Mulder, "Authors and Wolverines," Saturday Review of Literature 19 (4 March 1939): 3-4, 16.

(35.) Richard L. Tobin, "Ring Lardner, the man with the perfect pitch," Chronicle, The Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan 14 (Spring 1978): 11-18. See also Jonathan Yardley, Ring: A Biography of Ring Lardner (New York, 1977).

(36.) For a discussion of Julia Moore and several other equally bad western Michigan poets, see Bradley S. Hayden, "The Kazoo School of Verse," Chronicle, The Magazine of the Historical Society of Michigan 19 (Spring 1983): 4-13.

(37.) Royce Howes, Edgar A. Guest: A Biography (Chicago, 1953).

(38.) E. W. Erickson, "Johan G. R. Baner: Michigan's Viking Poet," Swedish Pioneer Historical Quarterly 24 (April 1973): 73-93.

39. Frank Buxton and Bill Owen, Radio's Golden Age: The Programs and Personalities (n.p., 1966), pp. 210-11.

40. Grand Rapids Press, 3 July 1994.

41. Holland Sentinel, 12 June 1994. The Keweenaw National Historical Park was established in 1992, but lack of funding made the development of this Copper Country park uncertain.


(1.) The information on automotive developments in this chapter is drawn from several sources, to which the reader is referred for additional information: David Halberstam, The Reckoning (New York, 1986); Flink, The Automobile Age; John B. Rae, Nissan/Datsun: A History of the Nissan Motor Corporation in the U.S.A., 1960-1980 (New York, 1982); and articles in May, ed., Automobile Industry, 1920-1980, especially those on Lee Iacocca, Roger Smith, the Chrysler Corporation, Henry Ford II, Philip Caldwell, and John Riccardo.

(2.) U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings 26 (March 1979): 115-19.

(3.) The exact wording of what Ford said to Iacocca varies slightly from one account to another, but the sentiments that Ford meant to convey are not in doubt.

(4.) See "The Motor Vehicle Industry," in Public Sector Consultants, Inc., Michigan in Brief: 1992-93 Issues Handbook (Lansing, 1992), pp. 416-20.

(5.) Quoted in Gary Blonston, "The Down-sizing of Michigan's Economy," Detroit Free Press, 12 Feb. 1984.

(6.) L. V. Spooner, "Detroit, the City Built by the Automobile Industry," Automobile 28 (April 10, 1913): 791-97.

(7.) Unless otherwise noted, the main sources for the information on particular businesses that follows is Gary Hoover, Alta Campbell, and Patrick J. Spain, eds., Profiles of Over 500 Major Corporations (Austin, Texas, 1990).

(8.) Once the merger was approved, Kellogg went ahead with plans for a new $30 million headquarters building in Battle Creek and promised to contribute funds for the revitalization of the city.

(9.) "Dow Corning Corporation," in May, Michigan: An Illustrated History, p. 231. This article and the other articles on particular businesses that appear in this book were prepared by James F. Filgas and Luther Jackson III.

(10.) "La-Z-Boy Chair Company," in ibid., pp. 218-19.

(11.) Milton Moskowitz, Robert Levering, and Michael Katz, eds., Everybody's Business: A Field Guide to the 400 Leading Companies in America (New York, 1990), pp. 425-27; Grand Rapids Press, 23 Jan. 1994.

(12.) Hendrik G. Meijer, The Thrifty Years: The Life of Hendrik Meijer (Grand Rapids, 1984); Grand Rapids Press, 3 Feb. 1994. Meijer, however, got out of the membership warehouse club business only a few months after entering this field in 1993.

(13.) Tom Monaghan, with Robert Anderson, Pizza Tiger (New York, 1986).

(14.) "Amway Corporation," in May, Michigan: An Illustrated History, p. 279; Grand Rapids Press, 22 Dec. 1992.

(15.) Grand Rapids Press, 23 Nov. 1980; 16 Aug. 1992.

(16.) Larry Lankton, Cradle to Grave: Life, Work, and Death at the Lake Superior Copper Mines (New York, 1991), p. 672.

(17.) See the map showing population changes in the counties between 1980 and 1990 in the color insert between pp. 590 and 591 in Michigan Manual, 1991-1992; Grand Rapids Press, 17 Sept. 1978.

(18.) Detroit Free Press, 29 Dec. 1992.

(19.) See "State-Local Government Cooperation," in Michigan in Brief: 1992-93 Issues Handbook, pp. 337-42.

(20.) These divisions are discussed in detail in Dudley W. Buffa, Union Power and American Democracy: The UAW and the Democratic Party, 1972-1983 (Ann Arbor, 1984).

(21.) Milliken appointed Brickley to the Michigan Supreme Court on Dec. 27, 1982, to replace Justice Mary Coleman, who had resigned. Brickley won election to the court in 1984 and again in 1988 for the full eight-year term.

(22.) William Lucas went on to head the Community Relations Section of the United States Department of Justice in the administration of President George Bush, who had first nominated Lucas to head the department's Civil Rights Division. But the Senate rejected the nomination when Lucas, an attorney, admitted that he had had no experience in handling civil rights cases.

(23.) Paula Blanchard, 'Til Politics Do Us Part: A Political Wife's Declaration of Independence (Franklin, Mich., 1990). John and Colleen Engler had also gotten divorced since 1986.

(24.) "Throwing Martha Off the Train," Time 136 (Sept. 17, 1990): 53.

(25.) "Workers' Disability Compensation," and "Single Business Tax," in Michigan in Brief: 1992-93 Issues Handbook, pp. 328-31 and 391-94.

(26.) Grand Rapids Press, 21 Feb. 1993.

(27.) "Property Taxes," in Michigan in Brief: 1992-93 Issues Handbook, pp. 312-16.

(28.) "Education: K-12 Funding/School Finance Reform," in Michigan in Brief: 1992-93 Issues Handbook, p. 141. The percentages cited here are based on data from the state of Michigan. Statistics from the United States Department of Education would indicate that the state's share of K-12 funding was considerably smaller than the state figures show. See Grand Rapids Press, 21 Feb. 1993.

(29.) From 1972 to September 1992, some $13 billion in lottery tickets was sold. Of this amount, $6.3 billion in prizes was awarded and $5.4 billion went into the school aid fund, about 17 percent of the total amount in this fund. Grand Rapids Press, 29 Nov. 1992.

(30.) For the proposals voted on from 1972 to 1989, see Michigan Manual, 1991-1992, pp. 110-13.

(31.) Under the term-limit amendment, individuals newly elected to the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, and secretary of state could henceforth serve only two four-year terms. Members of the lower house of the legislature were limited to three two-year terms, while members of the upper house could serve only two four-year terms. Similar restrictions were imposed on individuals elected to Congress, but the constitutionality of such limitations was under review by the United States Supreme Court at the start of 1995.

(32.) Gladys Olds Anderson, quoted in Richard Crabb, Birth of a Giant: The Men and Incidents that Gave America the Motorcar (Philadelphia, 1969), p. viii.


(1.) See Bruce Catton, "The Real Michigan," originally published in the August 1957 issue of Holiday, and reprinted in both volumes of Michigan Reader.

(2.) Harry Stapler, with Berenice Lowe and Amy South, Pioneers of Forest and City (Lansing, 1985), an attractive history for young people, completed the series of works on the state's history that were subsidized by the Munson Fund.
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Publication:Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1U3MI
Date:Jan 1, 1995
Previous Article:Appendix II.

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