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Notes on the bryophyte flora and vegetation of the central and south-western Balkans/Notas sobre la brioflora y su vegetacion del centro y suroeste de los Balcanes.

INTRODUCTION

From a bioclimatic and biogeographic viewpoint, the Balkan Peninsula is considered one of the most interesting areas in the whole southeastern Europe. In particular the study area, composed of the Prokletije range and part of the Sar-Pindos range in Macedonia comprises some of the highest peaks of the whole Balkans range preserving a high number of circumboreal/Arctic species that spread southwards during the Quaternary glaciations. The first studies on the Flora of the southern Dinaric Alps were carried out by GRISEBACH (1843, 1844) and continued by other authors in the first half of the twentieth century (e.g. DEGEN & DORFLER, 1897; HAYEK, 1917; BORNMULLER, 1933; KOSANIN, 1939). In the last two decades many studies focused on the flora of the alpine belt (e.g. VANGJELI & al., 2000; STEVANOVIC & al., 2003, 2009; LAKUSIC & al., 2004; BARINA & PIFKO, 2008; RAKAJ, 2009) where several new species were described.

While the flowering plants have been studied from the 19th century onwards, the knowledge on the bryophyte flora, particularly from the SE Dinaric Alps, is still rather incomplete and the available data are mostly scattered. Amongst the Balkan countries, Macedonia and Albania are the most poorly known due to the scarcity of investigations and the very low number of local bryologists. The first bryofloristic reports date back to the late 1800's for Albania (BECK & SZYSZYLOWICZ, 1888) and to the beginning of 1900's for Macedonia (HERZOG, 1919). More recent information can be drawn from Dull (1983, 1984, 1985, 1992), TSAKIRI & al. (1998), DULL & al. (1999), SODERSTROM & al. (2002), PAPP & al. (2010), etc. The increase of the activity in bryophyte investigation which took place during the last decade has resulted in an increase of the bryological records at regional scale. The bryophyte data have been then assembled in a preliminary checklist published by COLACINO & SABOVLJEVIC (2006) for Albania, and in the different checklists recently issued on the bryophytes of South-Eastern Europe or the Mediterranean region (SABOVLJEVIC & al. 2001, 2008; ROS & al. 2007, 2013). As far as the number of hornworts, liverworts and moss taxa is concerned, Albania counts for 3, 89 and 258 respectively, and Macedonia for 1, 71 (all referable to old reports) and 403 respectively. In the present paper, the preliminary bryological results of a wider botanical investigation aimed to improve the knowledge of the Balkan high-altitude flora and vegetation of vascular plants and bryophytes are presented.

The field work was carried out in July 2011. The nomenclature of the species follows ROS & al. (2013) for the mosses and ROS & al. (2007) for the liverworts. The chorotype is reported according to HILL & al. (2007). Names of the vascular plants follow Euro+Med Plant base (2006).

The study on bryophyte vegetation followed the plant sociological method of BRAUN-BLANQUET (1964) applied to the bryophytes (Puglisi, 2008). The bryological synsystematic and syntaxonomy follows MARSTALLER (2006) according to the ICPN of WEBER & al. (2000).

The exsiccata are kept in the Herbarium of the Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences of the University of Catania (CAT).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

STUDY AREA

Collecting sites refer to the Prokletije mountains (a triple boundary between Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro) in south-easternmost Dinaric Alps, and the second ones are located in Mt Korab (Macedonia), part of the Sar-Pindos mountain range (Figure 1). The Prokletije mountains, which are also known as Albanian Alps (Bjeshket e Namuna) extend from northern Albania to Kosovo and eastern Montenegro. Maja e Jezerces Peak (2,694 m), in Albania, represents the highest summit of the whole Dinaric Alps. Korab Range (the highest peak is Golem Korab Mt., 2,764 m; Maja e Korabit) is a very rugged mountain massif located at the border between the Republics of Macedonia and Albania. From a litho-logical viewpoint the Prokletije Mountains are mainly composed of Mesozoic limestones and dolomites of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Ages while Korab Mt. exhibits a more intricate situation that provides other bedrock types in addition to the dominant Palaeozoic and Triassic period limestone (Vranaj, 1990). The climate in the high altitude zones is cold and snow is currently found even in summer. The Prokletije Mts are one of the wettest areas of Europe where even the driest valleys exhibit rainfalls of 2,000 millimeters per year (OBULJEN, 1962; FILIPOVSKI & al., 1996).

