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Notes on current labor statistics.

This section of the Review presents the principal statistical series collected and calculated by the Bureau of Labor Statistics: series on labor force; employment; unemployment; labor compensation; consumer, producer, and international prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury and illness statistics. In the notes that follow, the data in each group of tables are briefly described; key definitions are given; notes on the data are set forth; and sources of additional information are cited.

General notes

The following notes apply to several tables in this section:

Seasonal adjustment. Certain monthly and quarterly data are adjusted to eliminate the effect on the data of such factors as climatic conditions, industry production schedules, opening and closing of schools, holiday buying periods, and vacation practices, which might prevent short-term evaluation of the statistical series. Tables containing data that have been adjusted are identified as "seasonally adjusted." (All other data are not seasonally adjusted.) Seasonal effects are estimated on the basis of current and past experiences. When new seasonal factors are computed each year, revisions may affect seasonally adjusted data for several preceding years.

Seasonally adjusted data appear in tables 1-14, 17-21, 48, and 52. Seasonally adjusted labor force data in tables 1 and 4-9 were revised in the February 2005 issue of the Review. Seasonally adjusted establishment survey data shown in tables 1, 12-14, and 17 were revised in the March 2005 Review. A brief explanation of the seasonal adjustment methodology appears in "Notes on the data."

Revisions in the productivity data in table 54 are usually introduced in the September issue. Seasonally adjusted indexes and percent changes from month-to-month and quarter-to-quarter are published for numerous Consumer and Producer Price Index series. However, seasonally adjusted indexes are not published for the U.S. average All-items CPI. Only seasonally adjusted percent changes are available for this series.

Adjustments for price changes. Some data--such as the "real" earnings shown in table 14--are adjusted to eliminate the effect of changes in price. These adjustments are made by dividing current-dollar values by the Consumer Price Index or the appropriate component of the index, then multiplying by 100. For example, given a current hourly wage rate of $3 and a current price index number of 150, where 1982 = 100, the hourly rate expressed in 1982 dollars is $2 ($3/150 x 100 = $2). The $2 (or any other resulting values) are described as "real," "constant," or "1982" dollars.

Sources of information

Data that supplement the tables in this section are published by the Bureau in a variety of sources. Definitions of each series and notes on the data are contained in later sections of these Notes describing each set of data. For detailed descriptions of each data series, see BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin 2490. Users also may wish to consult Major Programs of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Report 919. News releases provide the latest statistical information published by the Bureau; the major recurring releases are published according to the schedule appearing on the back cover of this issue.

More information about labor force, employment, and unemployment data and the household and establishment surveys underlying the data are available in the Bureau's monthly publication, Employment and Earnings. Historical unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the household survey are available on the Internet:

www.bls.gov/cps/

Historically comparable unadjusted and seasonally adjusted data from the establishment survey also are available on the Internet:

www.hls.gov/ces/

Additional information on labor force data for areas below the national level are provided in the BLS annual report, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment.

For a comprehensive discussion of the Employment Cost Index, see Employment Cost Indexes and Levels, 1975-95, BLS Bulletin 2466. The most recent data from the Employee Benefits Survey appear in the following Bureau of Labor Statistics bulletins: Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms; Employee Benefits in Small Private Establishments; and Employee Benefits in State and Local Governments.

More detailed data on consumer and producer prices are published in the monthly periodicals, The CPI Detailed Report and Producer Price Indexes. For an overview of the 1998 revision of the CPI, see the December 1996 issue of the Monthly Labor Review. Additional data on international prices appear in monthly news releases.

Listings of industries for which productivity indexes are available may be found on the Internet:

www.bls.gov/lpc/

For additional information on international comparisons data, see International Comparisons of Unemployment, Bulletin 1979.

Detailed data on the occupational injury and illness series are published in Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States, by Industry, a BLS annual bulletin.

Finally, the Monthly Labor Review carries analytical articles on annual and longer term developments in labor force, employment, and unemployment; employee compensation and collective bargaining; prices; productivity; international comparisons; and injury and illness data.

Symbols

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

n.e.s. = not elsewhere specified.

p = preliminary. To increase the timeliness of some series, preliminary figures are issued based on representative but incomplete returns.

r = revised. Generally, this revision reflects the availability of later data, but also may reflect other adjustments.

Comparative Indicators

(Tables 1-3)

Comparative indicators tables provide an overview and comparison of major BLS statistical series. Consequently, although many of the included series are available monthly, all measures in these comparative tables are presented quarterly and annually.

Labor market indicators include employment measures from two major surveys and information on rates of change in compensation provided by the Employment Cost Index (ECI) program. The labor force participation rate, the employment-population ratio, and unemployment rates for major demographic groups based on the Current Population ("household") Survey are presented, while measures of employment and average weekly hours by major industry sector are given using nonfarm payroll data. The Employment Cost Index (compensation), by major sector and by bargaining status, is chosen from a variety of BLS compensation and wage measures because it provides a comprehensive measure of employer costs for hiring labor, not just outlays for wages, and it is not affected by employment shifts among occupations and industries.

Data on changes in compensation, prices, and productivity are presented in table 2. Measures of rates of change of compensation and wages from the Employment Cost Index program are provided for all civilian nonfarm workers (excluding Federal and household workers) and for all private nonfarm workers. Measures of changes in consumer prices for all urban consumers; producer prices by stage of processing; overall prices by stage of processing; and overall export and import price indexes are given. Measures of productivity (output per hour of all persons) are provided for major sectors.

Alternative measures of wage and compensation rates of change, which reflect the overall trend in labor costs, are summarized in table 3. Differences in concepts and scope, related to the specific purposes of the series, contribute to the variation in changes among the individual measures.

Notes on the data

Definitions of each series and notes on the data are contained in later sections of these notes describing each set of data.

Employment and Unemployment Data

(Tables 1; 4-29)

Household survey data

Description of the series

Employment data in this section are obtained from the Current Population Survey, a program of personal interviews conducted monthly by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The sample consists of about 60,000 households selected to represent the U.S. population 16 years of age and older. Households are interviewed on a rotating basis, so that three-fourths of the sample is the same for any 2 consecutive months.

Definitions

Employed persons include (1) all those who worked for pay any time during the week which includes the 12th day of the month or who worked unpaid for 15 hours or more in a family-operated enterprise and (2) those who were temporarily absent from their regular jobs because of illness, vacation, industrial dispute, or similar reasons. A person working at more than one job is counted only in the job at which he or she worked the greatest number of hours.

Unemployed persons are those who did not work during the survey week, but were available for work except for temporary illness and had looked for jobs within the preceding 4 weeks. Persons who did not look for work because they were on layoff are also counted among the unemployed. The unemployment rate represents the number unemployed as a percent of the civilian labor force.

The civilian labor force consists of all employed or unemployed persons in the civilian noninstitutional population. Persons not in the labor force are those not classified as employed or unemployed. This group includes discouraged workers, defined as persons who want and are available for a job and who have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held one within the past 12 months), but are not currently looking, because they believe there are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify. The civilian noninstitutional population comprises all persons 16 years of age and older who are not inmates of penal or mental institutions, sanitariums, or homes for the aged, infirm, or needy. The civilian labor force participation rate is the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population that is in the labor force. The employment-population ratio is employment as a percent of the civilian noninstitutional population.

Notes on the data

From time to time, and especially after a decennial census, adjustments are made in the Current Population Survey figures to correct for estimating errors during the intercensal years. These adjustments affect the comparability of historical data. A description of these adjustments and their effect on the various data series appears in the Explanatory Notes of Employment and Earnings. For a discussion of changes introduced in January 2003, see "Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003" in the February 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/eps/ rveps03.pdf).

Effective in January 2003, BLS began using the x-12 ARIMA seasonal adjustment program to seasonally adjust national labor force data. This program replaced the x-11 ARIMA program which had been used since January 1980. See "Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Labor Force Series in 2003," in the February 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/eps/epsrs.pdf) for a discussion of the introduction of the use of x-12 ARIMA for seasonal adjustment of the labor force data and the effects that it had on the data.

At the beginning of each calendar year, historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised, and projected seasonal adjustment factors are calculated for use during the January-June period. The historical seasonally adjusted data usually are revised for only the most recent 5 years. In July, new seasonal adjustment factors, which incorporate the experience through June, are produced for the July-December period, but no revisions are made in the historical data.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on national household survey data, contact the Division of Labor Force Statistics: (202) 691-6378.

Establishment survey data

Description of the series

Employment, hours, and earnings data in this section are compiled from payroll records reported monthly on a voluntary basis to the Bureau of Labor Statistics and its cooperating State agencies by about 160,000 businesses and government agencies, which represent approximately 400,000 individual worksites and represent all industries except agriculture. The active CES sample covers approximately one-third of all nonfarm payroll workers. Industries are classified in accordance with the 2002 North American Industry Classification System. In most industries, the sampling probabilities are based on the size of the establishment; most large establishments are therefore in the sample. (An establishment is not necessarily a firm; it may be a branch plant, for example, or warehouse.) Self-employed persons and others not on a regular civilian payroll are outside the scope of the survey because they are excluded from establishment records. This largely accounts for the difference in employment figures between the household and establishment surveys.

Definitions

An establishment is an economic unit which produces goods or services (such as a factory or store) at a single location and is engaged in one type of economic activity.

Employed persons are all persons who received pay (including holiday and sick pay) for any part of the payroll period including the 12th day of the month. Persons holding more than one job (about 5 percent of all persons in the labor force) are counted in each establishment which reports them.

Production workers in the goods-producing industries cover employees, up through the level of working supervisors, who engage directly in the manufacture or construction of the establishment's product. In private service-providing industries, data are collected for nonsupervisory workers, which include most employees except those in executive, managerial, and supervisory positions. Those workers mentioned in tables I l-16 include production workers in manufacturing and natural resources and mining; construction workers in construction; and nonsupervisory workers in all private service-providing industries. Production and nonsupervisory workers account for about four-fifths of the total employment on private nonagricultural payrolls.

Earnings are the payments production or nonsupervisory workers receive during the survey period, including premium pay for overtime or late-shift work but excluding irregular bonuses and other special payments. Real earnings are earnings adjusted to reflect the effects of changes in consumer prices. The deflator for this series is derived from the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W).

Hours represent the average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers for which pay was received, and are different from standard or scheduled hours. Overtime hours represent the portion of average weekly hours which was in excess of regular hours and for which overtime premiums were paid.

The Diffusion Index represents the percent of industries in which employment was rising over the indicated period, plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment; 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment. In line with Bureau practice, data for the 1-, 3-, and 6-month spans are seasonally adjusted, while those for the 12-month span are unadjusted. Table 17 provides an index on private nonfarm employment based on 278 industries, and a manufacturing index based on 84 industries. These indexes are useful for measuring the dispersion of economic gains or losses and are also economic indicators.

Notes on the data

Establishment survey data are annually adjusted to comprehensive counts of employment (called "benchmarks"). The March 2003 benchmark was introduced in February 2004 with the release of data for January 2004, published in the March 2004 issue of the Review. With the release in June 2003, CES completed a conversion from the Standard Industrial Classification (sic) system to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and completed the transition from its original quota sample design to a probability-based sample design. The industry-coding update included reconstruction of historical estimates in order to preserve time series for data users. Normally 5 years of seasonally adjusted data are revised with each benchmark revision. However, with this release, the entire new time series history for all CES data series were re-seasonally adjusted due to the NAICS conversion, which resulted in the revision of all CES time series.

Also in June 2003, the CES program introduced concurrent seasonal adjustment for the national establishment data. Under this methodology, the first preliminary estimates for the current reference month and the revised estimates for the 2 prior months will be updated with concurrent factors with each new release of data. Concurrent seasonal adjustment incorporates all available data, including first preliminary estimates for the most current month, in the adjustment process. For additional information on all of the changes introduced in June 2003, see the June 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings and "Recent changes in the national Current Employment Statistics survey," Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 3-13.

Revisions in State data (table 11) occurred with the publication of January 2003 data. For information on the revisions for the State data, see the March and May 2003 issues of Employment and Earnings, and "Recent changes in the State and Metropolitan Area CES survey," Monthly Labor Review, June 2003, pp. 14-19.

Beginning in June 1996, the BLS uses the X-12-ARIMA methodology to seasonally adjust establishment survey data. This procedure, developed by the Bureau of the Census, controls for the effect of varying survey intervals (also known as the 4- versus 5-week effect), thereby providing improved measurement of over-the-month changes and underlying economic trends. Revisions of data, usually for the most recent 5-year period, are made once a year coincident with the benchmark revisions.

In the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns and are published as preliminary in the tables (12-17 in the Review). When all returns have been received, the estimates are revised and published as "final" (prior to any benchmark revisions) in the third month of their appearance. Thus, December data are published as preliminary in January and February and as final in March. For the same reasons, quarterly establishment data (table 1) are preliminary for the first 2 months of publication and final in the third month. Fourth-quarter data are published as preliminary in January and February and as final in March.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on establishment survey data, contact the Division of Current Employment Statistics: (202) 691-6555.

Unemployment data by State

Description of the series

Data presented in this section are obtained from the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) program, which is conducted in cooperation with State employment security agencies.

Monthly estimates of the labor force, employment, and unemployment for States and sub-State areas are a key indicator of local economic conditions, and form the basis for determining the eligibility of an area for benefits under Federal economic assistance programs such as the Job Training Partnership Act. Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates are presented in table 10. Insofar as possible, the concepts and definitions underlying these data are those used in the national estimates obtained from the cps.

Notes on the data

Data refer to State of residence. Monthly data for all States and the District of Columbia are derived using standardized procedures established by BLS. Once a year, estimates are revised to new population controls, usually with publication of January estimates, and benchmarked to annual average CPS levels.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on data in this series, call (202) 691-6392 (table 10) or (202) 691-6559 (table 11).

Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages

Description of the series

Employment, wage, and establishment data in this section are derived from the quarterly tax reports submitted to State employment security agencies by private and State and local government employers subject to State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and from Federal, agencies subject to the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) program. Each quarter, State agencies edit and process the data and send the information to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) data, also referred as ES-202 data, are the most complete enumeration of employment and wage information by industry at the national, State, metropolitan area, and county levels. They have broad economic significance in evaluating labor market trends and major industry developments.

Definitions

In general, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages monthly employment data represent the number of covered workers who worked during, or received pay for, the pay period that included the 12th day of the month. Covered private industry employment includes most corporate officials, executives, supervisory personnel, professionals, clerical workers, wage earners, piece workers, and part-time workers. It excludes proprietors, the unincorporated self-employed, unpaid family members, and certain farm and domestic workers. Certain types of nonprofit employers, such as religious organizations, are given a choice of coverage or exclusion in a number of States. Workers in these organizations are, therefore, reported to a limited degree.

Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday, paid vacation, and the like, are included. Persons on the payroll of more than one firm during the period are counted by each UI-subject employer if they meet the employment definition noted earlier. The employment count excludes workers who earned no wages during the entire applicable pay period because of work stoppages, temporary layoffs, illness, or unpaid vacations.

Federal employment data are based on reports of monthly employment and quarterly wages submitted each quarter to State agencies for all Federal installations with employees covered by the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) program, except for certain national security agencies, which are omitted for security reasons. Employment for all Federal agencies for any given month is based on the number of persons who worked during or received pay for the pay period that included the 12th of the month.

An establishment is an economic unit, such as a farm, mine, factory, or store, that produces goods or provides services. It is typically at a single physical location and engaged in one, or predominantly one, type of economic activity for which a single industrial classification may be applied. Occasionally, a single physical location encompasses two or more distinct and significant activities. Each activity should be reported as a separate establishment if separate records are kept and the various activities are classified under different NAICS industries.

Most employers have only one establishment; thus, the establishment is the predominant reporting unit or statistical entity for reporting employment and wages data. Most employers, including State and local governments who operate more than one establishment in a State, file a Multiple Worksite Report each quarter, in addition to their quarterly UI report. The Multiple Worksite Report is used to collect separate employment and wage data for each of the employer's establishments, which are not detailed on the UI report. Some very small multi-establishment employers do not file a Multiple Worksite Report. When the total employment in an employer's secondary establishments (all establishments other than the largest) is 10 or fewer, the employer generally will file a consolidated report for all establishments. Also, some employers either cannot or will not report at the establishment level and thus aggregate establishments into one consolidated unit, or possibly several units, though not at the establishment level.

For the Federal Government, the reporting unit is the installation: a single location at which a department, agency, or other government body has civilian employees. Federal agencies follow slightly different criteria than do private employers when breaking down their reports by installation. They are permitted to combine as a single statewide unit: 1) all installations with 10 or fewer workers, and 2) all installations that have a combined total in the State of fewer than 50 workers. Also, when there are fewer than 25 workers in all secondary installations in a State, the secondary installations may be combined and reported with the major installation. Last, if a Federal agency has fewer than five employees in a State, the agency headquarters office (regional office, district office) serving each State may consolidate the employment and wages data for that State with the data reported to the State in which the headquarters is located. As a result of these reporting rules, the number of reporting units is always larger than the number of employers (or government agencies) but smaller than the number of actual establishments (or installations).

Data reported for the first quarter are tabulated into size categories ranging from worksites of very small size to those with 1,000 employees or more. The size category is determined by the establishment's March employment level. It is important to note that each establishment of a multi-establishment firm is tabulated separately into the appropriate size category. The total employment level of the reporting multi-establishment firm is not used in the size tabulation.

Covered employers in most States report total wages paid during the calendar quarter, regardless of when the services were performed. A few State laws, however, specify that wages be reported for, or based on the period during which services are performed rather than the period during which compensation is paid. Under most State laws or regulations, wages include bonuses, stock options, the cash value of meals and lodging, tips and other gratuities, and, in some States, employer contributions to certain deferred compensation plans such as 401(k) plans.

Covered employer contributions for old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI), health insurance, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation, and private pension and welfare funds are not reported as wages. Employee contributions for the same purposes, however, as well as money withheld for income taxes, union dues, and so forth, are reported even though they are deducted from the worker's gross pay.

Wages of covered Federal workers represent the gross amount of all payrolls for all pay periods ending within the quarter. This includes cash allowances, the cash equivalent of any type of remuneration, severance pay, withholding taxes, and retirement deductions. Federal employee remuneration generally covers the same types of services as for workers in private industry.

Average annual wage per employee for any given industry are computed by dividing total annual wages by annual average employment. A further division by 52 yields average weekly wages per employee. Annual pay data only approximate annual earnings because an individual may not be employed by the same employer all year or may work for more than one employer at a time.

Average weekly or annual wage is affected by the ratio of full-time to part-time workers as well as the number of individuals in high-paying and low-paying occupations. When average pay levels between States and industries are compared, these factors should be taken into consideration. For example, industries characterized by high proportions of part-time workers will show average wage levels appreciably less than the weekly pay levels of regular fulltime employees in these industries. The opposite effect characterizes industries with low proportions of part-time workers, or industries that typically schedule heavy weekend and overtime work. Average wage data also may be influenced by work stoppages, labor turnover rates, retroactive payments, seasonal factors, bonus payments, and so on.

Notes on the data

Beginning with the release of data for 2001, publications presenting data from the Covered Employment and Wages program have switched to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) as the basis for the assignment and tabulation of economic data by industry. NAICS is the product of a cooperative effort on the part of the statistical agencies of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Due to difference in NARCS and Standard Industrial Classification (sic) structures, industry data for 2001 is not comparable to the sic-based data for earlier years.