Collecting sites

* Dinaric Alps, Prokletije mountain Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt. (Albania); 2300 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, partially shaded sites, 42[degrees]26'45.60"N, 19[degrees]48'46.80"E (Leg. R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011).

* Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt. (Albania); 2450 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E (Leg. R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011).

* Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces (Albania); 1850 m. calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E (Leg. R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011).

* Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab (Republic of Macedonia): 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E (Leg. R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

BRYOPHYTE FLORA

The list with the bryophytes collected in the study areas is reported below. Families and species within each family are listed in alphabetical order; for each species the chorotype and the sites of collection are provided. Explanation of symbols:

** new record for Albania.

# second record for Albania.

* confirmation of records in Albania or Macedonia previous to 1962.

Liverworts

Scapaniaceae

** Scapania cuspiduligera (Nees) Mull. Frib.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27. 07. 2011, CAT 03.11/ALB.

Circumpolar-Boreo-Arctic-Montane.

Mosses

Amblystegiaceae

* Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw.) Spruce

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 05.11/ALB. MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 30. 11/MAC. Circumpolar-wide-Temperate.

* Palustriella decipiens (De Not.) Ochyra

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 01.11/ALB.

European Boreo-Arctic-Montane.

* Palustriella commutata (Hedw.) Ochyra

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 04.11/ALB. Macedonia: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22. 7. 2011, CAT 37.11/MAC. Circumpolar-Boreo-Temperate.

Bartramiaceae

Philonototis caespitosa Jur.

MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 32.11/MAC.

Circumpolar-Boreo-Temperate.

Bryaceae

# Bryum dichotomum Hedw.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije mountain Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2300 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, partially shaded sites, 42[degrees]26'45.60"N, 19[degrees]48'46.80"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011), CAT 11.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 19.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27. 7. 2011, CAT 02. 11/ALB. European-wide-Temperate.

Bryum schleicheri DC.

MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 38.11/MAC.

Circumpolar-Boreal-Montane.

* Ptychostomum pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) J. R. Spence & H. P. Ramsay var. pseudotriquetrum

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 06.11/ALB. Macedonia: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 31.11/MAC.

Circumpolar-wide-Boreal.

Ditrichaceae

* Distichium capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije mountain Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2300 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, partially shaded sites, 42[degrees]26'45.60"N, 19[degrees]48'46.80"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011), CAT 12.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 18.11/ALB. MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 33.11/MAC.

Circumpolar-Boreal-Temperate.

** Distichium inclinatum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT s.n. Circumpolar-Boreo-Arctic-Montane.

Encalyptaceae

* Encalypta streptocarpa Hedw.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije mountain Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2300 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, partially shaded sites, 42[degrees]26'45.60"N, 19[degrees]48'46.80"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 13.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 17.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27. 7. 2011, CAT 39.11/ALB. Eurasian-Boreo-Temperate.

Fissidentaceae

Fissidens dubius P. Beauv.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt.,2450 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 20.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 25. 11/ALB.

European-Temperate.

Leskeaceae

Leskea polycarpa Hedw.

MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 35.11/MAC.

Circumpolar-Temperate.

Pseudoleskea incurvata (Hedw.) Loeske

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije mountain Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2300 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, partially shaded sites, 42[degrees]26'45.60"N, 19[degrees]48'46.80"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 14.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 21.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27. 7. 2011, CAT 27.11/ALB.

European Boreal-Montane.

* Pseudoleskeella nervosa (Brid.) Nyholm

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 08.11/ALB.

Circumpolar Boreal-Montane.

Mniaceae

* Mnium stellare Hedw.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije mountain Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2300 m. chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, partially shaded sites, 42[degrees]26'45.60"N, 19[degrees]48'46.80"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 15.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 22. 11/ALB.

Circumpolar Boreal-Temperate.

* Mnium thomsonii Schimp.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 26. 11/ALB.

Circumpolar Boreo-Arctic-Montane.

Polytrichaceae

* Polytrichum commune Hedw.

MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 34.11/MAC.