Effective January 2001, the program began assigning Indian Tribal Councils and related establishments to local government ownership. This BLS action was in response to a change in Federal law dealing with the way Indian Tribes are treated under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. This law requires federally recognized Indian Tribes to be treated similarly to State and local governments. In the past, the Covered Employment and Wage (CEW) program coded Indian Tribal Councils and related establishments in the private sector. As a result of the new law, CEW data reflects significant shifts in employment and wages between the private sector and local government from 2000 to 2001. Data also reflect industry changes. Those accounts previously assigned to civic and social organizations were assigned to tribal governments. There were no required industry changes for related establishments owned by these Tribal Councils. These tribal business establishments continued to be coded according to the economic activity of that entity.

To insure the highest possible quality of data, State employment security agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification process are introduced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year. Changes resulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first quarter. For these reasons, some data, especially at more detailed geographic levels, may not be strictly comparable with earlier years.

County definitions are assigned according to Federal Information Processing Standards Publications as issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Areas shown as counties include those designated as independent cities in some jurisdictions and, in Alaska, those areas designated by the Census Bureau where counties have not been created. County data also are presented for the New England States for comparative purposes, even though townships are the more common designation used in New England (and New Jersey).

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines metropolitan areas for use in Federal statistical activities and updates these definitions as needed. Data in this table use metropolitan area criteria established by OMB in definitions issued June 30, 1999 (OMB Bulletin No. 99-04). These definitions reflect information obtained from the 1990 Decennial Census and the 1998 U.S. Census Bureau population estimate. A complete list of metropolitan area definitions is available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Document Sales, 5205 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, telephone 1-800-553-6847.

OMB defines metropolitan areas in terms of entire counties, except in the six New England States where they are defined in terms of cities and towns. New England data in this table, however, are based on a county concept defined by OMB as New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMA) because county-level data are the most detailed available from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The NECMA is a county-based alternative to the city- and town-based metropolitan areas in New England. The NECMA for a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) include: (1) the county containing the first-named city in that MSA title (this county may include the first-named cities of other MSA, and (2) each additional county having at least half its population in the MSA in which first-named cities are in the county identified in step 1. The NECMA is officially defined areas that are meant to be used by statistical programs that cannot use the regular metropolitan area definitions in New England.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the covered employment and wage data, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202) 691-6567.

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey

Description of the series

Data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are collected and compiled from a sample of 16,000 business establishments. Each month, data are collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as Federal, State, and local government entities in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. The JOLTS sample design is a random sample drawn from a universe of more than eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program. This program includes all employers subject to State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and Federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector, and size class. Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty. JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. A ratio Of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data elements. Rates then are computed from the adjusted levels.

The monthly JOLTS data series begin with December 2000. Not seasonally adjusted data on job openings, hires, total separations, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations levels and rates are available for the total nonfarm sector, 16 private industry divisions and 2 government divisions based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and four geographic regions. Seasonally adjusted data on job openings, hires, total separations, and quits levels and rates are available for the total nonfarm sector, selected industry sectors, and four geographic regions.

Definitions

Establishments submit job openings information for the last business day of the reference month. A job opening requires that (l) a specific position exists and there is work available for that position; and (2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found; and (3) the employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to fill the position. Included are full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings. Active recruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded. Also excluded are jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job openings, and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occurring at any time during the reference month, including both new and rehired employees and full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other locations. The hires count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of hires by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100.

Separations are the total number of terminations of employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits are voluntary separations by employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other separations). Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer and in. elude layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and terminations of seasonal employees. Other separations include retirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations due to disability. Separations do not include transfers within the same location or employees on strike.

The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separations by employment, and multiplying that quotient by 100. The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

Notes on the data

The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are relatively new. The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel enrolled each month. A full complement of panels for the original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (sic) system was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002. The supplemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely enrolled until May 2003. The data collected up until those points are from less than a full sample. Therefore, estimates from earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were reporting data at that time.

In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data were revised to address possible underreporting. As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be comparable with estimates for March 2002 and later.

The Federal Government reorganization that involved transferring approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the Federal Government. The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March 2003. The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers between establishments. The Department of Homeland Security reorganization was a massive onetime event, and the inclusion of these intergovernmental transfers would distort the Federal Government time series.

Data users should note that seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary. The historical data, therefore, may be subject to larger than normal revisions. Because the seasonal patterns in economic data series typically emerge over time, the standard use of moving averages as seasonal filters to capture these effects requires longer series than are currently available. As a result, the stable seasonal filter option is used in the seasonal adjustment of the JOLTS data. When calculating seasonal factors, this filter takes an average for each calendar month after detrending the series. The stable seasonal filter assumes that the seasonal factors are fixed; a necessary assumption until sufficient data are avail able. When the stable seasonal filter is no longer needed, other program features also may be introduced, such as outlier adjustment and extended diagnostic testing. Additionally, it is expected that more series, such as layoffs and discharges and additional industries, may be seasonally adjusted when more data are available.

JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net changes in payroll employment. Some reasons why it is problematic to compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, especially on a monthly basis, are: (1) the reference period for payroll employment is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period for hires and separations is the calendar month; and (2) payroll employment can vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Additionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature of their payroll systems and practices. The shortfall appears to be about 2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, contact the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover at (202) 961-5870.

Compensation and Wage Data

(Tables 1-3; 30-36)

Compensation and waged data are gathered by the Bureau from business establishments, State and local governments, labor unions, collective bargaining agreements on file with the Bureau, and secondary sources.

Employment Cost Index

Description of the series

The Employment Cost Index (ECI) is a quarterly measure of the rate of change in compensation per hour worked and includes wages, salaries, and employer costs of employee benefits. It uses a fixed market basket of labor--similar in concept to the Consumer Price Index's fixed market basket of goods and services--to measure change over time in employer costs of employing labor.

Statistical series on total compensation costs, on wages and salaries, and on benefit costs are available for private nonfarm workers excluding proprietors, the self-employed, and household workers. The total compensation costs and wages and salaries series are also available for State and local government workers and for the civilian nonfarm economy, which consists of private industry and State and local government workers combined. Federal workers are excluded.

The Employment Cost Index probability sample consists of about 4,400 private nonfarm establishments providing about 23,000 occupational observations and 1,000 State and local government establishments providing 6,000 occupational observations selected to represent total employment in each sector. On average, each reporting unit provides wage and compensation information on five well-specified occupations. Data are collected each quarter for the pay period including the 12th day of March, June, September, and December.

Beginning with June 1986 data, fixed employment weights from the 1980 Census of Population are used each quarter to calculate the civilian and private indexes and the index for State and local governments. (Prior to June 1986, the employment weights are from the 1970 Census of Population.) These fixed weights, also used to derive all of the industry and occupation series indexes, ensure that changes in these indexes reflect only changes in compensation, not employment shifts among industries or occupations with different levels of wages and compensation. For the bargaining status, region, and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area series, however, employment data by industry and occupation are not available from the census. Instead, the 1980 employment weights are reallocated within these series each quarter based on the current sample. Therefore, these indexes are not strictly comparable to those for the aggregate, industry, and occupation series.

Definitions

Total compensation costs include wages, salaries, and the employer's costs for employee benefits.

Wages and salaries consist of earnings before payroll deductions, including production bonuses, incentive earnings, commissions, and cost-of-living adjustments.

Benefits include the cost to employers for paid leave, supplemental pay (including nonproduction bonuses), insurance, retirement and savings plans, and legally required benefits (such as Social Security, workers' compensation, and unemployment insurance).

Excluded from wages and salaries and employee benefits are such items as payment-in-kind, free room and board, and tips.

Notes on the data

The Employment Cost Index for changes in wages and salaries in the private nonfarm economy was published beginning in 1975. Changes in total compensation cost--wages and salaries and benefits combined--were published beginning in 1980. The series of changes in wages and salaries and for total compensation in the State and local government sector and in the civilian nonfarm economy (excluding Federal employees) were published beginning in 1981. Historical indexes (June 1981=100) are available on the Internet:

www.bls.gov/ect/

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Employment Cost Index, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends: (202) 691-6199.

Employee Benefits Survey

Description of the series

Employee benefits data are obtained from the Employee Benefits Survey, an annual survey of the incidence and provisions of selected benefits provided by employers. The survey collects data from a sample of approximately 9,000 private sector and State and local government establishments. The data are presented as a percentage of employees who participate in a certain benefit, or as an average benefit provision (for example, the average number of paid holidays provided to employees per year). Selected data from the survey are presented in table 34 for medium and large private establishments and in table 35 for small private establishments and State and local government.

The survey covers paid leave benefits such as holidays and vacations, and personal, funeral, jury duty, military, family, and sick leave; short-term disability, long-term disability, and life insurance; medical, dental, and vision care plans; defined benefit and defined contribution plans; flexible benefits plans; reimbursement accounts; and unpaid family leave.

Also, data are tabulated on the incidence of several other benefits, such as severance pay, child-care assistance, wellness programs, and employee assistance programs.

Definitions

Employer-provided benefits are benefits that are financed either wholly or partly by the employer. They may be sponsored by a union or other third party, as long as there is some employer financing. However, some benefits that are fully paid for by the employee also are included. For example, long-term care insurance and postretirement life insurance paid entirely by the employee are included because the guarantee of insurability and availability at group premium rates are considered a benefit.

Participants are workers who are covered by a benefit, whether or not they use that benefit. If the benefit plan is financed wholly by employers and requires employees to complete a minimum length of service for eligibility, the workers are considered participants whether or not they have met the requirement. If workers are required to contribute towards the cost of a plan, they are considered participants only if they elect the plan and agree to make the required contributions.

Defined benefit pension plans use predetermined formulas to calculate a retirement benefit (if any), and obligate the employer to provide those benefits. Benefits are generally based on salary, years of service, or both.

Defined contribution plans generally specify the level of employer and employee contributions to a plan, but not the formula for determining eventual benefits. Instead, individual accounts are set up for participants, and benefits are based on amounts credited to these accounts.

Tax-deferred savings plans are a type of defined contribution plan that allow participants to contribute a portion of their salary to an employer-sponsored plan and defer income taxes until withdrawal.

Flexible benefit plans allow employees to choose among several benefits, such as life insurance, medical care, and vacation days, and among several levels of coverage within a given benefit.

Notes on the data

Surveys of employees in medium and large establishments conducted over the 1979-86 period included establishments that employed at least 50, 100, or 250 workers, depending on the industry (most service industries were excluded). The survey conducted in 1987 covered only State and local governments with 50 or more employees. The surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 included medium and large establishments with 100 workers or more in private industries. All surveys conducted over the 1979-89 period excluded establishments in Alaska and Hawaii, as well as part-time employees.

Beginning in 1990, surveys of State and local governments and small private establishments were conducted in even-numbered years, and surveys of medium and large establishments were conducted in odd-numbered years. The small establishment survey includes all private nonfarm establishments with fewer than 100 workers, while the State and local government survey includes all governments, regardless of the number of workers. All three surveys include full- and part-time workers, and workers in all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Employee Benefits Survey, contact the Office of Compensation Levels and Trends on the Internet:

www.bls.gov/ebs/

Work stoppages

Description of the series

Data on work stoppages measure the number and duration of major strikes or lockouts (involving 1,000 workers or more) occurring during the month (or year), the number of workers involved, and the amount of work time lost because of stoppage. These data are presented in table 36.

Data are largely from a variety of published sources and cover only establishments directly involved in a stoppage. They do not measure the indirect or secondary effect of stoppages on other establishments whose employees are idle owing to material shortages or lack of service.

Definitions

Number of stoppages: The number of strikes and lockouts involving 1,000 workers or more and lasting a full shift or longer.

Workers involved: The number of workers directly involved in the stoppage.

Number of days idle: The aggregate number of workdays lost by workers involved in the stoppages.

Days of idleness as a percent of estimated working time: Aggregate workdays lost as a percent of the aggregate number of standard workdays in the period multiplied by total employment in the period.

Notes on the data

This series is not comparable with the one terminated in 1981 that covered strikes involving six workers or more.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on work stoppages data, contact the Office of Compensation and Working Conditions: (202) 691-6282, or the Internet:

www.bls.gov/cba/

Price Data

(Tables 2; 37-47)

Price data are gathered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from retail and primary markets in the United States. Price indexes are given in relation to a base period-December 2003 = 100 for many Producer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted), 1982-84 = 100 for many Consumer Price Indexes (unless otherwise noted), and 1990 = 100 for International Price Indexes.

Consumer Price Indexes

Description of the series

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change in the prices paid by urban consumers for a fixed market basket of goods and services. The CPI is calculated monthly for two population groups, one consisting only of urban households whose primary source of income is derived from the employment of wage earners and clerical workers, and the other consisting of all urban households. The wage earner index (CPI-W) is a continuation of the historic index that was introduced well over a half-century ago for use in wage negotiations. As new uses were developed for the CPI in recent years, the need for a broader and more representative index became apparent. The all-urban consumer index (CPI-U), introduced in 1978, is representative of the 1993-95 buying habits of about 87 percent of the non-institutional population of the United States at that time, compared with 32 percent represented in the CPI-W. In addition to wage earners and clerical workers, the CPI-U covers professional, managerial, and technical workers, the self-employed, short-term workers, the unemployed, retirees, and others not in the labor force.

The CPI is based on prices of food, clothing, shelter, fuel, drugs, transportation fares, doctors' and dentists' fees, and other goods and services that people buy for day-to-day living. The quantity and quality of these items are kept essentially unchanged between major revisions so that only price changes will be measured. All taxes directly associated with the purchase and use of items are included in the index.

Data collected from more than 23,000 retail establishments and 5,800 housing units in 87 urban areas across the country are used to develop the "U.S. city average." Separate estimates for 14 major urban centers are presented in table 38. The areas listed are as indicated in footnote 1 to the table. The area indexes measure only the average change in prices for each area since the base period, and do not indicate differences in the level of prices among cities.

Notes on the data

In January 1983, the Bureau changed the way in which homeownership costs are meaured for the CPI-U. A rental equivalence method replaced the asset-price approach to homeownership costs for that series. In January 1985, the same change was made in the CPI-W. The central purpose of the change was to separate shelter costs from the investment component of homeownership so that the index would reflect only the cost of shelter services provided by owner-occupied homes. An updated CPI-U and CPI-W were introduced with release of the January 1987 and January 1998 data.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Prices and Price Indexes: (202) 691-7000.

Producer Price Indexes Description of the series

Producer Price Indexes (PPI) measure average changes in prices received by domestic producers of commodities in all stages of processing. The sample used for calculating these indexes currently contains about 3,200 commodities and about 80,000 quotations per month, selected to represent the movement of prices of all commodities produced in the manufacturing; agriculture, forestry, and fishing; mining; and gas and electricity and public utilities sectors. The stage-of-processing structure of PPI organizes products by class of buyer and degree of fabrication (that is, finished goods, intermediate goods, and crude materials). The traditional commodity structure of PPI organizes products by similarity of end use or material composition. The industry and product structure of PPI organizes data in accordance with the 2002 North American Industry Classification System and product codes developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.

To the extent possible, prices used in calculating Producer Price Indexes apply to the first significant commercial transaction in the United States from the production or central marketing point. Price data are generally collected monthly, primarily by mail questionnaire. Most prices are obtained directly from producing companies on a voluntary and confidential basis. Prices generally are reported for the Tuesday of the week containing the 13th day of the month.

Since January 1992, price changes for the various commodities have been averaged together with implicit quantity weights representing their importance in the total net selling value of all commodities as of 1987. The detailed data are aggregated to obtain indexes for stage-of-processing groupings, commodity groupings, durability-of-product groupings, and a number of special composite groups. All Producer Price index data are subject to revision 4 months after original publication.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, contact the Division of Industrial Prices and Price Indexes: (202) 691-7705.

International Price Indexes

Description of the series

The International Price Program produces monthly and quarterly export and import price indexes for nonmilitary goods and services traded between the United States and the rest of the world. The export price index provides a measure of price change for all products sold by U.S. residents to foreign buyers. ("Residents" is defined as in the national income accounts; it includes corporations, businesses, and individuals, but does not require the organizations to be U.S. owned nor the individuals to have U.S. citizenship.) The import price index provides a measure of price change for goods purchased from other countries by U.S. residents.

The product universe for both the import and export indexes includes raw materials, agricultural products, semifinished manufactures, and finished manufactures, including both capital and consumer goods. Price data for these items are collected primarily by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer, although in a few cases, prices are obtained from other sources.

To the extent possible, the data gathered refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports and at either the foreign border or the U.S. border for imports. For nearly all products, the prices refer to transactions completed during the first week of the month. Survey respondents are asked to indicate all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to the reported prices, so that the price used in the calculation of the indexes is the actual price for which the product was bought or sold.

In addition to general indexes of prices for U.S. exports and imports, indexes are also published for detailed product categories of exports and imports. These categories are defined according to the five-digit level of detail for the Bureau of Economic Analysis End-use Classification, the three-digit level for the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), and the four-digit level of detail for the Harmonized System. Aggregate import indexes by country or region of origin are also available.

BLS publishes indexes for selected categories of internationally traded services, calculated on an international basis and on a balance-of-payments basis.

Notes on the data

The export and import price indexes are weighted indexes of the Laspeyres type. The trade weights currently used to compute both indexes relate to 2000.

Because a price index depends on the same items being priced from period to period, it is necessary to recognize when a product's specifications or terms of transaction have been modified. For this reason, the Bureau's questionnaire requests detailed descriptions of the physical and functional characteristics of the products being priced, as well as information on the number of units bought or sold, discounts, credit terms, packaging, class of buyer or seller, and so forth. When there are changes in either the specifications or terms of transaction of a product, the dollar value of each change is deleted from the total price change to obtain the "pure" change. Once this value is determined, a linking procedure is employed which allows for the continued repricing of the item.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. contact the Division of International Prices: (202) 691-7155.

Productivity Data (Tables 2; 48-51)

Business and major sectors

Description of the series

The productivity measures relate real out put to real input. As such, they encompass a family of measures which include single-factor input measures, such as output per hour, output per unit of labor input, or output per unit of capital input, as well as measures of multi factor productivity (output per unit of combined labor and capital inputs). The Bureau indexes show the change in output relative to changes in the various inputs. The measures cover the business, nonfarm business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial corporate sectors.

Corresponding indexes of hourly compensation, unit labor costs, unit nonlabor payments, and prices are also provided.

Definitions

Output per hour of all persons (labor productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per hour of labor input. Output per unit of capital services (capital productivity) is the quantity of goods and services produced per unit of capital services input. Multifactor productivity is the quantity of goods and services produced per combined inputs. For private business and private nonfarm business, inputs include labor and capital units. For manufacturing, inputs include labor, capital, energy, nonenergy materials, and purchased business services.

Compensation per hour is total compensation divided by hours at work. Total compensation equals the wages and salaries of employees plus employers' contributions for social insurance and private benefit plans, plus an estimate of these payments for the self-employed (except for nonfinancial corporations in which there are no self-employed). Real compensation per hour is compensation per hour deflated by the change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers.

Unit labor costs are the labor compensation costs expended in the production of a unit of output and are derived by dividing compensation by output. Unit nonlabor payments include profits, depreciation, interest, and indirect taxes per unit of output. They are computed by subtracting compensation of all persons from current-dollar value of output and dividing by output.

Unit nonlabor costs contain all the components of unit nonlabor payments except unit profits.

Unit profits include corporate profits with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments per unit of output.

Hours of all persons are the total hours at work of payroll workers, self-employed persons, and unpaid family workers.

Labor inputs are hours of all persons adjusted for the effects of changes in the education and experience of the labor force.

Capital services are the flow of services from the capital stock used in production. It is developed from measures of the net stock of physical assets--equipment, structures, land, and inventories--weighted by rental prices for each type of asset.

Combined units of labor and capital inputs are derived by combining changes in labor and capital input with weights which represent each component's share of total cost. Combined units of labor, capital, energy, materials, and purchased business services are similarly derived by combining changes in each input with weights that represent each input's share of total costs. The indexes for each input and for combined units are based on changing weights which are averages of the shares in the current and preceding year (the Tornquist index-number formula).

Notes on the data

Business sector output is an annually-weighted index constructed by excluding from real gross domestic product (GDP) the following outputs: general government, nonprofit institutions, paid employees of private households, and the rental value of owner-occupied dwellings. Nonfarm business also excludes farming. Private business and private nonfarm business further exclude government enterprises. The measures are supplied by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis. Annual estimates of manufacturing sectoral output are produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Quarterly manufacturing output indexes from the Federal Reserve Board are adjusted to these annual output measures by the BLS. Compensation data are developed from data of the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Hours data are developed from data of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

The productivity and associated cost measures in tables 48-51 describe the relationship between output in real terms and the labor and capital inputs involved in its production. They show the changes from period to period in the amount of goods and services produced per unit of input.

Although these measures relate output to hours and capital services, they do not measure the contributions of labor, capital, or any other specific factor of production. Rather, they reflect the joint effect of many influences, including changes in technology; shifts in the composition of the labor force; capital investment; level of output; changes in the utilization of capacity, energy, material, and research and development; the organization of production; managerial skill; and characteristics and efforts of the work force.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this productivity series, contact the Division of Productivity Research: (202) 691-5606.

Industry productivity measures

Description of the series

The BLS industry productivity indexes measure the relationship between output and inputs for selected industries and industry groups, and thus reflect trends in industry efficiency over time. Industry measures include labor productivity, multifactor productivity, compensation, and unit labor costs.

The industry measures differ in methodology and data sources from the productivity measures for the major sectors because the industry measures are developed independently of the National Income and Product Accounts framework used for the major sector measures.

Definitions

Output per hour is derived by dividing an index of industry output by an index of labor input. For most industries, output indexes are derived from data on the value of industry output adjusted for price change. For the remaining industries, output indexes are derived from data on the physical quantity of production.

The labor input series is based on the hours of all workers or, in the case of some transportation industries, on the number of employees. For most industries, the series consists of the hours of all employees. For some trade and services industries, the series also includes the hours of partners, proprietors, and unpaid family workers.

Unit labor costs represent the labor compensation costs per unit of output produced, and are derived by dividing an index of labor compensation by an index of output. Labor compensation includes payroll as well as supplemental payments, including both legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary programs.

Multifactor productivity is derived by dividing an index of industry output by an index of combined inputs consumed in producing that output. Combined inputs include capital, labor, and intermediate purchases. The measure of capital input represents the flow of services from the capital stock used in production. It is developed from measures of the net stock of physical assets--equipment, structures, land, and inventories. The measure of intermediate purchases is a combination of purchased materials, services, fuels, and electricity.

Notes on the data

The industry measures are compiled from data produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau, with additional data supplied by other government agencies, trade associations, and other sources.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Industry Productivity Studies: (202) 691-5618, or visit the Website at: www.bls.gov/lpc/home.htm

International Comparisons

(Tables 52-54)

Labor force and unemployment

Description of the series

Tables 52 and 53 present comparative measures of the labor force, employment, and unemployment approximating U.S. concepts for the United States, Canada, Australia. Japan, and six European countries. The labor force statistics published by other industrial countries are not, in most cases, comparable to U.S. concepts. Therefore, the Bureau adjusts the figures for selected countries, for all known major definitional differences, to the extent that data to prepare adjustments are available. Although precise comparability may not be achieved, these adjusted figures provide a better basis for international comparisons than the figures regularly published by each country. For further information on adjustments and comparability issues, see Constance Sorrentino, "International unemployment rates: how comparable are they?" Monthly Labor Review, June 2000, pp. 3-20 (available on the BLS Web site at: www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/06/ art1full.pdf).

Definitions

For the principal U.S. definitions of the labor force, employment, and unemployment, see the Notes section on Employment and Unemployment Data: Household survey data.

Notes on the data

The foreign country data are adjusted as closely as possible to U.S. concepts, with the exception of lower age limits and the treatment of layoffs. These adjustments include, but are not limited to: including older persons in the labor force by imposing no upper age limit, adding unemployed students to the unemployed, excluding the military and family workers working fewer than 15 hours from the employed, and excluding persons engaged in passive job search from the unemployed.

Data for the United States relate to the population 16 years of age and older. The U.S. concept of the working age population has no upper age limit. The adjusted to U.S. concepts statistics have been adapted, insofar as possible, to the age at which compulsory schooling ends in each country, and the Swedish statistics have been adjusted to include persons older than the Swedish upper age limit of 64 years. The adjusted statistics presented here relate to the population 16 years of age and older in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom; 15 years of age and older in Australia, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. An exception to this rule is that the Canadian statistics are adjusted to cover the population 16 years of age and older, whereas the age at which compulsory schooling ends remains at 15 years. In the labor force participation rates and employment-population ratios, the denominator is the civilian noninstitutionalized working age population, except that the institutionalized working age population is included in Japan and Germany.

In the United States, the unemployed include persons who are not employed and who were actively seeking work during the reference period, as well as persons on layoff. Persons waiting to start a new job who were actively seeking work during the reference period are counted as unemployed under U.S. concepts; if they were not actively seeking work, they are not counted in the labor force. In some countries, persons on layoff are classified as employed due to their strong job attachment. No adjustment is made for the countries that classify those on layoff as employed. In the United States, as in Australia and Japan, passive job seekers are not in the labor force; job search must be active, such as placing or answering advertisements, contacting employers directly, or registering with an employment agency (simply reading ads is not enough to qualify as active search). Canada and the European countries classify passive jobseekers as unemployed. An adjustment is made to exclude them in Canada, but not in the European countries where the phenomenon is less prevalent. Persons waiting to start a new job are counted among the unemployed for all other countries, whether or not they were actively seeking work.

The figures for one or more recent years for France, Germany, and the Netherlands are calculated using adjustment factors based on labor force surveys for earlier years and are considered preliminary. The recent year measures for these countries are therefore subject to revision whenever more current labor force surveys become available.

There are breaks in series for the United States (1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003), Australia (2001), and Germany (1999).

For the United States, beginning in 1994, data are not strictly comparable for prior years because of the introduction of a major redesign of the labor force survey questionnaire and collection methodology. The redesign effect has been estimated to increase the overall unemployment rate by 0.1 percentage point. Other breaks noted relate to changes in population controls that had virtually no effect on unemployment rates.

For a description of all the changes in the U.S. labor force survey over time and their impact, see Historical Comparability in the "Household Data" section of the BLS publication Employment and Earnings (available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/eps/ eetech_methods.pdf).

For Australia, the 2001 break reflects the introduction in April 2001 of a redesigned labor force survey that allowed for a closer application of International Labor Office guidelines for the definitions of labor force statistics. The Australian Bureau of Statistics revised their data so there is no break in the employment series. However, the reclassification of persons who had not actively looked for work because they were waiting to begin a new job from "not in the labor force" to "unemployed" could only be incorporated for April 2001 forward. This reclassification diverges from the U.S. definition where persons waiting to start a new job but not actively seeking work are not counted in the labor force. The impact of the reclassification was an increase in the unemployment rate by 0.1 percentage point in 2001.

For Germany, the 1999 break reflects the incorporation of an improved method of data calculation and a change in coverage to persons living in private households only.

For further qualifications and historical data, see Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries, on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/fls/flslforc.pdf

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics: (202) 691-5654 or flshelp@bls.gov

Manufacturing productivity and labor costs

Description of the series

Table 54 presents comparative indexes of manufacturing labor productivity (output per hour), output, total hours, compensation per hour, and unit labor costs for the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and nine European countries. These measures are trend comparisons--that is, series that measure changes over time--rather than level comparisons. There are greater technical problems in comparing the levels of manufacturing output among economies.

BLS constructs the comparative indexes from three basic aggregate measures--output, total labor hours, and total compensation. The hours and compensation measures refer to all employed persons (wage and salary earners plus self-employed persons and unpaid family workers) with the exception of Belguim and Taiwan, where only employees (wage and salary earners) are counted.

Definitions

Output, in general, refers to value added in manufacturing from the national accounts of each country. However, the output series for Japan prior to 1970 is an index of industrial production, and the national accounts measures for the United Kingdom are essentially identical to their indexes of industrial production.

The output data for the United States are the gross product originating (value added) measures prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Comparable manufacturing output data currently are not available prior to 1977.

U.S. data from 1998 forward are based on the 1997 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Output is in real value-added terms using a chain-type annual-weighted method for price deflation. (For more information on the U.S. measure, see "Improved Estimates of Gross Product by Industry for 1947-98," Survey of Current Business, June 2000, and "Improved Annual Industry Accounts for 1998-2003," Survey of Current Business, June 2004). Most of the other economies now also use annual moving price weights, but earlier years were estimated using fixed price weights, with the weights typically updated every 5 or 10 years.

To preserve the comparability of the U.S. measures with those for other economies, BLS uses gross product originating in manufacturing for the United States for these comparative measures. The gross product originating series differs from the manufacturing output series that BLS publishes in its news releases on quarterly measures of U.S. productivity and costs (and that underlies the measures that appear in tables 48 and 50 in this section). The quarterly measures are on a "sectoral output" basis, rather than a value-added basis. Sectoral output is gross output less intrasector transactions.

Total labor hours refers to hours worked in all economies. The measures are developed from statistics of manufacturing employment and average hours. The series used for Australia, Canada, Demark, France (from 1970 forward), Norway, and Sweden are official series published with the national accounts. For Germany, BLS uses estimates of average hours worked developed by a research institute connected to the Ministry of Labor for use with the national accounts employment figures. For the United Kingdom from 1992, an official annual index of total manufacturing hours is used. Where official total hours series are not available, the measures are developed by BLS using employment figures published with the national accounts, or other comprehensive employment series, and estimates of annual hours worked.

Total compensation (labor cost) includes all payments in cash or in-kind made directly to employees plus employer expenditures for legally-required insurance programs and contractual and private benefit plans. The measures are from the national accounts of each economy, except those for Belgium, which are developed by BLS using statistics on employment, average hours, and hourly compensation. For Australia, Canada, France, and Sweden, compensation is increased to account for other significant taxes on payroll or employment. For the United Kingdom, compensation is reduced between 1967 and 1991 to account for employment-related subsidies. Self-employed workers are included in the all-employed-persons measures by assuming that their compensation is equal to the average for wage and salary employees.

Notes on the data

In general, the measures relate to total manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification. However, the measures for France include parts of mining as well.

The measures for recent years may be based on current indicators of manufacturing output (such as industrial production indexes), employment, average hours, and hourly compensation until national accounts and other statistics used for the long-term measures become available.

Official published data for Australia are in fiscal years that begin on July 1. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has finished calendar-year data for recent years for output and hours. For earlier years and for compensation, data are BLS estimates using 2-year moving averages of fiscal year data.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on this series, contact the Division of Foreign Labor Statistics: (202) 691-5654.

Occupational Injury and Illness Data

(Tables 55-56)

Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

Description of the series

The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses collects data from employers about their workers' job-related nonfatal injuries and illnesses. The information that employers provide is based on records that they maintain under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Self-employed individuals, farms with fewer than 11 employees, employers regulated by other Federal safety and health laws, and Federal, State, and local government agencies are excluded from the survey.

The survey is a Federal-State cooperative program with an independent sample selected for each participating State. A stratified random sample with a Neyman allocation is selected to represent all private industries in the State. The survey is stratified by Standard Industrial Classification and size of employment.

Definitions

Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, employers maintain records of nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses that involve one or more of the following: loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or medical treatment other than first aid.

Occupational injury is any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation that results from a work-related event or a single, instantaneous exposure in the work environment.

Occupational illness is an abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to factors associated with employment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses or disease which may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.

Lost workday injuries and illnesses are cases that involve days away from work, or days of restricted work activity, or both.

Lost workdays include the number of workdays (consecutive or not) on which the employee was either away from work or at work in some restricted capacity, or both, because of an occupational injury or illness, BLS measures of the number and incidence rate of lost workdays were discontinued beginning with the 1993 survey. The number of days away from work or days of restricted work activity does not include the day of injury or onset of illness or any days on which the employee would not have worked, such as a Federal holiday, even though able to work.

Incidence rates are computed as the number of injuries and/or illnesses or lost work days per 100 full-time workers.

Notes on the data

The definitions of occupational injuries and illnesses are from Recordkeeping Guidelines for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 1986).

Estimates are made for industries and employment size classes for total recordable cases, lost workday cases, days away from work cases, and nonfatal cases without lost workdays. These data also are shown separately for injuries. Illness data are available for seven categories: occupational skin diseases or disorders, dust diseases of the lungs, respiratory conditions due to toxic agents, poisoning (systemic effects of toxic agents), disorders due to physical agents (other than toxic materials), disorders associated with repeated trauma, and all other occupational illnesses.

The survey continues to measure the number of new work-related illness cases which are recognized, diagnosed, and reported during the year. Some conditions, for example, long-term latent illnesses caused by exposure to carcinogens, often are difficult to relate to the workplace and are not adequately recognized and reported. These long-term latent illnesses are believed to be understated in the survey's illness measure. In contrast, the overwhelming majority of the reported new illnesses are those which are easier to directly relate to workplace activity (for example, contact dermatitis and carpal tunnel syndrome).

Most of the estimates are in the form of incidence rates, defined as the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 equivalent fulltime workers. For this purpose, 200,000 employee hours represent 100 employee years (2,000 hours per employee). Full detail on the available measures is presented in the annual bulletin, Occupational Injuries and Illnesses: Counts, Rates, and Characteristics.

Comparable data for more than 40 States and territories are available from the BLS Office of Safety, Health and Working Conditions. Many of these States publish data on State and local government employees in addition to private industry data.

Mining and railroad data are furnished to BLS by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the Federal Railroad Administration. Data from these organizations are included in both the national and State data published annually.

With the 1992 survey, BLS began publishing details on serious, nonfatal incidents resulting in days away from work. Included are some major characteristics of the injured and ill workers, such as occupation, age, gender, race, and length of service, as well as the circumstances of their injuries and illnesses (nature of the disabling condition, part of body affected, event and exposure, and the source directly producing the condition). In general, these data are available nationwide for detailed industries and for individual States at more aggregated industry levels.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on occupational injuries and illnesses, contact the Office of Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions at (202) 691-6180, or access the Internet at: http://www.bls.gov/iif/

Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries

The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries compiles a complete roster of fatal job-related injuries, including detailed data about the fatally injured workers and the fatal events. The program collects and cross checks fatality information from multiple sources, including death certificates, State and Federal workers' compensation reports, Occupational Safety and Health Administration and Mine Safety and Health Administration records, medical examiner and autopsy reports, media accounts, State motor vehicle fatality records, and follow-up questionnaires to employers.

In addition to private wage and salary workers, the self-employed, family members, and Federal, State, and local government workers are covered by the program. To be included in the fatality census, the decedent must have been employed (that is working for pay, compensation, or profit) at the time of the event, engaged in a legal work activity, or present at the site of the incident as a requirement of his or her job.

Definition

A fatal work injury is any intentional or unintentional wound or damage to the body resulting in death from acute exposure to energy, such as heat or electricity, or kinetic energy from a crash, or from the absence of such essentials as heat or oxygen caused by a specific event or incident or series of events within a single workday or shift. Fatalities that occur during a person's commute to or from work are excluded from the census, as well as work-related illnesses, which can be difficult to identify due to long latency periods.

Notes on the data

Twenty-eight data elements are collected, coded, and tabulated in the fatality program, including information about the fatally injured worker, the fatal incident, and the machinery or equipment involved. Summary worker demographic data and event characteristics are included in a national news release that is available about 8 months after the end of the reference year. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries was initiated in 1992 as a joint Federal-State effort. Most States issue summary information at the time of the national news release.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries contact the BLS Office of Safety, Health, and Working Conditions at (202) 691-6175, or the Internet at: www.bls.gov/iif/
1. Labor market indicators

Selected indicators             2003      2004

     Employment data

Employment status
  of the civilian
  noninstitutional
  population
  (household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force rate            66.2      66.0
    Employment-
      population ratio          62.3      62.3
    Unemployment rate            6.0       5.5
      Men                        6.3       5.6
        16 to 24 years          13.4      12.6
        25 years and older       5.0       4.4
      Women                      5.7       5.4
        16 to 24 years          11.4      11.0
        25 years and older       4.6       4.4

Employment, nonfarm
(payroll data), in
thousands: (1)
  Total nonfarm              129,931   131,480
       Total private         108,356   109,862
    Goods-producing           27,817    21,884
    Manufacturing             14,525    14,329
    Service-providing        108,114   109,596

  Average hours:
    Total private               33.7      33.7
    Manufacturing               40.4      40.8
      Overtime                   4.2       4.6

Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in
the ECI, compensation:
  All workers
  (excluding farm,
  household and
  Federal workers)               3.8       3.7
    Private industry
         workers                 4.0       3.8
      Goods-producing (3)        4.0       4.7
      Service-
        providing (3)            4.0       3.3
    State and local
    government workers           3.3       3.5

Workers by bargaining
status (private industry):
  Union                          4.6       5.6
  Nonunion                       3.9       3.4

                                        2003

Selected indicators            II        III       IV

     Employment data

Employment status
  of the civilian
  noninstitutional
  population
  (household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force rate            66.4      66.1      66.0
    Employment-
      population ratio          62.3      62.1      62.2
    Unemployment rate            6.1       6.1       5.9
      Men                        6.5       6.4       6.1
        16 to 24 years          13.9      13.7      13.0
        25 years and older       5.2       5.1       4.9
      Women                      5.7       5.8       5.6
        16 to 24 years          11.8      11.5      10.9
        25 years and older       4.6       4.7       4.6

Employment, nonfarm
(payroll data), in
thousands: (1)
  Total nonfarm              129,845   129,890   130,168
       Total private         108,253   108,320   108,614
    Goods-producing           21,828   121,700    21,684
    Manufacturing             14,555    14,377    14,313
    Service-providing        108,017   108,190   108,483

  Average hours:
    Total private               33.6      33.6      33.7
    Manufacturing               40.2      40.3      40.7
      Overtime                   4.0       4.1       4.4

Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in
the ECI, compensation:
  All workers
  (excluding farm,
  household and
  Federal workers)                .8       1.1        .5
    Private industry
         workers                  .8       1.0        .4
      Goods-producing (3)         .9        .7        .5
      Service-
        providing (3)             .8       1.1        .5
    State and local
    government workers            .4      11.7        .5

Workers by bargaining
status (private industry):
  Union                          1.2       1.0        .7
  Nonunion                        .8       1.0        .4

                                              2004

Selected indicators             I        II        III    IV

     Employment data

Employment status
  of the civilian
  noninstitutional
  population
  (household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force rate            66.0      66.0      66.0   66.0
    Employment-
      population ratio          62.2      62.3      62.4   62.4
    Unemployment rate            5.6       5.6       5.5    5.4
      Men                        5.7       5.7       5.6    5.6
        16 to 24 years          12.6      12.9      12.5   12.6
        25 years and older       4.5       4.5      44.0    4.3
      Women                      5.6       5.4       5.3    5.2
        16 to 24 years          11.1      10.9      10.9   10.9
        25 years and older       4.5       4.4       4.3    4.2

Employment, nonfarm
(payroll data), in
thousands: (1)
  Total nonfarm              130,541   131,125   131,731132,302
       Total private         108,986   109,737   110,095110,600
    Goods-producing           21,725    21,868    21,932 22,000
    Manufacturing             14,285    14,338    14,353 14,338
    Service-providing        108,816   109,457   109,799110,302

  Average hours:
    Total private               33.8      33.7      33.7   33.7
    Manufacturing               41.0      40.8      40.8   40.6
      Overtime                   4.5       4.5       4.6    4.5

Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in
the ECI, compensation:
  All workers
  (excluding farm,
  household and
  Federal workers)               1.4        .9       1.0     .5
    Private industry
         workers                 1.5        .9        .8     .5
      Goods-producing (3)        2.3        .9        .9     .6
      Service-
        providing (3)            1.1       1.0        .8     .3
    State and local
    government workers            .7        .4       1.7     .6

Workers by bargaining
status (private industry):
  Union                          2.8       1.5        .8     .5
  Nonunion                     1.3i         .8        .9     .4

                                    2005

Selected indicators             I        II

     Employment data

Employment status
  of the civilian
  noninstitutional
  population
  (household
  survey): (1)
    Labor force rate            65.8      66.0
    Employment-
      population ratio          62.3      62.7
    Unemployment rate            5.3       5.1
      Men                        5.4       5.1
        16 to 24 years          13.2      12.6
        25 years and older       4.1       3.8
      Women                      5.3       5.1
        16 to 24 years          10.9      10.5
        25 years and older       4.2       4.2

Employment, nonfarm
(payroll data), in
thousands: (1)
  Total nonfarm              132,814   133,405
       Total private         111,089   111,655
    Goods-producing           22,054    22,134
    Manufacturing             14,314    14,288
    Service-providing        110,759   111,271

  Average hours:
    Total private               33.7      33.7
    Manufacturing               40.6      40.4
      Overtime                   4.5       4.4

Employment Cost Index (2)

Percent change in
the ECI, compensation:
  All workers
  (excluding farm,
  household and
  Federal workers)               1.1        .6
    Private industry
         workers                 1.1        .7
      Goods-producing (3)        1.5        .9
      Service-
        providing (3)            1.0        .6
    State and local
    government workers            .9        .3

Workers by bargaining
status (private industry):
  Union                           .7        .8
  Nonunion                       1.3        .7

(1) Quarterly data seasonally adjusted.