Circumpolar wide Boreal.

Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw

MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 28.11/MAC.

Circumpolar wide Boreal.

Pottiaceae

* Didymodon fallax (Hedw.) R. H. Zander

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 09.11/ALB.

Circumpolar Southern-Temperate.

* Gymnostonum aeruginosum Sm.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije mountain Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2300 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, partially shaded sites, 42[degrees]26'45.60"N, 19[degrees]48'46.80"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 16.11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 23.11/ALB. Macedonia: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 36.11/MAC.

Circumpolar Boreal-Temperate.

Syntrichia norvegica F. Weber

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 28.11/ALB.

Circumpolar Arctic-Montane.

Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr.

ALBANIA: Dinaric Alps, Prokletije Range, Maja e Jezerces Mt., 2450 m., chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks, 42[degrees]26'4.58"N 19[degrees]49'6.77"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 24. 11/ALB. Dinaric Alps, Prokletije range, Buni Jezerces, 1850 m, calcareous spring, 42[degrees]27'26.64"N, 19[degrees]48'29.88"E, R. Di Pietro, 27.07.2011, CAT 10.11/ALB. MACEDONIA: Sar-Pindos range, Mt. Golem Korab, 2600 m, shaded calcareous spring, 41[degrees]47'9.62"N 20[degrees]32'56.47"E, R. Di Pietro, 22.07.2011, CAT 29.11/MAC.

Circumpolar Boreal-Temperate.

Twenty-three bryophytes have been collected in the study areas: 1 liverwort and 22 mosses. These species mostly belong to a typical orophytic, terri-saxicolous and selected bryoflora that has its distribution centre in the montane areas of Central Europe and are found scattered in isolated sites within the high mountains of the southern European Countries (PUGLISI & al., 2012; PUGLISI & al., 2013a).

Amongst the surveyed species it is worth noting the discovery of the liverwort Scapania cuspiduligera, a new record for Albania; this is a Circumpolar Boreo-Arctic montane species, very rare in the Mediterranean area where it only occurs in Spain, France and Italy, while the old records for Slovenia and Greece are still to be confirmed (Ros & al., 2007). Another new record from Albania is the moss Distichium inclinatum, also a Circumpolar Boreo-Arctic montane species. Furthermore we confirm some old reports (Polytrichum commune for Macedonia, and Leskea polycarpa, Mnium thomsonii, Palustriella decipiens and Syntrichia norvegica for Albania), whose previous records were based on collections published before 1962 (Ros & al., 2013).

As already evidenced in other Mediterranean montane areas (PRIVITERA & PUGLISI, 1997, 2002; PUGLISI, 2009; PUGLISI & al. 2009, 2011), also in the southwestern part of the Dinaric Alps the alpine belt is currently playing the role of refuge for many relict boreal-montane and arctic-montane species and communities that colonized the southern Europe during the glaciations. The high altitude of the main peaks allows these mountains to play an important role in terms of biodiversity conservation and to represent important sites for the maintaining and safeguard of the bryophyte diversity, as already highlighted for other south-European territories (PRIVITERA & PUGLISI, 2009; PUGLISI, 2009, 2010; PUGLISI & al. 2011, 2013b).

BRYOPHYTE VEGETATION

Two associations have been identified and referred to the bryosociological class Ctenidietea mollusci, that includes basophytic, mesophytic to meso-hygrophytic communities developed on rocks, rock crevices and rock outcrops covered by soil (PUGLISI & PRIVITERA, 2012). A third community is referred to the bryo-chormophytic phytosociological class Montio fontanae-Cardaminetea amarae that includes the communities growing in shaded springs and montane streams.