(2) Annual charges are December-to-December changes. Quarterly
changes are calculated using the last month of each quarter.

(3) Goods-producing industries include mining, construction,
and manufacturing. Service-providing industries include all
other private sector industries.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, household survey data reflect
revised population controls. Nonfarm data r effect the conversion
to the 2002 version of the North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS), replacing the Standard Industrial Classification
(sic) system. rwics-based data by industry are not comparable
with sic-based data.

2. Annual and quarterly percent changes in compensation,
prices, and productivity

                            2003   2004           2003

                                            II    III    IV

Compensation data (1, 2)
Employment Cost Index--
  compensation (wages,
  salaries, benefits):
    Civilian nonfarm         3.8    3.7     0.8   1.1    0.5
      Private nonfarm        4.0    3.8     8.0   1.0     .4
Employment Cost
Index-wages
and salaries:
    Civilian nonfarm         2.9    2.4      .6    .9     .3
      Private nonfarm        3.0    2.4      .7    .8     .4

Price data (1)

Consumer Price Index
(All Urban Consumers):
All Items                    2.3    3.3     -.3   -.2    -.2

Producer Price Index:
  Finished goods             3.2    4.1     -.8    .3     .0
    Finished consumer
      goods                  4.2    4.6     1.8    .3     .0
    Capital equipment         .4    2.4     -.6   -.1     .0
  Intermediate materials,
    supplies,
    and components           4.6    9.1    -2.1   -.1     .0
  Crude materials           25.2   18.0   -10.6   3.4   14.4

Productivity data (3)

Output per hour
of all persons:
  Business sector (1)        3.9    3.4     7.6   8.4     .3
  Nonfarm business
    sector                   3.8    3.4     6.6   9.6    8.0
  Nonfinancial
    corporations (4)         4.1    3.9     7.3   7.3    2.4

                                       2004

                              I     II     III    IV

Compensation data (1, 2)
Employment Cost Index--
  compensation (wages,
  salaries, benefits):
    Civilian nonfarm         1.4    0.9     1.0   0.5
      Private nonfarm        1.5     .9      .8    .5
Employment Cost
Index-wages
and salaries:
    Civilian nonfarm         6.0    6.0      .9    .3
      Private nonfarm        7.0     .7      .9    .2

Price data (1)

Consumer Price Index
(All Urban Consumers):
All Items                    1.2    1.2      .2    .2

Producer Price Index:
  Finished goods             1.2    1.2      .0   1.1
    Finished consumer
      goods                  1.5    1.4    -1.7    .9
    Capital equipment        6.0     .5      .4   1.6
  Intermediate materials,
    supplies,
    and components           2.5    3.0     1.9    .9
  Crude materials            6.0    7.6    -5.1   8.3

Productivity data (3)

Output per hour
of all persons:
  Business sector (1)        3.4    3.4     1.4   3.1
  Nonfarm business
    sector                   2.1    4.5     1.3   2.5
  Nonfinancial
    corporations (4)          .8    2.3     7.4   8.5

                                2005

                             I      II

Compensation data (1, 2)
Employment Cost Index--
  compensation (wages,
  salaries, benefits):
    Civilian nonfarm         1.1    0.6
      Private nonfarm        1.1     .7
Employment Cost
Index-wages
and salaries:
    Civilian nonfarm          .7     .5
      Private nonfarm         .7     .6

Price data (1)

Consumer Price Index
(All Urban Consumers):
All Items                    1.0     .5

Producer Price Index:
  Finished goods             2.0     .3
    Finished consumer
      goods                 -2.6    1.4
    Capital equipment        2.1    -.2
  Intermediate materials,
    supplies,
    and components           3.5     .8
  Crude materials            9.7   -2.5

Productivity data (3)

Output per hour
of all persons:
  Business sector (1)        2.9    1.2
  Nonfarm business
    sector                   3.2    2.2
  Nonfinancial
    corporations (4)         3.6    --

(1) Annual changes are December-to-December changes.
Quarterly changes are calculated using the last month
of each quarter. Compensation and price data are not
seasonally adjusted, and the price data are not compounded.

(2) Excludes Federal and private household workers.

(3) Annual rates of change are computed by comparing
annual averages. Quarterly percent changes reflect annual
rates of change in quarterly indexes. The data are seasonally
adjusted.

(4) Output per hour of all employees.

3. Alternative measures of wage
and compensation changes

                                 Quarterly change

                             2004                2005

                          II     III   IV     I      II

Average hourly
compensations: (1)
  All persons,
    business sector        3.3   6.5   11.3    6.2   2.5
  All persons, nonfarm
    business sector        3.7   6.1   10.2    6.9   3.5

Employment Cost
Index-compensation:
  Civilian nonfarm (2)     0.9   1.0    5.0    1.1   0.6
    Private nonfarm        9.0   8.0    5.0    1.1   7.0
      Union                1.5   0.8    0.5    0.7   0.8
      Nonunion             0.8   0.9    0.4    1.3   0.7
    State and local
      governments          0.4   1.7    0.6    9.0   0.3

Employment Cost Index--
wages and salaries:
  Civilian nonfarm         1.6   0.9    0.3    0.7   0.5
    Private nonfarm        0.7   0.9    0.2    0.7   0.6
      Union                1.0   0.8    0.4    0.1   0.8
      Nonunion             0.6   0.8    0.2    0.8   0.6
    State and local
      governments          0.2   1.0    0.5    0.6   0.2

                              Four quarters ending--

                              2004                2005

                            II   III     IV     I      II

Average hourly
compensations: (1)
  All persons,
    business sector        3.6   4.3    4.8    6.8   6.6
  All persons, nonfarm
    business sector        3.7   4.0    5.8    6.7   6.7

Employment Cost
Index-compensation:
  Civilian nonfarm (2)     3.9   3.8    3.7    3.5   3.2
    Private nonfarm        4.0   3.7    3.8    3.4   3.2
      Union                6.0   5.8    5.6    3.6   2.9
      Nonunion             3.5   3.4    3.4    3.4   3.2
    State and local
      governments          3.4   3.4    3.5    3.6   3.6

Employment Cost Index--
wages and salaries:
  Civilian nonfarm         2.5   2.4    2.4    2.4   2.4
    Private nonfarm        2.6   2.6    2.4    2.4   2.4
      Union                2.9   3.0    2.8    2.3   2.1
      Nonunion             2.5   2.5    2.4    2.4   2.4
    State and local
      governments          1.9   2.0    2.1    2.3   2.4

(1) Seasonally adjusted. "Quarterly average" is percent
change from a quarter ago, at an annual rate.

(2) Excludes Federal and household workers.

4. Employment status of the population, by sex, age,
race, and Hispanic origin, monthly data seasonally
adjusted

[Numbers in thousands]

                                   Annual average         2004

Employment status                  2003        2004       July

TOTAL

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                221,168     223,357     223,422
    Civilian labor force        146,510     147,401     147,823
        Participation rate         66.2        66.0        66.2
      Employed                  137,736     139,252     139,639
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 62.3        62.3        62.5
      Unemployed                  8,774       8,149       8,184
        Unemployment rate           6.0         5.5         5.5
    Not in the labor force       74,658      75,956      75,599

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 98,272      99,476      99,512
    Civilian labor force         74,623      75,364      75,567
        Participation rate         75.9        75.8        75.9
      Employed                   70,415      71,572      71,830
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 71.7        71.9        72.2
      Unemployed                  4,209       3,791       3,737
        Unemployment rate           5.6         5.0         4.9
    Not in the labor force       23,649      24,113      23,945

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)              1,068,001     107,658     107,687
    Civilian labor force         64,716      64,923      65,085
        Participation rate         60.6        60.3        60.4
      Employed                   61,402      61,773      61,902
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 57.5        57.4        57.5
      Unemployed                  3,314       3,150       3,183
        Unemployment rate           5.1         4.9         4.9
    Not in the labor force       42,083      42,735      42,603

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 16,096      16,222      16,222
    Civilian labor force          7,170       7,114       7,172
        Participation rate         44.5        43.9        44.2
      Employed                    5,919       5,907       5,907
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 36.8        36.4        36.4
      Unemployed                  1,251       1,208       1,265
        Unemployment rate          17.5        17.0        17.6
    Not in the labor force        8,926       9,108       9,051

White (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                181,292     182,643     182,676
    Civilian labor force        120,546     121,686     121,383
        Participation rate         66.5        66.3        66.4
      Employed                  114,235     115,239     115,610
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 63.0        63.1        63.3
      Unemployed                  6,311       5,847       5,773
        Unemployment rate           5.2         4.8         4.8
    Not in the labor force       60,746      61,558      61,293

Black or African
American (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 25,686      26,065      26,078
    Civilian labor force         16,526      16,638      16,775
        Participation rate         64.3        63.8        64.3
      Employed                   14,739      14,909      14,937
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 57.4        57.2        57.3
      Unemployed                  1,787       1,729       1,838
        Unemployment rate          10.8        10.4        11.0
    Not in the labor force        9,161       9,428       9,303

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 27,551      28,109      28,150
    Civilian labor force         18,813      19,272      19,432
        Participation rate         68.3        68.6        69.0
      Employed                   17,372      17,930      18,102
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                63.10       63.80       64.30
      Unemployed                  1,441       1,342       1,330
        Unemployment rate           7.7         7.0         6.8
    Not in the labor force        8,738       8,837       8,717

                                               2004

Employment status                 Aug.       Sept.        Oct.

TOTAL

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                223,677     223,941     224,192
    Civilian labor force        147,676     147,531     147,893
        Participation rate         66.0        65.9        66.0
      Employed                  139,658     139,527     139,827
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 62.4        62.3        62.4
      Unemployed                  8,018       8,005       8,066
        Unemployment rate           5.4         5.5         5.4
    Not in the labor force       76,001      76,410      76,299

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 99,642      99,776      99,904
    Civilian labor force         75,615      75,462      75,632
        Participation rate         75.9        75.6        75.7
      Employed                   71,847      71,701      71,895
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 72.1        71.9        72.0
      Unemployed                  3,768       3,761       3,736
        Unemployment rate           5.0         5.0         4.9
    Not in the labor force       24,026      24,314      24,272

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                107,801     107,920     108,032
    Civilian labor force         64,909      65,008      65,126
        Participation rate         60.2        60.2        60.3
      Employed                   61,877      61,939      62,024
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 57.4        57.4        57.4
      Unemployed                  3,032       3,069       3,102
        Unemployment rate           4.7         4.7         4.8
    Not in the labor force       42,892      42,912      42,906

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 16,234      16,246      16,257
    Civilian labor force          7,152       7,062       7,165
        Participation rate         44.1        43.5        43.9
      Employed                    5,934       5,887       5,908
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 36.6        36.2        36.3
      Unemployed                  1,217       1,175       1,227
        Unemployment rate          17.0        16.6        17.2
    Not in the labor force        9,082       9,184       9,122

White (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                182,846     183,022     183,188
    Civilian labor force        121,278     120,995     121,273
        Participation rate         66.3        66.1        66.2
      Employed                  115,526     115,318     115,618
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 63.2        63.0        63.1
      Unemployed                  5,752       5,677       5,655
        Unemployment rate           4.7         4.7         4.7
    Not in the labor force       61,568      62,027      61,915

Black or African
American (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 26,120      26,163      26,204
    Civilian labor force         16,721      16,711      16,820
        Participation rate         64.0        63.9        62.4
      Employed                   14,972      14,981      15,012
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 57.3        57.3        57.3
      Unemployed                  1,749       1,730       1,808
        Unemployment rate          10.5        10.4        10.7
    Not in the labor force        9,399       9,452       9,384

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 28,243      28,338      28,431
    Civilian labor force         19,463      19,444      19,524
        Participation rate         66.9        68.6        68.7
      Employed                   18,128     118,079      18,213
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                64.20       63.80       64.10
      Unemployed                  1,335       1,366       1,311
        Unemployment rate           6.9         7.0         6.7
    Not in the labor force        8,780       8,894       8,907

                                   2004                    2005

Employment status                 Nov.        Dec.        Jan.

TOTAL

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                224,422     224,640     224,837
    Civilian labor force        148,313     148,203     147,979
        Participation rate         66.1        66.0        65.8
      Employed                  140,293     140,156     140,241
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 62.5        62.4        62.4
      Unemployed                  8,020       8,047       7,737
        Unemployment rate           5.5         5.4         5.2
    Not in the labor force       76,109      76,437      76,858

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                100,017      99,476     100,219
    Civilian labor force         75,866      75,754      75,594
        Participation rate        75.90       75.70       75.40
      Employed                   71,134      72,020      72,029
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 72.1        71.9        71.9
      Unemployed                  3,733       3,733       3,565
        Unemployment rate           4.9         4.9         4.7
    Not in the labor force       24,151      24,372      24,625

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                108,129     107,658     108,316
    Civilian labor force         65,244      65,260      65,318
        Participation rate         60.3        60.3        60.3
      Employed                   62,145      62,208      62,295
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 57.5        57.5        57.5
      Unemployed                  3,099       3,051       3,023
        Unemployment rate           4.7         4.7         4.6
    Not in the labor force       42,885      42,961      42,998

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 16,293      16,222      16,302
    Civilian labor force          7,202       7,189       7,066
        Participation rate         44.2        44.1        43.3
      Employed                    6,014       5,927       5,917
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 36.9        36.4        36.3
      Unemployed                  1,188       1,262       1,150
        Unemployment rate          16.5        17.6        16.3
    Not in the labor force        9,074       9,104       9,235

White (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                183,340     183,483     183,640
    Civilian labor force        121,606     121,509     121,553
        Participation rate         66.3        66.2        66.2
      Employed                  115,966     115,910     116,158
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 63.3        63.2        63.3
      Unemployed                  5,640       5,600       5,395
        Unemployment rate           4.6         4.6         4.4
    Not in the labor force       61,735      61,973      62,088

Black or African
American (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 26,239      26,273      26,306
    Civilian labor force         16,728      16,713      16,721
        Participation rate         63.8        63.6        63.6
      Employed                   14,913      14,907      14,946
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 56.8        56.7        56.8
      Unemployed                  1,814       1,806       1,775
        Unemployment rate          10.8        10.8        10.6
    Not in the labor force        9,512       9,559       9,585

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 28,520      28,608      28,642
    Civilian labor force         19,552      19,544      19,379
        Participation rate         68.6        68.3        67.7
      Employed                   18,238      18,252      18,198
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                63.90       63.80       63.50
      Unemployed                  1,313       1,292       1,181
        Unemployment rate           6.7         6.6         6.1
    Not in the labor force        8,968       9,064       9,263

                                            2005

Employment status                 Feb.        Mar.        Apr.