Pseudoleskeetum incurvatae Jezek & Vondracek 1962 (Table 1)

It is a meso-hygrophytic and meso-sciophytic, psychrophytic, exochomophytic community, generally settled in sheltered habitats on moist limestone rocks, crumbled boulders and gravelly soil having a thick layer of humus (Puglisi & al., 2013a). In Albania this association was recognized in Maja e Jezerces and Buni Jezerces at elevations ranging between 1800 and 2500 m, in a vegetational context dominated by the Crepidetalia dinaricae communities which are very rich in Circumboreal (Dryas octopetala, Draba aspera), Amphi-adriatic (Edraianthus graminifolius, Saxifraga marginata, Carex kitaibeliana, Artemisia eriantha, Trifolium noricum) and Balkan endemics (Valeriana bertiscea, Draba kummerlei, Arabis scopoliana, Saxifraga prenja, Danthoniastrum alpinum, Aubrieta croatica). The stand is floristically poor for the severe environmental conditions of the area. The characteristic species of the association is Pseudoleskea incurvata, a Boreal-montane species, which is accompanied by some species of higher units, such as Tortella tortuosa, Encalypta streptocarpa, Fissidens dubius and Gymnostomum aeruginosum. Synsystematically, the association is included in Ctenidion mollusci, order Ctenidietalia mollusci and Ctenidietea mollusci. It is a temperate-high montane-subalpine association, occurring on the mountains of Central-Western Europe (VADAM & CAILLET, 2001) and also recently recorded in Greece (PUGLISI & al., 2013a).

Solorino saccatae-Distichietum capillacei Reimers 1940 (Table 2)

In the rock fissures and cracks where soil accumulates, in shady and moist sites, both on the Maja e Jezerces (Albania) and Korab Mt (Macedonia), at elevations ranging between 2300 and 2400 m, stands of the association Solorino saccatae-Distichietum capillacei were found. The floristic context of the sites of collection includes Ranunculus crenatus, Arabis flavescens, Achillea korabensis, Armeria rumelica and Saxifraga chrysosplenifolia. Ecologically, Solorino-Distichietum capillacei is a mesohygrophytic, sciophytic, basiphytic, and chasmophytic community (PUGLISI & al., 2013b). It is floristically characterized by the dominance of Distichium capillaceum, an arctic-montane species, and by the presence of some characteristics of higher ranks, such as Tortella tortuosa, Encalypta streptocarpa, Distichium inclinatum and Mnium thomsonii. The Solorino saccatae-Distichietum capillacei is referred to the alliance Distichion capillacei, order Ctenidietalia mollusci and class Ctenidietea mollusci. It is a boreal-temperate-Mediterranean-alpinemontane association (Marstaller, 2006), occurring on the mountains of Central Europe while its previous records from the Mediterranean area are restricted to southern Italy, Sicily and Greece (PUGLISI & PRIVITERA, 2012; Puglisi & al., 2013a).

Cratoneuretum commutati Aichinger 1933 (Table 3)

Stands of the association Cratoneuretum commutati were identified at Buni Jezerces and Korab Mt., where they grow on rocky outcrops permanently irrigated by base-rich, calcareous, cold waters. These stands belong to the community typical of mountain springs, actively forming travertine or tufa due to the deposition of carbonate on the moss carpet. It is a hygro-hydrophytic, basophytic association dominated by bryophytes. Physiognomically and floristically it is characterized by Palustriella commutata, guide species of the association, Ptychostomum pseudotriquetrum var. pseudotriquetrum, Cratoneuron filicinum, Palustriella decipiens and Bryum schleicheri, characteristic taxa of higher syntaxonomic units. This association is widespread in Europe, especially in the temperate zones. As far as the Mediterranean region is concerned it is known from mountain areas of Spain (GIL & VARO, 1982; FUERTES LASALA & MARTINEZ-CONDE, 1988; HERAS & AL., 1989; GIL, 1997; GAVILAN & AL., 2012), FRANCE (BARDAT & HAUGUEL, 2002) AND S ITALY (BRULLO & al., 2001).

doi: 10.5209/rev_LAZA.2013.v34.n1.42334

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Serbian Ministry of Science and Technological Development (project no. 173030, to Dmitar Lakusic). We warmly thank Z. Nikolov (Skopje, Macedonia) and Z. Bulic (Podgorica, Montegro) for their assistance during the field work. We also thank anonymous reviewers for the comments.

SYNTAXONOMICAL SCHEME

CTENIDIETEA MOLLUSCI v. Hubschmann ex Grgic 1980
  Ctenidietalia mollusci Hadac & Smarda ex Klika 1948
    Ctenidion mollusci Stefureac ex Klika 1948
      Pseudoleskeetum incurvatae Jezek & Vondracek 1962
    Distichion capillacei Gjaerevoll 1956
      Solorino saccatae-Distichietum capillacei Reimers 1940

MONTIO FONTANAE-CARDAMINETEA AMARAE Br.-Bl. et R. Tx. ex Klika et
Hadac 1944 em. Zechmeister 1993
Montio fontanae-Cardaminetalia amarae Pawlowski 1928 em. Zechmeister
1993
  Cratoneurion commutati W. Koch 1928
    Cratoneuretum commutati Aichinger 1933


Received: 27 May 2013

Accepted: 10 October 2013

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Marta Puglisi (*), Patrizia Campisi (**), Dmitar Lakusic (***), Bostjan Surina (****), Romeo Di Pietro (*****), Maria Privitera (*)

(*) Department of Biological. Geological and Environmental Sciences. University of Catania, Italy. E-mail: mpuglisi@unict.it

(**) Department of Biological. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies. University of Palermo, Italy.

(***) Botanical Institute and Garden. Faculty of Biology. University of Belgrade. 11000. Belgrade, Serbia.

(****) University of Primorska. Faculty of Mathematics. Natural Sciences and Information Technologies. SI-6000 Koper, Slovenia.

(*****) PDTA Department. Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Table 1
Pseudoleskeetum incurvatae Jezek & Vondracek 1962
(Ctenidion mollusci, Ctenidietalia mollusci, Ctenidietea mollusci)

Altitude (m)                     2450    2450    2450    2450    1850
Size of releve ([dm.sup.2])       15      10      10      10      20
Cover (%)                         85      55      75      45      60
Inclination ([degrees])            5      10      --       5       5
Exposure                          NE      NE      --      NE       E
Releve number                      1       2       3       4       5

Characteristics
Pseudoleskea incurvata             4       3       4       2       3
Tortella tortuosa                  2       .       +       2       1
Encalypta streptocarpa             .       1       .       .       +
Fissidens dubius                   .       1       .       +       1
Gymnostomum aeruginosum            +       .       1       .       .
Other species                      .       .       .       .       .
Syntrichia norvegica               +       .       1       1       .
Mnium stellare                     .       1       +       .       .
Scapania cuspiduligera             .       .       .       .       1

Localities: All in Albania; 1-4: Maja e Jezerces; 5: Buni Jezerces.

Table 2
Solorino saccatae-Distichietum capillacei
Reimers 1940

(Distichion capillacei, Ctenidietalia mollusci,
Ctenidietea mollusci)

Altitude (m)                   2450    2450    2300
Size of releve ([cm.sup.2])     40      50      50
Cover (%)                       65      30      60
inclination ([degrees])          5       5       5
Exposure                         E       E       E
Releve number                    1       2       3

Characteristics
Distichium capillaceum           2       2       3
Tortella tortuosa                3       1       1
Encalypta streptocarpa           .       1       .
Distichium inclinatum            +       .       1
Mnium thomsonii                  +       .       +
other species
Syntrichia norvegica             +       +       1
Bryum schleicheri                1       .       +
Pseudoleskea incurvata           .       .       1

Localities: 1, 2: Maja e Jezerces (Albania); 3: Mt. Korab
(Macedonia).

Table 3
Cratoneuretum commutati Aichinger 1933
(Cratoneurion commutati, Montio-Cardaminetalia,
Montio-Cardaminetea)

Altitude (m)                             1850    1850    2600    2600
Size of releve ([dm.sup.2])                9       9       4       4
Cover (%)                                 85      85      55      60
inclination ([degrees])                   70      70      60      80
Exposure                                  NW      NW      ENE     ENE
Releve number                              1       2       3       4

Characteristics of association
Palustriella commutata                     3       3       2       3
Characteristics of alliance, order and class               s
Cratoneuron filicinum                      2       +       1       +
Palustriella decipiens                     2       1       .       .
Ptychostomum pseudotriquetrum
var. pseudotriquetrum                      1       3       1       1
Bryum schleicheri                          .       .       2       1
other species
Philonotis caespitosa                      .       .       1       +
Polytrichum commune                        .       .       .       1
Pseudoleskeella nervosa                    .       +       .       .

Localities: 1, 2: Buni Jezerces (Albania); 3, 4: Mt Korab
(Macedonia).
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