TOTAL

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                225,041     225,236     225,441
    Civilian labor force        148,132     148,157     148,762
        Participation rate         65.8        65.8        66.0
      Employed                  140,144     140,501     141,099
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 62.3        62.4        62.6
      Unemployed                  7,988       7,656       7,663
        Unemployment rate           5.4         5.2         5.2
    Not in the labor force       76,909      77,079      76,679

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                100,321     100,419     100,520
    Civilian labor force         75,816      75,921      76,173
        Participation rate         75.6        75.6        75.8
      Employed                   72,131      72,429      72,817
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 71.9        72.1        72.4
      Unemployed                  3,685       3,492       3,356
        Unemployment rate           4.9         4.6         4.4
    Not in the labor force       24.505      24,498      24,347

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                108,403     108,486     108,573
    Civilian labor force         65,270      65,051      65,420
        Participation rate         60.2        60.0        60.3
      Employed                   62,202      62,099      62,384
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 57.4        57.2        57.5
      Unemployed                  3,066       2,952       3,036
        Unemployment rate           4.7         4.5         4.6
    Not in the labor force       43,133      43,435      43,153

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 16,317      16,332      16,347
    Civilian labor force          7,046       7,185       7,168
        Participation rate         43.2        44.0        43.9
      Employed                    5,811       5,973       5,897
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 35.6        36.6        36.1
      Unemployed                  1,235       1,212       1,271
        Unemployment rate          17.5        16.9        17.7
    Not in the labor force        9,271       9,147       9,179

White (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                183,767     183,888     184,015
    Civilian labor force        121,621     121,484     121,961
        Participation rate         66.2        66.1        66.3
      Employed                  116,022     116,135     116,574
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 63.1        63.2        63.4
      Unemployed                  5,598       5,349       5,387
        Unemployment rate           4.6         4.4         4.4
    Not in the labor force       62,146      62,403      62,054

Black or African
American (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 26,342      26,377      26,413
    Civilian labor force         16,708      16,741      16,940
        Participation rate         63.4        63.5        64.1
      Employed                   14,890      15,025      15,184
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 56.5        57.0        57.5
      Unemployed                  1,818       1,716       1,756
        Unemployment rate          10.9        10.3        10.4
    Not in the labor force        9,634       9,636       9,473

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 28,729      28,815      28,902
    Civilian labor force         19,458      19,541      19,665
        Participation rate         67.7        67.8        68.0
      Employed                   18,211      18,425      18,412
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                63.40       63.90       63.70
      Unemployed                  1,248       1,117       1,252
        Unemployment rate           6.4         5.7         6.4
    Not in the labor force        9,270       9,273       9,237

                                               2005

Employment status                  May        June        July

TOTAL

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                225,670     225,911     226,421
    Civilian labor force        149,122     149,123     149,573
        Participation rate         66.1        66.0        66.1
      Employed                  141,475     141,638     142,076
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 62.7        62.7        62.8
      Unemployed                  7,647       7,486       7,497
        Unemployment rate           5.1         5.0         5.0
    Not in the labor force       76,547      76,787      76,580

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                100,634     100,754     100,874
    Civilian labor force         76,439      76,462      76,624
        Participation rate         76.0        75.9        76.0
      Employed                   73,100      73,174      73,363
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 72.6        72.6        72.7
      Unemployed                  3,339       3,288       3,261
        Unemployment rate           4.4         4.3         4.3
    Not in the labor force       24,195      24,292      24,250

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                108,672     108,776     108,880
    Civilian labor force         65,479      65,470      65,768
        Participation rate         60.3        60.2        60.4
      Employed                   62,464      62,451      62,690
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 57.5        57.4        57.6
      Unemployed                  3,015       3,019       3,078
        Unemployment rate           4.6         4.6         4.7
    Not in the labor force       43,192      43,306      43,113

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 16,364      16,381      16,399
    Civilian labor force          7,204       7,192       7,182
        Participation rate         44.0        43.9        43.8
      Employed                    5,911       6,013       6,024
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 36.1        36.7        36.7
      Unemployed                  1,293       1,178       1,158
        Unemployment rate          17.9        16.4        16.1
    Not in the labor force        9,160       9,190       9,217

White (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                184,167     184,328     184,490
    Civilian labor force        122,177     121,985     122,383
        Participation rate         66.3        66.2        66.3
      Employed                  116,791     116,778     117,149
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 63.4        63.4        63.5
      Unemployed                  5,386      52,061       5,234
        Unemployment rate           4.4         4.3         4.3
    Not in the labor force       61,989      62,343      62,107

Black or African
American (3)

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 26,450      26,448      26,526
    Civilian labor force         17,050      17,147      17,190
        Participation rate         64.5        64.7        64.8
      Employed                   15,329      15,378      15,561
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                 58.0        58.1        58.7
      Unemployed                  1,721       1,769       1,628
        Unemployment rate          10.1        10.3         9.5
    Not in the labor force        9,400       9,341       9,336

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Civilian
  noninstitutional
  population (1)                 28,989      29,079      29,168
    Civilian labor force         19,761      19,777      19,794
        Participation rate         68.2        68.0        67.9
      Employed                   18,578      18,623      18,698
      Employment-population
         ratio (2)                64.10       64.00       64.10
      Unemployed                  1,183       1,154       1,096
        Unemployment rate           6.0         5.8         5.5
    Not in the labor force        9,228       9,302       9,374

(1) The population figures are not seasonally adjusted.

(2) Civilian employment as a percent of the civilian
noninstitutonal population.

(3) Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group
only; persons who selected more than one race group are not
included. Prior to 2003, persons who reported more than one
race were included In the group they identified as the main
race.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white and
to totals because data are not presented for all races.
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and,
well as by race. Beginning in January 2003, data reflect
household survey.

5. Selected employment indicators,
monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

                                     Annual average   2004

Selected categories                2003      2004      July

Employed, 16 years and older      137,736   139,252   139,639
  Men                              73,332    74,524    74,811
  Women                            64,404    64,728    64,828
  Married men,
    spouse presents                44,653    45,084    44,948
  Married women,
    spouse present                 34,695    34,600    34,607

Persons at work part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,701     4,567     4,488
     Slack work or business
       conditions                   3,118     2,841     2,642
     Could only find
       part-time work               1,279     1,409     1,472
     Part time for noneconomic
       noneconomic reasons         19,014    19,380    19,737

Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for
      economic reasons              4,596     4,469     4,390
    Slack work or
      business conditions           3,052     2,773     2,580
    Could only find
      part-timework                 1,264     1,399     1,484
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        18,658    19,026    19,327

                                             2004

Selected categories                Aug.      Sept.     Oct.

Employed, 16 years and older      139,658   139,527   139,827
  Men                              74,624    74,629    74,852
  Women                            64,634    64,898    64,975
  Married men,
    spouse presents                45,099    45,093    45,127
  Married women,
    spouse present                 34,494    34,704    34,808

Persons at work part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,509     4,476     4,762
     Slack work or business
       conditions                   2,818     2,805     3,052
     Could only find
       part-time work               1,403     1,312     1,385
     Part time for noneconomic
       noneconomic reasons         19,657    19,410    19,704

Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for
      economic reasons              4,408     4,400     4,656
    Slack work or
      business conditions           2,722     2,750     2,971
    Could only find
      part-timework                 1,388     1,320     1,363
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        19,204    19,081    19,288

                                   2004                2005

Selected categories                Nov.      Dec.      Jan.

Employed, 16 years and older      140,293   140,156   140,241
  Men                              75,188    74,938    74,934
  Women                            65,104    65,218    65,307
  Married men,
    spouse presents                45,462    45,315    45,171
  Married women,
    spouse present                 34,961    34,878    34,739

Persons at work part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,533     4,474     4,395
     Slack work or business
       conditions                   2,761     2,735     2,768
     Could only find
       part-time work               1,420     1,440     1,329
     Part time for noneconomic
       noneconomic reasons         19,499    19,502    19,089

Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for
      economic reasons              4,404     4,382     4,303
    Slack work or
      business conditions           2,685     2,682     2,702
    Could only find
      part-timework                 1,396     1,397     1,309
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        19,141    19,176    18,765

                                             2005

Selected categories                Feb.      Mar.      Apr.

Employed, 16 years and older      140,144   140,501   141,099
  Men                              74,964    75,375    75,735
  Women                            65,180    65,127    65,364
  Married men,
    spouse presents                45,351    45,382    45,482
  Married women,
    spouse present                 34,601    34,307    34,539

Persons at work part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,269     4,344     4,293
     Slack work or business
       conditions                   2,629     2,643     2,613
     Could only find
       part-time work               1,296     1,419     1,363
     Part time for noneconomic
       noneconomic reasons         19,555    19,458    19,584

Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for
      economic reasons              4,153     4,268     4,186
    Slack work or
      business conditions           2,572     2,592     2,540
    Could only find
      part-timework                 1,268     1,411     1,351
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        19,254    19,182    19,226

                                             2005

Selected categories                 May      June      July

Employed, 16 years and older      141,475   141,638   142,076
  Men                              75,985    76,092    76,272
  Women                            65,490    65,545    65,804
  Married men,
    spouse presents                45,725    45,357    45,486
  Married women,
    spouse present                 34,747    34,622    34,965

Persons at work part time (1)

All industries:
  Part time for economic
    reasons                         4,361     4,465     4,427
     Slack work or business
       conditions                   2,741     2,666     2,723
     Could only find
       part-time work               1,346     1,420     1,368
     Part time for noneconomic
       noneconomic reasons         19,435    19,021    19,528

Nonagricultural industries:
  Part time for
      economic reasons              4,280     4,386     4,369
    Slack work or
      business conditions           2,705     2,616     2,673
    Could only find
      part-timework                 1,331     1,416     1,368
  Part time for noneconomic
    reasons                        19,160    18,633    19,084

(1) Excludes persons "with a job but not at work" during the survey
period for such reasons as vacation, illness, or industrial disputes.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

6. Selected unemployment indicators, monthly
data seasonally adjusted
[Unemployment rates]
                                 Annual average     2004
Selected
categories                        2003   2004   July   Aug.

Total, 16 years
and older                          6.0    5.5    5.5    5.4
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      17.5   17.0   17.6   17.0
  Men, 20 years and older          5.6    5.0    4.9    5.0
  Women, 20 years and older        5.1    4.9    4.9    4.7

  White, total (1)                 5.2    4.8    4.8    4.7
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years    15.2   15.0   14.9   15.4
      Men, 16 to 19 years         17.1   16.3   15.5   15.8
      Women, 16 to 19 years       13.3   13.6   14.2   15.0
    Men, 20 years and older        5.0    4.4    4.3    4.4
    Women, 20 years and older      4.4    4.2    4.2    4.0

   Black or African
   American, total (1)            10.8   10.4   11.0   10.5
      Both sexes,
        16 to 19 years            33.0   31.7   37.2    0.3
      Men, 16 to 19 years         36.0   35.6   37.9   34.9
      Women, 16 to 19 years       30.3   28.2   36.6   24.2
    Men, 20 years and older       10.3    9.9   10.3   10.4
    Women, 20 years and older      9.2    8.9    9.1    8.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity       7.7    7.0    6.8    6.9
Married men, spouse present        3.8    3.1    3.2    3.1
Married women, spouse present      3.7    3.5    3.5    3.5
Full-time workers                  6.1    5.6    5.6    5.5
Part-time workers                  5.5    5.3    5.2    5.2

Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high
  school diploma                   8.8    8.5    8.3    8.2
High school graduates,
  no college (3)                   5.5    5.0    5.0    4.9
Some college or
  associate degree                 4.8    4.2    4.2    4.1
Bachelor's degree
  and higher (4)                   3.1    2.7    2.7    2.7

                                             2004
Selected
categories                       Sept.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.

Total, 16 years
and older                          5.4    5.5    5.4    5.4
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      16.6   17.2   16.5   17.6
  Men, 20 years and older          5.0    4.9    4.9    4.9
  Women, 20 years and older        4.7    4.8    4.7    4.7

  White, total (1)                14.7    4.7    4.6    4.6
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years    14.7   15.1   14.4   15.7
      Men, 16 to 19 years         15.9   17.4   15.5   17.9
      Women, 16 to 19 years       13.5   12.6   13.2   13.4
    Men, 20 years and older        4.3    4.2    4.2    4.2
    Women, 20 years and older      4.0    4.0    4.1    3.9

   Black or African
   American, total (1)            10.4   10.7   10.8   10.8
      Both sexes,
        16 to 19 years            28.6   34.7   32.7   30.8
      Men, 16 to 19 years         35.9   37.1   38.1   37.7
      Women, 16 to 19 years       21.1   32.4   27.0   24.0
    Men, 20 years and older       10.2   10.2   10.5   10.7
    Women, 20 years and older      8.9    8.9    9.0    9.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity       7.0    6.7    6.7    6.6
Married men, spouse present        3.0    3.0    3.1    3.1
Married women, spouse present      3.1    3.1    3.4    3.4
Full-time workers                  5.5    5.4    5.4    5.4
Part-time workers                  5.0    5.5    5.4    5.4

Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high
  school diploma                   8.9    8.2    8.0    8.3
High school graduates,
  no college (3)                   4.8    4.9    4.9    4.9
Some college or
  associate degree                 4.0    4.2    4.3    4.3
Bachelor's degree
  and higher (4)                   2.6    2.5    2.5    2.5

                                             2005
Selected
categories                       Jan.    Feb.   Mar.   Apr.

Total, 16 years
and older                          5.2    5.4    5.2    5.2
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      16.3   17.5   16.9   17.7
  Men, 20 years and older          4.7    4.9    4.6    4.4
  Women, 20 years and older        4.6    4.7    4.5    4.6

  White, total (1)                 4.4    4.6    4.4    4.4
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years    14.0   15.5   14.5   15.3
      Men, 16 to 19 years         16.3   18.1   17.7   17.8
      Women, 16 to 19 years       11.8   12.9   11.0   12.8
    Men, 20 years and older        4.0    4.1    4.0    3.8
    Women, 20 years and older      3.9    3.9    3.8    4.0

   Black or African
   American, total (1)            10.6   10.9   10.3   10.4
      Both sexes,
        16 to 19 years            30.2   31.5   32.6   35.5
      Men, 16 to 19 years         30.0   34.1   35.8   37.8
      Women, 16 to 19 years       30.5   28.6   29.2   32.8
    Men, 20 years and older       10.4   10.9    9.2    9.3
    Women, 20 years and older      8.9    9.1    8.9    8.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity       6.1    6.4    5.7    6.4
Married men, spouse present        3.1    3.0    3.0    2.7
Married women, spouse present      3.2    3.2    3.0    3.3
Full-time workers                  5.2    5.4    5.1    5.1
Part-time workers                  5.3    5.4    5.4    5.3

Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high
  school diploma                   7.5    7.8    7.8    8.4
High school graduates,
  no college (3)                   4.7    4.9    4.7    4.4
Some college or
  associate degree                 4.1    4.2    4.0    3.9
Bachelor's degree
  and higher (4)                   2.4    2.4    2.4    2.5

                                         2005
Selected
categories                        May    June   July

Total, 16 years
and older                          5.1    5.0    5.0
  Both sexes, 16 to 19 years      17.9   16.4   16.1
  Men, 20 years and older          4.4    4.3    4.3
  Women, 20 years and older        4.6    4.6    4.7

  White, total (1)                 4.4    4.3    4.3
    Both sexes, 16 to 19 years    15.4   14.2   13.6
      Men, 16 to 19 years         17.8   16.0   15.6
      Women, 16 to 19 years       13.0   12.3   11.6
    Men, 20 years and older        3.8    3.6    3.7
    Women, 20 years and older      3.9    3.9    3.9

   Black or African
   American, total (1)            10.1   10.3    9.5
      Both sexes,
        16 to 19 years            35.8   32.4   33.1
      Men, 16 to 19 years         36.3   37.6   39.8
      Women, 16 to 19 years       35.3   26.9   27.4
    Men, 20 years and older        9.2    9.6    8.4
    Women, 20 years and older      8.4    8.8    8.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity       6.0    5.8    5.5
Married men, spouse present        2.7    2.6    2.6
Married women, spouse present      3.1    3.3    3.4
Full-time workers                  5.0    4.9    4.9
Part-time workers                  5.6    5.4    5.5

Educational attainment (2)

Less than a high
  school diploma                   7.8    7.0    7.6
High school graduates,
  no college (3)                   4.5    4.7    4.8
Some college or
  associate degree                 3.9    3.9    3.7
Bachelor's degree
  and higher (4)                   2.4    2.3    2.4

(1) Beginning in 2003, persons who selected this race group only;
persons who selected more than one race group are not included.
Prior to 2003, persons who reported more than one race were
included in the group they identified as the main race.

(2) Data refer to persons 25 years and older.

(3) Includes high school diploma or equivalent.

(4) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's,
professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised
population controls used in the household survey.

7. Duration of unemployment, monthly data seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

                                 Annual              2004
                                 average
Weeks of
Unemployment                 2003    2004   July    Aug.    Sept.

Less than 5 weeks           2,785   2,696   2,803   2,605   2,796
5 to 14 weeks               2,612   2,382   2,458   2,521   2,251
15 weeks and over           3,378   3,072   2,885   2,924   2,971
  15 to 26 weeks            1,442   1,293   1,198   1,243   1,227
  27 weeks and over         1,936   1,779   1,686   1,681   1,744

Mean duration, in weeks      19.2    19.6    18.5    19.2    19.6
Median duration, in weeks    10.1     9.8     8.9     9.5     9.5

                                     2004                 2005

Weeks of
Unemployment                Oct.    Nov.    Dec.    Jan.    Feb.

Less than 5 weeks           2,753   2,611   2,865   2,599   2,755
5 to 14 weeks               2,290   2,361   2,264   2,343   2,317
15 weeks and over           3,032   3,012   2,961   2,824   2,888
  15 to 26 weeks            1,261   1,294   1,325   1,201   1,255
  27 weeks and over         1,771   1,718   1,636   1,623   1,633

Mean duration, in weeks      19.7    19.8    19.3    19.3    19.1
Median duration, in weeks     9.5     9.8     9.5     9.4     9.3

                                     2005

Weeks of
Unemployment                Feb.    Mar.    Apr.

Less than 5 weeks           2,755   2,531   2,666
5 to 14 weeks               2,317   2,319   2,268
15 weeks and over           2,888   2,817   2,698
  15 to 26 weeks            1,255   1,165   1,093
  27 weeks and over         1,633   1,652   1,615

Mean duration, in weeks      19.1    19.5    19.6
Median duration, in weeks     9.3     9.3     8.9

                                     2005

Weeks of
Unemployment                 May    June    July

Less than 5 weeks           2,699   2,666   2,571
5 to 14 weeks               2,262   2,342   2,430
15 weeks and over           2,667   2,350   2,437
  15 to 26 weeks            1,133   1,041   1,047
  27 weeks and over         1,534   1,310   1,389

Mean duration, in weeks      18.8    17.1    17.6
Median duration, in weeks     9.1     9.1     9.0

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised
population controls used in the household survey.

8. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, monthly data
seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]

                            Annual average  2004
       Reason for
      unemployment           2003    2004    July    Aug.

Job losers (1)              4,838   4,197   4,228   3,978
  On temporary layoff       1,121     998   1,068     971
  Not on temporary layoff   3,717   3,199   3,160   3,007
Job leavers                   818     858     896     885
Reentrants                  2,477   2,408   2,333   2,440
New entrants                  641     686     686     699

  Percent of unemployed

Job losers (1)               55.1    51.5    51.9    49.7
  On temporary layoff        12.8    12.2    13.1    12.1
  Not on temporary layoff    42.4    39.3    38.8    37.6
Job leavers                   9.3    10.5    11.0    11.1
Reentrants                   28.2    29.5    28.6    30.5
New entrants                  7.3     8.4     8.4     8.7

   Percent of civilian
       labor force

Job losers (1)                3.3     2.8     2.9     2.7
Jab leavers                    .6      .6      .6      .6
Reentrants                    1.7     1.6     1.6     1.7
New entrants                   .4      .5      .5      .5

                                         2004
       Reason for
      unemployment           Sept.   Oct.    Nov.    Dec.

Job losers (1)              4,014   4,074   4,066   4,108
  On temporary layoff         919     947     941     965
  Not on temporary layoff   3,094   3,127   3,124   3,144
Job leavers                   830     829     880     898
Reentrants                  2,417   2,411   2,388   2,361
New entrants                  697     747     723     709

  Percent of unemployed

Job losers (1)               50.4    50.5     5.1    50.9
  On temporary layoff        11.6    11.8    11.7    11.9
  Not on temporary layoff    38.9    38.8    38.8    38.9
Job leavers                  10.4    10.3    10.9    11.1
Reentrants                   30.4    29.9    29.6    29.2
New entrants                  8.8     9.3     9.0     8.8

   Percent of civilian
       labor force

Job losers (1)                2.7     2.8     2.7     2.8
Jab leavers                    .6      .6      .6      .6
Reentrants                    1.6     1.6     1.6     1.6
New entrants                   .5      .5      .5      .5

                                         2005
       Reason for
      unemployment           Jan.    Feb.    Mar.    Apr.

Job losers (1)              4,048   3,980   3,784   3,675
  On temporary layoff         966     965     961     838
  Not on temporary layoff   3,082   3,015   2,823   2,837
Job leavers                   819     965     855     897
Reentrants                  2,324   2,405   2,364   2,356
New entrants                  624     745     711     747

  Percent of unemployed

Job losers (1)               51.8    49.2    49.1    47.9
  On temporary layoff        12.4    11.9    12.5    10.9
  Not on temporary layoff    39.4    37.2    36.6    37.0
Job leavers                  10.5    11.9    11.1    11.7
Reentrants                   29.7    29.7    30.6    30.7
New entrants                  8.0     9.2     9.2     9.7

   Percent of civilian
       labor force

Job losers (1)                2.7     2.7     2.6     2.5
Jab leavers                    .6      .7      .6      .6
Reentrants                    1.6     1.6     1.6     1.6
New entrants                   .4      .5      .5      .5

                                    2005
       Reason for
      unemployment           May     June    July

Job losers (1)              3,646   3,680   3,633
  On temporary layoff         864     975     959
  Not on temporary layoff   2,782   2,705   2,674
Job leavers                   942     844     839
Reentrants                  2,353   2,219   2,394
New entrants                  728     661     628

  Percent of unemployed

Job losers (1)               47.5    49.7    48.6
  On temporary layoff        11.3    13.2    12.8
  Not on temporary layoff    36.3    36.5    35.7
Job leavers                  12.3    11.4    11.0
Reentrants                   30.7    30.0    32.0
New entrants                  9.5     8.9     8.4

   Percent of civilian
       labor force

Job losers (1)                2.4     2.5     2.4
Jab leavers                    .6      .6      .6
Reentrants                    1.6     1.5     1.6
New entrants                   .5      .4      .4

(1) Includes persons who completed temporary jobs.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised
population controls used in the household survey.

9. Unemployment rates by sex and age, monthly data
seasonally adjusted
[Civilian workers]

                               Annual average       2004

Sex and age                     2003    2004    July    Aug.

Total, 16 years and older        6.0     5.5     5.5     5.4
  16 to 24 years                12.4    11.8    11.9    11.6
    16 to 19 years              17.5    17.0    17.6    17.0
      16 to 17 years            19.1    20.2    20.3    20.7
      18 to 19 years            16.4    15.0    16.1    14.9
    20 to 24 years              10.0     9.4     9.2     9.0
  25 years and older             4.8     4.4     4.4     4.3
    25 to 54 years               5.0     4.6     4.6     4.4
    55 years and older           4.1     3.7     3.7     3.7

Men, 16 years and older          6.3     5.6     5.5     5.6
  16 to 24 years                13.4    12.6    12.2    12.5
    16 to 19 years              19.3    18.4    17.8    18.1
      16 to 17 years            20.7    22.0    21.2    21.9
      18 to 19 years            18.4    16.3    15.9    16.1
    20 to 24 years              10.6    10.1     9.7    10.0
  25 years and older             5.0     4.4     4.4     4.4
    25 to 54 years               5.2     4.6     4.5     4.5
    55 years and older           4.4     3.9     3.8     4.0

Women, 16 years and older        5.7     5.4     5.5     5.2
  16 to 24 years                11.4    11.0    11.6    10.6
    16 to 19 years              15.6    15.5    17.5    15.9
      16 to 17 years            17.5    18.5    19.5    19.7
      18 to 19 years            14.2    13.5    16.4    13.5
    20 to 24 years               9.3     8.7     8.7     7.9
  25 years and older             4.6     4.4     4.4     4.3
      25 to 54 years             4.8     4.6     4.7     4.4
      55 years and older (1)     3.7     3.6     3.8     3.9

                                            2004

Sex and age                     Sept.   Oct.    Nov.    Dec.

Total, 16 years and older        5.4     5.5     5.4     5.4
  16 to 24 years                11.8    12.2    11.7    11.7
    16 to 19 years              16.6    17.2    17.6    17.6
      16 to 17 years            19.6    20.6    20.6    20.6
      18 to 19 years            14.9    15.2    15.4    15.4
    20 to 24 years               9.5     9.8     8.9     8.9
  25 years and older             4.3     4.3     4.3     4.3
    25 to 54 years               4.4     4.4     4.5     4.5
    55 years and older           3.7     3.8     3.5     3.5

Men, 16 years and older          5.6     5.6     5.6     5.6
  16 to 24 years                12.9    13.0    12.5    12.5
    16 to 19 years              18.2    19.2    20.3    20.3
      16 to 17 years            20.6    22.1    24.3    24.3
      18 to 19 years            16.8    17.7    17.8    17.8
    20 to 24 years              10.5    10.2     9.0     9.0
  25 years and older             4.3     4.3     4.4     4.4
    25 to 54 years               4.4     4.4     4.6     4.6
    55 years and older           3.9     4.1     3.5     3.5

Women, 16 years and older        5.2     5.3     5.2     5.2
  16 to 24 years                10.6    11.3    10.8    10.8
    16 to 19 years              15.9    15.1    14.8    14.8
      16 to 17 years            19.7    19.0    17.2    17.2
      18 to 19 years            13.5    12.5    12.9    12.9
    20 to 24 years               7.9     9.4     8.9     8.9
  25 years and older             4.3     4.2     4.2     4.2
      25 to 54 years             4.4     4.4     4.4     4.4
      55 years and older (1)     3.9     3.3     3.2     3.3

                                            2005

Sex and age                     Jan.    Feb.    Mar.    Apr.

Total, 16 years and older        5.2     5.4     5.2     5.2
  16 to 24 years                11.7    12.4    11.6    11.8
    16 to 19 years              16.3    17.5    16.9    17.7
      16 to 17 years            19.3    20.6    19.4    19.9
      18 to 19 years            14.4    15.5    15.0    16.9
    20 to 24 years               9.5    10.0     9.0     8.9
  25 years and older             4.1     4.2     4.0     4.0
    25 to 54 years               4.2     4.3     4.2     4.1
    55 years and older           3.5     3.6     3.5     3.5

Men, 16 years and older          5.3     5.6     5.3     5.1
  16 to 24 years                12.7    14.1    12.9    13.0
    16 to 19 years              18.2    20.4    19.9    20.4
      16 to 17 years            22.0    25.0    22.9    22.2
      18 to 19 years            16.1    17.7    17.5    19.9
    20 to 24 years              10.2    11.3     9.7     9.5
  25 years and older             4.0     4.1     4.0     3.8
    25 to 54 years               4.1     4.2     4.1     3.9
    55 years and older           3.9     3.7     3.6     3.5

Women, 16 years and older        5.1     5.2     5.0     5.2
  16 to 24 years                10.5    10.6    10.1    10.4
    16 to 19 years              14.3    14.6    13.7    14.9
      16 to 17 years            16.8    16.5    15.8    17.5
      18 to 19 years            12.7    13.2    12.2    13.9
    20 to 24 years               8.7     8.6     8.3     8.2
  25 years and older             4.1     4.2     4.0     4.2
      25 to 54 years             4.4     4.4     4.2     4.4
      55 years and older (1)     3.3     3.5     3.2     3.2

                                       2005

Sex and age                     May     June    July

Total, 16 years and older        5.1     5.0     5.0
  16 to 24 years                11.8    11.2    10.8
    16 to 19 years              17.9    16.4    16.1
      16 to 17 years            20.0    18.3    18.7
      18 to 19 years            16.3    15.2    14.4
    20 to 24 years               8.8     8.8     8.3
  25 years and older             4.0     3.9     4.0
    25 to 54 years               4.2     4.1     4.2
    55 years and older           3.2     3.1     3.5

Men, 16 years and older          5.1     5.0     4.9
  16 to 24 years                12.5    12.3    11.7
    16 to 19 years              20.0    19.0    18.6
      16 to 17 years            22.5    21.7    23.2
      18 to 19 years            18.4    17.5    15.5
    20 to 24 years               9.2     9.3     8.7
  25 years and older             3.8     3.7     3.7
    25 to 54 years               4.0     3.9     3.9
    55 years and older           3.0     3.1     3.2

Women, 16 years and older        5.2     5.1     5.1
  16 to 24 years                10.9    10.0     9.7
    16 to 19 years              15.8    13.8    13.6
      16 to 17 years            17.7    15.1    14.5
      18 to 19 years            14.2    12.8    13.2
    20 to 24 years               8.4     8.1     7.7
  25 years and older             4.1     4.2     4.3
      25 to 54 years             4.3     4.4     4.5
      55 years and older (1)     3.2     3.3     4.1

(1) Data are not seasonally adjusted.

NOTE: Beginning in January 2003, data reflect revised population
controls used in the household survey.

10. Unemployment rates by State, seasonally adjusted

                       June   May      June
State                  2004   2005   2005 (p)

Alabama                5.5    4.4      4.4
Alaska                 7.4    6.4      6.3
Arizona                5.0    4.8      4.4
Arkansas               5.8    5.0      4.8
California             6.3    5.3      5.4

Colorado               5.5    5.3      5.0
Connecticut            4.8    5.3      5.1
Delaware               4.1    4.1      4.1
District of Columbia   8.1    7.9      7.5
Florida                4.8    4.1      4.0

Georgia                4.7    5.2      5.2
Hawaii                 3.2    2.7      2.7
Idaho                  4.8    3.9      3.9
Illinois               6.1    5.8      6.0
Indiana                5.1    4.8      5.1

Iowa                   4.8    4.8      4.6
Kansas                 5.5    5.3      5.2
Kentucky               5.4    5.7      5.7
Louisiana              5.8    5.4      5.4
Maine                  4.5    5.0      4.7

Maryland               4.2    4.3      4.2
Massachusetts          5.1    4.8      4.7
Michigan               7.0    7.1      6.8
Minnesota              4.6    4.3      3.7
Mississippi            6.1    7.1      7.1

Missouri               5.7    5.6      5.4
Montana                4.4    4.5      4.4
Nebraska               3.7    4.0      3.8
Nevada                 4.4    4.0      4.0
New Hampshire          3.8    3.6      3.5

New Jersey             4.8    3.9      4.0
New Mexico             5.7    6.0      5.7
New York               5.9    5.0      4.9
North Carolina         5.6    5.1      5.3
North Dakota           3.4    3.5      3.4

Ohio                   6.2    6.1      6.2
Oklahoma               5.1    4.5      4.3
Oregon                 7.5    6.4      6.5
Pennsylvania           5.5    4.8      5.0
Rhode Island           5.2    4.5      4.8

South Carolina         6.9    6.3      6.3
South Dakota           3.5    4.0      3.8
Tennessee              5.3    6.2      6.0
Texas                  6.1    5.5      5.1
Utah                   5.3    4.9      4.6

Vermont                3.5    3.1      3.4
Virginia               3.8    3.6      3.7
Washington             6.2    5.6      5.5
West Virginia          5.4    4.5      4.8
Wisconsin              4.9    4.7      4.6
Wyoming                4.0    4.1      3.7

(p) = preliminary

11. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by
State, seasonally adjusted

State                     June         May          June
                          2004         2005       2005 (p)

Alabama                 2,146,821    2,143,048    2,131,507
Alaska                    332,371      338,854      340,414
Arizona                 2,771,394    2,816,286    2,821,889
Arkansas                1,303,506    1,345,629    1,343,259
California             17,540,837   17,783,775   17,811,180

Colorado                2,520,012    2,560,398    2,549,407
Connecticut             1,796,807    1,812,919    1,800,528
Delaware                  422,867      432,201      431,530
District of Columbia      297,431      298,768      298,441
Florida                 8,396,013    8,653,301    8,643,791

Georgia                 4,392,187    4,487,063    4,481,159
Hawaii                    614,963      625,173      630,284
Idaho                     703,382      728,370      734,574
Illinois                6,381,886    6,479,643    6,442,871
Indiana                 3,168,487    3,200,411    3,187,407

Iowa                    1,623,290    1,639,877    1,638,335
Kansas                  1,463,823    1,472,267    1,463,104
Kentucky                1,976,897    1,991,855    1,989,121
Louisiana               2,057,005    2,110,625    2,113,445
Maine                     698,993      708,850      706,974

Maryland                2,881,637    2,935,738    2,932,110
Massachusetts           3,394,094    3,373,772    3,367,420
Michigan                5,075,132    5,129,447    5,087,061
Minnesota               2,959,676    2,975,345    2,957,065
Mississippi             1,329,001    1,349,625    1,343,638

Missouri                3,034,351    3,031,278    3,017,322
Montana                   484,077      491,261      492,877
Nebraska                  986,656      986,876      981,972
Nevada                  1,177,083    1,212,923    1,216,105
New Hampshire             723,136      734,690      733,710

New Jersey              4,387,727    4,406,372    4,415,302
New Mexico                911,002      940,008      939,812
New York                9,357,079    9,423,714    9,366,710
North Carolina          4,251,146    4,308,337    4,308,482
North Dakota              353,982      355,364      354,175

Ohio                    5,888,274    5,930,253    5,898,782
Oklahoma                1,713,780    1,722,874    1,721,865
Oregon                  1,856,978    1,865,148    1,864,098
Pennsylvania            6,258,273    6,350,018    6,286,681
Rhode Island              562,934      570,690      569,017

South Carolina          2,046,322    2,068,652    2,061,954
South Dakota              427,934      428,280      429,072
Tennessee               2,907,505    2,907,197    2,878,388
Texas                  11,027,739   11,216,988   11,165,666
Utah                    1,203,775    1,235,731    1,236,299

Vermont                   353,001      351,495      351,937
Virginia                3,816,561    3,907,947    3,911,184
Washington              3,234,408    3,269,472    3,281,594
West Virginia             789,313      791,437      788,945
Wisconsin               3,069,479    3,049,673    3,038,202
Wyoming                   281,811      285,537      286,109

NOTE: Some data in this table may differ from data published
elsewhere because of the continual updating of the database.

12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry,
monthly data seasonally adjusted

[In thousands]

                                            Annual average       2004

Industry                                   2003       2004       July

      TOTAL NONFARM                       129,999    131,480    131,562
    TOTAL PRIVATE                         108,416    109,862    109,976
GOODS-PRODUCING                            21,816     21,884     21,902
  Natural resources and
    mining                                    572        591        596
        Logging                              69.4       67.8       67.4
    Mining                                  502.7      523.2      528.9
      Oil and gas extraction                120.2      123.1      123.2
      Mining except oil and gas (1)         202.7      207.1      211.8
        Coal mining                          70.0       71.7       73.5
      Support activities for mining         179.8      193.1      193.9
  Construction                              6,735    6,964.0      6,965
      Construction of buildings           1,575.8    1,632.2    1,632.2
      Heavy and civil engineering           903.1      902.5      899.7
      Speciality trade contractors        4,255.7    4,429.7    4,433.1
  Manufacturing                            14,510     14,329     14,341
          Production workers               10,190     10,083     10,102
    Durable goods                           8,963      8,923      8,926
          Production workers                6,152      6,137      6,144
        Wood products                       537.6      548.4        550
        Nonmetallic mineral products        494.2      504.8      507.9
        Primary metals                      477.4      465.9      468.4
        Fabricated metal products         1,506.8    1,470.3    1,502.6
        Machinery                         1,149.4    1,141.5    1,146.8
        Computer and electronic
          products (1)                    1,355.2    1,326.2    1,332.8
        Computer and peripheral
          equipment                         224.0      212.1      211.4
        Communications equipment            154.9      150.5      151.3
        Semiconductors and
          electronic components             461.1      452.8      457.9
        Electronic instruments              429.7      431.8      433.9
      Electrical equipment and
        appliances                          459.6      446.8      447.3
      Transportation equipment            1,774.1    1,763.5    1,739.1
      Furniture and related
        products                            572.9      572.7      574.0
      Miscellaneous manufacturing           663.3      655.5      656.8
    Nondurable goods                        5,547      5,406      5,415
          Production workers                4,038      3,945      3,958
      Food manufacturing                  1,517.5    1,497.4    1,504.6
      Beverages and tobacco
        products                            199.6      194.3      194.2
      Textile mills                         261.3      238.5      238.8
      Textile product mills                 179.3      177.7      178.2
      Apparel                               312.3      284.8      283.2
      Leather and allied products            44.5       42.9       42.5
      Paper and paper products              516.2      499.1      499.2
      Printing and related support
        activities                          680.5      665.0      665.2
      Petroleum and coal products           114.3      112.8      112.8
      Chemicals                             906.1      887.0      887.7
      Plastics and rubber products          815.4      806.6      808.9
SERVICE-PROVIDING                         108,182    109,596    109,660
  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                              86,599     87,978     88,074
  Trade, transportation,
    and utilities                          25,287     25,510     25,536
    Wholesale trade                       5,607.5    5,654.9    5,660.2
      Durable goods                       2,940.6    2,949.1    2,955.3
      Nondurable goods                    2,004.6    2,007.1     2004.0
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                  662.2      698.8      700.9
    Retail trade                         14,917.3   15,034.7   15,048.2
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                     1,882.9    1,901.2    1,904.4
        Automobile dealers                1,254.4    1,254.2     1254.1
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                  547.3      560.2      559.8
      Electronics and appliance
        stores                              512.2      514.4      513.4
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                     1,185.0    1,226.0    1,224.7
      Food and beverage stores            2,383.4    2,826.3    2,828.5
      Health and personal care
        stores                              938.1      941.7      941.0
      Gasoline stations                     882.0      877.1      876.6
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores                1,304.5    1,361.8    1,369.6
      Sporting goads, hobby,
        book, and music stores              646.5      639.2      638.9
      General merchandise stores1         2,822.4    2,843.5    2,848.0
        Department stores                 1,620.6    1,612.5    1,616.1
      Miscellaneous store retailers         930.7      918.6      918.8
      Nonstore retailers                    427.3      424.8      424.6
    Transportation and
      warehousing                         4,185.4    4,250.0    4,257.0
      Air transportation                    528.3      514.8      516.3
      Rail transportation                   217.7      224.1      225.0
      Water transportation                   54.5       57.2       58.1
      Truck transportation                1,325.6    1,350.7    1,352.5
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                      382.2      385.5      383.2
      Pipeline transportation                40.2       38.8       39.0
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                       26.6       26.7       26.3
      Support activities for
        transportation                      520.3      535.6      535.5
      Couriers and messengers               561.7      560.5      563.1
      Warehousing and storage               528.3      556.0      558.0
    Utilities                               577.0      570.2      570.9
    Information                             3,188      3,138      3,144
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                            924.8      909.8      909.6
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries                376.2      389.0      394.4
      Broadcasting, except Internet         324.3      326.6      327.2
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                         29.2       31.3       31.4
      Telecommunications                  1,082.3    1,042.5    1,041.9
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                     402.4      388.1      388.6
      Other information services             48.7       50.9       51.3
    Financial activities                    7,977      8,052      8,043
      Finance and insurance               5,922.6    5,965.6    5,958.6
        Monetary authorities--
            central bank                     22.6       21.6       21.5
        Credit intermediation and
            related activities (1)        2,792.4    2,832.3    2,829.2
          Depository credit
            intermediation (1)            1,748.5    1,761.2    1,760.6
            Commercial banking            1,280.1    1,285.3    1,283.9
        Securities, commodity
          contracts, investments            757.7      766.8      766.3
        Insurance carriers and
          related activities              2,266.0    2,260.3    2,257.0
        Funds, trusts, and other
          financial vehicles                 83.9       84.7       84.6
        Real estate and rental
          and leasing                     2,053.9    2,086.2    2,084.6
          Real estate                     1,383.6    1,417.0    1,416.7
          Rental and leasing services       643.1      643.9      643.0
          Lessors of nonfinancial
            intangible assets                27.3       25.4       24.9
    Professional and business
      services                             15,987     16,414     16,453
        Professional and technical
          services (1)                    6,629.5    6,762.0    6,765.1
            Legal services                1,142.1    1,161.8    1,165.0
            Accounting and bookkeeping
              services                      815.3      816.0      813.9
            Architectural and
              engineering services        1,226.9    1,260.8    1,262.0
            Computer systems design
              and related services        1,116.6    1,147.4    1,145.9
            Management and technical
              consulting services           744.9      779.0      784.7
        Management of companies
          and enterprises                 1,687.2    1,718.0    1,723.7
        Administrative and waste
          services                        7,669.8    7,934.0    7,964.0
          Administrative and support
              services (1)                7,347.7    7,608.7    7,637.2
            Employment services (1)       3,299.5    3,470.3    3,477.5
              Temporary help services     2,224.2    2,393.2   2,398.6
          Business support services         749.7      754.5      758.1
          Services to buildings
            and dwellings                 1,636.1    1,694.2    1,705.2
          Waste management and
            remediation services            322.1      325.3      326.8
    Educational and health
      services                             16,588     16,954     16,963
        Educational services              2,695.1    2,766.4    2,765.6
        Health care and social
          assistance                     13,892.6   14,187.3   14,197.8
          Ambulatory health care
              services (1)                4,786.4    4,946.4    4,956.2
            Offices of physicians         2,002.5    2,053.9    2,054.5
            Outpatient care centers         426.8      446.2      448.4
            Home health care services       732.6      773.2      775.4
          Hospitals                       4,244.6    4,293.6    4,296.2
          Nursing and residential
              care facilities (1)         2,786.2    2,814.8    2,818.0
            Nursing care facilities       1,579.8    1,575.3    1,576.9
          Social assistance (1)           2,075.4    2,132.5    2,127.4
            Child day care services         755.3      767.1      770.4
    Leisure and hospitality                12,173     12,479     12,497
      Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                    1,812.9    1,833.0    1,830.9
        Performing arts and
          spectator sports                  371.7      364.8      359.2
        Museums, historical sites,
          zoos, and parks                   114.7      117.1      118.6
        Amusements, gambling, and
          recreation                      1,326.5    1,351.1    1,353.1
        Accommodations and
          food services                  10,359.8   10,646.0   10,666.1
          Accommodations                  1,775.4    1,795.9    1,797.3
          Food services and drinking
            places                        8,584.4    8,850.1    8,868.8
        Other services                      5,401      5,431      5,438
          Repair and maintenance          1,233.6    1,227.6    1,227.4
          Personal and laundry
            services                      1,263.5    1,274.1    1,278.0
          Membership associations and
            organizations                 2,903.6    2,929.1    2,932.8
        Government                         21,583     21,618     21,586
          Federal                           2,761      2,728      2,726
            Federal, except U.S.
              Postal Service              1,952.4    1,943.4    1,939.2
            U.S. Postal Service             608.6      784.1      786.4
            State                           5,002      4,985      4,976
              Education                   2,254.7    2,249.2    2,241.4
              Other State government      2,747.6    2,736.2    2,734.4
            Local                          13,820     13,905     13,884
              Education                   7,709.4    7,762.5    7,757.8
              Other local government      6,110.2    6,143.0    6,126.6

                                                      2004

Industry                                   Aug.      Sept.       Oct.

      TOTAL NONFARM                       131,750    131,880    132,162
    TOTAL PRIVATE                         110,105    110,203    110,462
GOODS-PRODUCING                            21,946     21,947     21,982
  Natural resources and
    mining                                    595        597        595
        Logging                              67.5       68.0       67.0
    Mining                                  527.8      528.5      527.7
      Oil and gas extraction                123.8      124.0      123.6
      Mining except oil and gas (1)         209.1      208.5      208.4
        Coal mining                          73.1       72.9       72.7
      Support activities for mining         194.9      196.0      195.7
  Construction                              6,985      6,998      7,043
      Construction of buildings           1,636.3    1,647.8    1,663.0
      Heavy and civil engineering           901.1      902.1      904.1
      Speciality trade contractors        4,447.6    4,447.8    4,476.1
  Manufacturing                            14,366     14,352     14,344
          Production workers               10,131     10,117     10,111
    Durable goods                           8,965      8,957      8,960
          Production workers                6,180      6,172      6,172
        Wood products                       551.7      550.1      554.5
        Nonmetallic mineral products        507.6      508.8      509.1
        Primary metals                      467.4      466.4      466.0
        Fabricated metal products         1,506.8    1,508.5    1,511.5
        Machinery                         1,151.5    1,148.7    1,147.3
        Computer and electronic
          products (1)                    1,334.0    1,332.5    1,329.8
        Computer and peripheral
          equipment                         212.4      211.9      209.7
        Communications equipment            151.6      151.0      150.7
        Semiconductors and
          electronic components             457.4      457.0      454.9
        Electronic instruments              434.2      434.6      437.0
      Electrical equipment and
        appliances                          447.7      447.0      445.1
      Transportation equipment            1,769.5    1,768.5    1,771.0
      Furniture and related
        products                            573.3      572.1      571.3
      Miscellaneous manufacturing           655.2      654.5      654.1
    Nondurable goods                        5,401      5,395      5,384
          Production workers                3,951      3,945      3,939
      Food manufacturing                  1,497.0    1,494.3    1,493.5
      Beverages and tobacco
        products                            193.4      194.9      192.9
      Textile mills                         238.1      237.3      236.5
      Textile product mills                 177.6      177.8      178.1
      Apparel                               282.6      281.0      276.1
      Leather and allied products            42.5       42.7       42.8
      Paper and paper products              500.6      499.3      499.4
      Printing and related support
        activities                          663.9      661.6      661.0
      Petroleum and coal products           113.2      113.2      113.3
      Chemicals                             885.8      885.5      884.5
      Plastics and rubber products          806.6      807.1      806.3
SERVICE-PROVIDING                         109,804    109,933    110,180
  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                              88,159     88,256     88,480
  Trade, transportation,
    and utilities                          25,537     25,555     25,581
    Wholesale trade                       5,662.9    5,672.4    5,674.7
      Durable goods                       2,957.8    2,960.2    2,962.3
      Nondurable goods                     2004.0     2008.1     2009.1
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                  701.1      704.1      703.3
    Retail trade                         15,043.3   15,037.7   15,056.5
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                     1,899.8    1,898.4    1,896.4
        Automobile dealers                 1251.2     1247.3     1245.0
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                  561.6      561.9      562.3
      Electronics and appliance
        stores                              512.0     513.6       520.2
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                     1,228.1    1,232.5    1,263.3
      Food and beverage stores            2,826.2    2,827.1    2,803.2
      Health and personal care
        stores                              941.0      942.1      941.6
      Gasoline stations                     876.5      878.0      877.0
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores                1,374.4    1,371.9    1,376.0
      Sporting goads, hobby,
        book, and music stores              639.0      638.7      638.0
      General merchandise stores1         2,842.5    2,832.9    2,835.2
        Department stores                 1,611.4    1,603.3    1,604.2
      Miscellaneous store retailers         918.9      917.0      920.5
      Nonstore retailers                    423.3      423.6      422.8
    Transportation and
      warehousing                         4,260.4    4,274.1    4,279.6
      Air transportation                    515.0      513.8      514.2
      Rail transportation                   224.6      225.5      225.4
      Water transportation                   56.7       57.2       57.7
      Truck transportation                1,352.5    1,358.5    1,356.0
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                      386.2      388.3      389.3
      Pipeline transportation                38.9       39.0       38.9
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                       27.7       27.8       25.6
      Support activities for
        transportation                      536.9      537.7      539.9
      Couriers and messengers               562.6      563.8      564.4
      Warehousing and storage               559.3      562.5      568.2
    Utilities                               570.1      571.1      570.3
    Information                             3,135      3,127      3,131
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                            909.3      909.2      908.1
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries                389.3      389.7      395.3
      Broadcasting, except Internet         327.8      328.1      329.5
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                         31.7       32.0       33.0
      Telecommunications                  1,037.1    1,028.4    1,024.8
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                     387.6      387.6      389.2
      Other information services             51.7       51.5       50.9
    Financial activities                    8,058      8,083      8,093
      Finance and insurance               5,970.2    5,982.1    5,994.1
        Monetary authorities--
            central bank                     21.6       21.5       21.3
        Credit intermediation and
            related activities (1)        2,833.4    2,841.0    2,847.9
          Depository credit
            intermediation (1)            1,763.0    1,765.1    1,768.1
            Commercial banking            1,283.5    1,286.4    1,288.3
        Securities, commodity
          contracts, investments            769.9      772.3      777.3
        Insurance carriers and
          related activities              2,261.0    2,263.3    2,264.1
        Funds, trusts, and other
          financial vehicles                 84.3       84.0       83.5
        Real estate and rental
          and leasing                     2,088.2    2,101.3    2,099.2
          Real estate                     1,420.0    1,429.1    1,428.6
          Rental and leasing services       643.3      647.6      646.3
          Lessors of nonfinancial
            intangible assets                24.9       24.6       24.3
    Professional and business
      services                             16,470     16,514     16,614
        Professional and technical
          services (1)                    6,779.7    6,805.4    6,835.3
            Legal services                1,163.6    1,166.8    1,167.4
            Accounting and bookkeeping
              services                      814.2      816.1      821.5
            Architectural and
              engineering services        1,264.4    1,270.5    1,280.5
            Computer systems design
              and related services        1,155.0    1,161.1    1,167.3
            Management and technical
              consulting services           786.9      787.9      790.5
        Management of companies
          and enterprises                 1,720.7    1,715.0    1,715.3
        Administrative and waste
          services                        7,969.7    7,993.2    8,063.1
          Administrative and support
              services (1)                7,643.1    7,667.3    7,736.4
            Employment services (1)       3,480.0    3,513.5    3,572.9
              Temporary help services     2,411.8    2,438.7    2,486.5
          Business support services         757.9      752.6      755.9
          Services to buildings
            and dwellings                 1,706.6    1,706.4    1,708.6
          Waste management and
            remediation services            326.6      325.9      326.7
    Educational and health
      services                             17,010     17,019     17,081
        Educational services              2,772.3    2,773.2    2,794.0
        Health care and social
          assistance                     14,237.8   14,246.1   14,287.2
          Ambulatory health care
              services (1)                4,969.2    4,975.0    4,996.9
            Offices of physicians         2,059.1    2,064.5    2,074.2
            Outpatient care centers         449.7      448.7      449.5
            Home health care services       778.0      779.5      782.7
          Hospitals                       4,305.0    4,306.0    4,311.2
          Nursing and residential
              care facilities (1)         2,819.8    2,825.0    2,827.2
            Nursing care facilities       1,576.7    1,576.6    1,576.8
          Social assistance (1)           2,143.8    2,140.1    2,151.9
            Child day care services         776.1      767.9      772.8
    Leisure and hospitality                12,508     12,522     12,546
      Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                    1,831.0    1,836.2    1,834.4
        Performing arts and
          spectator sports                  358.4      363.6      364.4
        Museums, historical sites,
          zoos, and parks                   118.8      118.3      118.2
        Amusements, gambling, and
          recreation                      1,353.8    1,354.3    1,351.8
        Accommodations and
          food services                  10,676.5   10,685.3   10,712.0
          Accommodations                  1,801.3    1,801.5    1,800.6
          Food services and drinking
            places                        8,875.2    8,883.8    8,911.4
        Other services                      5,441      5,436      5,434
          Repair and maintenance          1,225.9    1,226.9    1,227.9
          Personal and laundry
            services                      1,276.9    1,271.5    1,267.8
          Membership associations and
            organizations                 2,937.9    2,937.9    2,938.1
        Government                         21,645     21,677     21,700
          Federal                           2,730      2,730      2,723
            Federal, except U.S.
              Postal Service              1,945.5    1,946.8    1,940.1
            U.S. Postal Service             784.3      783.4      782.5
            State                           4,987      5,000      5,007
              Education                   2,249.4    2,263.7    2,268.4
              Other State government      2,737.8    2,736.4    2,738.2
            Local                          13,928     13,947     13,970
              Education                   7,785.7    7,793.2    7,810.8
              Other local government      6,142.2    6,153.4    6,159.3

                                                 2004            2005

Industry                                   Nov.       Dec.       Jan.

      TOTAL NONFARM                       132,294    132,449    132,573
    TOTAL PRIVATE                         110,588    110,749    110,863
GOODS-PRODUCING                            21,996     22,022     22,004
  Natural resources and
    mining                                    599        602        607
        Logging                              66.9       67.9       68.0
    Mining                                  532.5      534.4      538.7
      Oil and gas extraction                124.4      124.1      123.4
      Mining except oil and gas (1)         210.7      211.3      212.9
        Coal mining                          73.7       73.9       75.4
      Support activities for mining         197.4      199.0      202.4
  Construction                              7,060      7,086      7,090
      Construction of buildings           1,668.3    1,678.9    1,682.4
      Heavy and civil engineering           906.4      907.8      908.2
      Speciality trade contractors        4,484.8    4,499.2    4,499.6
  Manufacturing                            14,337     14,334     14,307
          Production workers               10,104     10,097     10,082
    Durable goods                           8,954      8,957      8,942
          Production workers                6,166      6,170      6,166
        Wood products                       553.3      555.2      554.7
        Nonmetallic mineral products        507.9      506.5      504.5
        Primary metals                      465.8      465.2      465.5
        Fabricated metal products         1,510.9    1,512.8    1,514.3
        Machinery                         1,147.4    1,146.0    1,145.9
        Computer and electronic
          products (1)                    1,327.1    1,325.8    1,327.0
        Computer and peripheral
          equipment                         209.3      210.4      210.2
        Communications equipment            152.7      153.7      155.1
        Semiconductors and
          electronic components             451.9      448.0      447.4
        Electronic instruments              435.6      435.7      436.4
      Electrical equipment and
        appliances                          447.4      445.8      445.1
      Transportation equipment            1,767.2    1,771.9    1,760.1
      Furniture and related
        products                            572.2      571.7      570.3
      Miscellaneous manufacturing           654.7      656.4      654.3
    Nondurable goods                        5,383      5,377      5,365
          Production workers                3,938      3,927      3,916
      Food manufacturing                  1,493.6    1,498.8    1,494.3
      Beverages and tobacco
        products                            195.1      193.0      192.2
      Textile mills                         235.0      233.2      231.5
      Textile product mills                 178.4      178.0      178.1
      Apparel                               273.4      271.9      269.3
      Leather and allied products            43.4       43.1       43.1
      Paper and paper products              498.1      497.9      499.9
      Printing and related support
        activities                          661.3      660.8      659.6
      Petroleum and coal products           113.6      113.8      114.5
      Chemicals                             882.4      880.5      877.1
      Plastics and rubber products          808.6      806.2      804.9
SERVICE-PROVIDING                         110,298    110,427    110,569
  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                              88,592     88,727     88,859
  Trade, transportation,
    and utilities                          25,621     25,620     25,652
    Wholesale trade                       5,680.0    5,683.6    5,679.9
      Durable goods                       2,960.4    2,964.5    2,965.6
      Nondurable goods                     2012.6     2009.9    2,005.4
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                  707.0      709.2      708.9
    Retail trade                         15,081.4   15,077.0   15,081.2
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                     1,901.2    1,905.9    1,907.4
        Automobile dealers                 1247.6     1249.1     1247.9
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                  565.6      563.7      562.1
      Electronics and appliance
        stores                              520.3      516.5      516.1
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                     1,240.4    1,243.5    1,248.0
      Food and beverage stores            2,822.7    2,819.8    2,826.0
      Health and personal care
        stores                              944.5      946.6      944.8
      Gasoline stations                     873.7      871.3      872.9
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores                1,377.9    1,381.3    1,375.5
      Sporting goads, hobby,
        book, and music stores              639.0      635.8      637.7
      General merchandise stores1         2,854.9    2,852.9    2,853.5
        Department stores                 1,619.1    1,619.3    1,619.1
      Miscellaneous store retailers         917.4      918.2      918.7
      Nonstore retailers                    423.8      421.5      418.5
    Transportation and
      warehousing                         4,289.6    4,288.0    4,316.0
      Air transportation                    514.6      512.3      509.4
      Rail transportation                   224.6      224.0      224.4
      Water transportation                   57.8       58.6       59.8
      Truck transportation                1,358.9    1,366.5    1,372.6
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                      389.4      391.0      391.7
      Pipeline transportation                39.0       38.7       39.3
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                       26.1       26.6       24.2
      Support activities for
        transportation                      544.6      547.0      549.3
      Couriers and messengers               568.7      556.4      577.5
      Warehousing and storage               565.9      566.9      567.8
    Utilities                               570.2      571.3      574.7
    Information                             3,133      3,127      3,123
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                            908.9      905.7      905.0
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries                390.6      384.8      380.3
      Broadcasting, except Internet         329.7      329.7      331.3
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                         33.6       34.0       34.8
      Telecommunications                  1,030.0    1,031.5    1,030.8
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                     389.5      390.4      389.9
      Other information services             50.7       50.7       51.0
    Financial activities                    8,107      8,128      8,150
      Finance and insurance               6,001.3    6,014.5    6,030.9
        Monetary authorities--
            central bank                     20.9       20.6       20.5
        Credit intermediation and
            related activities (1)        2,859.2    2,871.9    2,882.7
          Depository credit
            intermediation (1)            1,773.3    1,778.8    1,785.6
            Commercial banking            1,293.1    1,296.8    1,301.6
        Securities, commodity
          contracts, investments            776.9      779.7      782.5
        Insurance carriers and
          related activities              2,260.4    2,258.1    2,259.6
        Funds, trusts, and other
          financial vehicles                 83.9       84.2       85.6
        Real estate and rental
          and leasing                     2,105.5    2,113.6    2,119.0
          Real estate                     1,434.7    1,437.8    1,439.7
          Rental and leasing services       646.0      650.9      654.1
          Lessors of nonfinancial
            intangible assets                24.8       24.9       25.2
    Professional and business
      services                             16,611     16,674     16,694
        Professional and technical
          services (1)                    6,834.4    6,869.9    6,882.1
            Legal services                1,163.1    1,164.4    1,160.8
            Accounting and bookkeeping
              services                      816.6      840.8      858.1
            Architectural and
              engineering services        1,284.9    1,289.5    1,286.9
            Computer systems design
              and related services        1,174.1    1,174.3    1,171.8
            Management and technical
              consulting services           787.8      789.9      789.3
        Management of companies
          and enterprises                 1,722.5    1,725.6    1,730.7
        Administrative and waste
          services                        8,054.3    8,078.0    8,081.6
          Administrative and support
              services (1)                7,728.2    7,751.4    7,755.2
            Employment services (1)       3,570.5    3,584.5    3,595.9
              Temporary help services     2,484.7    2,479.4    2,479.1
          Business support services         754.6      757.0      752.8
          Services to buildings
            and dwellings                 1,707.2    1,706.1    1,701.4
          Waste management and
            remediation services            326.1      326.6      326.4
    Educational and health
      services                             17,108     17,142     17,178
        Educational services              2,797.2    2,805.5    2,825.0
        Health care and social
          assistance                     14,310.7   14,336.1   14,353.2
          Ambulatory health care
              services (1)                5,006.7    5,017.0    5,027.0
            Offices of physicians         2,077.7    2,084.3    2,085.3
            Outpatient care centers         449.8      450.3      451.5
            Home health care services       789.2      790.7      796.6
          Hospitals                       4,319.7    4,323.5    4,329.6
          Nursing and residential
              care facilities (1)         2,827.2    2,827.9    2,827.0
            Nursing care facilities       1,576.4    1,574.5    1,571.5
          Social assistance (1)           2,157.1    2,167.7    2,169.6
            Child day care services         775.3      780.4      780.5
    Leisure and hospitality                12,571     12,589     12,611
      Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                    1,826.4    1,811.0    1,805.4
        Performing arts and
          spectator sports                  362.5      357.9      355.6
        Museums, historical sites,
          zoos, and parks                   116.9      114.8      114.5
        Amusements, gambling, and
          recreation                      1,347.0    1,338.3    1,335.3
        Accommodations and
          food services                  10,744.1   10,778.4   10,805.1
          Accommodations                  1,814.7    1,824.6    1,825.9
          Food services and drinking
            places                        8,929.4    8,953.8    8,979.2
        Other services                      5,441      5,447      5,451
          Repair and maintenance          1,227.1    1,229.9    1,229.4
          Personal and laundry
            services                      1,271.6    1,276.8    1,280.4
          Membership associations and
            organizations                 2,942.3    2,940.6    2,941.4
        Government                         21,706     21,700     21,710
          Federal                           2,728      2,706      2,717
            Federal, except U.S.
              Postal Service              1,946.4    1,939.5    1,937.2
            U.S. Postal Service             781.4      766.4      780.2
            State                           5,015      5,020      5,025
              Education                   2,271.3    2,277.9    2,280.4
              Other State government      2,743.4    2,741.9    2,744.4
            Local                          13,963   13,974.0     13,968
              Education                   7,806.3    7,810.8    7,808.8
              Other local government      6,156.7    6,163.1    6,159.2

                                                      2005

Industry                                   Feb.       Mar.       Apr.

      TOTAL NONFARM                       132,873    132,995    133,287
    TOTAL PRIVATE                         111,140    111,264    111,542
GOODS-PRODUCING                            22,066     22,093     22,130
  Natural resources and
    mining                                    602        619        623
        Logging                              67.3       68.7       65.2
    Mining                                  545.0      549.8      558.0
      Oil and gas extraction                122.5      124.0      124.3
      Mining except oil and gas (1)         215.5      215.7      218.5
        Coal mining                          76.1       76.1       76.9
      Support activities for mining         207.0      210.1      215.2
  Construction                              7,133      7,159      7,207
      Construction of buildings           1,689.2    1,692.5    1,693.4
      Heavy and civil engineering           911.7      915.7      926.6
      Speciality trade contractors        4,531.8    4,550.9    4,586.5
  Manufacturing                            14,321     14,315     14,300
          Production workers               10,085     10,091     10,086
    Durable goods                           8,962      8,957      8,954
          Production workers                6,178      6.182      6,188
        Wood products                       553.6      555.2      551.8
        Nonmetallic mineral products        504.0      502.0      504.7
        Primary metals                      466.9      466.6      466.0
        Fabricated metal products         1,514.1    1,517.3    1,517.5
        Machinery                         1,148.0    1,151.7    1,153.7
        Computer and electronic
          products (1)                    1,327.5    1,326.0    1,329.0
        Computer and peripheral
          equipment                         211.2      211.3      212.5
        Communications equipment            154.5      153.7      153.9
        Semiconductors and
          electronic components             447.1      446.7      446.7
        Electronic instruments              436.4      436.2      437.5
      Electrical equipment and
        appliances                          445.3      444.5      442.8
      Transportation equipment            1,781.8    1,776.7    1,775.7
      Furniture and related
        products                            567.5      565.9      562.8
      Miscellaneous manufacturing           653.5      651.3      650.3
    Nondurable goods                        5,359      5,358      5,346
          Production workers                3,907      3,909      3,898
      Food manufacturing                  1,493.2    1,495.2    1,489.6
      Beverages and tobacco
        products                            192.5      191.6      191.1
      Textile mills                         230.1      228.7      225.5
      Textile product mills                 177.9      177.9      177.7
      Apparel                               267.2      262.8      262.2
      Leather and allied products            43.2       42.9       42.8
      Paper and paper products              500.2      502.0      499.3
      Printing and related support
        activities                          659.2      658.8      658.7
      Petroleum and coal products           115.1      115.0      116.4
      Chemicals                             876.4      877.5      878.4
      Plastics and rubber products          804.1      805.8      804.3
SERVICE-PROVIDING                         110,807    110,902    111,157
  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                              89,074     89,171     89,412
  Trade, transportation,
    and utilities                          25,714     25,743     25,797
    Wholesale trade                       5,688.7    5,702.2    5,707.7
      Durable goods                       2,968.7    2,975.6    2,976.8
      Nondurable goods                    2,006.9    2,011.2    2,012.6
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                  713.1      715.4      718.3
    Retail trade                         15,125.4   15,128.7   15,157.5
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                     1,911.2    1,912.6    1,914.2
        Automobile dealers                 1248.8     1250.2     1252.2
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                  562.6      562.3      565.5
      Electronics and appliance
        stores                              515.1      518.4      518.4
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                     1,264.8    1,263.7    1,264.5
      Food and beverage stores            2,826.6    2,826.8    2,834.9
      Health and personal care
        stores                              949.7      949.2      955.0
      Gasoline stations                     874.6      874.5      875.0
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores                1,380.5    1,384.0    1,387.0
      Sporting goads, hobby,
        book, and music stores              636.2      638.3      638.0
      General merchandise stores1         2,864.1    2,862.0    2,864.7
        Department stores                 1,625.7    1,624.2    1,625.3
      Miscellaneous store retailers         919.9      919.4      921.6
      Nonstore retailers                    420.1      417.5      418.7
    Transportation and
      warehousing                         4,324.1    4,336.6    4,355.8
      Air transportation                    507.9      508.0      508.8
      Rail transportation                   223.9      223.7      223.7
      Water transportation                   60.0       61.6       61.3
      Truck transportation                1,378.0    1,383.2    1,389.8
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                      391.0      388.7      393.3
      Pipeline transportation                39.4       39.3       39.5
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                       24.9       26.7       27.2
      Support activities for
        transportation                      551.5      553.4      554.2
      Couriers and messengers               577.6      579.3      581.8
      Warehousing and storage               569.9      572.7      576.2
    Utilities                               576.0      575.2      575.6
    Information                             3,127      3,134      3,152
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                            905.6      906.8      905.7
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries                380.9      386.9      399.3
      Broadcasting, except Internet         330.4      330.7      330.7
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                         34.6       35.0       35.3
      Telecommunications                    1,032    1,029.9    1,037.3
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                     392.6      393.7      393.9
      Other information services             50.9       50.7       50.1
    Financial activities                    8,165      8,167      8,182
      Finance and insurance               6,037.6    6,039.8    6,048.0
        Monetary authorities--
            central bank                     20.4       20.4       20.3
        Credit intermediation and
            related activities (1)        2,891.0    2,896.8    2,902.6
          Depository credit
            intermediation (1)            1,790.3    1,794.0    1,795.9
            Commercial banking            1,305.5    1,308.0    1,308.3
        Securities, commodity
          contracts, investments            784.8      786.9      787.6
        Insurance carriers and
          related activities              2,256.7    2,250.9    2,253.9
        Funds, trusts, and other
          financial vehicles                 84.7       84.8       83.6
        Real estate and rental
          and leasing                     2,127.2    2,126.8    2,134.3
          Real estate                     1,443.8    1,444.0    1,449.7
          Rental and leasing services       658.3      657.8      659.0
          Lessors of nonfinancial
            intangible assets                25.1       25.0       25.6
    Professional and business
      services                             16,775     16,796    168,431
        Professional and technical
          services (1)                    6,902.7    6,907.3    6,928.5
            Legal services                1,161.2    1,161.5    1,161.8
            Accounting and bookkeeping
              services                      858.1      856.6      862.7
            Architectural and
              engineering services        1,292.0    1,295.7    1,300.8
            Computer systems design
              and related services        1,174.2    1,175.5    1,178.5
            Management and technical
              consulting services           793.7      795.5      798.8
        Management of companies
          and enterprises                 1,731.3    1,731.5    1,733.4
        Administrative and waste
          services                        8,140.9    8,156.7    8,181.1
          Administrative and support
              services (1)                7,813.6    7,831.8    7,858.1
            Employment services (1)       3,633.8    3,645.7    3,666.0
              Temporary help services     2,508.0    2,506.1    2,520.7
          Business support services         755.7      754.1      754.9
          Services to buildings
            and dwellings                 1,711.2    1,712.6    1,715.9
          Waste management and
            remediation services            327.1      324.9      323.0
    Educational and health
      services                             17,186     17,210     17,243
        Educational services              2,810.3    2,814.0    2,814.0
        Health care and social
          assistance                     14,375.4   14,396.0   14,429.1
          Ambulatory health care
              services (1)                5,035.0    5,041.6    5,054.2
            Offices of physicians         2,090.9    2,093.2    2,103.6
            Outpatient care centers         451.1      452.6      453.6
            Home health care services       796.8      798.8      797.9
          Hospitals                       4,337.8    4,344.6    4,354.2
          Nursing and residential
              care facilities (1)         2,830.0    2,830.0    2,832.5
            Nursing care facilities       1,571.6    1,572.3    1,571.4
          Social assistance (1)           2,172.6    2,179.8    2,188.2
            Child day care services         782.5      785.1      788.6
    Leisure and hospitality                12,650     12,662     12,723
      Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                    1,808.4    1,805.8    1,823.9
        Performing arts and
          spectator sports                  357.0      357.8      361.1
        Museums, historical sites,
          zoos, and parks                   113.6      115.8      116.8
        Amusements, gambling, and
          recreation                      1,337.8    1,332.2    1,346.0
        Accommodations and
          food services                  10,841.1   10,856.0   10,899.0
          Accommodations                  1,830.3    1,826.6    1,830.1
          Food services and drinking
            places                        9,010.8    9,029.4    9,068.9
        Other services                      5,457      5,459      5,472
          Repair and maintenance          1,233.7    1,235.6    1,239.9
          Personal and laundry
            services                      1,280.5    1,282.2    1,286.9
          Membership associations and
            organizations                 2,942.9    2,940.8    2,945.6
        Government                         21,733     21,731     21,745
          Federal                           2,720      2,724      2,718
            Federal, except U.S.
              Postal Service              1,939.8    1,943.2    1,937.1
            U.S. Postal Service             780.1      780.8      780.7
            State                           5,027      5,024      5,026
              Education                   2,283.0    2,280.8    2,281.2
              Other State government      2,744.4    2,743.2    2,745.1
            Local                          13,986     13,983     14,001
              Education                   7,820.7    7,813.5    7,823.9
              Other local government      6,165.1    6,169.0     6177.4

                                                      2005

Industry                                   May      June (p)   July (p)

      TOTAL NONFARM                       133,413    133,588    133,830
    TOTAL PRIVATE                         111,659    111,828    112,028
GOODS-PRODUCING                            22,138     22,134     22,136
  Natural resources and
    mining                                    624        628        629
        Logging                              64.9       64.8       65.2
    Mining                                  559.5      563.1      563.7
      Oil and gas extraction                125.2      125.4      126.5
      Mining except oil and gas (1)         219.4      221.2      220.1
        Coal mining                          76.6       77.2       77.7
      Support activities for mining         214.9      216.5      217.1
  Construction                              7,213      7,230      7,237
      Construction of buildings           1,693.9    1,696.2    1,699.4
      Heavy and civil engineering           925.8      937.4      940.5
      Speciality trade contractors        4,593.7    4,596.4    4,597.3
  Manufacturing                            14,301     14,276     14,270
          Production workers               10,092     10,080     10,073
    Durable goods                           8,961      8,947      8,939
          Production workers                6,198      6,197      6,190
        Wood products                       548.4      550.7      548.7
        Nonmetallic mineral products        501.6      501.3      498.9
        Primary metals                      466.2      465.3      464.6
        Fabricated metal products         1,520.7    1,521.0    1,522.9
        Machinery                         1,156.2    1,156.2    1,160.5
        Computer and electronic
          products (1)                    1,329.5    1,333.4    1,335.1
        Computer and peripheral
          equipment                         213.3      214.8      214.5
        Communications equipment            154.2      154.3      154.3
        Semiconductors and
          electronic components             446.5      447.3      448.0
        Electronic instruments              437.2      439.2      440.8
      Electrical equipment and
        appliances                          443.6      440.1      439.7
      Transportation equipment            1,779.5    1,764.3    1,750.5
      Furniture and related
        products                            561.8      561.0      560.8
      Miscellaneous manufacturing           653.0      653.7      657.0
    Nondurable goods                        5,340      5,329      5,331
          Production workers                3,894      3,883      3,883
      Food manufacturing                  1,490.7    1,488.4    1,489.8
      Beverages and tobacco
        products                            191.3      190.4      190.4
      Textile mills                         225.1      223.9      222.3
      Textile product mills                 178.4      176.9      177.4
      Apparel                               259.2      257.0      258.1
      Leather and allied products            42.8       42.8       43.6
      Paper and paper products              498.3      496.4      496.4
      Printing and related support
        activities                          656.5      655.6      653.3
      Petroleum and coal products           117.1      116.9      116.9
      Chemicals                             877.8      878.4      879.4
      Plastics and rubber products          803.0      802.3      803.5
SERVICE-PROVIDING                         111,275    111,454    111,694
  PRIVATE SERVICE-
    PROVIDING                              89,521     89,694     89,892
  Trade, transportation,
    and utilities                          25,842     25,854     25,927
    Wholesale trade                       5,719.0    5,722.3    5,730.5
      Durable goods                       2,983.0    2,986.1    2,990.0
      Nondurable goods                    2,014.0    2,013.7    2,014.7
      Electronic markets and
        agents and brokers                  722.0      722.5      725.8
    Retail trade                         15,185.8   15,197.1   15,255.1
      Motor vehicles and parts
          dealers (1)                     1,917.3    1,916.4    1,925.0
        Automobile dealers                 1254.7     1252.6     1257.3
      Furniture and home
        furnishings stores                  569.1      566.1      569.1
      Electronics and appliance
        stores                              521.9      524.5      527.2
      Building material and garden
        supply stores                     1,267.6    1,272.8    1,280.5
      Food and beverage stores            2,838.5    2,840.2    2,842.9
      Health and personal care
        stores                              958.0      956.7      956.6
      Gasoline stations                     876.6      874.0      879.1
      Clothing and clothing
        accessories stores                1,394.5    1,406.1    1,426.9
      Sporting goads, hobby,
        book, and music stores              637.2      636.3      635.7
      General merchandise stores1         2,866.0    2,861.6    2,871.0
        Department stores                 1,629.5    1,628.7    1,638.5
      Miscellaneous store retailers         921.1      924.0      921.9
      Nonstore retailers                    418.0      418.4      419.2
    Transportation and
      warehousing                         4,361.4    4,359.9    4,366.1
      Air transportation                    508.1      507.8      506.3
      Rail transportation                   224.3      223.9      223.8
      Water transportation                   61.5       62.2       62.2
      Truck transportation                1,392.9    1,396.3    1,394.9
      Transit and ground passenger
        transportation                      389.8      381.9      390.7
      Pipeline transportation                39.3       39.3       39.2
      Scenic and sightseeing
        transportation                       28.3       28.4       28.6
      Support activities for
        transportation                      557.2      554.5      554.8
      Couriers and messengers               582.4      582.3      582.9
      Warehousing and storage               577.6      583.3      582.7
    Utilities                               575.4      575.1      575.1
    Information                             3,146      3,146      3,145
      Publishing industries, except
        Internet                            905.7      907.0      909.6
      Motion picture and sound
        recording industries                394.2      393.1      392.3
      Broadcasting, except Internet         330.8      331.6      333.3
      Internet publishing and
        broadcasting                         35.2       35.6       35.0
      Telecommunications                  1,036.2    1,034.8    1,033.2
      ISPs, search portals, and
        data processing                     393.5      393.4      391.0
      Other information services             50.2       50.6       50.9
    Financial activities                    8,189      8,208      8,227
      Finance and insurance               6,052.9    6,062.5    6,071.9
        Monetary authorities--
            central bank                     20.4       20.4       20.4
        Credit intermediation and
            related activities (1)        2,906.7    2,915.4    2,921.5
          Depository credit
            intermediation (1)            1,797.8    1,802.1    1,803.9
            Commercial banking            1,308.8    1,311.0    1,311.5
        Securities, commodity
          contracts, investments            787.6      786.5      788.0
        Insurance carriers and
          related activities              2,253.6    2,254.6    2,256.4
        Funds, trusts, and other
          financial vehicles                 84.6       85.6       85.6
        Real estate and rental
          and leasing                     2,136.4    2,145.0    2,154.8
          Real estate                     1,454.6    1,461.4    1,469.7
          Rental and leasing services       655.8      658.1      659.4
          Lessors of nonfinancial
            intangible assets                26.0       25.5       25.7
    Professional and business
      services                             16,851     16,906     16,948
        Professional and technical
          services (1)                    6,929.1    6,950.9    6,973.1
            Legal services                1,163.3    1,163.0    1,164.8
            Accounting and bookkeeping
              services                      851.4      858.5      859.6
            Architectural and
              engineering services        1,303.9    1,310.8    1,315.7
            Computer systems design
              and related services        1,178.2    1,182.4    1,184.2
            Management and technical
              consulting services           801.9      806.3      812.3
        Management of companies
          and enterprises                 1,734.1    1,735.7    1,735.5
        Administrative and waste
          services                        8,187.9    8,219.5    8,239.6
          Administrative and support
              services (1)                7,866.8    7,897.7    7,911.9
            Employment services (1)       3,667.9    3,688.0    3,691.0
              Temporary help services     2,517.7    2,529.6    2,532.4
          Business support services         753.3      751.4      750.2
          Services to buildings
            and dwellings                 1,722.4    1,729.0    1,740.9
          Waste management and
            remediation services            321.1      323.8      327.7
    Educational and health
      services                             17,289     17,336     17,364
        Educational services              2,822.2    2,835.5    2,832.6
        Health care and social
          assistance                     14,467.2   14,500.5   14,531.2
          Ambulatory health care
              services (1)                5,069.7    5,084.6    5,101.3
            Offices of physicians         2,114.4    2,119.5    2,124.9
            Outpatient care centers         455.3      456.7      459.9
            Home health care services       798.8      804.1      806.5
          Hospitals                       4,362.6    4,374.5    4,384.2
          Nursing and residential
              care facilities (1)         2,839.8    2,841.2    2,845.9
            Nursing care facilities       1,572.7    1,573.2    1,574.1
          Social assistance (1)           2,195.1    2,200.2    2,199.8
            Child day care services         788.0      793.2      790.3
    Leisure and hospitality                12,736     12,765     12,802
      Arts, entertainment,
        and recreation                    1,824.9    1,830.6    1,834.4
        Performing arts and
          spectator sports                  361.7      364.1      365.9
        Museums, historical sites,
          zoos, and parks                   117.3      117.5      117.2
        Amusements, gambling, and
          recreation                      1,345.9    1,349.0    1,351.3
        Accommodations and
          food services                  10,911.1   10,934.2   10,967.7
          Accommodations                  1,830.3    1,830.0    1,830.5
          Food services and drinking
            places                        9,080.8    9,104.2    9,137.2
        Other services                      5,468      5,479      5,479
          Repair and maintenance          1,241.4    1,244.1    1,245.7
          Personal and laundry
            services                      1,284.4    1,283.2    1,280.2
          Membership associations and
            organizations                 2,942.4    2,951.7    2,953.2
        Government                         21,754     21,760     21,802
          Federal                           2,722      2,719      2,719
            Federal, except U.S.
              Postal Service              1,940.8    1,937.6    1,937.7
            U.S. Postal Service             781.2      781.2      781.0
            State                           5,023      5,026      5,031
              Education                   2,277.6    2,278.2    2,281.0
              Other State government      2,745.5    2,747.6    2,750.0
            Local                          14,009     14,015     14,052
              Education                   7,823.5    7,830.3    7,866.9
              Other local government      6,185.9    6,184.9   6,185.5

(1) Includes other industries not shown separately.

NOTE: See "Notes on the data" for a description of the most recent
benchmark revision.

(p) = preliminary.
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Title Annotation:1. Labor market indicators--12. Employment of workers on nonfarm payrolls by industry, monthly data seasonally adjusted
Publication:Monthly Labor Review
Date:Sep 1, 2005
Words:31225
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